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tv   Memorializing Salem  CSPAN  August 12, 2017 10:55pm-12:01am EDT

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if they have a job, they will have to get to the job so you need to cover transportation. if they have a job and they want to participate in american life, they have to be able to enjoy the same things that other people going to theaters, going to bars, you have to cover the private sector. program ate entire 6:45 p.m. eastern on sunday. american history tv, only on c-span 3. >> this year marks the 325th anniversary of the salem witch trials. foote talks about memorializing sites like salem. hour-long speech is from the salem state university
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symposium on the legacy of the witch trials. is this is our 25th anniversary as with the idea of helping to keep alive the lessons of the trials. one of the main waves in which we do this is by supporting and being involved in educational events just like today. you all have in your folders cards like this which are an invitation to commemorative activities, a celebration at the witch trials memorial tomorrow. i am here to introduce our keynote speaker. i have noticed that we have not really talked about the people who have sponsored this symposium. i mentioned the salem award
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foundation. you, donna sears has been driving this bus. [applause] i know she has pulled the entire history department along in her wake. i wanted to make sure she got credit for the incredible amount of hard work that it takes to pull off an event like this. it has been a wonderful day. what i am supposed to be talking about. i am glad our keynote address is in the afternoon rather than in the morning because, i think, we have all had time to stop and problems wewhat the somethingmmemorating that happened 325 years ago. perhaps nobody has given it more
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thought than our speaker today, dr. kenneth foot. i had planned to pull a few choice nuggets from his resume to use for my introduction but that has not been possible. i am not an academic. i am from the business world, where the mantra is a one-page resume. i was somewhat unprepared for these 10 pages. using a little bit from what he has posted on the yukon website where he chairs the department of geography. injoined the faculty there 2013. american and european landscape
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history, and issues of geography in higher education. instructional technology. he is here today because of his interest in what we might call the landscape of tragedy. his book, if you have not read it, i recommend it, it really awakened us to think about how we deal with places where bad things happened. how those sites are marked or not marked continues to be one of his main areas of interest. he is a graduate of the university of wisconsin, masters and his doctorate at the university of chicago. shuttered ground is probably his -- he has authored 10 other books.
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enough articles and chapters and contributions, if i listed them it would take up his entire speaking time. the faculty, he had been associated with the university of texas in austin and the university of colorado at boulder. he has been the president of associationsaphic and has won numerous prizes. we are all going to value what he has to say today on how what happened here in salem has played out across america. it is my honor to introduce dr. kenneth foote. [applause] dr. foote: thank you very much,
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shalelby. i would also like to thank the salem award foundation for helping organizing this as well. maybe give a call out to the geographer program at salem -- geography program at salem state . [applause] here an honor for me to be at salem state for this symposium. my first visit to salem was in 1984. it changed my life. i have been haunted by what i found in 1984. what i saw has shaped much of my research over the last 30 years. for the next 45 minutes, i would like to focus on the four questions on the first slide. other sites have been
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stigmatized. salem is not alone in that context. the first thing i want to do is focus on comparisons between salem and other sites. i would also like to focus on why it is like -- that sites like salem are so difficult to commemorate. i would like to go from there about the comments that came from the previous panel. we have zombies walking down the streets and so forth. [laughter] i do not think i have to say a lot more. it does raise the issue of what comes next.
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over the last couple of weeks, i have been reviewing the growth and i do not think there can be enough material on the salem witch trials. i'm impressed by the number of books, websites, movies, television that up and focusing on witchcraft. i was a bit humbled by the people on the panel and you gave lectures earlier today because we have so much expertise here in the room today that i do not want to claim to be an expert on salem. .y expertise is as a geographer do not take me to task if i get a name wrong. we really do have some wonderful experts. geography comes from the standpoint of geography. i was very much interested in
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this study of the sense of place , the deep emotional bonds that people develop to places where they live. it might be a person's home, where you go as a retreat with your family. it may be a place like marblehead, a wonderful place for recreation. be someplace you might enjoy going with friends. domino park is one of the centers of community. it may just be a place -- i have this photograph around walden pond. people go there by the hundreds thoreau.throw --
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ien i first came to salem, was interested in these ideas. i just came up from boston and it was a day trip. i spent the day looking at maritime history and industrial history, interesting places because there was nothing much about the witchcraft episode. this is 1984. people,oint, i asked where did the executions take place? know, said, we do not nobody really knows. i find that curious. -- lose thet was location was striking to me. i was in germany and i was in berlin to give a talk and i was struck again by the highly sites.ized
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-- the in central berlin wall in central berlin was put nazi isolate sites of power so people could not get to them. summer was the time of one of the worst mass murders in american history. the shootings at a mcdonald's restaurant in california. what happens when these events occur? affect thee events emotional bonds? do people feel a deeper attachment? since then, i've been very interested in this idea of how events of violence and tragedy affect the bonds we have with
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place. i visited dozens, hundreds of sites in the united states and europe, because much of my work is in central europe and hungary. i visited sites of individual tragedies, murders, mass murders. i have also visited sites like this mine disaster. all of the men in the community were lost. i have also visited sites associated with the revolutionary war, the civil war where we have different approaches to the trail -- portrayal of history. the history of japanese americans, chinese-americans, hispanic americans.
