tv Siege of Vicksburg and Confederate Defense CSPAN August 5, 2017 1:52pm-3:01pm EDT
great martial legacy and quickly to give you some sense of what john buford's politics were, his brothers he had was a half-brother and brothers and sisters. that ought to give you some idea what the old man's politics were. i will be around if anybody has any other questions. we are going to head into our next program. getting your powerpoint going. i'm going to ask colleagues -- she is working on a book about stones river. why don't you come up here?
great -- why do you think this is a great defense of the american civil war? >> one of my specialties is civil war navies. one of the great defenses of civil war was the defense of the port cities. a great task for the confederacy for the cities and keeping them open as long as they did. blogging,d it read of what about being a navy person? >> i'm not real sure. to wilmington all the time.
>> you are working on a book about stones river. tell us about that. intern two summers ago now. chris approached me with the idea of writing a book about the to get ad i was able lot of research done while i was there and learn about that western portion of the war. >> looking into that sometime next year. caroline davis. [applause] >> a lot of movement over here. schedule,ep us on
thanking our viewers at home with c-span. we have some behind the scenes interviews there. our next speaker today comes to us from gettysburg national military park. we are going to have the gettysburg guy talk about vicksburg. he is everything you hope you find when you walk up to the desk. going to tell you about southern charm. who hasly this is a man been told he is not southern enough. wait until he opens his mouth. >> i was enjoying that. that is few and far between.
>> the best gentleman who's about to speak to you today comes from mississippi. if anybody has the opportunity to be on the battlefield with matt atkinson, it is like having this immersive storytelling --ans out on the field storytelling experience out on the field but also this running standup comedy routine. charmt he continues to hundreds of visitors. if you ever have the opportunity to get to gettysburg, it truly is a wonderful storytelling experience on the field. without further a do i present to you my friend.
>> always hate to set up the introduction and every thing. i don't know if you set goals or whatever. if i could have steve scully interview me on c-span, most of you don't know who he is, most of you know who he is you don't know who he is. he's the dude from c-span who always wanted to be sitting on the couch. con the stevenson ridge. let's have an interview. let's talk.
>> folks talk about vicksburg. -- i'm supposed to talk about expert. i'm supposed to talk about it from a confederate standpoint. which makes it unusual because at least for me we don't talk from the union standpoint. one of the -- it is arguable. maybe the best campaign in the entire civil war. it is very decisive to say the least. i'm going to try to speak from the confederate per spec. which is, from a biased standpoint, still depressing. i would like you to know i fortified myself really good last night. one thing about vicksburg, if
they ever read it in depth, one of the big problems from a confederate standpoint is you don't have any confederate accounts. they don't want to write about it and when it is happening, it is a siege. when you are besieged you can't mail anything. confederate accounts are few and far between. , issburg, if you don't know going to happen simultaneous to the gettysburg campaign. both campaigns occur in the summer of 1863. vicksburg is the
second-largest city in mississippi. it has a population of around 5000. , economically, because it's a report and one of the few places along the mississippi river where there are bluffs and not floodplains. therefore, you can establish a city, and you have a port, and then you have a railroad. you put both of those together and you've got the fuel for the fire, so to speak. it comes a report. here's fixed route between new orleans and memphis. the perfect stopping point. probably the biggest city, maybe baton rouge, maybe bigger. one of the bigger cities on the lower mississippi. -- one of the many ironies about vicksburg is the thriveing that makes us
in peace time is going to be the very thing which brings the army here in wartime. vicksburg, with those high bluffs, are just going to prove impossible for the union navy to take by themselves. they can't elevate the guns. the railroad, militarily speaking, is going to allow the confederate supply a large army away from the ready base of supplies. as far as the defensive expert, the railroad allows the confederates to bring in big cans. -- big cannons. i'm not talking about the shooter's you see on most battlefields. i'm talking about the big boys, 100 pounds or more as far as the shells being fired. really, arguably, for about a year during the american civil war, is the most important place, strategically.
