tv The Presidency George Washington Architectural Trends CSPAN December 31, 2017 8:50pm-9:46pm EST
next, thomas reinhardt talks about the architectural trends that influenced the design of mount washington's mount vernon -- george washington's mount vernon estate. he has overseen the restoration of several prominent rooms. this program was part of a mount vernon symposium on places where washington lived and visited. it is 50 minutes. toit is now my pleasure introduce thomas a reinhardt who joined mount vernon staff in 2013, first as deputy director and now as director of architecture. he provides dynamic leadership for the ongoing preservation of the reconstructed buildings. since his arrival, i have had the great privilege of working with tom, to develop a great
partnership as we have successfully completed several matching room projects, including the new room and 2014, room last week, and underway the front parlor, hopefully to open up next year. tom has led critically important projects, stabilizing the iconic couple of and the staircase. he spearheaded the historic building information model, not to mention spending several nights in the new room counting and charting every nail and nail hole in that floor to answer the question -- is it the original floor? i am glad he has a job and not me. john holds a ba from the college of william and mary. aba and classics from the college of william and mary.
with continuing studies at the american school of classical studies at athens and the university of north carolina chapel hill. focus to shifted his more classical concerns of historic preservation, earning an and a from george washington university. prior to coming to mount vernon, tom served as architectural historian and administrator of historical -- architectural administrator of architectural progress. please welcome me -- please join me in welcoming tom reinhardt. george washington among maryland's architectural trendsetters. tom. [applause]
tom: black -- glad you made it. thank you all for sticking it and.o the bitter since this supposed -- to the bitter end. that thisit fitting last paper begin with the end of his architectural story. 15, 1789, the body of george washington lay in the .eated room it had recently been updated and upgraded when the president and mrs. washington returned from philadelphia with the expectation of a long, happy retirement together. the renovation was coming and said. washington told a correspondent i find myself in the situation nearly of a young beginner.
in a word, i am already surrounded by joiners, masons, painters, etc., etc., and such is my zaidi to get out of their hands that i skill you have a room to put a friend into or two sentence myself into without the sound of hammers of the odor -- hammers or the odor of paint. show thats washington's philadelphia years were a source of inspiration for back one -- let me go more -- that is the new room that susan mentioned. there is the chintz room. and this is the blue bedroom. they were a source of inspiration of materials. interpretation of the mansion focuses on this well-documented period at the end of washington's life, mount vernon was a living place during
the 18th century, changing over more than 40 years of washington's residency. we want not only to understand what the place looked like in 1799. we want to decipher the earlier periods, to understand how it looked, when and why. much ink has expended in identifying sources of influence on the architecture of mount vernon. obvious early connections were made to the pattern sources used by craftsmen to embellish their homes. architectural historians have also belabored connections between mount vernon and architects of the day. inspiration taken from buildings that stood along the routes that young washington traveled. thomas waterman placed mount vernon in the corpus of the
property owned by john harris. he rented a property from washington toward the and of his life to much has been made of washington's trip to boston, with inspirational status given island'sortwood, rhode library and the library in massachusetts and it was designed by peter harrison. the latter is attributed to him as well. the identification of these as inspiration for washington's use werespa gated siding looked -- were made to look like stone blocks. it had been repeated so often, it has been accepted as gospel. this is despite the fact that there is no documentary evidence --attribute shirley harrison shirleylace --
place to harrison. realize you might be thinking i have you wildly off from my course and you are probably looking at your program to confirm that, yes, this is a lecture of washington in annapolis, maryland. [laughter] i am attempting to develop is that, despite the effort of generations of scholars to connect to the important owners of important houses with the important architects of other important buildings, there is often little evidence to support those claims. the design of houses in the 18th century in america had much more should do with what pattern
books were available to owners or to the craftsmen they had at their disposal, and to what owners were seeing in places they visited with frequency. for george washington, this would be regional centers, like williamsburg or annapolis. washington's ties to produce r fairly well-known. the house emerges is, the governor, the college of william and mary. by lee star his connections to annapolis and maryland in general. one of washington's geographically closest neighbors lived just across the potomac in maryland. william diggs owned woolford manner. the site is so close, just three miles.
