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tv   Washington Journal 1968 - Presidential Campaign  CSPAN  March 28, 2018 12:49pm-2:22pm EDT

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peach on limiting the war in vietnam is followed by a look at the 1968 new hampshire presidential primary and later richard nixon visits new hampshire and wisconsin. next, a look at the 1968 presidential campaign, the race started with candidates including lbj, eugene mccan carthy, robert kennedy, ronald reagan, george rommy, nelson rockefeller and george wallace. it was hubert humphrey who faced richard nixon. a conversation with pat buchanan and barbara perry director of presidential studies at the university of virginia's miller center. this is 90 minutes. on the last evening in march 1968 the stage was set. shortly before 9:00 p.m. washington time in the midst of last minute electronic
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preparations president johnson put the finishing touches on his address to the nation. finally with the reassuring presence of his family seated nearby the president was ready to the president was ready to deliver one of the most important speeches of his entire life. a speech that would alter the course of world history. >> good evening, my fellow americans. tonight, i want to speak to you of peace in vietnam and southeast asia. no other question so preoccupies our people. no other dream so absorbs the 250 million human beings who live in that part of the world. no other goal motivates american policy in southeast asia. >> first, addressing himself to the continuing problem of vietnam, the president outlined
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plans for a u any lateral deescalation of that conflict. >> i ordered or vessels to make no attack on north vietnam except in the area of the zone where the continuing enemy build up directly threatens allied positioned. and where the movement of their troops and supplies are clearly related to that threat. the area in which we're stopping our attacks includes almost 90% of north vietnam's population. and most of its territory. thus, there will be no attacks around the principal populated areas. or in the food-producing areas of north vietnam. even this very limited bombing of the north could come to an
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early end if our restraint is matched by restraint in -- >> the president issued an appeal for unity among the american people. and went onto speak in moving words of the future he foresees america attaining. it wasn't a final moment of the speech that he voiced the syllables which stunned the nation and reverberated around the world. to a disbelieving audience of countless millions, president johnson announced the decision that had been many months in the making. only resolved within himself in the final hours of march. >> with americans sons in the field far away. with america's future under challenged right here at home. with our hopes and the world's hopes for peace and the balance everyday. i do not believe that i should
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devote an hour of our day of my time to any personal partisan causes. or to any duties other than the awesome duties of this office. the presidency of your country. accordingly, i shall not seek and i will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your president. that courtesy of the white house navel photograph i can unit as we look back 50 years ago here on c-span and c-span 3 "american history tv," 1968, america in turmoil. we want to begin with the announcement by senator eugene mccarthy to seek the democratic nomination. the tet offensive began and
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richard nixon enters the race on february 1st and george wallace enters on february 8th. president johnson wins the new hampshire primary and against eugene mccarthy and a few days later, robert f. kennedy announcing here in office building two weeks later, president lyndon johnson stung the nation that he will not seek re-election and dr. martin luther king assassinated in memphis, tennessee. and hubert humphrey entering the race and -- dies on june the 6th 1968 and richard nixon accepting the public nomination in august. and hubert humphrey accepting -- and richard nixon elected
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president on november 5th, 1968. barbara perry from the university of miller center and pat buchanan for the purposes of this discussion was a nixon aide. >> in the nixon campaign. >> let me ask you about the announcement of lyndon johnson, march 31st where were you. >> we were at nixon's apartment and having a debate on the speech he was going to give that afternoon. ray price and i were there and we were having an arlt. nixon was moving towards a dubbish position on the word and got word from cbs that lyndon johnson asked for time sunday night. so what nixon was going to wisconsin the next day and told me i would like you to be out on the la guardia private terminal. he was making an appearance out there for the primary.
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to brief me on what johnson said before the press gets to me. so i'm sitting in the limousine in la guardia and had nixon's african american driver and he starts yelling, i knew it was going to happen when lbj announced that i was not going to run again. i got out of the limo and ran down towards the jet and the press was running to the jet and i got on the plane and i said johnson is out he's not going to run. nixon stepped out to the top of the steps and said i guess it's the year of the drop out. george romney dropped out of new hampshire, and nelson rockefeller decided not to run earlier in march. and we drove in to the nixon's apartment and we talked going in and i remember telling him, i thought hubert humphrey would be a tougher nominee and get the nomination.
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>> he did not expect to challenge him? >> he didn't think kennedy was going to win. i didn't either. >> barbara perry, let's go back. who was he and why was his voice so important in the '68 campaign. >> eugene mccarthy was the senator of the midwest. they was profes so i recall in his demeanor. he entered the race as the peace candidate. and got a bunch of students to support him. some of them who might have been in the hippie realm and shaved their beards and cut their hear and called themselves be clean for gene. he was the young peoples candidate for the democrats. and if you put the personality
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of maccar think next to him -- you could not find two more different personal tis. he was definitely the peace and antiwar candidate going into new hampshire and comes within 7% taj points. that's the reason johnson drops out. >> i can't believe it was political malpractice. johnson's name was not on the ballot. he won as -- and later discovered that half of those who voted for mccarthy, had not been tough enough on the war. and april 2nd, they got to wiscons wisconsin mccarthy wiped the floor with him. and johnson's guys had polls and knew it was coming. >> at that point, between that and the tet offensive and having to boost up the troop numbers in
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vietnam. it was not looking good and johnson worried he suffered another heart attack and another term. he was concerned. >> nixon announced on february 1st, we flew up secretly on the 31st and nixon registered under the name benjamin chat man and took him to a hotel and announced february 1st and february 2nd it's a single column story in the "new york times." it's about the tet offensive. the sigh gone police chief and has a small revolver next to the v vietcong. and it dramatized it. >> galvanizing moment, wasn't it? >> it was. >> we talk about it last week. the full series available at let's talk about richard nixon. lost the presidency in 1960 1k3
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loses the bid in 1962, the headline the political obituary of richard nixon and moves back to new york in the mid '60s. what was the state of the republican party that year? >> nixon was the lead surrogate for gold water. he was a two-time loser and was considered a political loser and so he moves to new york what what he did is i went to work for him 1965 and '66. january. i want to get aboard early if you are going to run for president. i will hire you for one year, if we don't do well, nomination won't be worth anything. so we went around five weeks in 1966. he paid for it himself and got his sewn plane. 35 states, one of the great come backs that sprung back.