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the branch davidian fire, that horrible event near waco, texas, where 69 people died in a fire. leading to the bombing in oklahoma city. ,fter many of these visits there is no single outcome when tragedy strikes. some events are so important, they become judge does so important, they become sanctified. peoplecome so important, dedicated, consecrated for that particular event. the opposite side, we have obliteration. years, -- maybe it
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is a little bit closer to two of the outcomes. commoncation is the most outcome. we do not see any great significance in this event and we will get back right. -- it back right. there is another outcome which i call designation. something important happened here but it did not quite -- it is not quite enough to push it toward sanctification. that designation is a step toward sanctification a little bit later and i have some
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examples. we will come back to gettysburg in a minute. in the 1920's, the terrorist attack on wall street in new york, the last physical evidence of that bombing, a few shrapnel scars along wall street. that has faded from view. we have the chicago river, a crew ship tipped over as it was loading. a claim does many passengers as the titanic -- it claimed as many passengers as the titanic. if you looked on the right hand corner of this powerpoint, you will see an important point. buttification occurs rarely people think it happens more often because it is so visible.
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we tend to see sites that are sanctified because they are very visible in the landscape. we see them because they are very pronounced. they only occur typically in about three sorts of situations. the first one is when there is a moral or ethical lesson. i point to gettysburg because it is one of the most decorated landscapes in america. many of you have probably visited and every engagement is marked on the ground at gettysburg. it may be a sense of community loss. wisconsin,morial in destroyed in the largest forest fire in u.s. history. heroes and martyrs, presidents, great leaders, even great entertainers -- john lennon, we
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have strawberry fields in central park just across from where he was shot. those sorts of things. importanttion is because it means we are setting aside a part of the environment and setting it aside for a purpose. this is dedicated to the memory or remembering or commemorating some event or person. step often is a times on the way toward sanctification and the examples i have, i can tell you about that process. is inrst photograph memphis, tennessee. that is the balcony where martin luther king jr. was assassinated . that is why it was marked for years and years and years. that marking was done by the owner, walter bailey, and he lost his wife the next day.
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it took 20 years for him to move this toward sanctification, getting support from the city of memphis, the state of tennessee, and finally the national government to turn this into a civil rights educational center. corner, oneft-hand of the japanese-american also was acamps, step from sanctification. the families went back as a pilgrimage and those pilgrimages providingimportant in restitution for the families. rectification is the most common. we do not see that significance in some of the day-to-day
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violence and day-to-day tragedies that the one in american society and many of these sites are right. -- put right. was not born yet when this crash occurred in madison, wisconsin, but my mother told stories about it because she heard it happen. the window to our kitchen looked out toward the university arboretum and she saw the plane spiraling in. the last one of the four is obliteration. shameful,n as so tragedies involving gross negligence, taboo subjects, are so shocking and shameful that -- they do try to not want to be reminded of it.
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in the upper right-hand corner, ed site of the homestead of gein. for normannspiration bates in "psycho." he is also the inspiration for the "texas chainsaw massacre." when he was caught and spent the rest of his life in a psychiatric ward, the neighbors were upset because people kept coming to visit and they were vandalizing the farmstead and someone went out and burnt all the buildings. that is what it looks like. connecticut, the horrible mass murder at the elementary school. when the building was torn down,
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the contractors walled off the entire site. the contractors had to agree to keep it completely anonymous so nobody would visit those sites. they have decided on putting up a memorial there. it has been a struggle for the community to lose so many children and teachers. this is a case just across the river from cincinnati. it was a very popular supper club and the owner was careless. a fire broke out and claimed almost 300 lives. nobody has been able to rebuild on that site. research, itin my is constantly moving back and forth. we can see these changes
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occurring through time. an example of like to show is an invention, the way we see the national past. the lower right-hand corner, a site you may have walked on. this is the precise location where the revolutionary war broke out. this is a test. where is it? the boston massacre. the center of that walkway is .he precise place that was not marked for another 100 years. past theve gotten first 100 years. now it is time to mark the sites associated with the war.
