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tv   Soviet Internal Propaganda  CSPAN  September 30, 2017 8:10am-8:31am EDT

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in the final scenes of the famous story "the picture of dorian gray," the portrait takes even hideous appearance. the soviet media seems bent on portraying to the soviet people a similar vision of america. >> up next on "reel america," we continue to look at 1980's cia briefings on the soviet union. this details what the agency argued was a vast system of indoctrination in the soviet union, which discouraged individualism and encouraged passive acceptance of kremlin rule from cradle to grave. in 2011, the cia's information management services declassified over 200 documents regarding intelligence on the soviet union that the cia provided the reagan administration. included in the release were video briefings created by the directorate of intelligence for policymakers. >> the soviet communist party
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has not faced a serious internal threat to its political rule since the 1920's. yet, after years of force sacrifices by the population, shortages of food and clothing persist. housing remains inadequate. intellectual and artistic expression are stifled. and growing corruption reaches all levels of society. the soviet people respond with public displays of cynicism, but they almost never openly challenge the authority of the leadership. the soviet regime does not hesitate to enforce its role -- it's rule through the violent suppression of individual liberty, but it prefers to use less onerous methods of control such as various propaganda techniques. the use of propaganda from the cradle to the grave helps except -- has helped at least a passive acceptance of its people. the soviet regime disseminates
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its propaganda through a vast network, operating under the supervision of the parties central committee. this propaganda network encompasses over 4000 newspapers, a large book publishing empire, a nationwide radio and television system, and an incessant stream of public lectures. for example, about 15 million lectures are given each year by the knowledge society, a major component of the propaganda network. the regime also works through mass public organizations, such as the communist youth league and trade organizations. the education of propaganda component of the armed forces. and the national education system, to indoctrinate there is elements of the population. moreover, already propaganda professionals are dispatched continuously to enforce ideological conformity within the vast network, and to provide the appropriate party lines.
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socialist indoctrination soviet style is introduced early in a child's education. each classroom contains its own london corner, a small area set up to deify him as the greatest socialist revolutionary in the world. a music class, children learn to express their love for lenin on holidays. soviet elementary education is characterized by a suffocating paternalism. assurance of personal security is offered by the state in return for strict conformity and suppression of individual expression. artart -- ina rt -- in classes, for example, all children are required to draw the same object in exactly the same way and using the same colors. also, there is no ambiguity for soviet schoolchildren. there are only right and wrong answers.
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the repetition of the so-called right answer is the basis of soviet learning. in this manner, the natural spontaneity of soviet children is sternly, but but generally controlled by the teacher. discouraged ins russia. citizens are -- in favor of collective or state interests. as a result, they often appear to be fearful of individualistic expressions. -- as a result,
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they often appear to be fearful of individual expression, and many have grown dependent on a paternalistic government which is more than willing to make decisions for them. but the leadership's dream of a socialist society where everyone works in unison to build communism and where discipline and order are self-imposed seems more distant than ever. because of this, the regime is compelled to issue an endless stream of rules and regulations in an effort to direct the lives of the soviet people. as someone summed it up what is , not forbidden is compulsory. the people have become adept at getting around regulations and knowing which rules to break and which to obey. in recent years, soviet leaders have become increasingly concerned over a growing popular rejection of collective social responsibility, and a trend toward the private pursuit of individual activities such as jazz, religion, underground art and the second economy. the regime has responded by stepping up efforts to reduce contacts with the west and
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persuade the population that such contacts are antisocial. it goes out of its way to praise those workers who allegedly devote their labor to the aims of soviet society at the expense of private goals. in fact, soviet television regularly offers generous portions of good news regarding the achievements of ordinary citizens, often depicting them as heroes. the leadership is well aware that the welfare oriented features of the system are those that have brought the most positive response from the people. consequently, the regime gets -- regime gives heavy publicity to improvements in the standard of living and plays down public suspicions that the soviet economy has stagnated in recent years. while admitting that the soviet union lacks -- union lags behind