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nixon helped picked up 47 seats in the house. three in the senate, six governor ship, 11 legislatures. and nixon is -- i remember tom evans came up to me and said i don't think you're going back to saint louis. i said, i don't think so. nixon what he did then, he declared a six month moratorium on politics. he said i've been in the limelight and got into a head up battle with johnson at the end of '66 and johnson attacked him in the white house. nixon pulled himself completely out and one of the reasons, i said sir, romney was running first in the polls and ahead of johnson and nixon. so i said is it wise to give him that space and time while you are going nowhere? he said i think i need to get out of the public arena and let
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him chew on him for a little while, which meant the press. and the press went out for romney and by mid 1967 i think around september 1, romney made the famous statement, when i was over in vietnam i was bra brainwashed. by the diplomats and military. i remember eugene mccarthy said, in his case, you wouldn't need a complete brainwashing, a light rinse would have done the job. >> along those lines, i want to take you back to that time period and a very young pat buchanan on the campaign trail with richard nixon. watch this. >> it seems to be a magnificent turn out. estimated somewhere in the neighborhood of 600 or 700 go by already. estimated more than 3,000 before the afternoon's over.
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>> are these people are all republicans or a mixture? >> i couldn't say looking at them. you can't tell a republican from a democrat out here. it's a good cross section of people. >> i just wondered how many people you think are going to be -- >> well, we don't know how many are coming in but we hope they will be going out. >> there you are. there's three. how is that? >> thank you. >> all right. >> how are you doing? -- >> oh. tell me is this fellow a good one here? >> i really think so. >> he is a good guy.
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>> good, good. as a matter of fact that is what we hear. we got a lot of people saying he is too young to be chairman. and i said well, we need a fellow -- >> i agree 100%, yes sir. >> are you on his payroll? >> no. i'm retired. >> right. >> are you in the service? >> the -- >> the big one? right? what division were you in? >> heavy artillery. >> the seven, the 75s or did you have another kind? >> the guns. >> the artilleries. >> right. well, do you know it is hard to realize, we've had so many wars since then. we thought that was the last one
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and then we had world war ii, and then coare ya and now vietnam. let's get rid of them. >> let's do something. >> let's do something. nice to meet you. >> from february 1968 campaigning in new hampshire, pat buchanan, you sound the same. >> thank you. we had a great thing put together. we had a great advancement. 3,000 people and president mrs. nixon went through receiving line. the fellow that was the chairman of the campaign in new hampshire was dave sterling. very young guy. we picked him because out of all of the princes in new hampshire, we didn't want to antagonize them. we had a young stat legislator. he had a bad automobile accident and he did a great job up there. our campaign in '68 with nixon, we studied teddy's book and we
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were bringing into new hampshire for two days or maybe three days and then fly them down to where he can relax. and take it easy and go into wisconsin. so you paced him well and we knew it was a marathon. and i can still remember it, it was just tremendously advanced. look how many came out voluntarily, et cetera. we had a terrific crowd. 3,000 people and that was the kind of event nixon wanted to do. >> just excellent. >> with a warld war one veteran, clearly, that was the driving niche of 1968. can you explain what was going on here in this country and how americans were viewing the war and why they were turning against president johnson. >> we mentioned the tet offensive, january 1968. i'm glad there are no videos of
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me. i was a 12-year-old in the sixth grade and my brother was 10 years older than i and graduating from college in a small catholic college. he was told by his draft board, you'll graduate may 15th and drafted by june 1st. and my dad was a world war ii vet and my brother was patriotic, there was no way to deny going to the draft. he served for four years in the air force. that was the talk around our dinner table. he was in college in his hometown and here i was a 12-year-old soaking this up. boys like my brother, girlfriends and boyfriends knew they were going. fathers were going. the draft was up and going and ending up with over a half million people serving the military in vietnam and 1,000 were dying every week. so the campuses were in an
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uproar. the streets were in uproar. and we didn't talk about race but we have to add that in as well. the country was coming apart in this issue and the students over the draft and the casualty figures coming out. >> 202748 -- barbara perry the president at the center and pat buchanan. >> i had a brother who went over to vietnam and he went over and broke his foot in the first jump and went over in january just in time for the tet offensive and he was over there. and even before that, when i was in saint louis as a journalist in 1965. at washington university out there, the harbor of the middle
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west. i was a teacher speaking on behalf in favor of johnson and kennedy's policy. the dr the demonstration, it wasn't violent by then. but host stillty on the elite campuses. i remember sds marching and talking in front of the bi buildings to kids before they became violent. after dr. king was assassinated, riots in 100 cities. my hometown. it was partly burned down. the marin's armed troops and the city. the law and orderer and the war in vietnam became the issues. >> and that's my next question. to try to put it in perspective, you had president johnson who won the new hampshire primary on march 12th and senator kennedy entering on march 16th, lbj
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drops out on march 31st and dr. king assassinated all within a four week period. >> it is hard to comprehend. to be able to see what was exacted in a month's time. compacted -- to think that the country seemed to be coming apart. and again a personal anecdote, my dad who was a life-long democrat fearful of the country and fearful on what is happening in the streets and voted for nixon in 1968 because he thought he was the law and orderer man. brings it back to our streets and bring our country together. and the other thing about vietnam, we talk about the tet offensive. the united states won the tet offensive but it was the offensive of the north and vietcong and the south. to see that movement was fear
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some to the american people and see that in their living rooms. the role of the media, pat is telling us these great stories of how the nixon administration prior to going into the office knew how to use immediate yay by 1968 and people were seeing this in their living rooms. >> in february, he went over to vietnam and came back and said we are mired in a stalemate and i think many in the america elite media had broken on the war decided that it was an unwinnable war and they tended to move at that point and by the time nixon took over, they moved to the demonstrators and we thought of them lies of the democrat stray tors by 1968. there was something else in martha you don't have. it was stunning for us. i was with dwight and you had a picture with him in a room, i
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think it was the 21st of march, nelson rockefeller going to announce for president and nixon sold us, he didn't like to watch this. you guys watch and tell me what he said and nixon would get our reaction. rockefeller -- i went in and said he is not running. he dropped out. that's where nixon got his statement, the year of the drop out. rockefeller and johnson. and then we had a clear path to the nomination. and to your point, you have to realize, the revolution in 1968 was largely contained in that gigantic fdr coalition inside of the democratic party. george wallace was a populist southerner tough on p prosegregation. -- bobby kennedy moved to the