that would be my opinion. it basically becomes, ladies and gentlemen, the last confederate stronghold on the mississippi river with a small shout out to port hudson. i like those people down there. and thank you, phil. i just got back from louisiana and they made sure that i was aware of the battle of vicksburg. basically, you got vicksburg in memphis of above and new orleans down below in both cities fall to union forces. vicksburg becomes the last place. orike for hudson or matches any of the other remaining towns, it's got a railroad. and this is where the confederacy is going to make it stand. one of the things, geographically that most people
miss about vicksburg, the city river, everybody knows about that and that's to the west of the town of self. the thing they don't realize about the town itself is that vicksburg is actually surrounded on all four sides by water, and that's was going to prove to be extremely difficult for the union army. not only do you have the mississippi river right here, you also have the big black river along here and the yes the river to the north. you have a big black to the east and south, yazoo to the north. the basic goal of the union army is how to find high and dry ground, how do you get a vicksburg? nutroves to be a very tough to crack. , grant basically has two
options in the spring. he can go back to memphis and start back down through northern mississippi and try to approach vicksburg from the north, or, you can march down the louisiana side, which is army is basically a north. here's vicksburg and here's the area of north. i'm going to do this whole map and i know everybody has looked at the map, but what i need you do is focus on the left side of the map. but the campaign unfolded we vicksburg in double quick time to get to the siege. grant, out of the two options, is going to choose the latter. he's going to march his army down louisiana side, which convenes on powerpoint within itself. a very good maneuver by grants army. 20,000 men trying to move through flooded buyers -- by you -- bayous.
april, two separate occasions, the union navy is going to run the confederate -- run past the confederate batteries of vicksburg. down below. rides comery staff to vicksburg, they don't generally come to study the confederates. but when they study the u.s. forces, one of the things they concentrate on is the great relationship between the navy and the army during the vicksburg campaign. commander, noreme eisenhower, no macarthur at vicksburg. the navy doesn't answer to the army and the army doesn't answer to the navy. but yet, david dixon porter, and general grant form a great working relationship. and that is really what makes vicksburg click as far as getting the job done in
capturing the city. the navy, porter agrees to run past the batteries and he's to rendezvous with grants army. ,rant marshes all the way down -- marches all the way down and he originally wanted to cross the mississippi at grand gulf. the union navy engages a small ,onfederate water battery force and is unable to knock out the guns. why is that big? because grant doesn't have his landing spot. what does u.s. grant to do? he never thinks about retreating. he has the navy go further south and marches his army a little bit further south and crosses right there. on april 29. now, grant has a foothold within mississippi. 30, his army continues
across and basically by the night of april 30, he's got 20,000 men. mississippi.ross the confederates for that matter , and this is what grant does really well -- grant leaves william t sherman is going to be north. [laughter] -- i once went to a civil war party, and went in the bathroom and they had a role of sherman toilet paper. [laughter] so there's a faint of above here with sherman. let's get into the confederate defensive vicksburg. a best talk about pemberton in just a second. average income of the
confederate commander sitting here and expert, -- in vicksburg , and he bites on this faint. while grant's marching south, he thinks the main union threat is going to come from north of the city. he guesses incorrectly. meanwhile, down here at fort gibson, you've got the confederate commander, john c bowen screaming at pemberton. hey, the whole union army is coming over here, i need some help. but he doesn't get any reinforcements in time. pemberton is, as i said, an interesting study. you talk about hardluck, you know, he's a yankee. well have things are life we are not proud of. have things in our life we are not proud of. [laughter] that one got a moan. i like that. suddenly, c-span goes dark.
they pull the plug on him. have -- yourt i comes the collins. i don't know what he thought he was funny. [laughter] we get steve scully, so, matt, tell us about your childhood. [laughter] john c pemberton was born in philly august 10, 1814, 183070 graduates from west we, from the military academy. 50, ands 27th out of average student. not too smart, not to dumb. everton became a career military officer receiving two brevets for gallantry in the mexican war . in 1848, he married a virginian. in 1861, pemberton is a very
torn man between which side he should go to. should he go north or south? his wife writes him, one of the few letters of the exist between pemberton and his wife, and she says to him my darling, why have you not joined us yet? geoff davis has a position waiting on him. , andrton chooses the south probably because of his wife. 17, 1861 getsjune that star. brigadier general commission. of 61 inuly -- june the fall of 61 found him in south carolina overseeing coastal defenses. i january 1862, the war department appointed him to the rank of major general. followed in march by a formal assignment of the commander of the department south carolina and georgia. ok. what's in south carolina?