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the west in providing consumer goods, it's propaganda machine explains this i saying that -- explains this by saying that russia had been a backward country at the time of the revolution and progress toward the socialist idea had been halted by world war ii. in no way does the regime blamed its problems on deficiencies in the system. at the same time, propaganda plays on the high-priority most -- priority many soviet citizens place on a personal security, i -- security, by claiming that the distribution of income, education and health benefits are more equitable than in capitalist countries. to underscore this claim, the regime points to the lack of job security and the existence of unemployment in western market economies. the propaganda machine also exploits crime statistics from western countries and makes it appear that the u.s. in particular is a lawless society where the individual's personal -- individual's physical security is constantly at risk. the soviet media go to great lengths to portray leadership as thoroughly committed to the
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welfare of the common man. shortcomings in the supply of consumer goods are attributed to individual cases of managerial inefficiency and corruption on the part of lower-level functionaries. the leadership provides excuses and scapegoats for its economic problems in an effort to deflect criticism from higher officials and the communist system. the identification of russian nationalism with soviet communism is an important aspect of soviet propaganda. perhaps the achievements of the soviet union since the revolution have been purchased at such great personal and national sacrifice, the soviet union's status as world power allows the regime to draw from a deep well in the russian personality, love of country. they have played on this impulse with a considerable degree of success, and by cleverly tying russian nationalism to
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soviet communism, has produced soviet patriotism. the result is an important social bond, even among members of non-russian national minority groups. the party fully utilizes propaganda to exaggerate the achievements of the soviet union while portraying soviet involvement in the third world as benevolent aid to countries trying to fight so-called -- trying to escape so-called western imperialism. of victory provides ua source pride in the average citizen. the party identifies itself with that great achievement by prescribing the war is a struggle behalf of the soviet people under the guidance of the communist party. this theme will receive greater
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emphasis during the 40th anniversary celebration of germany's defeat in may, 1985. the regime also has received considerable propaganda benefit from the soviet union's exploits in space and in international sports competitions, and it often attributes this to the attributes the achievements -- often attributes the achievements to the superiority of socialism. sports, moreover, is seen as an outlet for popular energies and a distraction from the hardships of daily life. the soviet union has often been referred to in the west as a closed society. the regime's ability to insulate the population from exposure to foreign information and ideas not only confirms this notion, but provides it with a major prop for the soviet system. xenophobic nationalism was not discovered by the bolsheviks, however. it has its roots in old russia. throughout russian history, contacts with foreigners were discouraged, and it was
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practically impossible for a foreigner to live or operate a business in the country. until 1703, all domestic and foreign news was deemed a state secret, and foreign news has been regarded with deep suspicion ever since. in recent years, however, expanded contacts with the west and technological improvements in modern communications have weakened the regime control of -- the regime's control of information. soviet citizens to they greater access of information from abroad, particularly through radio broadcasts and from unofficial sources within their own country. this has enabled them to compare their standard of living to other standards, and therefore to become more aware of alternatives to the soviet system. for this reason, the soviet regime, in recent years, has increasingly sought to make it's propaganda more credible in order to counter the influence
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of western ideas. moscow has intended to release more information about the procedures of professional soviet organs, and to hold periodic western-style news conferences. by releasing more information about foreign and domestic events, the regime and put its own interpretation on these events, thereby combating what the population hears from western sources. the regime made a particularly vigorous effort in this regard following the downing of flight 007. while this propaganda effort appeared to backfire in the west, soviet citizens, to judge by reporting from western embassy officials, accepted the soviet's version as correct. the party leader has called for an increased propaganda campaign to resist what he calls the full-scale information and
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propaganda invasion launched by the united states against the soviet union. this campaign features greater vigilance against the alleged efforts of western propaganda to undermine the ussr internally. in addition, soviet counter propaganda denigrates all dimensions of life in the west, charges the united states was -- states with acting to increase the danger of nuclear war and accuses washington of engage in and engaging in a white friday of transgressions in the international arena. these allegations included fomenting terrorism in the third world and establishing hegemony over latin america. at the same time, the regime has acted more vigorously to suppress unofficial sources of information within the country, such as underground publications and to reduce the population's susceptibility to foreign news by jamming foreign radio
