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tv   Our Heritage  CSPAN  July 8, 2017 8:00am-8:31am EDT

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>> i pledge allegiance to the
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flag two then rates of america and to the republic for which it stands one nation under god indivisible with liberty and justice for all. >> the laws of nature -- i accept the opinions of mankind should they declare -- which entails them to the separation. we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator certain unalienable rights. among these are life, liberty nd the pursuit of happiness.
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>> dr. frank's c baxter is an american, a man with many degrees, including the famed ebuddy award in addition to seven tv emmys. he is a edicated student of american his tree and proud of the one thing he loves above all else, his country. now let us meet ur distinguished host. dr. baxter: i am at one of our cherished american is to shins. i am only -- institutions. i am only frank baxter. we are only -- we are going to re-examine
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this federal bowl piece of parchment that has been handed down to us with loving care. this declaration of independence that is our heritage or it -- "our heritage"." knowing what happened on the fourth of july in 1776. we know the liberty bell ring and thomas jefferson played a part of it. it's a race in philadelphia in independence hall or that state house, which was its name at the time. john hancock wrote his name so hard so that team church -- king george could read it without his spectacle. let's take a look at our crown jewel. it is a treasure of value without compare. it is part of our heritage and part of our constitution. how it
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became the bill of rights and our fundamental laws. how it became a philosophy that swept the world of political ideas that had never been done before. out of our heritage has come human liberty, democracy and the birth of a great nation. this is "our heritage"." now we know a little of what it is, next, we ask ourselves how did this happen? why was it necessary that a me to shut off our family ties. to cut the strings to mother england? it did not happen suddenly. it was a long, long time before the pressure was strong enough to blow the lid. one man alone was responsible. the handsome, young, stubborn, villain of the story, his majesty, king george the third of england. of all specific charges listed in the
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declaration, the team was posing the troops of the homes of the people. the benefits of trial by jury. suspended our legislators and refused to listen to our dispute. he destroyed our people. this is the heart of the matter. these ppressive acts by england. dr. baxter: one after another, taxes on personal property. it would cause patrick henry to explode in defiance "give me iberty, or give me death." the towns imported on paper and tea, . a boycott to the tax on
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tea. patriots would call themselves the tea party. in 1770, they had their own british century in boss in. -- oston. dr. baxter: poor misguided souls lay dead and history called it the boston massacre. paul revere arrived in 1875 -- paul revere arrived and the british colony moves on. shots ere fired. eight colonists
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ere killed. april 19, redcoats turned in a new country. dr. baxter: june 17, 1775, the army stood up to the full might f england. a thousand redcoats would be no later as the battle of bunker hill. it was a long time coming, this explosion was triggered by men who gathered in the old state house that fourth of july in 1776. these men, who before the day was over would pledge to each other their lives, their fortunes and
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their sacred honor. their lives, their fortune, and their acred honor. (music)playing] dr. baxter: this is where the united states of america was born. right here in this a great shot -- sacred shrine. think of the men who met here. probably the greatest probably the greatest collection of brains on vision, education, kurds, experience ever put together in the history of mankind. it was, if you believe in them, and i believe in this one, a miracle. i have no doubt of it. (music) excitement crackled among the
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fourth of the july. they were here to make a decision if they should vote to sever all ties with the crown, or should they procrastinate and stall off the inevitable? try to give king george just one more chance. pacific lee, the delicate to the congress were to decide on a resolution. presented three weeks early, richard henry lee, senior delegate from the colony of virginia. these united colonies are free and independent state. they are away from all allegiance to the british crown spirit the political connections between them and he state of britain is to be totally dissolved. the delegates talk to each other about the population of the colonies. now the decision has to be made. think for a moment of the consequences of this
