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tv   Early Ranching and Cattle Driving  CSPAN  March 31, 2018 8:53pm-9:59pm EDT

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announcer: you can watch this and other american history programs on our website where all of our video is archived. that is the span.org/history -- c-span.org/history. >> next on america history tv, jim gray, rancher and cub what historian talks about the development of cattle driving and wrenching in the 19th century. he discusses the impact of the railroad and other historic events that shaped the industry, and by extension, the west. the kansas city public library hosted the event. it is one hour. [chatter bank] >> welcome, welcome everyone. i head up the local and regional history department of the kansas library.ic
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we are headquartered just across the hall from this auditorium. in the missouri valley room, you will find them books, articles and photographs documenting kansas city. >>s history. a history that begins in the 1870's with the emergence and rapid growth of the kansas witty stockyards -- kansas city stockyards. has of cattle were received daily before eventually being shipped by rail to the eastern markets. however, before the cattle reached kansas city, they had to be driven from ranches in texas to railroad towns like kansas. teams of drovers, cowboys, hundreds cattle of miles under threat from dangerous and often unpredictable weather, stampedes, injuries, sickness, as well as the occasional rifle-toting land owner. here today to talk about cattle driving, is the cowboy, jim
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gray. if you don't know the cowboy, you have not spent a considerable amount of time trail riding or working ranch. he has done both. he is a fourth-generation rancher and next generation kansan. his great-grandfather and established a wrench in central kansas in 1983 and he is continuing the ranching tradition until today. cowboy promotes the heritage as executive director of the national drovers hall of fame in kansas. he is also cofounder of the cowboy societies, cowboy an acronym. in addition, he also serves on the board of directors for the international trail association. in 2017, he helped organize an event celebrating the 150th anniversary of the chisholm
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trail. book. also authored a loo this presentation today is titled -- move them out. please welcome to the kansas city public library, the cowboy, the trail boss, jim gray. [laughter] jim gray: thank you. ago, iran a little cowboy and of thesworth people would come and go. one day, this old fellow came in and he was dressed in a suit and i could tell by the way that he carried himself, he was probably a cowboy.
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slender guy, his family had started wrenching in western kansas in the 1880's, and my family had done the same, so we had something in common. we spent a couple of hours telling stories. when he got up to leave, as he was going through the door, he turned and looked back and said, i did not think anybody cared about this stuff anymore. when he walked out to tell you the truth, i did not even have his name. it struck me that these stories are dying every day. at that time, i was a younger fellow. and now i am getting up to the age where a lot of the stories i have, i think about too that if i do not tell them, they will die with me. so we started the cockeyed old west band, basically as a group to reserve these old cowboy stories -- to preserve them.
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by trail driving history was really something i was attracted to because my great-grandfather had been involved with buying texas cattle. his son, had been on the trail, my uncle. we had a picture of him dressed in his cowboy gear. from the stress of the trail and being in and out of closed quarters and saloons and things like that, he got consumption and died before he was 30 years old. life, thatdventurous itld be a boring life, but was a life worth living. so i got into these old trail driver stories which led me into this greater, greater story. you can go to museums all across the great plains and find stories about the trail drivers,
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and about the trails themselves, but in most cases, specifically they focus on perhaps a local driver or two or a wrenching concern. it is somewhat localized. the national drovers hall of fame was something we felt was necessary to tell the whole story, the greater story of the drover. i drover is a term that was founded in england. instead of referring to a herd of cattle or a flock of sheep, or any other type of animal having its own designation, everything in a group was called a drove, so you could have a drove of sheep, these, a drove of cattle.
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if you moved them from one place to another, you are a drover. so the drover culture was brought over to our colonies and established itself very early on. the early markets for livestock were boston and new york. the roads to get to the more the drovers rows of our colonial times. even today, there are old drover inns that can be found in the colonial part of our country. experience -- they really were our frontiersmen. everyone who was pushing the livestockusually ran getpen areas in order to income from the livestock, they had to turn around and drive them back to the market. so frontier frontiersmen were usually drovers as well.