there's a little place where the syllable -- the civil war began. your heard about south carolina? there's a reason south carolinians was not named president of the confederacy. they are known as a bunch of hotheads. said, i forget who said it. south carolina is too small for a republic and too small for an insane asylum. -- two large for an insane asylum. needless to say -- here come the letters now. south carolina. congress, by the time i leave out of your congress will be debating cutting off funding for c-span. we'll like your programming. -- we don't like your programming. they put pemberton in charge of charleston. you see where i'm going with this. a yankee in charge of charleston.
and then pemberton makes some folk pause, pr blunders. he says charleston can be defended, we may have to evacuate the, you don't say that. and they get on the phone to geoff davis and they are like who is this guy and why is he here? davis, i think, is embarrassed by that. jefferson davis has a lot of flaws. and this might be a flaw in some cases. but it can be a strength. jefferson a friend of davis, you were a friend of jefferson davis. he was very loyal to people who were loyal to him. and he felt that impugning john pemberton was basically attacking him indirectly. so he removes pemberton from south carolina, but he reassigns them. what better way to show your confidence in a commander then to reassign him to defend
literally your own home. in mississippi. pemberton is transferred from south carolina to mississippi. he gets there in october of 1862 and he's a major general. there's a problem. name ofa guy by the world and/or an door and already in mississippi, and he has the senior rank to pemberton. how do you fix that? you promote pemberton again. and so pension becomes a lieutenant general, arguably in charge of the most important department in the entire confederacy and john c pemberton, it was a general, has never fought a battle as a commander. that's how that works. no event in the resume of pemberton's military career born to the rapid rise and promotion. pemberton's strengths lay as an administrator, and he wasn't a confident man is a department
commander but he never committed an army in the field of battle. to compound his woes, pemberton had a domineering personality, and he tended to irritate his subordinates. the rank-and-file mistrusted him from the beginning because of his northern birth. these ingredients and everything put together would spell disaster for the confederacy. corpston doesn't have at vicksburg. he has divisions. john c bowen, who arguably is one of the most underrated and overlooked combat commanders from the american civil war, he has missouri and arkansas boys, which are think are the best troops in the entire campaign. watch how much they are utilized. loring, andiam interesting chap, lost his arm in the mexican war.
really, really, really your double fellow. irritableuble -- fellow. ian stonewall jackson did not get along, so the confederacy kicked them out west. he will prove to be a thorn in pemberton's side. some may argue might've even thrown a battle to get pemberton fired. the senior division commander, carter l stevenson over here. you have john h forney from alabama and then this gentleman right here. to,ally is going to tie in ironically, chris michalski is speaking about north anna. this is mark del smith. if you never paid attention to mark del smith, not a talk about them a lot today. but remember the name. i want you to notice how much he pops up in various places. in 1864 after vicksburg, he's going to be robert e. lee's chief engineer. some people say he was in charge
-- he may have been the one that throughout the mule shoot at spotsylvania in the darkness. small world. vicksburg. grant gets over he's got a toehold. here, confederate division commander with 5000 men and branches got about 20,000 men. grant could have had 200,000 men at fort gibson and it would not matter. it's nothing but pure jungle. i'm talking about forest. i'm talking about dense. now we're used to appear. -- not what we are used to up here. to one on some, but bone manages to hold him up all day long. by the time he gets his toehold here, he pushes the confederates back and basically, he has gained his ground. he uncovers grand gulf and that sets up the supply base for the navy to resupply.
he's got a tenuous supply line coming down to louisiana and over here. most people think he cuts loose, that's not exactly true. so what does grant to do? if you are pemberton on the confederate forces, it looks like the grant would take the shortest route. he would just go straight north. as you can see from the map, he does not do that. he moves from the east, and when he moves inland, this big, black river stands as an obstacle between him and vicksburg. grant turns that obstacle into a strength. by utilizing the big black to cover his left flank as he advances in to the interior of the state. objectivism expert, but doesgrant and pemberton guess correctly is a grand subjective is the achilles tendon of vicksburg, which is
this railroad right here. if you cut the railroad, vicksburg is dying on the vine, so to speak. and literally, you talk about confederates right here. edward station, edward station right here is where pemberton comes out from vicksburg and collect his army. he and grants are about to have a huge battle when suddenly, the battle of raymond is fought over here. long story short, another confederate force from four hudson was supposed to be attacking the rear of the union army. they turned out to be attacking the entire union corps with one brigade. -- confederates hold them up, but it turns out to be a union victory. what does grant do? rear,s confederates in my ottawa deal of pemberton right now. grant backs out and hits to jackson, defeats that
confederate force and pushes it away from pemberton and then severs the railroad and starts moving towards vicksburg. 16, the battle of champion hill is fought. battle of champion hill roughly 60,000 men combining both forces in finding out right there. doesn't even have one monument they are today. it decides the fate of vicksburg. everton's forces are defeated a champion hill, they fall back towards vicksburg. the next day they fight a rearguard battle on the big black river and then pemberton makes the fatal decision to withdraw his army into the interior of the city. may 19, grant comes up.