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action. if they voted for ndependence it would be war. if they lost, it would mean conversation -- confiscation of the property, prison for their families and hanging from the ews for the lot of them. . congress had made another decision. a most fortunate decision. they ordered the committee to prepare documents. an actual declaration of independence, just in case it was needed later on. five men represented and were chosen to be on this drafting committee. there was robert r livingston of new york, the young lawyer, only 30 years old at the time. he later minister the oath of office to george washington at his first inauguration. there
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was roger sherman of connecticut, 55 years old. very successful longtime public official. both feet firmly on the ground, shrewd and able. benjamin franklin was on the drafting committee. he was 69 years old from pennsylvania. a legend in his own time. author comment inventor, he invented bifocals, statesmen, publisher, educator, philanthropist, you name it, franklin was it. from massachusetts there was john adams, only 41 who is one of the most americans who was forthright, impulsive, honest, noble. and the chairman of the committee, picked almost by chance, a chance we made a now
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was guided i.e. divine hand. he was from virginia and of 33 years of age. outstanding and politics, economics, agriculture and science. his name is edged for all time wherever freedom and liberty and the dignity of land is recognized, thomas jefferson. while the committee met, many of them had other things to do. the real work fell to adams and jefferson. admams much more xperienced set to jefferson, you should draft this document. jefferson declined. i will give you three reasons that adams said. you are a virginian and a virginian is at the head of this business. reason second, i
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am controversial and unpopular. you are very much otherwise. reason third, you can write 10 times better than i can. that settled it. young thomas jefferson was elected. his talent settled to the task. we can imagine this sensitive young man, angry, resentful of the case, yet wise enough to hold himself in check. he writes, he scratches out, he talks with franklin, he talks with adams and he writes some more. slowly, words by word, odds by, the noble -- thoughts y thoughts, noble words and it becomes the political bands that have connect it it with
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another. it gathers momentum my and eagle taking off a mountain into the vastness of the sky. this tremendous statement, "we hold these thruthruths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are given unalienable rights. among these rights, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." on july 1 the congress resumed its debate on the resolution of independence. farmer john dickinson of an sylvania protested. what he said made much good sense. the columnist or unprepared to battle the mighty power of her in -- ritain. a cast a damper on the congress. john adams rose, never easy with words, but once
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his lips were touched with fire he had but one thing, the necessity for liberty, a warm for his idealism galvanized for congress to debate more. adansms speech was punctuated by a summer storm with bolts of lightning and flashes of thunder. finally, on the second of july, congress agreed that there was no other course but to settle the ties that battle -- ties that settled the crown. the document was introduced. it widely changed the lives here on july 4, 17th 76, they unanimously accept it it and begin and -- except that it, and begin to pen their ignatures. there was no injury
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-- injury -- intrigue. the declaration was dispatched to ll colonies. it was read aloud to the people of philadelphia on july 1. a grained liberty throughout the land. the most famous symbol of patriotism, the liberty bell. which forever reminds us of our sacred heritage. another famous signal of liberty, the capitol in washington. what it stands for is also part of the leg he between jefferson, adams, franklin and hancock, and all the courageous this on the ourth of july in 1776. the
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symbol of government of freemen, strong and powerful/. a government born of the declaration of independence. yes, this is our heritage. dr. baxter: magnificent, isn't it? did the home of the celebrated rotunda, the rotunda which is the very heart of our nations capital. and where these paintings illustrate, so dramatically, our glorious history. the surrender of the general in saratoga. this is the first major defeat of the british and the turning point
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of the revolution. one of the series of paintings by the famous john trumbull. another trumbull masterpiece. great ilestone in our history, the surrender of cornwallis in your town in 1781. this marked the end of the british cause of america. our first president, george washington. farmer, soldier, state men -- statesmen, his lover of liberty was the post of this newborn ation. he resigned his commission after leading his troops to vic three. -- victory. grateful nation's upon general washington the highest honor. this is the painting, the declaration of independence. there is the drafting committee presenting
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the document to the president of the congress, john hancock. trumbull knew these men firsthand. his familiarity was so convincingly express. there is rugged john adams, roger sherman, robert livingston, the author jefferson and benjamin franklin, short in stature but a giant among men. a great moment in history, the birth of ur nation. (music)