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hill, we see this big obelisk, that almost never was completed. it was finished in 1875. that took a long time. this was raised by private donations. this was not done by the national government. this is a significant event because the american troops held their ground. then we get very distinctive points. the photograph second from the right is the high water mark of the confederacy. this is the point where the civil war began to go in the favor of the union. right in the middle of the war, troops were turned back. very specific in terms of telling the story of the nation. i point to this last slide on
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the right-hand side because that is the site, we are looking from the custis mansion at arlington national cemetery across from john kennedy's grave. this was the weekend after jacqueline kennedy onassis had been buried. the 1960's and whens and 1980's, jacquelineonassis -- kennedy was picking that position of the grave, she wanted it to align with the lincoln memorial. she wanted to be able to see the national capital to the right and the white house to the left representing john kennedy's contributions to the nation.
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the same thing happens in other places. i used to live in texas. i used to be focused on texas history. proud of thery texas war of independence and this was in 1835 and 1836. the commemoration emerged very gradually. the first commemoration was 50 years later. they wanted to be buried with their comrades near houston. by 1905, the alamo, which had ,een completely abandoned becomes curated by the daughters of the republic of texas. 100 years later, you have the tallest masonry obelisk in the world. over a span of 100 years, this
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becomes an incredible invention of how the tradition has been built and described. it happens in places like chicago. in chicago, the city flag has two blue stripes, one representing lake michigan and one representing the chicago river. the century of progress, 1933. two others represent the chicago fire of 1871. another one represents for dearborn, which -- fort dearborn, which represented a massacre. left, photograph on the you see the fire academy of chicago. the fire academy, you see a
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little sculpture. that is called pillar flame. that stands on the exact point where the chicago fire began. the exact spot. after all of these years, they see it as a point of pride because after the chicago fire, chicago modernized its police and fire programs. it is a starting point for the modern city of chicago. the fire changed the city government, police and fire and so forth so they see it as a mark of progress. many of these things, we can see looking at the landscape, what i find interesting visiting salem is how the witchcraft episode is described. just the markers on
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the battlefield but the whole landscape has been named. we can look on this map and we can find important engagements in that battle. if you look at the center of the map, you may recognize the peach orchard. there is also the wheatfield. features which have been marked in terms of --orials and marked memorials. i was reminded of some of the work of david lowenthal. we can contrast this with an event that happened a year later in colorado.
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the sand creek massacre. it is during the civil war and there is a lot of fighting going on between -- fighting going on. young men are attacking white settlements. many of the older adults are staying home with children. in 1864, militias are gathered in colorado and they slaughter an entire village early in the morning. recognized as shameful almost immediately. this is really way out in the plains of colorado. you can see from the photograph that there is nothing marked.
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this has disappeared. , this idea ofme of the past worthy of public commemoration in the -- it is very important to keep that in mind in remembering things. thate to remind us all very often these debates revolve around where and what to do. there, what to do here in salem. that is the focus of debate. what about salem? not an expert in salem witchcraft episodes. in many cases, there is great tension going on here between
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sanctification and obliteration. we know there is something important we need to remember about the salem witchcraft episode. this is very difficult to come to terms with because it is something that is shameful and shocking when a community turns on itself and kills people. it is worth reflecting on some of the reasons i think it is difficult to resolve that tension from other sites i have looked at around the country. one of the major points of tension is whenever we memorialize an event like this, it calls attention to the perpetrators and the killers themselves. in the upper left-hand corner, it is the dedication of columbine high school memorial for those who died in the in 1999. shooting this was put up in 2007. people really objected to it.
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a couple of people push this forward because people said, we love to honor the victims but by doing that, we are calling attention to the killers. toare putting up a shrine those two high school students who killed our neighbors. this site in the middle is the house of terror in budapest. it was the headquarters for the gestapo and it was taken over by the secret police after the second world war. great, wed, look, should say something about the victims. shrine?this create a doesn't this create a shrine for the people who have oppressed all of these people? inoint to the controversy dallas, texas.