grant does not want to sit in front of vicksburg all through the mississippi summer. may 19, he starts his attack. up,union troops can't get the only portion that are ready to attack iraq here on sherman's front in this area. -- are up here on sherman's front in this area. they attack and are severely repulsed, specifically of the stock in the van -- stockade for dan. may 19 cost general grant 942 men. you talk with the census to show you the strength of fortifications. it's not known, but the confederates are estimated to lost 250. that's what a man behind fortifications with the right musket can do. and what causes nearly 41 casualties --421
4-1 casualties? these things that circle the city. this is basically one long entire ridge, the oversimplifying it, but that's basically it. one long continuous ridge surrounding the city, and wherever there is another ridge coming out or road or anything like that, the confederate -- the confederacy wrapped fortifications in order to control the train. each -- the terrain. fortification, palisades, phrase, other stuff. i will talk about siege materials and just a little while. you slow up the attackers. if you have never been to vicksburg, which is hard for me to explain -- let me put it to you like one confederate engineer said after the war. -- iid when the lord made
bet that's never been done on c-span. he made all the mountains and made all the valleys, he dumped all the scrap in vicksburg. [laughter] thank you. remember, that's a quote. ,eally, ladies and gentlemen it's basically two ridges in a ravinesr multiple between the two lines. it's very good grounded to defend. it's very hard ground to attack. to say the very least. some of the fortifications the confederates will erect will be things like this. these are all forts, but over dan is an inverted v. if you have a weak point in the line, running like this, you put this jutting out front and
anybody attacking my line to the left or the right i can shoot down and i can hit them. the problem with any of these fortifications is what you go to siege work, they are subject to a crossfire. from the union. it was very deadly for the confederates. variation of confederate fortifications very. redoubt, not quite afford -- a fort. an open back end, the confederates had an earthwork called the great redoubt. thank you. [laughter] grant can get into the city on may 19. unperturbed -- you know u.s. grant.
he don't give up. three days later, grant decides to renew the assault again. may 19, he's going to -- excuse me, may 22, six economy morning, he's going to open up a massive altar larry -- artillery bombardment. the navy would join in, huge rocketing into the confederate lines and into the city itself. that 10:00, they set their watches, the first assault that was overclocked. they all got together and synchronize their watches. by 10:00, the union infantry goes forward. they surge across those deep ravines. a couple stories, now you can see how wide this assault is. remember, may 19 was just here. may 22, look where grant is going. consulting all those confederate strongholds.
-- he's assaulting all those confederate strongholds. at the second taxes lunette, roughly about right here, this is john a mclaren. there were texans, obviously, inside the lunette. one confederate said my canon builds canister, my men may be air real with yells and shouts as they saw the earth string within them is dead -- strewn with enemies dead. you can imagine the texans divined a lone figure marching towards them. another view, here's the lunette and the railroad redoubt. , you seeoad running in how they are building these fortifications. to guard against the weak points in the line. this is the story am talking about. maybe write in here between the two. in the midst of this assault,
the texans look up and they are shooting all these yankees out in front of them. , unions lone soldier soldier keeps walking towards him. it was private thomas higgins of the 99th illinois. at least 100 men took delivered aim at him. some of the confederates ran along the line, their own line shouting don't shoot that man. while others cheered them on. higgins made it all the way the confederate line carrying the u.s. flag. in the first thing that texas did after they pulled them over the earthworks and took his flag from them is they patted him down for body armor. because they couldn't believe they had missed him that many times. coming across that field. higgins would get the medal of honor for that.