whether this is true or not, washington and diggs had a .eighborly relationship maryland, washington's political neighbors to the ease, started as a formation of the caliber family of yorkshire. calvert family of yorkshire. it was intended to be the place of tolerance in the centers of the church of england. it is not surprising that the in thewas caught up political and religious turmoil of the 17th century. as a result of the english revolution of 1688, the price -- the proprietorship was resistant -- was rescinded and the colony
received a royal governor. he renamed the place >> severing the economist connection to the wife of the second lord baltimore. meernor nicholson model moved the capital, he hired a complex to lay out a plan for the city that symbolically cemented the church of england to the civil authority of the world governor. the plan placed the colonial state house on a circle in the highest location of the city, the big circle there, and anglican church in a slightly smaller lower circle a block from the statehouse. i wonder how god felt about that
demotion. [laughter] planeinhart: annapolis predated virginia's capital by four years, making it the first real city planned to the chesapeake. a visitor described it where there is good accommodation for a stranger, a statehouse, of school built of brick, which make a great show among the parcel of what in houses, and the foundation of a church, the only church in maryland. over the course of the 18th century, annapolis prospered due to its role as the seat of government and the port of trade . from a town of 40 houses, it grew, adding first small principally framed buildings in the first quarter of the century, and larger one-story and two-story dwellings built
more frequently in brick. it is past the midcentury mark in august of 1751 -- whoops, there is a view of annapolis, and another one. we are getting to 1751. there we are. 19-year-old george washington and his brother, lawrence, made their first recorded trip to annapolis. he would have seen a small town with about 100 houses. it is not recorded where they slept, but for certain, the architecture they thought would not have seemed unfamiliar to them. lawrence's home overlooking the potomac -- in some ways, it was better. , but thereame house was many frame houses in annapolis at that time. size, 30 feet by 40 feet. two rooms deep, said it apart from middling architecture, as
did its interiors, a fully-paneled chamber and a large, it 18 foot by 18 foot hall and the list by plaster paddling. only just now making its byearance in the colonies, 1750. our investigation has been revealing fragments of the 1760 wouldhind a paneling. paint analysis -- let me stop for a second. there we go. there it is. got to be that. what you're seeing here is a from 1760. you can see into the void behind the chair ramp, and you notice there is another chair rail behind it, most likely from the 1734 period, and at the bottom edge of it, you can see it has been overwritten i plaster.
that is part of the plaster paneling. paint analysis suggested dates to the time of lawrence's residency, probably in the mid- 1740's. and you can see here that you edge, and heree is more of that. this is actually a corner of the panel that has been -- the molding has been struck to make it look like it was wood or stone. the next earliest example of such paneling in the region is found in the house of carol in annapolis. the popularity of plaster paneling in the region does not peak until the 1760's. this discovery shows that but washington's were not lagging behind their peers. they were leading them. in the middle of the century, they had begun to utilize the
distinctive house plan that scholars have termed "the annapolis plan." the hallmarks of the plan are a of a pair of entertaining rooms. there was a partition wall. these would have been paired entertaining rooms as well. often, overlooking a garden, and an abbreviated entry that serves as a public space. the plan at mount vernon also places -- this is the earliest as you can see, 1734 to 1757 -- the plan places the principal rooms in the rear of the house. this arrangement would have been in place during lawrence's residency. i make no assertion that the nascent annapolis plan influence the design of mount vernon or vice versa. in 1757, after taking tendency of the house, george washington thered redwall paper for
dining room, 18 feet by 15 feet. two years later, he makes reference to "the little dining room that used to be," suggesting that it was he, not lawrence nor their father, who assigned this function to the large room at the rear corner of the house. the move placed both public rooms, the dining room in the hall, to the rear of a house, creating a spatial arrangement any and a politician -- ann apolitan would recognize. the central passage was divided atween an entry lobby and stair hall. i want to go back so you can see history that is handed down when the ladies get the house is that there was a wall here that washington takes out. the story asserts -- sorry.