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left and wolf gene mccarthy and all three represented in chicago. >> very quickly, wasn't governor a rockefeller supporter -- >> he brought in reporters and said he was for rockefeller and got the governors for rockefeller and the citizens for rockefeller. headed it up and announced it for three weeks and calls in reporters when rockefeller is going to announce and have a major role in it. when rockefeller never called and went out and said i'm not running. he was left with egg all over his face and as someone wrote, we caught him on the first hop. nixon was right on the phone. come on up governor and talk to us. and he came up. you will get to it, i'm sure. he was regarded and ran against
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mahoney in '66. so agnu was seen as a liberal governor except for the riots where he was hard-lined and that's a reason he wound up on the ticket. >> rockefeller thought he had a chance against the convention and went to governors and said support me and agnu said i'm not going it again. fool me once, shame on me. >> he got governor shaffer of pennsylvania and there was a beer commercial that if shaffer is the one peer to have if you are having only one. >> let's go to leo in illinois. at the table, barbara perry and pat buchanan. >> good morning. thank you for taking this call. i want to thank you for the way
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you -- i was a student in high school at the time and when we understand the importance of the country being created and it feels not just with pride and compassion and understanding and great thanksgiving to our mighty god that america stands stands -- and thank you miss. i appreciate you all. >> a comment not a question. >> i will comment to that optimistic view of 1968 and my colleague shares the same and he wrote a book called" resilient america" in 1968. instead of focussing that they were coming apart. and the democratic party was coming apart. riots in the streets and campuses. and yet there is a resilience in
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america, thank goodness and in our constitution and government that we were able to survive and move forward. >> can i bring something else to the table, in an interview with james jones as you know as a long time aide to lbj, he traveled with president johnson on the afternoon of march 3 1s and went to vice president humphrey's apartment and told him to read the speech. said he was not going to run for re-election, humphrey was shaken and said that the president said if you are going to run, you need to start now and humphrey said, i lost to one kennedy and i'm going to lose to another. i mention that because vice president humphrey -- seek another term. >> well, it could have been -- we felt, for example, rockefeller. he didn't get in because nixon would have crushed him in all of the primaryryes. humphrey might have delayed to
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run. bobby kennedy was not jack kennedy. didn't have the charm or charisma. he moved to the left and he was antiwar and a sharp edged. i felt that even after california when bobby kennedy won, when we got to chicago that humphrey would take it. he had the machine put together and the president behind him and these folks. i thought he would win it and i didn't know he was that apprehensive that he couldn't beat him. >> barbara perry, it is a what if. >> it is. i jotted down last night when bobby kennedy died, hubert humphrey amassed over 500 delegates. gene mccarthy, 258 and what was left with the new deal coalition, humphrey had the
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people behind him. labor and the rank and file of the party. so it is unlikely that even if robert kennedy had lived, he would have beaten gene mccarthy and humphrey. how devastated humphrey was that he was not going to run. in the meeting in the apartment after johnson went before he announced and went to the apartment to tell him. he was in tears about it. and he had that ambivalence. he was not going to bash the president he was severing and that is in the end causing humphrey to lose the race. >> where senator robert f. kennedy made the announcement on march the 16th, 1968. >> senator thank you for this opportunity.
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-- >> i don't believe that i could -- >> i can't hear the question. >> i have to repeat that? >> a lot of nasty things. the question was whether the charge has been raised about the question of whether this is an opportunistic of my coming into the contest at this time after senator mccarthy gone into the new hampshire primary? as i have said. i spoken on these issues and questions for a number of years and how i feel about them. i felt and i think it was generally accepted that if i had gone to the primary in new hampshire whether and if i won the primary new hampshire or if i had done well in the primary new hampshire, it would have been felt at that time that it was a personal struggle. it would have been written in the press. every time i spoke about the
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vietnam or spoken on what i think needs to be done as far as the cities are concerned. it's put in the context of a personal struggle between myself and president johnson. therefore, we would get away from what the issues are which divide this country. i think that the new hampshire primary established that the division that exists in this country and division that exists in the democratic party are there. i haven't brought that about. what brought that about is what president johnson, the policies of president johnson. as far as what is happening at the moment, i can't believe that anybody thinks that this is a pleasant struggle or i'm asking for a free ride. i've got five months ahead of me as far as the convention is concerned. i'm going to go into primary and present my case to the american people. i'm going to go across this country. >> pat buchanan, four days after the new hampshire primary and two weeks after lbj dropped out.
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>> the allegation of opportune niche was in the air on robert kennedy. i remember a great writer of the "new york post" admired bobby kennedy saying he is coming down from the hills to shoot the wounded and proves that saint pratt rick can't drive all of the snakes out of ireland. it was rough with bobby kennedy. he was ruthless on lbj on the interim in between the two weeks that he resigned. accusing johnson of appealing to the darker impulses of the american spirit. i got a memo that i sent to nixon. it is astounding how ruthless he is on the president. we assume the president is going to stay in. mr. nixon said keep gathering that, we have better quotes than that. he believed more than i did that we might wind up with robert kennedy as the candidate
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day-to-day a -- and i ought thought that humphrey was the candidate with great depth on the left wing of the democratic party. he was mr. civil rights and ran it through to lbj. he had labor and brings together the antiwar groups as he did and along with the senator of the democratic party. the deep south was gone. >> robert from maryland, go ahead. >> good morning, mr. buchanan and the lady as well as you mr. scully. i'm a vietnam veteran and i don't think mr. nixon gets the credit he deserves. i voted democrats, i think nixon was a very good president. what over shadowed his goodness as a president was the vietnam
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war, water gate and his personality complexes. but some of the decisions he made with civil rights and other issues and epa, nixon was a very good president. just those three things over shadow his presidency. >> thank you for the call. barbara perry. >> we look back at nixon and i think he thought of himself in my m ways as a moderate republican and viewed in those days as a moderate republican. he could be viewed between someone like reagan and we haven't talked about his entrance and rockefeller on the left side of the party soch. so when we look back at the 1 1/2 terms in office, we can see the number of things that people now on the liberal side that say good for him. >> i would call nixon a progressive republican. he inherited the vietnam war
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after 5 years as you say, there were 31,000 dead when nixon came into office. the gentlemen said he was for him although he didn't vote for him. the american people agreed with the gentlemen. he won 49 states in 1972, over 61% of the vote, i believe. against senator -- who was an antiwar candidate. so his policy of getting out of vietnam and giving the vietnamese a fighting chance to survive as a free and independent country. by in large, it was protested by hundreds of thousand z in the streets, it was a policy that was supported by the american people and rewarded in 1972 with that landslide. >> you mentioned ronald reagan a first term governor elected in 1966 traveling to iowa in the fall of 1967. here is what he said back then.
