tv American Folklife Center Collections CSPAN September 10, 2017 8:40am-9:46am EDT
>> up next on american history v writer and editor highlights the audio collection and other materials available at the congress's american folklife center. the capitol hosted this as part annual summer lecture series. >> i'm going to start the so try to keep as close to schedule as possible. q&a foro leave time for stephen because just before we have a boatload of questions and i imagine the well.nce will as to those who know as little about the american folklife share as i did i will quick notes i jotted down. forget in -- i always this part. capital torian of the
historical society your host and speaker is stephen wen everyoick. the center is located at the thatry of congress because is our theme for this month's lecture series. created ife center was in 1976 to preserve and present folklife. with a rather ambitious mission researching, documentation, archiving, which think stephen is particularly involved in, performance, exhibition, publications. pretty much everything that any cultural organization likes to do. 2,700rchives is made up of collections according to the ebsite including the 150,000 sound recordings and three million items. that you will be sharing
some of the high points of those collections with us. has a ph.d. in folklife said that ist and word and made me think i'm supposed to repeat it. is a neat word and we might not know what it is. we will have one question of what folk life and what is a -- folklore -- folklorist and he is a musician. music and ested in music collections. he performs with a celtic rock group called ocean. so, if are interested in more of what stephen is about you may out. to check them help me welcome stephen. >> i'm stephen winick and i'm editor in the
american folk life center at american congress. i have a ph.d. in folklore and folklife from the university of pennsylvania. talk more about those words as we go on in the resentation but i did bring slides which have audio because our collections have a lot of kind of fun. are i will start by rolling forward here. we must have left it too long. it will just take a second. there we go. all right. i will begin by giving you our website. things the most important to take from this experience because you can go online and iscover all about us including thousands of collection items nd all kinds of resources to tell you how to interpret them. i will begin by talking about folklife center itself
came to be. an actcreated in 1976 by of congress which was called the american folklife preservation act. i'm going to play a segment. his bob edwards the radio personality reading our enabling election. 94-201, 94th congress 1976 the january 2, creation of the american folklife center. for the provide establishment of an american folklife center in the library other ress and for purposes. be it enact the by the senate and house of representatives of of america in es congress's assembled that this cited as the american folklife preservation act. he congress hereby finds and declares that the diversity inherent in american folk life to the cultural richness of the nation and fostered a sense of and identity among the american people.
that the history of united demonstrates vely that building a strong nation doesn't require the sacrifice of cultural differences. that american folk life has a undamental influence on the desires, beliefs, values and kirk of the american -- the american people and it is appropriate and necessary for the federal overnment to support research and scholarship in american folklife to contribute to an nderstanding of the complex problems of the basic desires, beliefs and values of the both rural ple in and urban areas. that the encouragement and folk life american while primarily a matter for private and local initiative is an appropriate matter of concern to the federal government and that it is in the of the general welfare of the nation to preserve, upport, revitalize and disseminate american folk life traditions and arts. purpose of ore the this act to establish in the
ibrary of congress an american folklife center it preserve and present american folklife. that is not actually bob edwards that. is archie green who was a lorist in and folk d.c. to ho came to the lobby for this and he was successful and that is why we exist. that is the law that established us. about can see it talks diversity and about the cultural richness of the nation. that is is the reason for preserving american folk traditions. a fairly t is inspiring piece of legislation and we are very happy to have and it also by it contains -- we can talk about this later -- a section of which defines what folk live is. so we will talk about that in a bit. say the reason they
decided to place this new librarynt agency at the of congress was an interesting one. whether thislitied should be at the national endowment for the arts or at the smithsonian. those were two that were in the running for getting the folklife center. reason it was placed at library of congress is it archive of a large folk music which was called the archive of american folk songs founded in 1928 by the man you see on the screen whose gordon. robert winslow he collected a lot of recordings cylinders which was one of our first recording technologies and this is an of one thing he collected. ♪ ♪ >> a recording of kumbaya from
1927. ♪ ♪ gets a little hairy after that. nother thing that is in the library of congress from long efore 1976 are native american cylinder recordings. at a certain time in the 1970's ed to vernment decided ed to collect all of the cylinders of ative american speech and song that had been politicianed at various different -- placed at ifferent government agencies including bureau of indian smithsonian and they became part our archive. 1890 the ck to earliest sound recordings that we've. believe they are the first of any kind in the world. after robert winslow gordon left