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this drover system pushed its way down the coast into the carolinas and eventually all the way down into louisiana. texas, where it came into contact with the british culture with the spanish culture -- the british culture came into contact with the spanish culture. everyone will tell you that the cowboy comes from the mexican vaquero, but that is only part of the truth. our american cowboy is really a hybrid of the english culture meeting with the banished spanish culture in south texas and southwest louisiana. some of the examples that show that it is a hybrid are just in
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words. corral and pen there english penned livestock and controlled them. the spanish liked the open range and the only time they gathered them up, they corralled them to control them, so you have this dual language that you can aslow all across the west, to the influence, whether it is a british or spanish influence. my own family had come to kansas out of ontario them actually. and they became cattleman. i grew up referring to everything as pens. but neighbors not that far away utilized the word corral. that all had to do with their particular cultural background,
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a unique way of looking at the history. in the early days of the cattle let me beginexas, and the statehood of texas. he had this huge push out of the states for settlement into texas, coming out of missouri, down across indian territory and into texas. that route was known as the "texas road." it cut the corner into the corner of kansas, and down into texas from missouri. almost right away, texas cattlemen recognized the opening of that road as a perfect route for them. as a road to return the cattle to the east, to better markets.
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so by 1846, there were already cattle going up the texas road. later on, as the numbers of cattle came northward, the route became known as the shawnee cattle trail, the shawnee trail. at the same time, there was a very strong connection with louisiana, so that a lot of the early texas cattle were being driven to the -- new orleans. it was a huge cattle market. about of beef was being slaughtered for consumption there. when they would throw away the offal, it would just go and it has not been realized that the yellow fever that was so devastating to the new orleans area was
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somewhat being helped along by this unsanitary way of butchering beef. so a lot of the early drovers who went into louisiana, either did not make it home or died soon after they brought yellow fever back into texas from louisiana. so, cattle begun going into larger numbers of the shawnee trail. you had going well, this drover-road economy. holy economies would build up along the road and farmers would fence off pastors, put up hay and you could turn your cattle into a pastor and feed them, stay overnight in the barn. theybegin to develop, like did in england and of the colonies.- up in the
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people began going up the trail as early as 1846 -- 1836. by 1845, it came to a screeching halt, cattle began to die. not texas cattle, but the domestic herds that were being nearred your the trails -- the trails. everyone recognized that the domestic cattle were getting sick just a short time after the cattle from texas had been driven through the country. so they knew it was coming from the texas cattle, they just did not know why. they had all kinds of ideas, some of them thought the cattle carried something from their hooves in texas which was poisonous and poisoned the grass. things there were growing in the intestines of the cattle like mushrooms that spread out onto the prairies and killed the cattle. nobody knew for sure.
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all the new was that texas cattle caused it. what was known in texas as spanish fever, became known as texas cattle fever in the north. begun to eliminate the problem by quarantine. by 1855, missouri put a quarantine in place so that you could not drive texas cattle through the center of missouri -- through the state of missouri through the summer months, right up until october. one of the things they discovered -- actually, texas fever had been known for years writing to the outbreak in 1855, -- 1854, but not known to be as devastating as it was. once they realized over the
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heavy they realized that frost, a cold winter and something about the cold did away with the texas cattle fever. it sterilized the animals. so if you could show that you wintered your cattle over in the north, then you were allowed to drive through the country. so in 1856-1857, the cattle coming out of texas seemed to be clean from the texas fever. people who had the documents to show that they had wintered over in the north, everything in place, the quarantine kind of died down. itil i get in 1958, when struck again and created all of this upheaval in the cattle business. along came the civil war.
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of course, texans were not going to drive the cattle north to support the yankees, they were not welcome anyway. so the whole thing shut down. an interesting thing, something i have not really studied that i would like to study more is that even though we think of this trail driving industry as coming to a stop during the civil war years, actually, there had to have been a great number of drivers in the north driving large herds of domestic cattle to support the moving armies. cattle and hogs, both were being driven and butchered on the spot to keep the army's fed. so it was a lot going on -- to keep the armies fed. it is worthy of more research, i believe.