you about great defenses, will never hear about this again in the civil war. here2, once again, around in this area. soldiers are going to be coming up. they get on down. -- bogged down. this is the side of the sachsen -- second taxes lunette. it's been made into a cemetery, but you get to the side of the fort sill exist. to that marker right there? union boys can't get into the fort. you know what they are going to do? chicago mercantile battery is going to bring in a six pound cannon up to the abrasion of the confederate fort and fire it into their point-blank range. you will never hear of that before or after.
you talk about great defenses. how would you like to be on the receiving end of that? there's a marker for the abrasion. for the canon. the confederates still don't fall. here, graveyard road, aptly named because it goes past the city cemetery is the stockade were dan. see the remnants of it right here. the entrenchment. basically, one half of that inverted tv. you can see the union markers, the blue markers that are out there today. troops are going to charge down this road in this direction, and there's the stockade. there been a charge looking the other way on this road. ohioans are going to leave the advance. we have an ohio one in the back
given me that this hot -- the fist bump. unfortunately, the first regiment, 30th ohio will make it all the way to the ditch. the second regiment, the result of the ohio is going to fall flat on their face in the middle-of-the-road. and you know it that means for everybody behind them? they are stuck. what do those confederates due to those union troops that are massed in column on that road? they're going to kill them. and the union soldiers have to die, talk about defenses, they have to die for cover -- dive for cover on either side of this roadbed. view's the confederate from up top. see how did the ravines are? how do you charge across that? that's the reason this defense is going to go on so long. another view from the union side.
right there. attacksresults of those on may 22 were 3200 casualties. for the union. including 502 killed. that is what fortifications -- a defender behind for the nation will -- fortification. siege.settled down for a what is that? grant described it has basically, out camping the enemy. [laughter] this is the last thing you wanted to do. getting into this operation -- any type siege, it becomes a matter of time between how long
the seizures, the assaulting force, can maintain their addition outside of the city or position, and more importantly, how long defender can maintain their defense. all is where all communication is shut off. entirely surrounded -- in this case it is everything you need because blockaded here you can easily follow the little all the way around city. pemberton is shut off -- like he was inside of a bottle. union and confederate soldiers out dig in.n and things the interesting -- the navy
construction material must know gross discussion on interesting thing is in the area, they still have this, i want to say -- i did type of bamboo, i want to say chinese bamboo. rosen mississippi. how about got there i don't know. his bamboo shoots will go up to stories. taking it to be over several years -- huge. union, confederate soldiers shot down that stuff -- mr. making the baskets. baskets, rollally them up to the frontline. and throughout the earth the interior of them. of -- keeps the fortification wall from crumbling. of can imagine what kind scale this requires along this siege line. there's a good picture of it. think that's from petersburg yeah. loopholes? the
breakthrough here. it goes down. yeah. not bad for farmer boys. one of the things i want to spend some time on, is this right here. siege, and exceed -- and just out more eliminate. the cool refreshing drink. [laughter] that is an eddie murphy joke. and what we are going to talk inut right now is involved this goes back to roman demise. it may be even goes back further them that.
how do you get a fortified position without getting killed, the union army is going to start 13 parallels. it --lly a parallel is let's say this attached sprays this podium area i can dig the fastest way between two points. the enemy can shoot down the line. areasllel therefore, degrees of production and. i thrown't display -- the dirt on this side. if you dig this way i come back
this way, i throw the dirt on ssi. i inch my way forward to the enemy position. see again. when i get away certain point, what do is created parallel. parallel is basic way -- the fortified position at the front. but i have as an offensive have ann carried i offensive operation with defensive capabilities. come to the confederates defend confederates -- and
new their positions basically. one of the things about this is the confederates, they can come out and attack the assaulting force. it's very hard to defend yourself you have a shovel. especially in a gunfight. are so what are they going to do much more >> this is -- concentrate on this approach, this is the surely house read i will show you that any minute. here is the approach. come and see how they are very. here is the parallel. right there.
fast this goes on, union soldiers are going to on mayround back here 26, 300 men. there's 400 yards here to hear, 400 yards. may 26 digging. they work behind a railroad flat car with some 20 bels of cotton on top. in three days i have -- 200 yards out of 400. confederates digging a ditch -- seven feet deep. this is the confederate position.