exceeds me. asserts it was originally divided between a lobby and stair hall, a rather annapolitan configuration. thege washington removed partition to create a through passage we have today. stories, these are two he created a hybrid plan, combining the standard elements of a traditional center passage plan with elements of the regionally to cuyler annapolis -- percolator annapolis -- pecul annapolis plan. it put him in contact with a number of annapolitans involved in the operation of the war. after his retirement from the militia in 1758 and his marriage following year, washington had less contact with these marylanders.
the opportunity to reestablish acquaintance with these men arose when his stepson, john parkkuster:'s -- john moved to maryland. he accompanied the reverend, who saint and church in the city, moving his tutoring business from caroline county, virginia. had beenvening decade a transformative one for annapolis. during what's, the city became the uncontested center for economics in the upper chesapeake. planters had begun to diversify and became less resistant to the growth of towns. where commerce and services began to flourish. creating in turn a growing merchant class. annapolis of the 1760's was no longer merely a sleepy home for the biannual meeting of the legislature. it became a hub of thriving
artisans dealing and luxury goods and making cash money. this profit fueled a boom in the building trades, and witnessed the construction of middle-class housing. a 1762 account put the number of dwellings at around 200, noting the houses are generally old, with very little trade. less than 10 years later, the number of houses had grown to between 400 and 500, with an english word resident writing " the buildings in annapolis were formerly of small dimension, and inelegant construction, but now, there are several modern edifices that make a good appearance. in a few years, it will probably be one of the best built cities in america." the most impressive change was in first year housing -- tier housing. an unspoken competition between the elite families of the city. brick houses rose above the
block of midland wellington commercial structures. no less than 900 elegant piles were built between 1762 and 1774, with a few others begun but unfinished by the time the war shutdown construction. into this explosion of architecture came george washington in 1771, beginning a three-year period in which he visited annapolis several times annually. as always, in early october, when he attended the fall races. ae biannual horse races were decades-old tradition that tempted many horse owners to compete for substantial prizes. washington was immediately drawn ato the condition, wagering cards, and attending multiple theatrical productions each time he arrived. washington's route to annapolis began a float.
on september 21, 1771, he ferried across to the manner onto he died before riding melwood park, the home of ignatius, williams first cousin. the manner does not survive. so little is known of it. in 1715.nstructed it barely survives, but it does survive. was constructed in 1715 as a lightly framed house, probably of two rooms with a garrett, and expanded out at the gable ends in spurts, similar to the way mount vernon first received one-story additions that were byter replaced substantial two-story we. it nations completed -- ignatius of the roof,ift reminiscent of mount vernon's growth. the raising -- the rephrasing
was only on the front side, leaving the steep pitch of the 1750 roof on the rear. you can see it over there. it is breathtaking to see in person. say that when i worked on this building, in this building for the state of maryland, and engineer came and immediately said the read had to be taken down and rebuilt in steel because there was no smell -load in the framed her. i said when the roof is like snow-load will there be? [laughter] mr. reinhart: washington road riverthe rest home of a merchant he had done business with for at least a decade. although it had yet to receive
hill pill was still impressive, with a high hipped roof and classically inspired , all featured shortly to be incorporated at mount vernon. washington accompanied galloway to annapolis that afternoon, where the latter was to raise his famous horse, silly and, one of the two must him as horses continent. washington had arranged to lodge with the reverend voucher at the rectory on hanover street. the building was over two years old and built on the northeast edge of town where the development grew sparse. the next day, september 24, selene raced in a heat for the jockey club purse of 100 guineas, coming in third. selene had started racing in the early 1760's and was 12 years old at this point. it does not sound so bad. washington's accounts makes
gnosis ino specific account of w he did at the rate. [laughter] mr. reinhart: the visit continued after the excitement of the big race was done. he died each day at it -- dined each day at a different house. ,r. george stewart brother-in-law of william diggs, who lived about 10 miles outside of town on the south river. john, secretary of the former governor horatio sharpe, charles carroll, perhaps the wealthiest man in town with a sprawling house overlooking spa creek. at the home of the impressively named daniel of st. thomas jenifer, although where he was living, he had a beautiful house in the next year that he purchased. where he was living this year is unknown to me. each evening, he attended a play or a ball, and sometimes both.