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texas, thetime, in idea was being put out that all of these ranchers were just abandoned -- the ranches were abandoned the people going to fight the war. to some extent, it did happen, but it was not just wholesale abandonment, there were people out there keeping the ranches going, but it was not the overwhelming thing for everyone to keep things up. by the time the war was over with, all of these branches had fallen into your ruin -- all of these ranches had fallen into near ruin. ranch operations were devastated financially. confederate money was worth nothing. you had all of these cattle who had gone a good number of years without being branded. wild cattle in the brush as
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well, so there was an opportunity for young men to start all over. all you had to do was have a good horse and a good rope and pens you can get the cattle into. a fellow by the name of jim cook left an account of just such a thing. 1871, a fework in years after the trail driving industry had taken up. he went to work for the slaughter ranch down in south san antonio. the first thing that happened when he got there, he was a young northerner with no experience. the cowboy said, come with us, will get you a job. the first day she got there, they said, we are going on a cow hunt. when you talk about roundups in the north, going out together
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cattle, they did not gather them or run them up, they hunted them. like wild animals. so, he said i don't know what i'm doing and they said, don't worry about it. we have been doing it for generations. just follow their lead, and to do what they do. when things really get to rowing, just let the horse do its work, because they know what they are doing too. so they went out into the country. these cattle again, were wild animals. during the day, there brushed up in the brush -- they are hidden. just like dear. in the night, -- just like deer. then, in the night, they walked out into the prairie. so just as things were settling, the sun was drifting though, they let them out onto the
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prairie, jim cook and these young cowboys. base plates, one line wants to the right and another to the left. and they began to sing another tune which he called the "texas lullaby." i wish someone had made a recording of it. y split. it was a soft melody which kept everything quiet and at the same time, everyone knew where everyone was in a deep brush, and so did the cattle. as they rode into the brush, they closed the circle in, and once it was closed, the signal was given and all the riders turned inward. inward, the cattle surrounded began to move away from them. so he is writing forward into the rush and he said, "nice and
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and he secured the who's in front of him and he could hear horns crashing into the brush. the horse is picking up speed, and he gets a little nervous along, thereode was not anything to do but let the horse have his head. it was full speed. ng throughidi the brush. to the left and right, cattle in front of him. everywhere. this is all in the dark. finally they come onto the open prairie and they have all the cattle out there. and he looks down, he said, and every piece of clothing he had on him was ripped from the mystique thorn -- the brush itself. i did not mention, if you think about the horse, they had a leather breast collar which they would put in front of the horse so that he was protected.
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i had a little horse like that, a little cutting horse. if he had the right kind of force, they don't like to be beat. those are the kinds of forces they were using. when they charged after the cattle, the cattle were not going to go anywhere but that way. if they try to turn back, the horse would not let them. that was what he was writing. so they come out on the prairie browns chaps -- these are -- his head turned white from just the brush brushing up against them, taking out the color right away from them. the next thing they do is they ad a decoy heard of tim -- decoy heard of tame cattle. they would drive the wild cattle rd and getecoy he
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them to mingle. --was a whole pastor of say he described it as around 600 wingsand they would have set up and they would drive them into the hands and turn them loose into this split rail fencing, before armed wire. someone had to go -- before barb wire. someone would have to go out there and build these fences for them to corral the cattle. if they were going north on a cattle herd with them, they would actually have to go into the county seat and get a for them tostration go north because sometimes the herds would mix together and the road brand would identify your specific herd of cattle separate, not just the ranch
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brand, but the road brand for the cattle going north. that inwould get all is, -- thise thing isso very 18th -- -- this february 18, late january and february is when this is happening. the bluegrass had just began to take off, that is when the start north up the trail. the cattle trails up into -- said dalia but prior to that, they were going into st. louis, hannibal, or north to chicago. when thesehe war, guys came up the trail, they
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would go up the border and they could not go any further because the quarantine's had been put in place. the local county sheriffs would not allow you to go into counties. they turned and they came north, which a lot of them could not get across the center of missouri -- the state of missouri. developing in the 1950's and eventually kansas city it's enough to cover the title market. so they came up with the military road which was basically from fort leavenworth to gibson,tt, down and the country down there. they could drive the military road north to kansas city, but almostblem was, it was like a no man's land on the borders of kansas and missouri after the war.