the library in 1933, he was by a man named john avery lomax. a student of cowboy songs. he had gotten a master's degree harford under a great balad making the was architect that cowboy songs were -- argument that cowboy songs part of that. he got a job at library of a year man.dollar he didn't have a salary. and t a dollar a year letter of introduction from the librarian of the congress that library ofks for the congress and collects folk songs. tot allowed john low plaques get other -- lomax to get other him to make lowed recordings and the deal was he got the right to opinion them in terms of them you would transcribe them in a book. them in those days
yet or people were doing that ut field recordings nobody had done that before. and the library got to keep the records. that is how john lomax came it start collecting. field trips inis 933 and 1934 he began to bring his son alan lomax. gettingntually ended up the tpeufirst actually paid posn archive as life assistant in charge. that was his title. lomax again it make recordings with his father by country all over the and alone at the library. he would bring people in to the library and record them. of the great people he did that with was the following figure, jelly roll monitor. jelly roll rought mort morton in. down on his luck.
he was a important figure in the people had somewhat fro forgotten about him and he nine hours of song and speech and music where jelly essentially sat at a piano jazz ld the history of illustrated by his playing. this is an example. ♪ ♪ >> the most powerful trumpet heard.i have ever >> he is talking about sonny
famous figure a in new orleans jazz. hat was just one example of these nine hours of reportings so it is a pretty amazing collection. probably the first extended oral history of an individual that was ever done on audio recordings but the first elated to music so it is an interesting collection. another great collection that a n participated in was collaboration with fisk 1942. sity in 1941 and they went out and recording some phmississippi.s in they included mckinley known as d who was muddy water and it was alan mistake in writing the nickname that led to him being called muddy waters. the heck.at
as is just as go of -- good. this is muddy on guitar and simms playing the violin. ♪ ♪ > i'm rambling, i have been i'm ing all my days, yeah, rambling, i've been rambling all days♪ well, you know my baby she want but i guessambling, she will have to change her ways ways♪ >> on that trip i should say lan was accompanied by a fisk university faculty member named third one wertz the of most important
african-american collectors of raditional music so they were working together to collect the traditions in mississippi. recording star they found at that time was honey boy edwards. alan actually took silent film of honey boy as well as him.rding we only rediscovered that is who this was because we had it on a film that eel of someone possibly alan but possibly someone at a later time misliababeled so they said he edwards and his actual name was david edwards. o we had this film of somebody named charles edwards and we don't know who that is so it sat there for a long time. one fof the curator of the loma todd harvey and i were sitting around the reading room one did i and he said -- day and he said it bothers me he filmed this guy charles but didn't record his
music. why you you record him on silent and not record him. i said that is a good point and it aid you don't think is-nah. but then i looked into it so had not been photographed for 25 years after this which is why every photo is very different and you would not immediately recognize him. ut i started to read that both wrote accounts of their meeting. an auto pwaoebiography and the descriptions of how he dressed and guitar all fit this footage. what, this is w him. so he is unfortunately just died two years before we picked this out. -- picked -- figured it out but he sent it to honey boy's stepdaughter and said that is my daddy. that how we found out this is honey boy edwards. recordings were his
and this is what he sounded like. ♪ ♪ >>♪ oh you hurt me so bad but baby you want be in my more.any it has been nights since you i don't worry day f any longer but some baby you are not going to worry legislatiife any more♪ >> another great figure from hat era who we have on record hurston who a neal was known as a novel eups and
trained in ut was anthropology at columbia niversity and interested in african-american folk church she -- culture and wrote several books about traditional folklore. she was employed in the 1930's w.p.a. the works progress administration of florida. he was from florida and knew that community very well. but it was a very strange ituation because she had lived in the north in new york a long time and was a celebrated but ary figure in new york n florida in 1938 and 1939 she still couldn't go into the state office building where the headquarters of the collecting was.nization a the segregation issue was a blem for her and it led to number of situations that we
would consider unacceptable sort of side effect of it that is good for us a lot of recordings because she was not allowed to use the recording equipment. she ould find people and would learn the songs from them and then the white collectors ere allowed to collect from her. so, she sang the songs for the male collectors at the time. i should say that her boss at named stephen kennedy who later went on to klan and to e release their secret code words working for people who were very sympathetic to wereg segregation but they low level government employees at the time in florida and couldn't do anything about it then.