on his homeward journey, he overnighted again to tulip hill, arriving at mount vernon on the ofte afternoon. he picked up architectural ideas. certainly gained or strengthened social and political connections that would aid him in the upcoming revolution, but it lost at cards. 13 pounds, four shillings. ome, lose -- win s some. he lodged with governor robert eden. he lived in the big, impressive house, now lost, but somewhat documented before demolition. the scale of the large midcentury dwelling power andhe air of permanence. across the back of the building was an exceptionally large room measuring 17 feet, seven inches, by 48 feet, two inches. the projecting bay. you can see that they hear.
and here is a plan of the house. that shows that large room right here. it looks as if there were two bangs that the partitions to break the space into two. that would have been a large room in the back. called the long room. taken ofventory o governor eden's property after he was -- the room contained a big deal of fracture and art, multiple looking glasses, and a stove that sat upon a marble slab. the function of the room was surely multifold. the type of room known as a that had saloon room been popular in the homes of english elites for over a century, and that was found in the dwellings of governors of other colonies like virginia and massachusetts. a cause i room of state and the
si room ofme -- a qua state in a private home. he dined with edward lloyd the fourth, northeast of the state house. lloyd, a wealthy planter on the eastern shore of maryland, had just purchased the unfinished building from samuel chase, who had hired any which builder to design and execute the ambitious three-story house, the first of its kind in the city. upon purchasing this, lloyd engaged architect and builder william buckland, and oxford brought to virginia in 1755 under a four-year indenture to execute the interior of the home of george mason, george washington's neighbor. he quickly rose to the more laundered status -- vaunted status. he designed and finished several interiors and possibly some
exteriors in the chesapeake region over his 20 year career. , hise time of his death workshop included about a dozen free and enslaved craftsmen. although the interior woodwork on lloyd's house would not have been finished, and there is no record of the men visiting the site, washington would have known him from his work, and he and lloyd must have discussed the monumental plans for the property. that is really just an excuse. i wanted to be able to show you this. [laughter] mr. reinhart: as completed three years later, the house was still a showpiece. it was and still is a showpiece with a double stair that returns on the landing late by a large venetian window. the interior was finished with an abundance of carved woodwork. all of this is executed, including carving on the shutters. and exquisite ornamental plaster ceilings executed by john rollins. highly skilled professional just
arrived from london. washington,g year, in 1770 three, washington visited annapolis three times in april, may, and of course, september, october. lodging again with governor eden each time. he ventured out of town to his wartime acquaintance, horatio sharpe, the former royal governor of maryland. sharpe lived in this interesting dwelling called whitehall, which began life in 1765 as a pavilion for entertaining the governor's guests from annapolis. the form of the structure comprised of a square central block and a pro porch executed in the corinthian order with two slightly shorter wings, really makes it more of a -- than house. it held an entertaining room
with flanking parlors in the wings. the interior finishes are enriched, feature enriched wooden trim and ornamental plaster. after his retirement from office in 1769, sharpe resided at the site. a five-part house th through the addition of dependencies. the fall visit of 1773 consisted of the normal rounds of races, dining, dances, and drama. governor eden provided lodgings again. the following year, washington did not attend the races. due tod been postponed the meeting of the first continental congress in philadelphia. delegate washington of virginia stopped to dine in annapolis on his way north and on his way home again at the end of october.