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they could turn into missouri and not only run into a gang of sheriffs but also former bushwhackers to steal their cattle. but if they turn on the military road, they would run into former j hopper's doing the same thing. writingicular heard was up the military road and the front rider was shot off his saddle. -based mp did the cattle and everybody had to collect what they could. cattle were stolen. one particular drover, he was about 19 years old, they took herdeard from him -- from him and they decided that they would try him for bringing diseased cattle into the country. they decided he was worthy of execution. that one of the guys felt that
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enough for him that he talked everyone out of it. so all they did was with him and then turn them loose. these other problems -- all they did was whip him and then turn them loose. these are the problems it would run into when getting the cattle to the market. a cattle buyer from illinois by the name of joseph mccoy came up with the idea that -- he had found out mother was a brand-new railroad going across kansas. you have to put yourself back in the time period, open prairie out there. there were a few trails going across kansas to santa fe, denver. brand-newd, except a one being built by the time mccoy is talking about doing it, it had reached the town of salina kansas so he went and checked out these towns with the
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idea that if you put a what he called a cattle depot around the railroad, the drovers could come north out of texas on this open prairie and get to the railroad. that buyers could come out of st. louis and chicago and get to the same depot and buyers and sellers are all brought together in one place. so the cattle can be shipped back east and not driven in these herds. so eventually, he settles on a himle town which provided the space he needed to build the cattle depot in abilene, kansas. then he went south to get people that she sent runners south to tell the drovers that his new market was open. what happened was, he started
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doing that in june of 1867. louis, talk to st. to the head of missouri pacific that did not work out too well, the guy did not think he could get his job done, so he kicked him out of his office. so he made arrangements with the kansas pacific railroad to get a and he a siding built had to then get an extension on the rails to chicago. he had to build his stockyards! >> he built a hotel. doing all that by september 5 and shipping his first load by then, from june to september. by the end of the season, he had shipped 35,000 head of cattle -- it was a tremendous success. . so abilene becomes our first great kansas cattle town on the
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railroad. everything exploded. you know, they talk about how wild cowboys were, but actually it all depends on how much of there is to do in the first place. when he got to abilene, there was one saloon, and almost nothing else. so they got paid for the cattle and they went home. they did not raise head. but when they went home with gold in the rockets, they did not accept paper money, they've usually foot false bottoms in wagons. they spread the word across texas about what was going on and people knew about sales in abilene -- they went back to kansas city and st. louis, chicago and told the same story about the money that was changing hands in abilene.
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1868, in thet in spring, you could hear the axle of the hammer as buildings were just springing up like crazy all around the valley. cattle were flooding into abilene. early on, there was a pretty good market, but then it kind of fell into the doldrums. it was potentially going to collapse on mccoy. what would he do? he came up with the idea and picked out a group of top drovers who had come up the trail. the very best he could find. he sent them out to a little site in central kansas, in those days, they called it western kansas -- where russell kansas is today. they parked some railcars along the siding there and he sent the
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-- he out to rope buffalo sent to these cowboys out to , anythinglo, deer they could find and put them on these cars. one of the cowboys was president johnson, lbj, it was his great uncle. he ended up drowning in a river crossing a few years later, but he was one of the top in those days. cores idea was that he needed to draw attention to abilene, and the only way he would do it was -- this is an exciting way to do it, he shipped all the cars back to saint louis for love these wild animals and put on virtually the first wild west show. he had the same cowboys roping mustangs, buffalo, showing off all of these wild animals.
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and he said, just come to abilene. that is the way it is out there. he went to chicago and did the same thing. also making a deal with kansas pacific to provide a train so that they could be like tourists. they would go to western kansas and see the great herds of buffalo in western kansas. it worked -- it what all the buyers back to abilene and he was able to keep the markets back going where they needed to to keep the cattle coming around texas and buyers coming to abilene. so this whole thing was working really well. there is so much to this story. that quarantine -- there was a kansas quarantine that basically -- the quarantine line was west of abilene, but it was not being reinforced or enforced -- just because the governor of the soon to of kansas felt that this was
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a great economic boon for the state. but they aren't you give us back -- bylene and overtime the quarantine came back and over time it began to fill up the areas around it. people will say that the cattle towns moved west with the railroad. defending on the situation, that is not exactly right because abilene's biggest year was 1871. 600,000 head of cattle came north out of texas that year. they did not all go to abilene, abilene could not handle them. i was the year that markets began to spread out, west to ellsworth. the santa fe railroad was just building across kansas itself. when they railroad was just building across kansas. when they got to the santa fe trail they built a new town. the new town of newton, kansas.
