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tv   American Artifacts Clifford K. Berryman Political Cartoons  CSPAN  April 2, 2018 12:48pm-1:18pm EDT

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remember site for background on each case. the landmark cases companion book, a link to the national constitution centers interactive cons t tution, and the landmark cases podcast. each week american artifacts takes viewers into archives, museums, and historic sites around the country. the national archives center for legislative archives in washington, d.c. houses clifford berryman's popular political cartoons from the early 20th century. his work is still relevant 100 years later and season featured in the journal of the white house historical association. we take a look at mr. berryman's cartoons with martha grove and jessie kratz. >> he was one of the most renoun and wilde widely acclaimed
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cartoonists during the first part of the 20th century. 100 years ago in washington, d.c. most people would have known his name or at least been familiar with his artwork. he has born in a small town in kentucky in 1869. he was a self-taught artist, a skilled portraitist. when he was 17 he moved to washington, d.c. and took a job at the u.s. patent office. political cartooning continued to be his passion, and on a whim he submitted two drawings to "the washington post." and to his complete and utter astonishment, the post published those drawings and many years later he talked about how he avoided the newspaper for several days because he was afraid that they might charge him for advertising when, in fact, they did pay him, they paid him $25 which to berryman at the time was quite a handsome sum. and that really inspired him. two years later, in 1891, "the
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washington post" hired him as a political cartoonist. and he eventually became the chief cartoonist for "the washington post." washington post. seven years later, he was hired by the washington evening star, the rival newspaper, and at the time that was the most widely circulated newspaper in washington. very influential paper. and clifford berryman continued to draw for "the washington evening star" for the next 42 years. his cartoons appeared almost daily, usually on the front page of the paper, very prominently placed. he had quite an illustrious career. he throughout his career won many awards, perhaps most notably in 1944 he was awarded the pulitzer prize for editorial cartooning for a world war ii related cartoon he had drawn. berryman drew on a wide range of
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subjects and he drew a lot of different people and he often gave his cartoons away to the people he drew. so, there are many collections around the country that have berryman cartoons. in 1945, berryman gave a large collection to the library of congress about 1,200 cartoons. and that was the largest berryman collection up until the 1990s and our collection came to us in early 1990s when clifford berryman's daughter, florence berryman, who lived in the family home in northwest washington, she passed away. and when they were cleaning out her house and preparing her possessions for auction they discovered thousands of these original pen and ink drawings in the basement in garbage bags. they almost were thrown out as trash. luckily the auction house realized their value and were going to put them up for auction and the charles engel hard foundation got wind of the sale
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and a lot of the cartoons deal with congress, so they decided to purchase the collection and donate them to the u.s. senate on behalf of former majority leader mike mansfield. the idea was they would become senate records and then they would come to the national archives in the center for legislative archives and become part of the official senate collection. which they are today. the collection has about 2,400 of clifford berryman's cartoons, most of which appeared on the front page of the papers. when the collection first came to us in the early 90s, we spent a lot of time dating the collection, going up to the mlk library, pulling the microfilm and finding out when these cartoons were, their titles, their dates. then we also have about 230 cartoons from jim berryman, which was clifford's son who was also a political cartoonist. we have this great cartoon that clifford berryman drew in 1939. this was his christmas card that year. they had just moved into the family house in northwest
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washington and he sent this out to all of his friends and family announcing their new address but also holiday greetings. so an archives is not a place where documents go to die. we use this very rich collection in a variety of ways. first of all, all of the berryman cartoons that we have in our collection are available in the national archives catalog and you can see them online there. we also use these cartoons in exhibits. and they have been exhibited here in the national archives building and also at other institutions with permission from the senate. right now you can see several of the berryman cartoons from our collection on exhibit at the capital visitor's center. we have a variety of educational publications and resources that we have done using these cartoons to help teach american history and civics primarily to high school and middle school-aged students.
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available on our website are two e-books. the first is called "representing congress" and that uses these cartoons to teach about congress, what congress is, how congress works and what congress does. and we also have an e-book called "america and the world" that looks at american foreign policy from the spanish american war up to about the eve of the world war ii, sort of using these cartoons to look at american foreign policy in the beginning part of the 20th century. berryman drew most of his pen and ink drawings much larger than the way they appeared in the newspapers. here you can see one original drawing. as you can see, it's much larger than it's shown in this fak sillily of "the washington evening star." this is a cartoon that berryman drew on december 2nd, 1912, welcoming congress back into session after the 1912 elections. >> berryman is most known for
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his 1902 cartoon, drawing the line in mississippi. this is a facsimile of it. the story is president roosevelt in 1902 went down to mississippi to settle a border dispute. while he was there, he was on a hunting trip. it was a several-day hunting trip. the press covered it. but he was unsuccessful. he was not able to find a bear and kill a bear. and so his aides didn't want the president to be embarrassed by not having a successful hunting trip, so one of them tracked down this old bear and sort of incapacitated it and tied it up to a tree and took the president over and said here, president, you can shoot this bear. and the president said, no. i will not shoot that bear. and berryman took the bear in this cartoon here shows how berryman took that old bear and he turned it into this cute, cuddly teddy bear he called it and it became a really popular stuffed toy. he was the one that really coined that term teddy bear.