he did not return to annapolis for the duration of the war. he chose instead to travel via alexandria and upper marlboro and baltimore. returned to annapolis in 1783 to undertake the bittersweet task of resignation. to act meant the long return private life, but it brought to a close the most memorable events of his life up to this time. in the maryland state house. the statehouse was and is governmental marilyn's showpiece, it wer -- maryland's showpiece. the upper house was the jewel and the crown, finer than it was prodigious sibling. during the construction of the building in the 1770's, the
senate chamber was described as being too opulent to be a public building, but this was annapolis. the private building boom had dried up with the start of the war. and construction on the nearhouse, begun by a colony in 1774, continued under the auspices of a state of the world's newest nation. the craftsman who design, traveled, hammered, and plastered domestic architecture into existence before the war now had only one major outlet, the statehouse. the result was a sufficiently -- was sufficiently dignified tone was one of the message ordinary acts in history. the resignation was accomplished before the assembled congress, which sat in chairs on the floor of the chamber. visitors crowded in the gallery above. the general faced the president of the senate, who sat on a
niche in the north wall. accounts mention the general's emotional state. his hands shook as he held the speech. his voice broke. having now finished the work assigned me, i retire from the great theater of action, and bidding and affectionate farewell to this august body, under whose orders i have so long acted. i hear offer my commission and take my leave of all the employments of public life. after the event, general washington was literally and figuratively history. his horse awaited him outside, and he immediately left the statehouse, left the city, and traveled directly to mount vernon, where it building project awaited him. the mount vernon he returned to was not the mount vernon he had left in 1775. he had sketched a little drawing before his departure depicting a
house that was twice as large as the one he and martha lived in since they were married. the house had -- there it is. my little extra picture came up. the house had doubled inside from the addition of two wings north and south. it was now graced with a grand pediment containing an offside window, like the one at tulip elow --nd a coup that is what washington called it. a feature normally associated with public architecture, but used on some houses, like shirley place in massachusetts. the overall effect received mixed reviews from washington's contemporaries. his friend, brian fairfax, had praised the house as uncommon when "there had always appeared too great a sameness in our
buildings." another visitor stated "it is a pity he did not build a new and i once." home on general arrived christmas eve, 1783, the north ing remained an empty shell. there is no archival evidence for what purpose he had in mind. of the edition indicates that from the start, he intended it to enclose a single first war room measuring 23 feet by 32 feet with an uncommonly high ceiling. so the evidence for that is up here at the top, which runs around three walls, but at this lower level, intermediate birth at the height of 16 feet, six inches above the floor framing of the room. that is the height of the ceiling. that was incorporated in the initial design, telling us that the room was planned to be the size and scale from the beginning in 1775.
the intention for the space is clearly to function like governor eden's long room, a large, impressive, flexible room for social events. room, then the new completion of the new room, as he called it more than 50 times and documents, remained slow in 1784. washington began with craftsman in the spring, looking to contain new lien injured workers from abroad. it was open to men of any origin as long as they were good workmen. he looked to maryland to find them. he was familiar with the capabilities of the tradesmen of annapolis, but he must have known that the war had shifted the balance of economic power to -- in the state next door. go in withpposed to the social events. [laughter] mr. reinhart: although, i'm sure the general would never have hosted a party like that. [laughter] mr. reinhart: the balance of
power, economic power, had shifted. surpassedhad th annapolis. after two decades of expansion, the capital had reverted back to its life as a sleepy town that awoke only when the legislature arrived. washington followed all of this to the newspapers, but he also had a man on the ground. his former aide to camp. he was born just outside of easton on the eastern shore, but settled into business in baltimore after the war. baltimore was a most rapidly growing city in the young republic, and therefore, was a place where in venture tradesmen were arriving daily. on march 24, washington requested tillman purchase a house joiner, brick layer, and plasterer of character, saying rather militarily that the " request will be enforced, complied with, or countermanded." maybe he was missing the army a little bit. [laughter]
mr. reinhart: the request was not countermanded anytime soon, but it provided -- it proved an impossible task. washington had written another correspondent about his thoughts on finishing the room. i inclined to do it in stucco, if i can taste in england. his desire was to have the room finished in the neoclassical style, which relied on both ornamental plaster and composition ornament, a new technique that used glue based putty pressed into molds to make an ornament that would be glued to surfaces, elite heating the need to labor or you sleep handcarved wooden trim. may, washington wrote tillman "the baltimore papers swarmed with advertisements of them, i should be obliged to you if you would be so good to purchase any such workman skilled in stucco work or plaster of paris. he must be a master workman to answer my purpose."