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it became a cattle town. cattle went on north this artists schuyler, nebraska looking for stockyards to ship out of. this tremendous overflow of cattle, they were being spread all over the but at the same time, the railroad reached denver, colorado by 1870. the cattle towns did not move west of the railroads. by railroads got to colorado 1870. in 1871 abilene was the big market. by 1870 one, that is when the settlement was coming in so strong that the settlers korean that quarantine. they basically wrote a letter that they published in the papers in texas to tell them not
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to come back. 1872, the new markets were new in an ellsworth -- newton and ellsworth. what really drives these cattle towns from one town to the next is the quarantine. the texas fever. following continues to one cattle town after another. couple ofy lasts a years because -- if any of you know about newton's history there is a huge mennonite influx. they are plowed -- proud of their mennonite history. by 1870 tube a bill to it back to wichita and wichita had been thirsting for the cattle trade
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ever since it came north. in 1867, when the first herds came north to abilene, that sed right by jesse the littlecabin at arkansas river in the arkansas river. wichita becomes a new market and competes with ellsworth for the west on the kansas pacific as the railroad and santa fe is wichita's railroad. they compete. the same thing happens. the settlers move in an ellsworth loses its market. last year was 1875. 1876.a's last year was
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everything shifted further to the west. the santa fe railroad ended up being the source of shipping cattle at dodge city. a brand-new trail opened up. the first fellow to come up with it was 1874. he passed all the way north to fort robinson, nebraska with a couple -- cattle contract. 1870 five, they are still using the chisholm trail, mostly. by 1876 the western trail pretty much takes over as the route to go north and to going to dodge city. they also went north to ellis, kansas and to nebraska. those folks that brought city cannot stand to see those cattle passing them by. briskere doing a good
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business with the cowboys but a lot of them are just passing by. what are we going to do about this? they put together a group of andle and went to topeka did good old-fashioned lobbying and got the quarantine line moving west of allison they killed the ellis markets. [laughter] but they cannot do anything because a lot of cattle continued north. the reason they continued north was not just for shipping. that was the case, even with the very beginning of the trade. this cattle trade evolved over the years. what began as big steers coming north later on becomes a mix of different classes of cattle. by the time they hit ellsworth
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in the early middle 1870's, you north,eers coming 2-year-old steers coming north, cows and the big fact cattle coming north. things you kinds of could do at the cattle, just like what we do at the cattle markets. , a lot ofhose cattle people have shipping numbers to .ave successful cattle in the years were ellsworth and wichita were competing, wichita shipped more cattle but ellsworth, like in 1873, they had 173 on their surrounding ranges. the only ship somewhere in the neighborhood of 30 south. what happened to the other cattle. buyers were coming together in ellsworth with the cattlemen. a lot of them were young cattle
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that were being driven north to what they call the territories, north and west, into colorado, wyoming, montana into the dakotas to be grown out on the grass out there. that is how cheyenne became so famous and so popular. those cattle that were brought up a few years earlier into the north were ready to be marketed. they were shifted to cheyenne. then they were sent back east. had big herds of just cow that would come north. you the stories about cowboys and homesteaders not getting along. i have a story. fellow out in western kansas once his grandfather was a drover. he was coming up
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andtrail, the western trail they were driving torches homestead. all of a sudden there was a corn pasture and kids came running out and they were throwing blankets in the air and screaming. cattle just stampeded. heir father was gone and told the kids of herds, you protect the cornfield. he rolled over to those kids and set i turned the sky blue. then i rode on out to the cattle and we got them collected. i got to thinking, one of those gals is kind of cute. if he did not go back whether he was right or not, he said that was my great-grandmother.
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so they did not get on ma did get along. these guys coming up the trail .ith cal's -- with cows they had baby cows born on the trail. there are not panning the bulls away from the cattle. you have cows being born year-round. whenever they have baby cows born, i have been raised in the cattle business and one of the things we know you cannot do is drive a cow and calf. the cow is constantly turning around to look back at her calf. you cannot get them to move forward. the only thing they can do is to alves.he cows -- c it had to be done to move the herd forward. don't know initiated, whether the cowboys went to the farmers are that they were figuring it out, they showed up whenever
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they were german through and they would come up -- whenever they were driven through and they would come up. they would rather give those away then kill them. so a lot of release -- early herds were started because of that. the whole cattle business, if mature -- it is maturing and growing. if you went on a trail with all hundred head of cattle on the old shawnee trail, that was a big heard. you might find a few herds that were larger than that, but a lot of those herds were five or six andra day head. by the time you get to the mature business up to the western trail, you would see 3000 head and a heard.