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it also became a symbol, reoccurring symbol in berryman's cartoons. you'll see later some of the teddy bear in some of the cartoons. after roosevelt left office, this cartoon here talks about roosevelt on his last day in office how he is packing up and going to go to safari in africa clifford berryman wondered whether he should keep the teddy bear. this cartoon is called to go or not to go? he's asking should i keep the bear now that roosevelt is not president or should i get rid of the teddy bear? the teddy bear was very popular with the star's readers. much to their delight, he decided to keep the teddy bear in his cartoons. >> he wrote about national issues, things that the nation was concerned about. in this first cartoon called "tax him" you can see the president woodrow wilson and the secretary of the treasury
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william mccuta in congress all debating how they'll generate new revenue through taxes. for the administration's war revenue plan. and you can see the special interest groups here represented by beer, national income, playing cards, the motion pictures all pointing to a different interest group because nobody really wants to have their own products taxed. this is one of my favorite cartoons. this is a cartoon from 1920. and it's called april 1st. and in 1919 both houses of congress had after decades of effort and much debate passed a proposed constitutional amendment extending the right to vote to women. and this cartoon is -- was published on april 1st in 1920. at that point, a number of states had quickly ratified the proposed constitutional amendment and only one additional vote was needed. and mississippi on march 29th of
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that year could have been the last vote needed. but mississippi rejected the proposed amendment. and here i love how you can see berryman sort of dry humor yanking away the suffrage amendment from the women of the nation. about five months after this cartoon was published, tennessee did ratify the amendment and it went on to become law later that year in 1920. in this cartoon over here represents something that our nation goes through every ten years. the constitution requires that a census of the population be taken every ten years for the purpose of reapportioning seats in the house of representatives. here you can see uncle sam representing the nation. he's talking about announcing the results of the 14th census. and saying to the house, it's about time to measure yourself again, right? you can see berryman's teddy bear down at the bottom holding up the measuring tape. interestingly the house never
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did reapportion itself after the 14th census. there was quite a bit of disagreement. people who were representing more rural areas were concerned about the migration to the more urban areas. and congress later passed a law that established how the the 435 house seats would be apportioned. berryman also drew many cartoons that related to global issues and talked about america's place in the world. this cartoon called "open for business" was published the day that the panama canal first opened for business on august 15th, 1914. and you can see uncle sam proudly waving the american flag welcoming boats, ships into the panama canal. you can see the atlantic ocean connected to the pacific ocean and again berryman's little teddy bear welcoming people. the panama canal opened at the
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very beginning during the first weeks of world war i. and at the time, the administration declared that the canal would be remain neutral and would be open to all european nations. this cartoon here from may of 1940 was published during the years leading up to world war ii. at that time, isolationists were calling for the u.s. government to build fortress america, which was a mighty defensive shield that would protect america from foreign military tech. now internationalists at the time saw this as a reversal of policy during world war i when american troops had gone and fought to the aid of france and other nations. here berryman is sort of mocking the isolationists by showing uncle sam sitting securely at home sealed off in a heavily defended united states. this cartoon was published on the eve of germany's invasion of france.