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dr. baxter: you know, our nations capital city has dividends from our precious heritage. i wonder what those really gets to the continental congress would have to say about this great capital city of hours? monument to a government of freemen. capital city of ours? monument to a government of freemen. abraham lincoln was fully aware of every word in the declaration f independence. . the date was 1861. abraham lincoln was on his way to the nation's capital for his first inauguration. in hiladelphia long enough to say, "i had never had a feeling say, "i had never had a feeling politically that did not spring from the bodies of the deck duration of independence." -- declaration of independence." in due time the weight would be lifted from the shoulders of all men. (music)
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dr. baxter: in the distance, the white house, where abraham lincoln lived and worked. 1600 pennsylvania avenue, eighth amos address -- a famous address. home of our presidents office who dedicates their very lives to our sacred heritage. address. home of our presidents inheritance has not been handed to us on a silver platter, not y a long shot. (music) his le dr. baxter: life, liberty and freedom comes dear, very dear. when the chips are down, we are prepared always to defend these sacred principles upon which our nation was founded. the
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hope of our world rests on our faith and the destiny of our country. through such faith our forefathers built this country. it has been costly, oh, so ostly. where scarcely a period of time all of our history has not been challenged and threat and. his dark and evil menace never ceases a week have never ceased -- and we have never eased to meet it. our struggle for freedom and independence, nd that winter of sally fords. -- of the war. the war of 1812,
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the battle of new orleans, were the first time the united states became really united. francis scott key wrote the star-spangled banner. 1826, our dispute with mexico. texas joins the union and our outhern boundary is firmly established. the war between the states, neighbor against neighbor, brother against brother, our nation torn us under. 1898, we were at war ith spain. have been a harbor, san juan hill -- havana harbor, san juan hill. 1917, their orld was going to be safe from
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democracy. dr. baxter: off to world war ii. all too soon by korea, our eritage in its bravest our when the price of livers -- when the price of liberty was the life of our youth.
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dr. baxter: through this requiem of silence sounds them my beam of the declaration of independence voice so eloquently by thomas jeffersonm have sworn upon the author of god, eternal house to liddy against every form of tyranny ver the mind of man. dr. baxter: but life goes on for the republic. new generations follows old generations as spring rolls ith it. wonderful, isn't it? the tiniest seed of freedom planted by our forefathers has
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grown into a nation among nations. a nation which grown into a nation among champions the dignity of land throughout the world. these trees were a gift to us from he people of japan more than 50 years ago. each spring, thousands of americans come to washington just to admire them. we could stop here and wonder about one of the fights we had privilege to be wall. cross reflecting water of the tidal basin is the jefferson memorial. the beautiful tribute paid the jefferson by the american people, for whom he did so much. (music) dr. baxter: inspired words of jefferson have been carved here on the walls of this shrine. ords that will never die. that
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ll men should be free to profess, by argument to mowing -- maintain their opinions and matters of religion. god who gave us life, gave us liberty, i am not an advocate for frequent changes in laws and constitutions, but laws and institutions must go hand in hand with the progress of the human mind. thomas jefferson, the genius who gave us our heritage, the jet -- the declaration of independence. efferson died on the fourth of july, 1826, 50 years to the day, almost to the hour that he will thus our legacy. thomas jefferson lives forever in the
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hearts of freemen. (music) july, 1826, 50 years to the ceo michael nd quinn and scott stevenson joined us this past thursday evening to showcase the museum
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artifacts. our coverage airs sunday evening at the 40 fifthmarks anniversary of the 1972 break-in at the watergate hotel, which led to a senate investigation and eventually president nixon's resignation. next, former senator lowell weicker and former staff discuss the roles in the 1972 presidential election and the white house cover-up that started. the panel also answered questions on parallels between president nixon's actions and the president trump administration. this was recorded at the watergate hotel in washington, d.c. it's just under an hour and a half. mr. freedman: hello, everybody. i'

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