voice. her >> it is not a white song. it is a social song and so distributed it is growing and cremental repetition known all over the south no matter where you go you can find voices of uncle bud and it is their favorite song and men get in every work and and down uncle bud everybody puts in his voice when he gets ready and he goes and goes. it is a juke song and the woman sing uncle bud in front of juke woman. >> [inaudible]. a man, a man s like this, he can't get a woman to use his fist.
uncle bud. uncle bud. hurry g to town going to become, uncle bud got something like.e do >> there was a little joke there and interaction that you will explain. the collector who is presently stephen and i haven't listened who it was but he asked whether the song uncle sung in front of respectable ladies and front of a low woman. the collector waits a moment and says, but you heard it from someone sang it
from lebanon. few of the a thousands of recordings we have in archives, hundreds of of recordings, collections we have online that you can find if you go to loc.gov/folklife. you will see all of these ethnic online represented in our collections. series of public events, we have a concert series concert e home-grown series named after benjamin, archive we had in the past and we record almost all events, unless the to being object recorded, which happens sometimes for copyright reason of thing.ind we put those recordings online or people to watch, those are streaming from the library's website and our youtube page,
a lot of lecture and concerts from the folk life that way. some of the, just a few ethnic in those resented lectures.ncerts and these are some of the other things you have in the archive, to give you a sense of the breadth of what we have. the new dealduring period, a lot of different agencies collected interviews former slaves. a lot of them were collected in manuscript form, people did interviews and type whatted people were saying. audio and we e on ended up with vast majority of
the dings that exist of voices of former slaves telling .heir stories a lot of examples from woody guthrie, from various times that lomax.t to we have, for example, a handmade irth announcement for guthrie that woody made, that was very cute. we have tons of interviews with culture.al we have thousands and thousands f traditional folk stories, we get collection of national story telling festival, large collections of stories. have the veteran's history project, if the story for veterans, personal corps and m story accounts of the civil rights movement. traditions, material quilts, folk rugs and other folk art, usually we don't have the we have about s, spectacular hook
rugs, and photos of the items, collect items the way the smithsonian does. hat's our cousin, the smithsonian, collect more items than we do. e have tons of historical photos and manuscript. the three million items in the rchive, probably a couple million of manuscript pages. that is the huge majority of the archive and those include transcriptions of songs to field workers out eld doing collections. of putting our field on the for the 1970s website. all those photos are in the public domain, it is going to be that is of photos equivalent to the photos already congress rary of website. they are from the 1970s and
particularly material in our own archive. e recently had a post by an archivist on native american -- der, actually, the joke, we think the first has ding of a joke that survived, there may have been earlier ones, as far as we know anymore.'t survive that is the kind of thing we are finding and presenting on the blog. our most popular blog ost, the fact ring around the rosie is not related to the plague, i'm sad to tell you, that is one that i wrote. we have a facebook page, we would like it if you would go our facebook page. my colleague delivered bookmarks it has all the information on it, join our
of that.page and all another important thing we've otten involved in is efforts, these two performers here are from the maine, ie tribe up in first recordings from 1890, aboutfield recordings are the mcclaudie people. of ry to turn copies materials that we have to the regions, ethnic tribes they come from, so those people their own history and also do the kind of research that they feel are important to done rather than leave it in washington, where, you know, people who live here or who can travel here have resources to do research. make sure.g to