by june 8, five days later, this was within 75 yards, starting from battery hack -- confederates having more and more ups than in their defense. now these were within range of their small arms trade although the confederate artillery was a sickly smothered, small arms still range. these impact stuff. we had the styrofoam peanuts today. they used to pack stuff in. it's basically like the shredded paper. -- tot like saying you, have the shredded paper and one dip it in-- turpentine, take a piece of it,
there by the time to the third louisiana -- june 22, union soldiers excavated a 400 yard's exact approach, former lead miners began -- to tunnel underneath. in less than three days, the gallery measuring -- four feet merchantsnd height -- 45 feet underneath this confederate position. feet of rain and here's a parallel.
this is the louisiana monument. afternoon of june 25, the ground began to shake. a few seconds later large earth lifted a huge dust cloud. earth rains down on the confederate and union troops. immediately, union troops and to leave until the crater and start assaulting up through their. they can't break through. nancy bowen and his missouri voice are there to meet them. the assault against the trainer will go on for the next and 24 hours. union casualties total -- confederates suffered 21 killed, 73 wounded. our undeterred, union forces are going to open up the mine again and it's loaded another 800 pound outer charger underneath the third is in a dam on july 1. the confederates lost a lot of
good men. on the june 25 explosion -- like they were doing on july, they had started digging counter-minds. in order to do this, they forwarded slave labor. the the union blew up second mine on july 1, one of those slaves that was working in the confederate counter mind -- well, several of the slaves -- world killed. in the explosion. one of the slaves was blown sky-high. not,u can believe it or and -- sorry for the bad picture, that no one i can get -- that's a picture of him. glue thatwn, when the mine, abraham, his lame, all the way to the union lines you anything -- a union soldiers say he laid on their head.
a picked him up and dusted him off and everything. obviously i was in shock, you imagine. quik-trip every choice to come endowment lands as what happened. he said, i don't know. i don't know what happened. later, through the grapevine thegraph, word spread along union line that there was this slaves that had been blown to freedom. union soldiers put him in a tent and charged a quarter to see america's first astronaut. [laughter] paper interviewed abraham, they asked what happened. he said, when i was headed up, i met my old master going down.
as he said, abraham, you'd better grab your code, it's cold up there. i have to wrap it up, i got a mean looking back. i want to tell you something no. areat go home and try to c-span audience, don't go in the back or detritus. the thingill will about them, they didn't put two pounds of powder and he would murder. but these murders up to the confederate position and started loving in shells at point-blank range. and they dropped 468
came in around rooms into the third louisiana -- at point-blank range. you can imagine having to to and better position with explosive shells raining down. confederate officer -- 48 hours they lost 21 killed in 72 wounded from these wooden mortars. be back in the city, the civilians are trying to make it. they have 200 down in caves. unfortunately none of these claims still exist. there was a child on and whether caves. we are receiving one third of the rash -- two thirds of the
ration of meal. this was greatly reduced. cornell, we now had count -- made into bread. and the spread of deray mckesson color -- would stretch a foot or more before finally breaking. for time we had fresh and eight instead of bacon. one time we had right question to it. in the premises altogether. the ration consisted of about -- i want you to about the insisting on us. daily ration was one chief top -- and a small bit perhaps two ounces taken. for several days before the capitulation we had in that of bacon -- about 3-4 ounces of such". right the confederate rights.
lid in derision if you will you dt epicureans. [laughter] i we he never take the morsel more sweet than the woman into to us. of the meal seemed of this drain -- more tender than of the ox. but i decidedly horsey flavor. however, it was very good. right here. i've to rep the sub. confederates, if you talk about this -- theme of this seminar, basically this is it in a nutshell. sieges boring and monotonous.
the confederate soldiers were never taken off the line. introduces into the ranks mass and terry. from that contaminated water. -- it can'tts function anymore. their only hope, a few confederate accounts. this gentleman right here. though johnson. he has the confederate relief force over at jackson mississippi. johnson is not coming. it's unfortunate for the confederates. if you talk about sages, or talk about defenses -- i looked up on the internet made famous sieges
before i came here. pittsburgh being one come only to emerge successfully relieve. history i'md talking about. return and grants -- we'll will get together. pretend, ladies and gentlemen, is going to surrender the city on july 4. that will ladies and gentlemen, 29,500 without a great, 29,500 confederates soldiers. 350,000 percussion -- incomplete and confederate army.
could say the 1-2 punch of gettysburg and expert, and the death meal of confederacy. with,estion i leave you what was the confederate defense of vicksburg good or bad? thank you all very much. [applause] and huxley is time for one or two questions. i will remind folks, please introduce yourself, tell us where you are from. a sure you have a question. " i fell into a burning ring of fire. share northern virginia to make the question.