the request worried tillman. for such a man "must be perfect. otherwise, he will deface what he ought to decorate." tillman could not complete his mission. the topic went quiet for more than a year. to --ointed by attempts washington began negotiations with an established baltimore plasterer, john rawlings. rawlings had emigrated from england to annapolis around 1770, describing himself in newspaper advertisements as a plasterer and stucco workers late arrived from london and offering work being done as meat as in london, just what the general ordered. whether he was aware or not, washington had seen rollins' work. he executed exquisite plasterwork for lloyd's house, which washington possibly saw on visits to the city. and stylistic similarities
strongly suggested he created the long-lost plasterwork of the senate maryland state house, which washington assuredly saw. 4, romans had moved to baltimore. rollins had moved to baltimore. as washington had never met rawlins, he again turned to his source for all things maryland. be in the habit of giving you trouble, would you be so obliging as to give me your opinion of mr. rollins with respect to his diligence as a workman? whether he is reckoned moderate or high in his charges? the reply was positive but may not have been what washington hoped for in regards to price. he is a man of reputation and an esteemed
workman. there are many specimens of his abilities and annapolis. he is the only one in his profession and therefore makes his own terms. i cannot find he has been reckoned exorbitant. translation, don't be a cheapskate, general. he's worth it. [laughter] mr. reinhart: the general responded with resignation. "i know we are always in the power of workman." the design drawn up by rollins showed him to be the master tillman had promised. the artisan was as comfortable in the delicacies of neoclassical expression as he had been in the heavier arrangement of the baroque work he produced in annapolis a decade before. would work isms elaborated by the application of baseboards, chair rails, doors, and window surrounds. rollins' masterstroke was above.
he designed coast ceilings for the room. the ceiling features a central rondell surrounded by delicate arabesques. around this is a frame. is overall design conventionally neoclassical, but rather than employing the typical trope of military trophies, it is rich with a agrarian symbolism, farm tools, .heat sheaves there is a message. the message it sends is symbolic, like the fabled roman general did of old, america's savior, who attended her birth in war, has returned to the plow. as an epilogue, washington made his last visit to annapolis in march of 1791. he had spent the night on a ferry from the eastern shore, run around in a terrible storm. out in thet put
morning to rescue him and take him to the capital. not an auspicious start. the cityst trip to that had given him such enjoyment 20 years before, he visited the site of his world-famous acts of selflessness and recorded rather melancholic leak in his diary -- melancholicly in his diary "before dinner, i walked to the statehouse, which seems most out of repair. the capital's fall from grace was thankfully complete. her status as backwater, accomplished for us the preservation of the buildings and landscapes the general new and so enjoyed. thank you. [applause] any questions? i would be happy to answer.
a microphone is winding its way -- that's an interesting lecture. thank you. [laughter] >> well, it seems that george washington traveled to annapolis usually over land. let me come around to saying the areas in -- by boat? mr. reinhart: the trip to annapolis could be accomplished with a single overnight. after the resignation, he made from he left at noon annapolis, overnighted in queen anne in maryland, and made it back to annapolis that next day. so, it was a short trip over land. if you went by boat, i'm not sure how long it would take, but it probably would have taken at least a week.
you have to sail down to the potomac and then back up around the chesapeake and all the way up, so it was long. i mean, we can go back and look at our maps. so if he were going to -- so here is -- here we are down here. he had to kind of run over like this, right? he would have had to sail all the way down here, and then sail all the way back up in order to get to annapolis, so it was a much shorter journey by land. any other questions? yes sir? >> [indiscernible] origin -- is there a particular individual who designed that? mr. reinhart: not to my
knowledge. it is just a pretty little window is what it does. an oculus.t of - it is a decorative touch. any other questions? all right, sir? over here? some of the plasterwork looks wigost impossible, like a t that sticks up in space. a mold would have to fit under it against the ceiling and have to be removed without breaking it. mr. reinhart: are you talking about -- let's see, perhaps the one on the green is what i'm thinking you're thinking about. well, so there is that. that one? yeah -- >> [indiscernible]
mr. reinhart: so, they worked in wet plaster. there is two waste work plaster. you can cast pieces and then stick them into wet plaster on the surface, and they can sometimes be tied in with males. this sort of treatment is principally going to be a combination of pieces being put in place, and then they are going to lay wet plaster on the surface and carve the plaster as it dries to create the more delicate full-length pieces. what i thought you were getting at is the composition. those pieces are formed in a factory, in the mold, and they are glued on and picked out. it was just delicate work. dryally, carving the semi plaster to the shape you want. any other questions? over here? >> [indiscernible] mr. reinhart: mel.