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people said, we do not want that building. that is where oswald was situated when he shot the president. if you create a museum in that building, you are creating a shrine to all his walled. -- all his walled. -- oswald. often, when debates starts about what to do after these tragedies, there is an attempt to other the killers. let's dismiss this as next ordinary event that was caused by some outsider. of presidentink lincoln's killer, a deranged fanatic or a crazed anarchist
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shoots president mckinley or a hobo phobic bombs the olympic park. homophobic bombs the olympic park. it is interesting that because you can explain away the violence by explaining the way the perpetrator. was not part of our community. it is very difficult to do that .ecause it is a kind of denial it is difficult to do that if people come from the community. in salem, this happened so long ago, really. think of what has happened. the maritime power, the industry , house of seven gables. a lot has passed. maybe it is just not necessary
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to bring up the witchcraft episode. i do not agree with that. sometimes people say, it is time to let that rest. another thing is that a lot of people might say, compared to the violence in early america, the witchcraft episode does not amount to very much. compared to what happened in europe where you have 50,000 witches or supposed witches killed, this is not a very big outbreak. argue over-- people whether it was genocide. you have the puritans murdering a whole village. down there at the bottom is what that site looks like today. it is a suburban street and there is nothing varied all. -- nothing there at all.
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we think of the bloody brook massacre in deerfield and we have one single memorial in deerfield for that memorial, for that event. i think sanctification is very difficult when this event occurs because police and military forces have turned on their own people. when it turns on itself, it is particularly difficult to think about and that also applies to the situation here in salem. when neighbor turns on neighbor, it presents a difficult issue in terms of sanctification. the treasurer of the school ,oard blew up the school claimed about 50 lives.
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it was a substantial loss of life. the race riots after the first world war. this was not the only race riot of that period. neighbors turning on neighbors and chasing these african-americans out of this area. this comes up with events that relate to police violence. i have this example of this horrible event where the chicago police working with the fbi photographd -- that is one of the more horrible photographs that i will show you today because those police officers are just -- are smiling. they killed two panthers and
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they were never penalized for doing that. this terrible bombing in philadelphia in 1985 where the police bomb the separatist group on the west side and they take peopleand they killed 11 and no one ever went to jail. these sorts of things are very difficult and they have to do with other major events in history. the haymarket riot where you have the police turning on citizens. they want the eight hour workday. with the haymarket affair, we have two separate readings. we have the reading of the people who were executed for leading that. we can question that legal decision. on the right-hand side is a
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police monument and their defense of chicago. today, that is a highly contested event. , i think of neighbors killing neighbors. dedicated, who was so , he was willing to kill his own neighbors who were slavers. his whole family was dedicated to ending slavery. forth.e this back and these are tensions that still exist today. likealso happens to events sand creek. andrew reading a plot at the base of a civil war monument at the statehouse in denver and this was a civil war
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the greatonoring heroic battles of colorado troops. listed on that monument is the battle of sand creek. senate finally passed a resolution and said, we will not take this memorial but -- there is no way we can describe sand creek as a battle. it needs to be described as a massacre. maybe it is something that could be mirrored here in salem. ispiritual healing run around thanksgiving and that is used -- they start at the sand creek massacre site and they run to denver. they use that as a way of
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talking through some of these issues. what makes salem different? i do not have to say very much. i just grabbed a few illustrations. bewitched, they dealt with witchcraft. because is striking this the way we want to remember a key lesson about wrongful persecution and religious tolerance? this is something that is highly questionable because there is that -- people do not reflect on what they see here. they see the kitsch side of things. are ways that think of many sites
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attract thousands of visitors. three weeks ago, i was at auschwitz in poland and there were huge crowds there. it is treated as a cemetery, as it should be. there are rules about going into that site and how to behave. people follow them. the guides are scrupulous about them. there are things you do not do inside these camps. the world trade center site in new york city. you know what it is like their. -- like tehere. people assume a certain attitude about that site. last standso -- hill. people would not imagine having a zombie walk down last stand
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hill. it is a national park site. it would be completely inappropriate. these sites of tragedy are important. they are points of reconciliation, reflection, and remembrance. the little bighorn battlefield, the national park service allowed the native american groups to begin marking the sites of where warriors fell during the battle. partng death sites is not of the culture. they said, ok, we want to mark these sites. we will make that concession because it is important to present our side of the story and how we fought to defend our way of life. the little bighorn battlefield has become one of these points of reconciliation chewing the
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plains indians and the u.s. government -- points of reconciliation between the plains indians and the u.s. government. angel island, this is where they interned people, the chinese, and send them back to china. think there may be ways forward, the middle ground because these sites of sanctification are important. i think it is very important to honor the victims and survivors and the families. just like shelby is working on collecting the testimonies, these are important sites of people who have been involved for many generations. it is also very important to .ecognize heroes and martyrs these are people who stood up and said no. they stop this from happening and we need to be able to
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recognize that. i also think it is in porton keep the memory alive across generations. , many ofk to auschwitz you have participated in the march of the living. this is an annual event in april. thousands of people marched i andn auschwitz auschwitz ii. it is about a mile. we are alive, we have survived. this is something that happened. we will not let this continue. this is something we need to continue. the idea of pursuing the memory across generations is important.