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>> the one way to make sure that crime doesn't pay, let government run it. [ laughter ] >> i remember way back in 1964, when they said all the way with lbj and now we know what he meant. [ laughter ] [ applause ] >> he has his troubles. there's bobby kennedy. [ laughter ] >> bobby has him nervous about the upcoming convention, he's thinking about putting the country in his wife's name. [ laughter ] [ applause ] >> but bobby was trying to be helpful. he wanted a johnson/humphrey ticket but didn't say where to. every time he offers to help,s a voice from the white house says please bobby, we would rather lose it ourselves. he is a rare person who says the
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right thing at the right time to the wrong person. [ laughter ] >> now if it seems i'm picking unduly on the opposition, note, that i'm picking on the leadership of the democratic party. because i'm sure that there are millions of fine patriotic members of that party who are disturbed with what has taken place in the nation's capitol as we move from the 1960 in the new frontier to the great society. they know that the great society is not the wave of the future. it's the end of an era. a dismal rehash of the methods and language and the philosophy of the past. >> from october 1967, vintage ronald reagan. >> i'm honored to work for them many years later, that was the candidate i was afraid of. it wasn't rockefeller but the possibility that ronald reagan
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will get into the race and given his personality and conservative views and the like kt that he can stam paid the delegates and pull the nomination away from richard nixon. i never believed that rockefeller could get it after 1964. republicans would have walked out if rockefeller was nominated. >> explain the reagan candidate dit si. was he a serious contender for the white house? >> sure. what is fascinating about him as pat said, the facility he had with the audience and as a speaker and that goes back to his days as an announcer for baseball. getting the game over the wire and explaining it as if he was at the game. he had a facility of telling jokes and in the to mention he was a hollywood actor. he made this interesting journey
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and represented the country. he made a journey from the new deal roosevelt democrat, the head of the screen actors guild and becoming more conservative as he worked for ge and that's where he picked up the facility for the banquet speech. it is clear in california that he was the heir to gold water. and the great speech reagan gave in 1964, supporting gold water. so he ends up in '68 as a right-wing challenge to richard nixon. >> i believe and you know, because of the letters of nixon and reagan which i've got copies of, that there was a deal caught at bohemian grove in 1967 where
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nixon and reagan talked and nixon told reagan, give me the first shot at romney and the liberal establishment in new hampshire and if by wisconsin i haven't succeeded well, then you come in. because there's a lot of exchange of rockefeller tried to have a meeting with reagan and came up to the bedroom where he was staying at a hotel, knocked on the door and came in. reagan was writing calling nixon saying we didn't put this together. that was my belief. he gave nixon the first shot and there was reagan people. he got 22% i think in oregon and we got 70%, and rockefeller got 5% of the vote out there in the primary, 28th of may. >> the hope was that they can draw enough delegates votes away that if nixon didn't win on the
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first ballot in miami beach -- >> if they started going to reagan, the rockefeller people would go to nixon, they started to go to rockefeller. so we were a good second ballot. >> did richard nixon consider ronald reagan as the running mate even if they were both from california. >> we had staff, up there in new york. and for a while in those days, you couldn't close a six-point gap. at some point he was behind in the polls by six-points and there was a number of us that sent a memo saying you have to put reagan on the ticket. and there was a point over the vice president and talk of lindsey even if he was from the same state. nixon was going to have to roll the dice and make a dramatic choice. if he were going to do it, we thought it should be reagan.
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once the polls went out with nixon ahead, we went with the safe choice. >> 1968, year in turmoil and barbara perry and pat buchanan, columnist and author and formally with cnn. presidential candidate himself and a nixon aide in 1966, '67 and '68. prayerry, thank you for waiting. >> i have a comment and question directed to pat buchanan. i held a belief that had nixon won in 1960, he would have been a better candidate or president that he wound up being in 1968. had he won in 1960, what does pat buchanan think nixon would have done during his presidency following his election in 1960,
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thank you. >> thank you, tony. another what if. >> it is hard to know. his great moment was the cuban missile crisis. i don't know how nixon would have handled that. i don't think he would have launched the bay of pigs and if he had, he would have made sure it worked. you can't know these things. it would not be a great society if he was a two-term president. and a lot of what nixon did was progressive, and when he got in in the mid 60s, mid 50s he didn't appeal to great society at all. >> and let's add to the what if, what if he met with -- in vienna. that nixon knew about and couldn't go public with in the 1960 campaign. wouldn't it have been
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interesting to see nixon and him in vienna. historians thought that because kennedy didn't have a good outing, that help precipitate the cuban missile crisis. >> then came the berlin wall in august and the missile crisis. him having met nixon in 1959, didn't like nixon at all. it wasn't gary powers but two other pilots went over russian territory and he told folks that he didn't release them in 1960 to help kennedy defeat nixon. he didn't want to do something that nixon can claim credit for. i think you are right. i think kennedy misjudged -- i mean -- misjudged him. when he beat him in the heating with him and he took the measure of him as weak and made a grave
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mistake. >> what was richard nixon's reaction on the night that kennedy won california and then assassinated. >> it was 3:00 a.m. in the east and i got a call from jeff. ran for senate. he was in his mid 20s and called me in my apartment and woke me up and said bobby kennedy had just been shot and i called nixon and he said i'm up and david had been watching the race and so that had woken him up. so it was amazing. one week before that, i was in oregon when nixon one in may 28th and swept it, 70% and went down to dinner with pat nixon. i went out to the front door with sheli, my girlfriend at the time. bobby kennedy was coming up from
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california to conceive the race. he had the dog with him and went in and i went down to the room to watch him conceive that and i remember telling folks there that it was a bobby kennedy i hasn't seen. at his most gracious. the concession speech to gene mccarthy was everything you expect. and he said now let's get onto california. >> think how hard that was for him to give that speech the first kennedy to lose an election. >> yeah. i read later he was down about it. maybe i can't win these folks and the presidency because mechanic car think, gene mccarthy, was no better state for him. >> yeah for his constituency. >> what was going through country after the assassination of senator kennedy? >> horrible shock, as you can imagine. imagine this, two months after
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martin luther king's assassination. our political leaders and social activist are being gunned down and bobby kennedy, oi ronically, had been the person to rise up on the april 4th night in indiana, the campaign the indiana primary which he wins, his first pie mayor and gets the word going to speak to an african american segment of indianapolis that martin luther king was shot. and tells the people, it is viewed as one of the best speeches in political history. he doesn't have a script. he doesn't say our thoughts and prayers are with the king family. indianapolis is the only city that doesn't go up in flames that night. two months later he is assassinated and i written a biography of his mother and she