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and three days earlier, germany had gained access to the english channel leaving french and english troops trapped on the beaches of dunkirk. here berryman really portrays american isolationism as a betrayal of france. he's subtly suggesting that the united states should really go to the rescue of france and honor its responsibility to its oldest ally. this cartoon is from october of 1940. and it's after the selective training and service act had been passed, for the fooirs time instituting a peacetime draft in the united states. and you can see mars, the roman god of war, selecting a capsule out of a basket. and the cartoon was published on the day that the first draft numbers were drawn. and you can see over on the left uncle sam worriedly looking on and in the background the
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nations of greece, england, germany, japan and france all marching off to war. here berryman is really sort of foreshadowing the united states' ultimate involvement in world war ii. >> berryman drew on every presidential election from 1900 to 1948, so i just want to show you a few of those cartoons from those elections. in this first cartoon was from the 1912 presidential election. and in that election you see a three-way race actually. we have the first is former president roosevelt who came back to run as the bull moose party, the progressive party. and then the middle we have woodrow wilson who ran as the democratic nominee and then we have incumbent president, william howard taft, running for the republican party. and in this cartoon you see on the eve of the election you see all the candidates public persona, how they're behaving, how they're very confident and
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jovial and laughing and then you see them how they feel really inside, how they must be nervous and anxious. in that race, the republicans were split and woodrow wilson, the democrat, actually went on to run on and win the election. so this second cartoon deals with presidential primaries. and as you can imagine, if a party goes through a particularly bitter or divisive primary, they have a very hard time getting people to coalesce behind their eventual nominee. this is what happened in 1924 with the democrats. you see them off the fairway in the bitter contest bunker fighting each other while incumbent president calvin coolidge, he's represented here by the elephant. you know he's calvin coolidge because he has c.c. on his little golf ball. he's saying, well, i breezed through the presidential primary links and i was never once off
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the fairway. coolidge easily won that election. and then some more modern elections towards the end of berryman's career, his last election he drew on was the 1948 election. this was in the early process of the election. and this is senator taft from ohio. he is looking at the electoral college map, planning his schedule. because as you know, if you're president, you have to win electoral college vote, not the popular vote. so he's looking at the map and deciding what his summer schedule would be, what states he needed to visit in order to win the election. but unfortunately he wasn't able to secure the nomination and it went to dewey who eventually went on to become the republican nominee. >> this last cartoon on presidential elections is probably our most famous cartoon and it has to do with probably the most famous election that we have and that is the 1948 presidential election where you had truman, harry truman running
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against thomas dewey. before the election, polls had widely forecast that dewey was going to win. and here in the cartoon we have dewe yechlt sort of sidling up to truman going over his shoulder saying, what's the use of going through this election at all? and you see here the polls that dewey is going to carry virginia that dewey will get 333 electoral college votes. but what ends up happening is that truman won that election and became president. >> this cartoon represents the frenzy of activity happening in congress after the election of president franklin roosevelt. and here you can see members of congress going from the house with the assistance of a young page carrying lots of different legislation relating to ways to help solve problems that arose during the great depression. and they're sweating under the
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burden of all the legislation that they're trying to pass, carrying it over to the senate. this cartoon here is from 1906. and in it, berryman is sort of poking fun of the legislative process. the bill here is a bill that was quite popular at the time intending to regulate the rates that the railroads could charge. but really the particular piece of legislation in the cartoon is almost irrelevant in terms of the timelessness of the cartoon. you see this bill coming out of the senate going back into the house. it's limping along on crutches. he's been heavily amended by the senate and the bill is looking a little worried because it knows that the constitution requires that it be passed in identical form before going to the president for signature. now, down in the bottom here you can see berryman's little teddy bear representing the president and he's looking pretty happy
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and he says looks good to me. the president was a big proponent of this bill. and despite the fact that the bill was heavily amended by the senate, it did go on to pass shortly after this cartoon was published. you can see the president feeling -- berryman showing the president feeling pretty confident about that. this next cartoon is from 1921. but it truly is timeless and really could represent almost any time in congress. here you see a congressman going home to face his constituents. you see the capitol building in the back and he's racing home saying it's not going to be such a restful month at that. and he has his satchel in hand and tucked under his arm are a bunch of speaking points addressing topics like explanations, questions to be answered. why i voted for this, why i didn't vote for that. it addresses a congressman's constant need to be addressing congressional issues and thinking about re-election.
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this next cartoon also really represents a timeless theme for members of congress. this is a cartoon from 1922. and it is showing congress getting out, breaking for session and here you see the republican elephant and the democratic donkey, two symbols that berryman used regularly in his cartoons. in the background you see uncle sam. the republican elephant was saying, you know, it was a great session. and the democratic donkey says i know you ought to be ashamed to face the folks back home. and this cartoon really is eluding to the constant dilemma of successes and disappointments that happen in a session of congress and the way in which those really translate into the potential for re-election. and i love how you see uncle sam in the background saying they won't agree on anything. >> this cartoon is from 1920 and it shows mr. district of columbia, which was a recurring