he did --no, he did not do the plaster at kenmore. kenmore was owned by washington's brother-in-law tom , and he had an indentured plasterer, washington had an indentured painter. they swapped craftsman. they discussed the plasterer in their correspondence and referred to him as "the stucco man." and they never give the stucco man a name. they just refer to him as "the man." my personal opinion is that he has got to be of irish origin. it looks like the sort of stuff you see in dublin and the country houses in the same time period. to be fair, rollins did all the designs for the new room. -- one of the courses
washington tried, he was in correspondence in ireland. he said "i have got this guy. he's really good. he's a plasterer. you can bring him over." washington decides not to do that. washington and rollins meat cured he sends the design to washington approved the design. time for the work to be executed. and there is a knock on the front door, and the door opens, and the guy says "hey, general washington, i'm richard tharp -- " and he is the irish plasterer. washington was not very happy by that at that point. he wanted rawlins to do the work. is back andndence forth. it is also thought up. ultimately, washington accepts that rawlins is incapable at
this point in his career of doing the work. i don't know what his age was, but he got by the end of the 1780's, and he might have been in ill health by this point or a clearly, washington got his money's worth. >> ok, thank you. mr. reinhart: thank you. [applause] >> c-span history, a tweet from across the water, asking about what still resounds today. his question is about how many people were fathered by gis, in vietnam. how are they treated 45 years after the u.s. departure? >> can be featured in our next live program. join the conversation on facebook at facebook.com/c-spanhistory, and on twitter. >> monday night, on the communicators, a look at the
internet, broadband expansion, salter.ith jonathan he is interviewed by kyle daly. >> you mentioned that the group you represent, the companies you represent, have a lot of work to do. can you talk about that? you hear about five g networks, ultrafast, ultradense wireless broadband networks. can you talk about how we get to that stage? >> sure. the essential ingredient to moving forward with this thing, extending more broadband more americans, and ensuring our global competitiveness, is this wonderful technology called broadband. to companies are committed making the investments, providing the infrastructure and getting more broadband
conductivity to more americans. it takes a lot of work, the right amount of investment, the right types of business models, but it also takes the right types of smart, 21st century, forward-looking policy frameworks that can actually accelerate and advance the innovation and investment required for us to move forward. >> watch the communicators monday not on c-span2. -- monday night on c-span2. >> american history tv is on featuringery weekend, archival films and programs on the presidency. the civil war and more. here is a clip from a recent program. >[video clip] 1999, a.d. are shapingientists the lives of our children who will live in the 21st century. this is one of the many 21st
century devices or appliances that are bought in the everyday life of the family. ♪ >> this workbench with its electronic screen enables michael to call up photographic fromons of the fruit trees which he began his experiments three years ago. at that time, he stored the two photographic images in the central home computer, which is secretary, librarian, banker, teacher, medical technician, bridge partner, and all-around servant in this house of tomorrow. all pertinent information about the family, it's records, it's taste, reference materials, is stored in the memory banks, it available instantly to every
member of the family. karen, 43, mother, homemaker. >> mom, i'm hungry. >> me too. how about lunch? >> how about two minutes? >> and counting. >> how about chicken salad? >> ugh. >> cheeseburger, french fries, and a nice, cold bottle of beer. >> i'll see. >> mike, cold roast beef? >> ok. be right there. can watch this and other
american history programs on our website, where all our video is archived. that is c-span.org/history. we look back 40 years to 1988, when president ronald reagan and gorbachev delivered new year's day messages. three weeks earlier, the leaders had signed the treaty to eliminate intermediate range nuclear missiles. reagan addressed the people from the white house turned gorbachev addressed the american people from the kremlin. this is about 10 minutes. pres. reagan: this is ronald reagan, president of the united states. i'm speaking to you, the peoples of the soviet union, on the occasion of the new year. i know that in the soviet union , as it is all around the world, this is a season of hope and expectation. a time for family to gather