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said if this was a story or fix that this family would lose two of its sons running in politics for presidency in the presidency. i would not have believed it. it was incomprehensible that level of violence. >> dave from north port, new york. thank you for waiting. go ahead. >> i want to say thank you to mr. buchanan for all of the hard work he committed his life to. i enjoyed watching him on mclachlan. that was a great show. i would like to ask two quick questions. maybe towards current events. i was curious about with the vietnam war and some of the bigger mistakes made. are we making -- are we making some of those same mistakes in afghanistan after we have been there for 17 years? i'm curious on what you think
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about syria and the situation -- coming in and the special forces base -- which -- regime -- >> thank you, you are breaking up, but we get the essence of the question. >> we already made the mistake in the middle east that we made in vietnam. went in without thinking through what the end of the intervention would be. the idea that we can turn afghanistan into a sort of a western country or that once you over threw the regime in iraq, and many people didn't know going in. i agree with the late bill odom, you had him on c-span. the movement into the middle east militarily, worst diplomatic in american political history. >> because of the vietnam war,
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when did president johnson begin to think he would not full another full term? >> i think it is after the tet offensive that he realizes that the our forces, the u.s. military forces won that battle. i use acrudety, easy to find among johnson's comments. if we pull back, for example, in vietnam, if we halt the bombing. remember, that speech he gave withdrawing from the race at the end of march was to announce the halt to the bombing of the north and he said later on and had to restart it in the summer. he said, i pulled back in vietnam and he drives a truck up my -- and he couldn't find the answer because there was no answer. so between that and what he is seeing on the campuses and the people, the students circling the white house chanting everyday and every night.
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hey hey lbj, how many kids did you kill today? and thousands americans were dying a week. and a combination of that and the combination that -- i think he says genuinely in the speech, i don't want to be taking time out on the political stump when i have all these other problems for the country i need to address and the personal issue that johnson and his family died young and had two serious coronaries in the 1950s and barely lived to just after what would have been his second term, second full term. he died in january, 1973, imagine the stress of being in that office for another four years would have done. he could have died in office. >> georgia next from florida on the republican line. go ahead. >> good morning and thank you for c-span. i volunteered for the draft in '68 and i know the focus of the show is on '68 and the turmoil
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occurring there. my question is, 50 years from now, you could be doing another show on 2018 or 2019 and the trump presidency and the turmoil that this is creating. in '68 i think we had a consciousness throughout the nation of -- of the constitution and the united states of america. yeah, they were in the colleges and had columbia and all of that. there was more intelligence about it. and there was a lot of emotion. today, as i look at the march on washington, sorry to say this but it is the march of the no nothings. they have a lot of emotion, but they have very little intelligence. everything is phrases and -- so i would like pat to comment. i wasn't aware of the -- i
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wasn't one of the pitch fork people, but i appreciate your comments and all of that. >> thank you. we'll get a response. thank you for the call. >> i agree with the gentlemen. i was in washington university in 1965 and when i went out there, the young people questioned me and knew the history of the vietnam and before the frefrnch and the agreements in jenova and they were intelligent. later on i went to spoke to penn state and they were emotional. maybe it was the film that was taken out. the kids seem full of passion and emotion and caught up and not a great deal of thought. frankly, i can understand the passion and immediate aftermath and the killing in the broad ward county. so much passion as though we can
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wave a magic wand and put an end of the school killings. the i think the gentlemen says and i think the generation you can never know exactly, the generation of the 1960s, the early to mid '60s was intelligent and on the liberal side, mature and knew where it was going and it had ideas. somewhere like the crowd up there in columbia, mark and his friends helped us. and i put out a statement that i think denouncing them for revolutionary take over of the institution and it got a 65-5 support from the polls frmgs we should thank the caller for his service and volunteering for the draft. my brother is a vietnam vet so i am supportive of the veterans. i am leery as a teacher and long time professor of american government. it is a seen of aging to look back to a golden age or saying
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this new generation doesn't know anything. what this new generation knows, they do have passion, those who went through horror in florida several weeks ago. and they know social media and know thousand organize. they know how to be civically engaged, we had civic education and they were impacted on moss and they needed to know what was happening and know their rights because they were subject to the draft and their family and friends were subject to the draft. i do have hope for this generation. i am glad they are taking part and civically engaged. i would like more education. >> in '68, i don't think we can go back to '68, what took place wasn't only this political revolution with the wallace vote and the catholics from humphrey. but socially, culturally,
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morally and racially, and every other way, there was a huge cultural revolution going on. which i think was ultimately -- excuse me -- prevail in a way in society and created divisions that exist today. and today, is not as violent as '68 which was a violent year. the most violent since the sicil war inside of this country. those divisions had gone through several generations and it is hard to see thousand comes together again. the way we grew up in the eisenhower and jfk era. i read them now and i thought i was a tough editorial, they are mild. we disagree with the area redevelopment act or something like that. >> what happened to senator eugene mccarthy after the
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assassination of kennedy? >> when he stood out on the delegate count and won the primary and sadly assassinated. he was running a distant third. and so, he became diseffective in the races and became clear as they got closer and closer to which i guess that humphrey had the rank and file of the democrats and the party bosses. he had mayor daily on his side and gene mccarthy was not going to win the nomination. in addition to that, we mentioned george mcgovern, he was drafted by some of the pro-kennedy forces. now robert kennedy was gone, but there was another person in the race. he became em bittered by what happened to him in the race -- >> he didn't endorse humphrey until the end of the race. >> that is right, pat. he waited until late in the
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game. >> when i ran against the president, in new hampshire i ran into gene mccarthy and i was going to new hampshire, he said don't worry pat, when you get up there you know don't have to win, you just have to beat the points spread. >> larry from houston, texas on the democrats line. >> i think he won because he had a cause that all my friends and a couple of them died in vietnam as a result of it. and what it was was that the draft just turned everybody away from the thought that we were going to have anything other than a war for the rest of our lives. >> thank you, larry. >> you know, the draft when i went to work with nixon, i had come out decides that we're going to have to do away with the draft because the country
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was coming apart and secondarily, because we were drafting people that would, were so antiwar. they were so antimilitary at the time that in order to fight the war, future wars you're going to have to end the draft and i told -- and nixon, i've got a memo. nixon talked to easen hye sen h are. -- and that's a bad thing and nixon wrote on it. i think so too. so ike didn't want the draft ended. a libertarian who joined us in '67, martin anderson. a young man as i was once, steve. >> john from austin, texas.