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dmarkt berryman's cartoons, and he's standing in front of the capitol building and he's holding up a sign that says d.c. beats 28 states in federal income taxes. basically d.c. residents paid more taxes than 28 states. and furthermore, he says, that they've paid a million more dollars than five states combined. this is a big issue still with d.c. residents today. and mr. district of columbia says they called it tyranny in 1776. really bringing back the idea of taxation without representation which is on the d.c. license plates. this next cartoon has to do with sports. and berryman, as he lived in washington his whole adult life, was an avid sports fan. and this deals with the washington senators, which was the baseball team in 1924 the precurser to the washington nationals. in that year in the summer, the washington senators were ahead of the american league for most of the time but around the same
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time the new york yankees were trying to creep in and take the lead for the american league. and you see in the cartoon washington driving the car with the yankee trying to come in and say i like this front seat and washington says, no, i'm not through with driving yet. and that year, which was a rarity for washington sports fans, the senators went on to win the world series over the new york giants. this next cartoon has to deal with another common theme in berryman's cartoon with government workers. while most of the federal government employees aren't in the washington, d.c. area, when he was drawing this, he was really thinking about washington workers and federal workers in particular and every year when congress goes to do the appropriations, they decide if they're going to give a cost of living adjustment to the government workers. and he shows the government worker and he's trying to steer through these increased rent and
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increased cost of clothing and increased cost of food. and he has his stick, his salary scale from 50 years ago. perhaps berryman's favorite topic was washington weather. he loved to draw on washington weather. we love to talk about washington weather. we're talking about it right now. this cartoon was done on march 21st, 1920, and it has to do with the coming of spring. and you see old man winter, he's sitting in front of a pot belly stove. he has his bag seemingly ready and packed to go. and then you have spring, the young spring with her beautiful flowery hat coming on admonishing him saying you were supposed to be gone by midnight. this year it was a particularly cold spring so winter stayed a few extra days and berryman and the washington public were very unhappy with that occurrence. and finally, if you've ever spent any time in washington, d.c. in the summer, you know it
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is oppressively hot and humid. that was the case in 1899 when this cartoon was published. this is the oldest cartoon we have that we're showing you today. it has to do with mafisto who is a devil. he's sitting on a park bench in washington, d.c., and you see the washington monument behind him sweating. and he's fanning himself saying what have i done to deserve to be in such a hot climate? it tells you that washington was really hot if a devil thinks it's too hot for him. >> political cartoons have been drawn and enjoyed since before the founding of the nation. and part of the reason political cartoons have flourished throughout american history is because they really are able to concisely capture events of the day, complex issues and controversial issues and translate those into enjoyable and entertaining drawings that can help sell newspapers. and i think preserving this
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collection gives us a sense of -- a glimpse into what the important events of the day were during the first part of the 20th century. and by having these here, preserving them and making them available to the public, they're a resource that can be used by all. >> i would say that to save these cartoons because political cartoons are very important in the democratic process. if you can't poke fun at your elected officials, that's a big problem, i think. when berryman was drawing a lot of these cartoons, they're very relevant today even though they're 100 years old. so to save these, people can see how democracy worked 100 years ago and how similar it is today. tonight, on "american history tv" in primetime, landscape historian jonathan pliska talks about his book the white house easter egg roll a
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history for all ages, on how presidents and first families have hosted the annual white house tradition since 1878 and the changes that have been made along the way. american history tv in primetime starting at 8:00 p.m. eastern here on c-span3. and book tv is in primetime tonight as well with a look at the future. experimental cognitive scientist steven pinker explores the thought processes behind extremism and authoritarianism in his book, "enlightenment now." then author greg easterbrook introduces policy reforms to address economic inequality, climate change and more in "it's better than it looks." and then andrew keen with "how to fix the future" and after that microsoft president brad smith discusses artificial intelligence in "the future computed" and we'll show major general robert latiff who examines the future of warfare and evolving technologies in "future war." book tv this week in primetime starting at 8:00 p.m. on cspan
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2. tuesday, it's an early look at the road to the white house 2020 with ohio republican governor john kasich. the 2016 presidential candidate travels to new hampshire to speak at new england college. our live coverage starts at 5:30 eastern and that will be on c-span. tonight on landmark cases, griswoldv. connecticut. it challenged the prescription and use of birth control. the supreme court ultimately ruled the statute to be unconstitutional and in the process established a right to privacy that is still evolving today. our guest to discuss this case are helen alvare, law professor at george mason university's law school.
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and rachel rebouche from temple university. watch landmark cases tonight and join the conversation. our hash tag is #landmark cases. follow us on c-span and we have resources on our remembers for background. the c the companion book and the podcast at cases. tonight on "the kmurkts," ncta president michael powell is interviewed by kyle daly of politico. >> my own belief is what's happening to facebook today was predictable and inevitable to some degree. i think that essentially you have a brilliant platform based advertising model that essentially emphasizes precision propaganda. and that precision propaganda
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can be used for good or for evil. and i think that you've had this mythology almost in the opening decade of the internet that information always wants to be free and available, but openness is always good. and i don't think there was a full thinking through the way that one could inject into that social graph steam evil and negative behavior. and i think as various forces have matured and learned how the products worked, they're learning how to take advantage of them for their own purposes. >> watch the communicators tonight at 8:00 p.m. eastern on c-span2. the museum of the bible in washington, d.c. which opened on november 17th of 2017, has more than 3,000 books and artifacts on exhibit and the building occupies almost an entire city block. up


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