occasionally canada, this appened to be one time we had the opportunity to do it in 10ia, that is what you're seeing screen. we have a manual called folk this is theld work, fourth edition i just finished we're happy year, to have this available. we didn't bring copies here free publication, cucome to the library of congress and get copies or you go online and read it first physical you want a
copy of it. our signature collection is corps, oral histories on the radio, on npr, on fridays is just one example of an interview conducted with them. -- 34-letter word, that word is love, if we are going anywhere, aisle, i'm down the too tired, sick and sore to do damn thing. she said, of course i will marry you. her ast morning i called early as i possibly could. early.lways gets up >> to make sure she hadn't changed her mind and she hadn't. on the 22nd, i called her and asked if it was today, it again, the answer has been the same. >> 25 times yes. such t is one example of
an interview. we have the veterans history roject, probably the largest oral history project in the world and has collected over 100,000 from american veterans and those -- there are a lot of online called "experiencing war," you can find loc.gov/vet, where the lives and that is important collection of ours, as well. we are doing similar thing with rights, we're collecting ersonal narratives of people who are important in the civil rights movement, that is the rights project and those are being done on video and those are going up on the as ary of congress website, well, there is about 100 interviews in the civil rights you can roject that watch online on the library's website, as well. tell you about some of our world-famous collections. saw we started as
folklore archive, many but ctions are musical, i'll show you some of the ones that have been used in popular be aware of might some of the field recordings without knowing that you were. is an example, this is a bonapart's called retreat, allen and elizabeth friday hamilton in kentucky.wyersville, bonapart's retreat is a march, fairly steady pace, but william step and a few other in his immediate community doubled the speed of the tune and played it as what a breakdown or reel. it sounds different from the way sounded. normally this is what it sounds like. this is a transcription by ruth crawford segerwho, transcribed
book.omax's ♪ ♪ [fiddle music] >> let it play that long, he thisins to the collectors, bonapart's -part, so retreat, he was making a joke that it had a bony part that it named after. when they published it, they published it as bony-part's retreat, with the "y" in there. well. making a joke, as where might have you heard that before? rodeo art of the ballet by aaron copeland and primarily rodeo had , so
arious different dance movements in it, gathered into a symphony. most people don't go see the allet, but hear the music from the ballet. this is what it sounds like. we know that it is this version bonapart's retreat tis copeland worked with lomax quite a bit and knew lomax's book. he got this is where this tune. ♪ ♪ ♪ >> of course, he's not the only person to have adapted our field
here is another version of that. ♪ ♪ great things about field recordings of traditional olk music, they tend to be monophonic, one melody, there is exceptions, of course, harmony groups and that sort of thing. great f recordings allow scope for arrangers to do whatever they want, they are bones as they stand on their own. this is another great example of
that. his is enriges, in spain in iteneran, nice a castrator, if you need knives sharpened or pigs that ted, you only need every now and then, people who do that work, they have to from farm to farm, they can't stay in one place because their work requires them to go who need nd people that work to be done. fu are walking the road necessary spain and want people know you are in the neighborhood so they will come and hire you, how do you this?lish rodriguezdid this, was to carry a musical instrument with him. the musical instrument was what we call a pan pipe. the pan pipe you see from eastern europe or the u.s.