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generally you manage about the same number of drover's us there would in the early days. they got much better at handling them than they did in the early years. cowboys and a cook entering letter to handle the horses, that was a good crew. the soul thing cap shifting to the west. kept shifting to the west. eventually, the state of kansas in 1885 past a lot of quarantined the whole state of kansas. no more cattle being driven through the state. there was a fellow by the name of mark coulter -- mark co lver. he was hanging out there for years and he tried to bring the
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first heard through in 1886 to dodge city. to the when he got kansas state line -- by this time, and a lot of these guys started their own ranches out of texas. there were ranches everywhere. some of these guys were good friends. everyone of them had a winchester rifle in hand. he called it the winchester quarantine. father, you are not going any farther. all he could do was turn to his cowboys and told them to bend them wesson took them around the corner to kansas and took them up the kansas line on the colorado line and started a town called trail city. there were hoping it would be the new dodge city. these same time, all of
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ranchers, drovers out of texas, wyoming, the whole country, have established their whole cattle associations. for the first time they all came together in st. louis. the idea was that they would get the federal government to build a national trail at the colorado line all the way into the territories in the north. that no settlement could be made inside those boundaries for the trail. that was what they tried to do to bring together all the cattlemen in st. louis. the first time that the beef industry became a national industry. they cannot could the government to do it. it fell by the wayside. on trail driving continued into the territories but it is really dropping off. by the 1890's there are still a few herds that will go north to
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montana and run the young cattle and get them on grass and ship them out. most of that is pretty well gone. it is all because of this texas cattleainst fever. finally, in the mid-1890's, they figured out what texas cattle fever was. does anyone know what it was? that lived onck the south coast of louisiana, texas down into mexico that carried a blood disease that was deadly to the cattle. the texas cattle that lived in association with them for so long develop their own communities. the northern cattle did not have any immunities. in the wintertime they did not carry the disease. takes backnew it was in 1868.
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he was invited to a special conference here in missouri to discuss what was causing texas cattle fever. mccoy says, i think it is the ticks. came upwhen the cattle out of the coast they were sometimes covered with so many takes that the sandwiches shimmer and they would turn colors and they looked grayish. intoicks would drop off the grass having thousands of babies and those babies are carrying the disease to the brand-new cattle they were crawling up on. once they figured out what it was, then they knew how they could fix it. richard by the name of king, king ranch in south texas, still in operation, had been dipping sheep and eight drench .f water and insecticide they were dipping them for
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scabies. he noticed that when there was ticks on the sheep they died too. the answer.ot he began dipping those cattle, no more ticks on the cattle, no more texas cattle fever. what i want you to think about known that it was a tick back when they were first going up the shawnee trail in 1854 when it first hit so bad then they could've dipped those cattle and the cattle business would not have been shifted further west. eventually to abilene, to ellsworth, to wichita. just a little backwater town before joseph mccoy came along. it may never had become the home of her president.
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is the air capital of the world. but where would it have been if it had not been first on the chisholm trail. dodge city is the cowboy capital and it may never become anything famous all because of a little ticked that hitched a ride on a texas steer and changed all of our history. i think you for coming today. if you have questions we have a microphone over here. [applause] >> we will invite questions if you have any. i do have one. thank you for being here. there is a lot of mythology surrounding cattle drives and cowboys, drovers.
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can you name what is the biggest misconception as far as the life of a cowboy, or on cattle drives. are one of the biggest myths or mythologies from film and literature. probably, i don't off it is so much about the cowboys, but when you see most cattle drivers on film, they are almost running, or they may be running. it is the same thing with riding a horse. cowboysthe time you see writing at a gala. it is a very slow-paced culture. at a gallop. --is a very slow place slow-paced culture. people tidy what a boring life, but for me it was a great life.