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it is important to see that public memory is more than the memorials. the memorials are just a starting place. they mark the spots of events. i put down there at quote from an article i wrote with a colleague on the geography of memory. it gives people a place to come and people a place to remember events and to reconcile. the left and photograph, the dedication of the columbine high school memorial. the students were so proud. they were wearing their sports clothing. they were honoring the people who died.
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the photograph on the right is from the dedication of the oklahoma city bombing. memorial at talking with some of the people, some of the rescuers said, i could not come back to oklahoma city until today. because this is a good thing they are doing. point to something like penn state university? photographs taken on the 40th anniversary. they have an annual vigil, a midnight walk all the way around campus that comes back to the site where students died. the speakers in the afternoon sitting on the hill were a daffodil is planted for each soldier who died in the vietnam war.
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those are members of her sorority singing in the parking lot. lewis was there. future,ok into the there are other cities facing as many ghosts and skeletons as salem is. listenhave a chance to, of thefull youtube video new orleans speech about the removal of the confederate monuments in new more lens -- in new orleans. in new orleans, the controversy is removing memorials. in salem, it is the opposite. he makes a stunning argument is so important.
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this removal is about showing the whole world that we as a city and as a people are able to have knowledge, understand, recognize, and choose a better future for ourselves, making straight what has been crooked and making right what is wrong. that very much applies to some of the debates we're having here in salem about addressing issues. it is imperative for us to look ahead. toclosing, i will point back bridget bishop. we are meeting here to honor her memory today. i can point to so many sites in the united states where we have signs with people's names on them because they have been killed for various regions -- various reasons.
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i think it really is, this involves engagement, education. what i find so exciting is there seems to be a commitment in trying to carry this forward. there is some imperative in making sure there is a way of representing the witchcraft episode in terms of this history that can be engaging and educational and can keep the memory going for future generations. thank you very much. [applause] do we have time for a couple of questions? >> [inaudible] yes?oote:
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>> i was wondering, we have about the salem halloween celebrations. it seems to me there is an element that is similar to what has become of the memorializing of stonewall in new york. there was a culture of oppression and an event that was an attack on people by repressive culture and the response has been a parade of in-your-face defiance. we in salem are seeing a parade of defiance of sinning and witchcraft in the face of a puritan attack on decency and morals. is there any way in which the haunted happenings could be considered a sort of recognition? i do not know if i
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would draw a parallel to stonewall. it is a way of raising the issues. in working on this lecture, i could not think of any city quite like salem that has gained so much from developing. it is not possible to change that because it is so important to the tourism industry. there is a need to follow a separate path. you cannot displace that tourism. you have to find another path that allows people to learn more about the event. there was another -- parallel i keep thinking of because of the work i do, the
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plantation museums around the south. tourismee sites whose for the last 100 years has been based on this nostalgic, genteel image of the antebellum south. it is ae not dealt -- very uncomfortable fit where you either sites who give themselves over or sites who emerge to talk about slavery or it becomes this alternative experience. the antebellum culture piece and the slavery piece never really meet up. i am struck by your discussion of shrines, mount vernon, monticello. these early sites were created
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as shrines. that is where i keep going but that is where my mind always goes. dr. foote: those are really good examples. i could bring up some examples contested- of some places. my only hope is that what is beginning to happen, people are using those plantation museums to posit a different sort of narrative. it is not happening all over. it does not affect places like washington, jefferson. >> you see there is a real reluctance to engage because that is not what people come there -- as i was doing my research, visitors and their comments and they want to come
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to me scarlett o'hara. experience they want. that is what we are dealing with in salem. they want to come for the revelry. dr. foote: we could look more generally at african-american history. the examples i gave from the wantriots, people do not to talk about that episode. that was a brutal period. people do not want to be reminded that they were people involved. has beenf a site
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sanctified but people are not treating it that way? that is what is happening to our witch trials memorial. dr. foote: you need to set some rules. >> [inaudible] dr. foote: that is an interesting point because a lot of these sites, the behavior is patrolled. they say this is except a bowl and this isn't -- except a bowl able and isn't -- accept this is not. site for the memorial at the cemetery is very striking. i made a special trip to see
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that when it was finally dedicated. it is a very appropriate site and a wonderful design that is contemplative. because there is no way to mark it off and control that behavior, it is a constant problem. -- itaveyard has become is not a good situation. addressing some of those issues may be necessary. the cemetery is closed off. or it is only open at a particular time. it does set the tone for interpretation. other questions before we finish? do we need a microphone? >> i was struck when you were talking about gettysburg.