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broadcasts and limiting contacts between soviet citizens and foreigners. in this regard, the regime has increased its efforts to reinforce a psychology of distrust of a foreigners and to equate any criticism of the soviet system with disloyalty to the motherland. in fact moscow has recently , broadened the definition of treason in a way that makes virtually any association with foreign residents suspect. the most ruthless propaganda, however, is reserved for the soviet dissidents, those who openly and brazenly dare to challenge the regime's authority. no effort is spared to isolate, ridicule, and publicly humiliate such individuals. given the reaction to this treatment by the average soviet citizen, which is manifested i -- manifested by either silence or outright support for the government, the regime has largely succeeded in portraying the dissidents as this loyal and
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-- as this loyal -- as disloyal and fully deserving imprisonment and exile. furthermore, the regime often compels any defector who returns to the soviet union to publicly denounce his or hers decision to leave and to denigrate the west as an undesirable place to live. the return of stalin's daughter is a good case in point. the television interview with a man who defected and returned is another vivid example. the regime also glorifies the kgb and border guards, picturing them as heroes to protect the country from foreign subversion. such propaganda is intended not only as indoctrination but as intimidation, to remind the people that the state is fully capable of repressing those who step out of line. in sum, soviet citizens to not -- citizens do not buy all the official video tells them. their daily experiences demonstrate to them the falsity of much soviet propaganda.
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even when it is not believe, -- not believed, however, propaganda is a popular instrument of the regime. it defines the limits of permissible discussion and sets parameters on what is considered legitimate and what will not be tolerated. >> you're watching "american history tv," all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. to join the conversation, like us on facebook at season/-- at cspanhistory.t >> american railroads are distinguished from british railroads. written is where we turn to our inspiration. distention is british railroads are distinctly built. they have substantial
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construction. in the united states, we are moving fast, go, go, go. do not spend times making things permanent. ours were less expensively built than the british railroads. it can be rough and bouncy. bridges build wood rather than stone bridges. it was not uncommon for livestock to wander onto the track. it becomes a problem if the train is coming along. in that situation, the cow comes up on the short end of the conflict. the body could still be caught underneath the train, causing it to be real -- to derail. the kill venture -- the cow catcher is to design from the cow from falling under. >> watch the entire tour on american artifacts, sunday at 6:00 p.m. and 10 p.m. eastern. this is "american history tv,"
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only on c-span3. >> sunday at 10:00 a.m. eastern, former president bill clinton was the keynote address at acer moni marking the 60th -- at a ceremony marking the 60th anniversary of the shooting at the little rock high school in arkansas. also, eight of the little rock nine, the first african-american students to attend. here's a preview -- until we face unemotional question, a question of the heart, and the question of the mind. do you really believe? are you grateful? if you are a parent or a grandparent, can you imagine how their parents felt? lasting memory i have of the
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reunionillion -- 40th was not i was president. i was glad the most important thing i had to do was hold the door open. if the world could see the symbolicf what it's message was. hillary and i just took chelsea to college. we literally had to be run out of the room -- the dorm room. she was our only child. here, ifd when i got they are parents, let them come here. terrified. -- terrified because of the promise it had to offer. i had just taken for granted. >>/entire ceremony with resident clinton and the -- you can watch the entire ceremony with
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president clinton and the little rock nine here on "american history tv," on c-span3. >> heather penney was one of the first d.c. air national guard f-16 pilots scrambled from andrews air force base after the september 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. her father, john penney, was a united airlines captain. up next on "american history tv ," ms. penney talks about her experiences that day, and the possibility that she might have to bring down united airlines flight 93, which terrorists had hijacked. the smithsonian national air and space museum hosted this event, which is about one hour and 20 minutes. mr. browne: good evening. i am chris browne, the director of the national aviation air and space museum. it is my pleasure to welcome to tonight's aviation lecture. since 1982, this lecture series has spotlighted for the 140 of the biggest names in modern aviation history.

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