r from south america, they are made of individual pieces of bamboo, tied together. the way they made them in spain was different. they took a block of wood and drilled holes of different lengths into the wood. had one advantage tgave a smooth edge rather than a ridged slide that ng tou pan pipe up and down your lip more easily and gave a very, smooth glide from note to note. hat is what it sounded like when rodriguez walked around his instrument. ♪ ♪
recorded this ax in 1953, he recorded this for a project with columbia records, release traditional music from around the world. so they released the spanish traditional folk music. gill evans, who was working with miles davis at the time. to miles, you got to hear this. of them listening o this album was a number of items on sketches of spain, include thanksgiving piece piper," so it is named after rodriguez. ♪ ♪
>> so that is just one example used, ece that has been popular music have imported material from the archive and used traditional culture as inspiration for what they do. of this is example this song here, called "too many warner " recorded by ann and that is her on the screen there. this is a ballad about a true that occurred just after the civil war in north
version of tom dulay. it was the most popular song of indeed won 1959 and the grammy, the first grammy for best country and western the first grammys were given in 1959. this is what their version sounds like. ♪ ♪ >> throughout history, there , ve been many songs written next tells the story of mr. grayson, a beautiful woman and a dulay.ned man named tom when the sunrises tomorrow, tom dulay hanged. hang down your head, tom dulay. down your head and cry. dulay, wn your head, tom
to die.s, you're bound mountain, i the the her life, met her on ountain, stabbed her with my knife. hang your head, tom dulay. head and cry. dulay, n your head, tom die. boy, you are bound to >> so i'm going to go kind of couple of these, i want to have time for questions. a song er example of that became popular in regular is "house of the rising sun," the "rising sun a fun that was recording, as well, the animals did the super popular version, bob dillon recorded it,
which is how they learned it and as well.ple, this i will play for you, this songtraditional children's call called "sea lion woman," nobody means, this is what it sounded like, ship sisters, the two young women you on the far right of your screen are the women singing this song, this was a whole who all sang various forms of traditional songs. "sea lion g of woman," where i learned when i small, too. sung this song, wanted to have -- just sang this song. >> [indiscernible] -- > just all the moving around and jumping around from place to place. ♪
sea lion woman, they call her lion. she drank tea, sea lion. yonder, i got lost sea rooster crows and sea lion. lion woman. drank coffee, sea lion. sea lion and no lies. ♪ >> that is what it sounded like when the ship sisters recorded it. leslie fight, she came room to research traditional record sxgs one of to was gs she listened "sea lion woman," she didn't tell us she was going to do it, but about a year later, this emerged. ♪ lion. sea lion. ♪ sea lion. lion.
writing rs who are books or working on historical questions and we have hours the day 8:30 to 5:00 in reading room where peep kel research any of the materials. going to leave it there and open the floor for questions, but just to say that we're very serve you, we hope that you'll come and visit at some point, we're in the jefferson building on the ground floor. we'd love serve you, we to see . brochures and r bookmarks on the way out to remind yourself of where we're located. will answer any questions to the best of my ability. [applause] >> yeah. [in discediscernible] --
reinterpreted it in his way. is ar as you are concerned, it folk life when buddy miles performing somebody it folk it folk life? >> interesting question and of course, you know, you can spend a long time sort of debates what point is when it stops being folk life or being folklore. so i mean, i guess, you know, ne answer would be that the traditional version is folklife version is an ' application of folk life and opular culture, but that is kind of splitting a hair, if you know what i mean. we wouldn't have any problem miles davis' version is a folk tune, arrangement of a folk done in a jazz style. so in terms of it being would say sure tis still folklife. but it's a question that people not like an obvious question tis something
that you have to make a judgment eventually, so, yeah, it was definitely a good question. yeah? >> you have areas that you are oing out and creating recordings of today in folklife? >> well, i was answering that before the talk, as well, and we kind of do in the there are when particular events on the ground that happen and we think it is collection make a al event we do c al that. for september 11th and the inauguration of barack because of him being the first african american president, we thought that was significant. those are the kind of things that we will do collections on.d but one of the things we found we the years is that generally get better standard of
ollection by acquiring collections that already exist, rather than by going out and aking our own collections and that is partly just because there is always element of andom chance and luck in collecting, so if you have, you know, all the collections that choose from e to and pick the best one, you're going to get a better collection n average than going out and doing a collection yourself. so we've shifted our resources people out to do collections to acquiring collections that already exist most of our collections come from acquisitions now. to collecting n and when something significant happens, one thing that i went was a -- with documentation was a family had been going on in the same african american years and the -- the family reunion was started former slaves and it was a