-- the fall of vicksburg. >> i know it is good experience in britain or johnson. i don't -- let me think about that. with -- written receipts to conflicting orders. the department commander, joseph abby johnston johnson sang just evacuate city. he ends a pleasing none. pemberton at the battle of champion hill, which was the pivotal battle for the city.
pemberton out of five division only brings three of them with him. the other to remain in the city. when green to tax the city. fresh.roops are he just was, he just was indecisive. he just would make up his mind. johnson on the other hand pulled pemberton to come join forces with him. one of the most bizarre incidents of the civil war the same time, johnson is marching with, literally, a way. johnson gets the jackson mississippi -- may 13. paper for the city.
i geoff davis says -- i'm too late. what you have got here is the ingredients -- yeah. who is more to blame, i don't know very pemberton is on the same day he is field commander ultimately. marriage.o to have a even a question. >> new jersey, new jersey. and >> 89. yet. yeah. into a scout from exit, it's got different customs over there. >> that we do. we have an interest of statement or information about well,an casualties? >>
yes. light is the short answer. several civilians that during the siege. five was to -- sticking my head. --ave a voice had a problem let me answer the question this way. a vote for problem in my mind union, theng the united states forces did during the siege of vicksburg. i can see militarily on one hand, it is within the siege 13es, but they are dropping inch mortar falls into the city every 15 ranks, one every 10-15 minutes.
there is nothing really to have gained by showing the city. and that occur during the siege setittsburgh, union set -- up an artillery battery. not big guns, but field guns, across the river. if you can believe this or not, the citizens of vicksburg would come out and go shopping wild union made a would be breaking for breakfast lunch and dinner. the quick like an hour. youou can imagine having --
could see right up that street, they started shelling them as they were coming out of the church. think they killed one right there. i do not know what you have got out of that. i don't know what the purpose of that was. >> on that happy note [laughter] >> hey, it's your people. [laughter] [applause] >> thank you. i would also like to say real quick, my partner rub his back here, i get a dollar for mention his name. i would like to mention him. thank you. >> will take a five-minute rate in the get going with dave powell. -- break and get going with dave powell. [chatter]
>> more like coverage and to come of the emerging civil war symposium on american history tv. after the short break, we will be back with emerging civil war blog cofounder chris makowski, the author of strength in the blow, battle along the north anna river. he will talk about general robert e lee is defensive strategy for the battle. >> this weekend on american artifacts, which travel to westridge -- iowa to where the american presidents life portrait exhibit at the herbert hoover presidential library and museum. here's a preview. >> kerry are with -- the 30th president of the united states. calvin coolidge has been a lifelong -- he was mostly 88 fishermen. he would fly fleshing, we have some supplies here.
in 1926 when his secret service chief took him out to a stream -- they stopped as she likes to fish there. not a very good fishermen -- by the end he became -- he was passable by the end of his term. the rear with herbert hoover, 41st president of the united states. what we have for herbert hoover -- home movies. personal side of the president. included with this film that they're showing here is to judge films which are from the white house. these were taken by his wife lou henry herbert in a phone call to code a color.
for regular projector -- they have black and white films. there is a special type of filter at the time, it becomes color. those filters didn't exist. it would digitized -- and colorized, they got a grant to do that. they would distribute to the public in february of this year. >> watch the entire tour of american residents live portraits at the herbert hoover presidential library at 6:00 p.m. and 10:00 p.m. sunday on american artifacts. >> tonight on c-span to inspect tv on afterwards, journalist to cbiz are reports on how to justice department handles white-collar crime in his book, this club, why the justice department fails to prosecute executives during his and my jenniffer -- from unlawful professor. >> justice requires initially
speakers. in raising your site -- if you are not just seeking this for the vulnerable, low hanging fruit, but going up against the most powerful wrongdoers in society, and not being worried that you can't take them on or you might lose this. p.m., joshua green reports on the 2016 political shift the 20 president and his chief strategist in devil's bargain. >> am sure been and is frustrated that he has a president -- one is chief white house strategist. republicans have unified control of congress. yet they seem unable to get anything done at all. stuff done's getting it is attorney general jeff sessions, cracking down and bring immigrants just as trump claims he wants. an open and really does want -- he will be fired or driven up by his own president.