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go ahead, you're next. >> thank you for both of you -- the panlists for the discussion today t. is very good. i have two quick questions. the first is how do you view the democratic party now versus 1968. it seems to me that a lot of people who don't really love this country taken over or the leadership of the democratic party. and my other question is a what if question, i usually stay away from those but with the two panlists today it is appropriate to ask. and the what if question is, how do you think things would have worked out if reagan was elected president in 1968 instead of 1980? >> john, thank you. let's take barbara perry. >> i think we come out of 1968 so polarized and to pat's point
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about now, i think it is os phied within the system and in the parties. so you don't see the big tent parties in this big tent parties, because we only had two parties, and so they were big tent parties and take in people from different parts of the political spectrum, and we can see the polarization certainly in democratic and the republican party, and don't accept that the democratic parties or the rank and file are unpatriot or not supportive of america, they have a different idea of how the lead. >> and how about herbert humphrey, was the focus on vietnam? >> well, the problem for johnson, if he had supported noim the hilt, he could not go out the campaign for him,
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because it was too dangerous. the secret service did not want him to go on college campuses which is why he thought that i cannot run myself. so he was not able to go out on the stump and do much campai campaigning for him, and maybe as much as eisenhower did not go out full throatedly are for nixon in 1960, and so he had tension with humphrey and humphrey with him over the war. >> and pat buchanan, ronald reagan if he had won, a what if question. >> he would have gone for victory for vietnam, and he would have, the one thing that johnson did for humphreys in the last week is that i think that it is the 21st that he declared a bombing halt. and people forget that humphrey, in the beginning of october, it was humphrey and then wallace
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and then by time the race descended, it was all humphrey. some of the nixon vote, and so he had a tremendous campaign there, and the bombing halt almost put humphrey over, but then the north vietnamese did not, and president chu declined to come the paris for the meeting, and that sat up on the controversy that we are seeing now, and now, we are guard to reagan there, he is a young rigan and different rigan in the whi white house in '85 which is 20 years on. and reagan would have gone for victory in vietnam and all-out bombing, and no limits on going into the laos or cambodia. >> one other time line, vice president humphrey travels to salt lake city to do what? >> he give s ts the speech in w
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he finally comes out against the johnson policy on the vietnam war, and he is speaking up in favor of peace and going to the peace talks, and the deamericanization of the war. some people think that if he had done it earlier, because as pat said, he was coming on strong at the end in part because of johnson's decisions, but you also made a reference to president of south vietnam, and there a great book called "chasing shadows" by ken miller about the back channels going on between the campaign, and the president. >> that is a matter of whole controversy controversy. >> are we might do a whole show on that. >> and the republican line. go ahead, george, with your question. >> caller: thank you. good morning. i have a question of mr. buchanan and ms. perry concerning president johnson's
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tardiness in supporting hubert humphrey, and in 1968, and what if question again, and what if the president had come out sooner for humphrey? and ms. perry al luded to the tension of humphrey and johnson over to the war and it was palpable. >> yes. and indeed. the there is always going to be this historical what-if. what-if humphrey had and i think that it is against his personality, because he was a joyful and positive and ebullient character and loyal character that it is hard to turn against the president. but i think it is possibly the case that if he had come out sooner, and drawn the people who were supportive of mccarthy and the anti-war activists, and supportive of robert kennedy and the far left fringe they were
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not going to get and as indicated in chicago, but i think that if he had come out earlier against the johnson policy, maybe humphrey would have gotten what he needed in the popular vote, but as pat with well knows, nixon so flooded him on the electoral college vote that it is hard to put together a path forward. >> this is the 1968 electoral map back then and republicans winning the states like california and the upper midwest, and the democrats winning states like texas and the midwest and new england and then george wallace in the south. >> he has five states. at one point he had seven, and both carolinas, i think. and yeah, he took the states away with and with one of the reasons that nixon picked agnew, and he had a tough hard-line on the riots and tough on cambridge when they burned the town down, and stokely carmichael had come
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can to baltimore, and as a matter of fact, you mentioned humphrey, and he was gain, and if you can believe it, we were campaigning on long island. i went to the president, and i said that to the president-elect, mr. nixon, you know, i'm not go doing any good here and i have the same old s message and let me help agnew, and we were going down through the upper south with spiro agnew to the win that area, so i do believe that hubert humphrey, if he had moved earlier, he would have done better, and one of the reasons is that his campaign from september to salt lake city speech was developed, bedeviled everywhere with "dump the hump" and obscene comment, and he got to the point where he was denouncing fascism out here, and they won't let me speak, and denounced by teddy kennedy, and
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when he delivered the salt lake city speech, it turned for humphrey and he began to move up the hill in a tremendous clip. i went to nixon and i said that we have to attack humphrey to drive a wedge, because the party is coming back together. >> and what about george wallace? >> well, what a colorful speaker, and we will want pat to the weigh in, but he is a populist, and segregationist, and he was not in the early life in alabama, but he was a world war ii veteran, and we believe he could have suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder and he was pugilistic, and when he lost the word, and he -- i
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will not use the n-word, but he said that he will not be outweighed by the the n-view, and the civil rights view, and the anti-civil rights view, and he knew that he would not carry the states outside, pat, but he thought that he could be the broker if there were not a ma jor ti for two of the electoral candidates. >> and here is the thing, that wallace had come out in 1964, and run in the democratic priorities, and he had done well in wisconsin and indiana and next door in maryland, and wallace got a majority of the vote in the democratic primary in 1964, and lbj was vice president of the united states, and he announced the run. and he was not only a segregationist, but a strict pop
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u yu list, and bashing the demonstrator, and i know four-l four-letter words, two, and s-o-a-p and w-o-r-k can. but i got to know him, and when i left nixon, goit to know him in alabama and i would speak at troy statek and and i would get the airport, and i would be are there with my wife, and he would say, that the governor would like to speak to you, after he was shot in the campaign, and we would tell stories about how he did against lindsey. he used to talk trash to the reporters, but he was quite a guy, and later on in his life, he sort of felt badly about some of the things that he had done, but 1963, it was segregation today and segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever.