family of mel watt, the ongressman, he had asked the library of congress to send someone and that is why i ended up going for that. there are various way necessary which that happens and we end up making our own collection. there are certain collections ike the veterans history project, about making our own collection and the civil rights history project is another example. collection projects going on, a large quantity is by acquiring collections. yeah. what exactly constitutes folklife? the present, a lot of what we would think about online, is taking place like on youtube, and not just all the folklore community must be thinking about know, onstitutes, you youtube, that you might want to study? >> that is absolutely true. sort of older traditional
definition of folklife often aspect, face-to-face face-to-face communication, small groups, those kind of used, but the e whole idea of culture that within a community self-defining community is of rtant to definitions folklife, part of the definition the government give necessary it's, ng legislation that you know, age groups, ethnic group, regional group and the are re they maintain considered to be folk life. years is und over the that web culture is its own know, and things like, you means or image macros as they called, technically pictures with words and all hose kind of things online jokes about current events, all and things are circulated maintained in ways that are very similar to the way traditional maintained and so we have come to consider them to
folklife umbrella and we have just inaugurated a eb culture archive at the library of congress, which is collect ing collecting archiving websites hat manifest this kind of culture, so your meme, and pasta being archivedre by the library of congress for folklife content. good question. yeah? > obvious question, is there a -- >> i'm sorry. labor?here an issue of >> yes, there is n. fact, archy helped found the ibrary was a folklorist there, is large component of our collection that involve labor ulture and occupational culture. and right now we have an folklife project where one of those graphs we
ive out is specifically for studying culture of different primarily given out to researchers who are going a team to go and do this kind of research. for y large scale grants collecting projects of everything from steel workers to workers at the port of work at o folks who ables for horse racing, all kinds of labor culture being documented this way. that is another big part f what we do and we have done both collecting around that and on ramming, symposia culture, as well, that is a big part of what we do. thank you. yeah? >> what is your relationship with global juke box, that lomax continued to write for the rest of his life and is putting up er online now?
> so we have a close relationship with the allen lomax foundation, the equity.ion for cultural nd back in the early 2000s, we actually purchased from them allen lomax's later collections, allen was only at the library 1933 until 1942-43 and left to serve in office of war information and serve in the army. he never came back to the library, he was kind of a victim of the red scare. in england for 10 years in the 1950s and then, and did moree back collecting after that. all of those collections he made here after he returned became part of his rivate collection and part of the collection of the association for cultural equity when he founded that organization. in the early 2000s, we bought
those collections bringing allen the ones heections, made for the library and the ones he made later together under one roof. foundation continued to do its own work and the archive archivist and s other sorts of people and do reporting, for example, they are very involved in managing the rights for the people ons, so that if o make popular recordings, the original folks who were recorded, their families get that is good , work that the association for cultural equity does. another thing that they're doing is continuing allen's work of putting together the global juke box, which was his idea of putting together a lot of audio nd video recordings of traditional music so that you cultures, re across different kind of music. so it is primarily a project of for cultural n equity and lomax's organization,
a lot of original recordings in it are part of our collection. recordings which aren't really lomax's ollection, right? he borrowed recordings from other people for the global juke box. global an expert on the juke box, itself, not sure all in it are part of our collection, but a large part would be part of our collection. essentially we're the archive that houses the collections that juke box, butal we don't run the global juke itself, that is the lomax family. thank you. father wrote memoirs of his career and one chapter was about his experience in world ii, how do i get that into the veterans history project? to do , the best thing is, as i said, go visit that and you can get their
also t information and there will be instructions for it to submit materials, but is probably best to call in advance to make sure the format theyings you have are what would want to see and then the now d thing is, so right there is veteran history project elcome center in the madison building, fairly soon they'll be putting a new one in the on the groundding floor of the jefferson building, but whenever you want to go and culook up the hours of their welcome center and go and drop by, as well. on capitol t there hill. if you live or work on the hill, hat might be just as easy as calling them. yeah, so -- >> do you know if they're whole memoir the or just want the chapters about ii?d war >> they would probably want the parts about serving in the war. mean, depends, if the memoir
is about experiences in the somethinghat would be they would be interested in, but if it is just -- only the the service, bout that is what they would want to see and be more interested in original, if there are on to write, w that would be ideal for them. up in of it is drawing the dust bowl and being a farm beings that kind of thing collected? published f it is a memoir, probably not, that stuff appropriate y be for us and the way to find out send us t would be to an e-mail, a description to loc.gov, you can get the e-mail on our bookmarks on the way out. yes, thanks. >> other questions? all right, then i thank you very much.