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i did not want to quit but at the end of the driver had to go home. morning and iy got in my car and drove out on , i must have gone over one mile before i realized i was only doing 35 miles per hour. [laughter] jim: i had to force myself to go faster. i have two questions. first of all, would you explain the importance of quincy, illinois? jim: i'm not familiar with quincy. reading a book about the trails and quincy is mentioned quite often. i know you mentioned hannibal. i am not as for meyer with, say, the feeding part thing. , what ishink that
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going on the drive him to st. where theyse that is would come into contact with the farmer feeders to feed these cattle out for fattening. that is my best guess. but i would say that suits going on there. >> second question. i have nephews and a brother-in-law who all live in wyoming. two of my nephews are attorneys there, quite proud of them. this cowgirl hat. we were there for the big rodeo. they tell me that this is typical of the -- of the wyoming hat. is that correct? [laughter] everyone wants you that you can identify a cowboy and where
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he is from by the style of his hat. that is kind of an intermountain region style. i suppose that is what you would say about wyoming. you have the buckaroos out farther west who where the flat brim with a low crown. the hat i am wearing is more of a -- some people call it a will jamestown hat. dimonalso went to the ranch, which is awesome in wyoming. just it quick tidbit, when i was a collegiate at the university of missouri and we had our fall homecoming, we tried to sell western hats. cowgirl, cowboy hats to get some sort of theme
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going. it will -- it went over like a lead bullet. [laughter] "washington journal" -- jim: i wonder if you would talk how efficientd the drives were not efficient. a b talk about the cook, what his duties were besides just feeding them. what is interesting about this whole chuck wagon coulter is it is actually a later development of the cattle trilling industry. when they drove to louisiana and the shawnee trail, they did not have chuck wagons. theirasically carried goods individually in a tar packet that hung over the back of the saddle.
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that you've evolved into the two will car that came up the trail. mccoy is the author of the first real history of the cattle trilling industry. oftory of the cattle trade the west in the southwest. their he has a drawing of a cooking camp. all it is is a two will cart -- two wheeled cart being pulled. the book was published in 1874. even by 1873 when he is putting that put together, the chuck wagon is not common enough at the end of the trail that it is in his book. charlie is credited with coming
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up with the chuck wagon, which took a military wagon and covered it on the back. that is when it began to take off. suppose from his usage of the trail into new mexico and into colorado that it finally spread west, or maybe when he took it back home to. wagonakra -- the chuck finally becomes popular. he is pretty much in charge of where the hurd goes. had large extent that cook a lot of power on the trail because he's the guy that's going to feed you. you did not want the cook to be mad at you. wanted to keep the cook happy. he was known to be a grumpy fella. he gets up at 3:00 in the morning to cook a meal so you can be on the trail before
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daybreak. it is an interesting way in which the trail drives were handled. a lot of times it depends upon the image you are given. they will show a chuck wagon at the back. that would depend. they would pick up and move out before the hurd would even take off. he is moving on to the next point. it is kind of a coordinated effort. the cook has to know where the camp is going to be. he not only to care of the cooking, but he was the doctor and so many other things. it was home for the cowboys when they were -- and you did not ride a horse anywhere near that wagon. you did not want us. i don't know if they were clean. in the chuckep
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wagon on the ground? jim: i don't think anyone ever slapdash other than shelter in particular storms. most of the time they slept on the open ground or they would a kansas cover that would reach out from the end of the chuck wagon to give more protection and people could sleep under there. one of the stories that i had gotten was, when these guys come up the trail, they only travel -- they are only traveling 12, 13, 14 miles. what they would do is in the morning they would throw them on the trail. water, and put them on the trail. the trail was like a road and they would walk them for 5, 6,
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seven miles and then it is time to rest. the chuck wagon would go ahead and there would be a short camp, a quick camp in the middle of the day. to cattle would get a chance rest, grays, water. why they do that -- while they do that they get a meal off the wagon. last for two would hours. guys would crawl underneath the wagon and take a little snooze. then they grow the cattle back onto the trail and want them another five, 6, 7 miles and by late afternoon they are ready for the evening camp and everything starts over again. >> no matter what walk of life it is always a good idea to stay on the good side of the cook. [laughter] i want to thank everyone for coming out today. jim has some literature on the
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national drover hall of fame. i think he has a few copies of ellsworth. i believe he will talk to you about it and maybe sell a few copies. we will take one more question. talk about the economy, what was the price per head on these cattle? either what was the price in texas, or were they free if you gathered them? what was the price at the railhead? 20, we are talking about a 30 year time. things change. in the beginning, right after the war, they could be free for the taking. as long as you got your brand on them. if you want to sell them in texas, they were usually only worth what the high was worth. they talk about going on the cow hunts and kill an animal for me for the evening.
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they are only worth two or three dollars in texas. north wasnimal driven the incentive to go north. during the gold rush to california there was cattle german all the way to california in the 1850's. they could be worth 35, 40 five dollars ahead depending upon the size of the animals. a tremendous difference between two dollars and three dollars to this $35 or $45. thank you for coming out. let's give jim a hand. [applause] jim: thank you very much. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org]

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