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>> and standing in thele school canhouse door in 1963 as president kennedy, robert kennedy tried to integrate the schoolhouse doors. >> i think that it was choreographed, because they nationalized the guard, and it came off. >> and it worked for him in p t politically. and his mistake was not choosing curtis may in 1968 -- >> was that 1968? yes. >> and curtis le may came out, tany asked about nuclear weapon, and they asked him about what was there, and although the sand crabs were a little hot. >> and if i thought that they were going to be using them in 1964, let's do it. >> pat buchanan is the author of the comeback, as they came from defeat at the table along with barbara perry, the director of
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presidential studies at the uva millers center, and andy from owensburg, kentucky. >> thank you. i would like to thank mr. buchanan because he has been a good servant, and i take my hat off to you, mr. buchanan. and my question is that i was born in 1962, and i'm 55 now, and i love politics, and do you think that there will ever be any more conservative democrats. i know that there were some back then, and so there are conservative democrats back then, and so do you believe that they will be any? >> socially or culturally, no. we saw it with the democrat in illinois who tried to run and they defeated him.
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on the social and skull churl issues, the democratic party has made the move, and the fact that they lost the entire south which is something that kept them to the degree conservative. and there are pro lives, and the majority will be pulled to the left, and a real danger in the coming election, and that is, is that the left nominates the candidate the way that the mcgovern did in 1972 the way they nominated mcgovern and pulled the party to the left, and centrist and republican, but hard-line on law and order gave him, gave him 49 states. the republicans are not going to be winning 49 states ever again, but the democratic party is never going to be conservative again. >> and in the midterms somebody like connor lamb may be as
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conservative as they will go, but to the caller of owensburg, kentucky, one of my political mentors was a conservative democrat from kentucky and now there are no such thing, but the red states, and the republican state, and it has republicans throughout the delegation, and throughout the house delegation. >> and i went into the politics in 1966, and it is one republican senator in the entire old confederacy, and he got that as a result of lbj becoming president. and so we have howard baker in tye tye and the reverse is true. >> and raymond from cleveland, ohio with pat buchanon and barbara perry. >> how do we go from 1968 in kent state and how do we deal with the social media and the
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internet back then, and how did people organize? interesting question, barbara p perry. >> how do we go from 1968 to 1970, and the answer is nixon opening up the cambodian front in the vietnam war which is to invade cambodia, and try to stop the flow of the men and materiel from the north poin the south and to be used against the united forces there in south vietnam, and with the announcement of that in 1970, the campuses explode again, and particularly kent state. there is a peaceful demonstration, but the ohio national gua national guardsmen opened fire on the protesting students, and several of them are killed. that is yet another open wound for the united states to have to deal with. how did these people organize and i watched a fascinating documentary about the civil
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rights movement and martin luther king, and the social media is a misnomer, because the media is supposed to be between the government and the people, and now, we are the media. the people are the media, but it is what pat was saying about how to the reach the media in the nixon campaign and do good advance work to go out to have a r rally and demonstration. so it was word of mouth. it was telephone, and telegrams, and it was old-fashioned hard copy letters. >> i wrotet the speech with nixon, the cambodian invasion speech, and it is very dramatic, because it was april 1, 1970. >> yes. >> and what happened was they did have riots out at kent. the town. the mayor called in the guard. the students were approaching the guardsmen who foolishly had
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their live ammunition in the rifles. i think four died, five more wounded or something. i remember i was at home, i wasn't feeling well. and mort allen called and he said there's four kids shot at kent state. i said, where is kent state? word went around, that's where nixon -- nixon came closer to being broken by something than at any time i have seen in that month of april. remember, that's the time he left the white house the friday after kent state, he went over to lincoln memorial at 4:00 in the morning where all the students were gathering and took beebe rabosa over with him, and in the early hours to have breakfast, and he was really moved by what had happened there. and the white house was tremendously divided over it. most white house aides didn't want the invasion of cambodia. didn't like the invasion of cambodia.
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and urged nixon to go much further and sort of accommodating the students but that was the roughest time of nixon's presidency i recall in the first term. >> we're looking at 1968 really beginning with eugene mccarthy's decision to seek the democratic nomination in the fall of 1967. we'll look at the time line as we listen to garrett from orlando, florida. >> caller: good morning. very edifying. thank you both. i'd just like to ask or have you comment on the dump johnson campaign. that was, you know, that was -- by congressmen and by the legislators and in particular maybe you mentioned mr. alan lowenstein. >> sure. i mentioned that johnson was bouncing down into the mid to low 30s in the approval rating and nothing will get the attention in congress like
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really low approval ratings for the president. so that's part of the dump nixon movement. you mentioned allard k. lowen stein of new york. he was pushing robert kennedy to join the race as an anti-war candidate. one thing we haven't mentioned that came out in ted kennedy's oral history where we do typically presidential oral history but he came to us to do his oral history after 40 years in the senate and he told the story and being deputized to speak to eugene mccarthy, you know bobby is considering getting into the race but if you will put near or at the top of the agenda in addition to being anti-war to looking into the issues of poverty, rural and ur poverty that bobby kennedy will reconsider getting tointo e the race, and mccarthy said, no,
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anti-war is at the top of my platform. so that was the movement trying to get bobby into the race. >> lowenstein way toed to get mcgovern and he said, why don't you talk to jean mccarthy. >> donna from st. louis, missouri. where pat buchanan spent much time in the 1906s. >> caller: that's true. i have a question for pat, but first i would say i was an independent and went to california and was a delegate for you in 2000 and i also had a nice chat with brian lamb while i was there. it was an exciting experience. >> long beach. >> caller: yes. and my question is, there was a time when i supported the vietnam war in the mid '60s. i was in high school and i graduated in '66. you knew it was winnable with all the chinese pouring in this as they did in korea. why didn't we handle vietnam like truman handled korea? i have always wondered that. >> well, with truman, korea
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drove truman out of the white house and it was general eisenhower who came in and said we're not going for victory and you had a dmz where the two armies were lined up and he threatened the chinese and he got basically an armistice. vietnam, you had a -- you had a much different story. i mean, the chinese were actually not in vietnam. the north vietnamese were in the south. but it's a very good question. i mean, looking back and obviously anybody that's been involved in any way -- i wasn't over there, but i was writing speeches in the white house and working for nixon as a -- an aide before he ran. you have to ask yourself afterwards the vietnam war accomplished a lot of good things that held the line in southeast asia, all those countries did not move with the chinese or from communism, but moved to the west.