[applause] >> come and visit us at library but ngress any time, especially between 8:30 and 5:00 onday through friday on the ground floor of the jefferson building. we would love to see you. thanks. >> interested in american history t.v.? c-span.org/history. you can view the t.v. schedule, preview upcoming programs and lectures, museum tours, archival films and more. history t.v. at c-span.org/history. >> tonight on q&a, adam, founder books" .o. of "open the on how taxpayer dollars are spent and need for government transparency. >> veteran affairs, we audited
checkbooks and last summer found during a period up to 1000 died while waiting to see a doctor, that the v.a. million on a high-end 27-foot olio, so christmas trees costing the amount, priced like cars it was sculptures priced like five bedroom homes, $700,000 ures for procured by a v.a. center that veterans.nd it was a cubed rock sculpture landscaping for $1.2 million. this is the type of waste that is in our government. >> tonight 8 eastern on c-span's q&a. >> this weekend on american istory t.v., historian spencer crew discusss great migration, when more than six million moved after cans
world war i from the rural south to urban areas in the north and west. is az preview. happened in washington as that there was a lot of resentment emerging from former cityers who came up to the and couldn't find work. they were resentful of seeing frican americans who had work, they were doing things like panhandle nothing their uniform on the streets of washington, they resented the black invasion into washington, d.c. capitolhborhoods around hill in soggy bottom and around the town, this to them was unacceptable. the violence began when white a itary individuals heard rumor that the wife of one of had been -- african american and had escaped. and began going to the streets and attacking african americans, wherever they them, no matter what.
the riot lasted for four days death of 30 in the people. what was different about this, fter the second or third day, african american veterans, back from the war, as well, decided this any not accept longer. their response was, they were shot at, they shot back, this as as anything else, forced the government to step in and to get the riot under control. what was new about this riot, in 1919, for the first time didn't american respond back through the neighborhoods, firing back. having gone ple, through war, decided they wouldn't accept this any longer, ou see a shift in how the relationships were beginning to change in different parts of the country. changes takinghe place and influx of new cities, ls into the both north and south, the question becomes why does this this take place at
particular time? why did it wait until quarter of in the 20th century to make the choice to move northward? >> you can watch the entire 10:30m sunday at 6:30 and p.m. eastern. this is american history t.v., only on c-span3. >> monday night, on the ommunicators, mark jamisson, visiting scholar at aei on net neutrality, interviewed with david shephe r shepherdson. >> take, for example, fifth wireless, 5g. it is a technology that will rolled out next year and it will be in place for it t a decade or so, specifically has built into it what they call slicing. customized by be a particular service or customer provider, cular edge
whatever it might be, it is defined to do that, that idea of same treatment, so that is net out.ality >> watch communicators sunday night 8 eastern on c-span2. >> next on the civil war, author book about is gettysburg spects of history. he talks about the monuments on he battle field and the women who aided soldiers after the fighting, this 40-minute talk by the gettysburg heritage center. tammy afternoon, i'm myers, president of the organization, we are blessed to we have ommunity where a lot of extremely educated who know a wealth of