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a friend of mine used to work for the national park service. i see a lot of similarities between gettysburg and salem. one hugeces have this horrible event happen in the town that changed the course of american history and the course of that town's history and how people think about the town and how the town things about itself. make their living off of people who come to the city because of that event. college, wonderful gettysburg would dry up and blow away if it were not for the battlefield. gettysburg treats itself differently -- the first time i went to gettysburg, i was struck . before i got to the cemetery, i
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felt like i had been on a cemetery the whole day. even as you enter the town, they are everywhere. it puts you in this mood as you enter the city, reverence and respect of hallowed ground. that is lacking in salem. dr. foote: in gettysburg, you can go on haunted tours. out there on the battlefield, i have seen visitors policing other visitors. you are not allowed in certain areas and people are conscious of that. there has not been a problem of vandalism at gettysburg and people are respectful. in town, they cannot other entertainment. it is a very close comparison
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but it is treated very differently. >> within several months of the announcement, someone showed up and asked for permission to dig in their backyard. at which point, the resident said i am sorry you cannot do that. the person said, i will just go next door and dig their. -- dig there. for reasons it is hard to fathom, we have an uphill battle. dr. foote: i have seen some sites where they are guarded. there is controversy. sites in hungary, germany are guarded because of the friction over the memorialization. i would hate to see that happen here. one more question.
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>> i would like to ask you, you are talking about the removal of the statues of jefferson davis and robert e. lee from new orleans. the thing about that, it seems to be the city of new orleans, because it is heavily african-american city, they could do more to promote african americans. we could go to every major removen city and statues, but they were people who fought for a cause. robert e. lee was considered a model student and teacher at west point. i wonder how we address this issue. dr. foote: there has been tremendous change since the time i wrote shadowed ground in
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recognizing african-american history. one of the things i wrote about in the last chapter was how little was done in that area because we were not recognizing those great individuals. that has changed substantially over the last 20 years. it more in naming streets. the battle for martin luther incredibly important. many names and buildings and a number of institutions. it has started but it has not gone far enough. my hope is that it will continue long into the future, more representation of who contributed to the growth of the united states. thank you. [applause]
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>> i have a few closing thoughts. i am full of gratitude. i am full of gratitude to my fellow committee members. all of my wonderful colleagues. all of the brilliant presenters. i am full of gratitude to all of you. the spirit and energy and curiosity and concern was very evident throughout this day. it was a wonderful day for all of us.
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a nice, respectful day to pay tribute to the victims. forward, we dogo scheduled,nt sponsored by salem state in collaboration with the maritime national park, on july 20. group,le proctors ledge gang -- what do you call them? team. we'll be there, it will be a forum on the whole process. that will be a nice corollary to this event. let me tell you about the salem awards event tomorrow. it will mark their 25th anniversary from 12:00 until 3:00. >> [inaudible] [laughter]
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>> a lot to think about and i look forward to seeing you all at future events and thank you for coming. [applause] >> you are watching american history tv. 48 hours of programming on american history every weekend on c-span3. follow us on twitter at c-span history for information on our schedule, and to keep up with the latest history news. >> all persons having business between the honorable supreme court to go and give their attention. >> landmark cases, c-span special history series, produced in cooperation with the national constitution center. exploring the human story and


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