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but should we have gone in in the first place? >> barbara perry, was richard nixon undercutting the johnson administration in trying to keep the war going through the election of 1968 saying you'll get a better deal with me? >> well, that's what the latest literature, the historical literature says about that question. but i'm going to pass it over to pat because i think he was there and he will know the answer to it. but the historians are saying, yes, that indeed nixon was back channeling with ana chinault -- >> who was? >> as i understand she was the widow of general chinault, and the go-between between the -- according to the historians now the nixon camp and the south vietnamese encouraging the president to south vietnam to hold off on participating in peace talks, get a better deal under nixon. remember, nixon was remember -- saying he had a plan to end the
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war so he was being very public about that. but i'll let pat address the behind the scene issues. >> yeah, i don't credit the -- that the -- what recent authors have said about this. i was with nixon and i had nothing to do with it. i remember going in to see him that saturday. before the election and telling him a friend of mine had called, john sears and said michigan is down we're down three nationally in the harris poll. and first, president tieu did not need anyone to tell him that nixon would take a harder line than humphrey. after humphrey said i will halt the bombing after i get elected, and secondly, if there were some kind of signal sent, where are the tapes that lbj wiretapped plane, and wiretapped people, and why didn't the president chu
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coming out of vietnam say that the reason i did this was this and none of the named actors were questioned or came forward to validate the suggestion that nixon told mitchell or someone to tell mrs. chinault to tell president chu, don't go, you'll get a better deal from nixon. he's not a dumb man. so i don't believe that came up. and one fellow had -- wrote the book recently and said, nixon told haldeman when he heard about the bombing halt, he said throw a monkey wrench in this. >> i don't know if there are tapes of the wiretaps but there are tapes of president johnson talking about this issue. >> treason. >> you can listen to. and he told humphrey this was happening and humphrey refused to release it. >> he didn't believe it too. >> yeah. >> from gaithersburg, maryland, phil. go ahead, please. good morning.
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>> caller: good morning. thank you for having ms. perry and mr. buchanan on. they're two fabulous guests and i appreciate that c-span, and my comment is i was a history student at the university of maryland in 1968. and the college campus behavior it seems to be 50 years ago was quite different than it is today. many points of view were listened to. many points of view could be tolerated. today it seems to be that college campus behavior is much more progressive and anyone who disagrees is silenced. >> i agree 100%. i think it -- i mean, as i say, i was out -- they were hearing our views, they didn't like our views if you supported the war but they invited you out there and they invited pro war and anti-war speakers on campus.
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but today, you get a real sense of intolerance and a sense of that we have found the truth, we don't want to hear any more dissent and certain forms of dissent are racist. and bigoted and homophobic and things like that. that goes to the idea that one side of the cultural war is evil and there's only one good side. >> two final points. this is the headline from the smithsonian website. when nixon said "sock it to me" on "laugh-in." tv was never quite the same. it's very brief. only five seconds. listen carefully. >> sock it to me. >> why was this significant? >> well, it was because nixon with us basically the stiff -- he was considered stiff and correct and he was not with it. and that was a real -- it was a real sort of progressive type show. and i didn't think it was a good
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idea. but i think paul keys who was a very good friend of nixon and a writer for rowan and martin sper sueded nixon to do it. >> well, pat said he was considered you know uptight and stiff and also sweaty from 1960 in the debates with jack kennedy. to go on a hip and happening show and to sort of make fun of himself sock it to me, i don't know what it is, but they told me to say it. it's a turning point for politicians to go into popular culture. >> in our remaining minutes, the lessons from 1968, barbara perry, what are they? >> i think we have touched on some of them already and they are this increasing polarization. i think it's kicked off the -- the polarization that we see today in the parties and in today's culture. pat's made reference to culture wars. we still see those today. and i also think that's a linkage between 1964 and barry goldwater. his brand of right wing populism and through the reagan years and nixon, but reagan with movement,
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conservatism, all the way up to donald trump. i think we see the seeds of both the democratic left and the republican right and democratic populism and republican populism to this day. >> pat buchanan, final word. >> i think that's very true. what you see is the goldwater laid this foundation with this powerful conservative movement which captured the party but couldn't capture the country and nixon picked up that movement and brought that republican party together. picked up the two pieces of the democratic party. the northern catholics and the southern protestants and created a new majority that for republicans, five out of six presidential elections after 1964 which was astounding considering the defeat then.
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but you're right, in the democratic party the gene mccarthy, bobby kennedy, george mcgovern wing would nominate mcgovern in '72. but i think what you've got subsequent to '68 that year -- we really crossed the continental divide. we have never got over that divide. because it involves more than simply politics but it involves the most fundamental beliefs about right and wrong and good and evil and justice and injustice. there's just very little upon which you find that americans really agree these days. >> for your insights, your perspective and your stories, barbara perry of the university of virginia and pat buchanan. to both of you, thank you for being with us. >> good to see you, friend. >> our pleasure. tonight american history tv continues with our series 1968, america in turmoil, focusing on the 1968 presidential campaign. we'll hear from communications director of the nixon administration, pat buchanan and the studies director, barbara
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perry. american history tv in primetime the begins at 8:00 p.m. eastern here on c-span3. later to day to a panel on how international crime organizations use the internet and the postal system to get opioids into the u.s. we are live with the helsinki commission, also known as the commission on security and cooperation in europe starting at 3:30 p.m. eastern on c-span. thursday today morn, we are in olympia washington for the next stop on the capital's 50 tour. starting at 9:30 a.m. eastern.
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sunday night, we shared thoughts about politics and government. >> i am unclear about daca, because our united states congress cannot find an issue, and it is a human rights issue. >> and the issue for me is the notion that we are the only company in the world that is a traves travesty, and every other world has taken steps to address it, and currently, we have not stayed on course with the other countries. >> we are the richest nation in the world, and yet we have citizens who are going bankrupt to cover basic health care costs. it is an outrage, and we should be ashamed. >> that is sunday night on c-span's "q and a."
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james jones and lyndon johnson's appointment secretary from 1960 to 1965 surprised the nation in an announcement to the nation that he would not run for president in 1968. he also told the back story which began in 1967. james jones is a former member of the house of representatives in oklahoma and former ambassador the mexico. the interview was recorded for the c-span's "the weekly podcast." >> i shall not seek, and i will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your president. but let men everywhere know however that a strong and confident and a


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