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tv   American Artifacts Clifford K. Berryman Political Cartoons  CSPAN  April 3, 2018 3:43am-4:12am EDT

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berryman political cartoons. a discussion of the impact of the bible in america and a look of the museum exhibit on the vietnam war and the battle of way. later american artifacts explores gunston hall, the home of george mason. each week american artifacts take viewers into archives and museums and historic sites around the country. the national archives center for legislative archives houses the popular, political cartoons from the early 20th century. his work is still relevant and is featured in the journal's white house historical association. we take a look at his cartoon. >> clifford barryman was one of the most renowned and widely
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claimed political cartoonist during the first part of the 20th century. most people would known his name or at least been familiar with his art work. he was born in a small town in kentucky in 1869, he was a skillskil skilled portraitist. he moved to washington, d.c. and took a job as the u.s. patent office. political cartoon contins conti be his passion. on the win, he submitted two drawings to the washington post, the post published those drawings and many years later, he talked about how he avoided the newspaper for several days because he was afraid they may charge him for advertising when in fact, they did pay him, they paid him $7.25.
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that really inspired him. two years later, in 1891, the washington post hired him as a political cartoonist, he eventually became the chief cartoonist for the washington post. seven years later, he was hired by the washington evening star, the rival news paper and at the time, that was the most widely circulated newspaper in washington, very influential newspaper. he continued to draw for the next 42 years. his cartoon appears daily on the front page of the newspaper. it is prominently placed. he has quite a career. throughout his career he won many awards and most notably in 1944, he was awarded for editorial cartooning of world war ii related cartoons that he
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had drawn. >> he drew a lot of different people and he often gave his cartoons a way to the people that he drew. so, there are many collections around the country that have berryman cartoon. we gave congress 1200 cartoons, that was the largest berryman's collection up until 1990s. clifford berryman's daughter livered in the family home in northwest washington, she passed away and when they were cleaning out her house and preparing her possessions for auction, they discovered thousands of these original drawings in the basement in garbage bags and they were almost thrown out as trash. the auction house realized its value and putting them up for option. a lot of cartoons really deal with congress, they decided to
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purchase the collection and donated them to the u.s. senate on behalf of former majority leader mike mansfield. the idea is they become senate's records and they would come to the national archives and become part of the official senate collection which they are today. the collection has about 2400 of cliffo clifford berryman's cartoons. when the collection came to us in the early '90s, we spent a lot of time dating the collection and going up to the mlk library and finding out when these cartoons of their titles and dates. jim berryman was also a cartoonist, we had this great cartoon that clifford berryman drew in 1939. this was his christmas card that year and they just moved to the
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family house in northwest washington and he sent this out to all their friends and family announcing their new address but also holiday greetings. >> so an archive is not a place where documents go to die. we use this very rich collection and a variety of ways, first of all, all of the berryman cartoons that we have in our collection are available in the national archive catalogs and you can see it online. we use these cartoons in exhibits and they have been exhibited here in the national archives building and also other institutions, we have permission from the nasenate. right now you can see several of our cartoon collections. we have a variety of educational publications and resources that we have done using these cartoons to help teach american
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history and s histo history s history and civics. available on our website is e-books. the first is called "representing congress." that uses these cartoons to teach about congress and what it is and how it works and what it does. we have an e-book called "america and the world" that looks at american foreign policies from the spanish/american war up to about the eve of world war ii, looking at these cartoons to look at the american foreign policies. berryman drew most of his pending drawings much larger than they appeared in the newspapers. here you can see one original drawing and as you can see it is much larger than it is shown in this washington evening star. this is a cartoon he drew in 1912 welcoming congress back into session after the 1912 elections. >> berryman is well-known for
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his cartoon. the story is president roosevelt went down to mississippi to sell a portrait dispute and while he was there, he was on a hunting trip. it was a several day hunting trip, the press covered it and he was unsuccessful. he was not able to find a bear and kill a bear. his aids did not want the president to be embarrassed by not having a successful hunting trip. one of them tracked down this old bear and in ccapacitated th. the president turns over and says hey, you can shoot this bear and the president says no, i will not shoot that bear. berryman took the old bear and turned it into this cute, cuddly teddy bear. it became a popular stuffed toy. he was the one that coined that term, teddy bear, it became a
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reoccurring symbol in berryman's cartoons. after roosevelt left off office, this cartoon here talks about roosevelt on his last day in office and how he's packing up and going to go to safari in africa. clifford berryman wondered if he should keep the teddy bear. he's asking should i keep the bear now that roosevelt is not president or should i get rid of it. the teddy bear was very popular. thank you very much, berryman decided to stop using bear in his cartoons. >> berryman drew many cartoons related to national issues. the feirst cartoon, you can see the president, window drdrow wi
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all debating on how they're going to generate new revenue to taxes for the revenue plan. you can see the special interest groups here written, represented by fears and national income and playing cards and emotional pictures all pointing to a different interest groups because nobody really wants to have their own products taxed. this is one of my favorite cartoons. this is a cartoon from 1920. it is called "april 1st." in 1919, both houses of congress passed a proposed constitutional amendment extending the right to vote for women. this cartoon was published on april 1st in 1920. a number of states have ratified the proposed constitutional amendment and only one addition
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buo additional vote was needed. mississippi on march 29th that year could have been the last needed. here i love how you can see berryman's dry humor yanking away the suffrage amendment from the women of the nation. in about five months after this cartoon was published, tennessee did ratify the amendment and it went onto become later that year in 1920s. this cartoon over here represents something that our nation goes to every ten years. the constitution requires that it senses the population to be taken every ten year for the purpose of reapportioning seats in the house of representatives and here you can see uncle sam representing the nation, he's talking about announcing the results of the 14th census and saying to the house it is about time to measure yourself again, you can see berryman's teddy bear holding up the measuring tape.
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interestingly, the house never did reapportion itself after the 14th census, there was quite a bit of disagreements and people who were representing more rural areas were concerned of the migration to the more urban areas. congress later passed a law that established the reapportions. berryman drew many cartoons that related to global issues and talked about america's place in the world. this cartoon called "open for business" was accomplished the way when the panama canal first opened for business on august 15, 1914. you can see uncle sam waving the american flag, welcoming boats and ships into the canal and you can see the atlanta ocean connected to the pacific ocean and berryman's teddy bear
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welcoming people. at the time that administration declared that the canal would be remaining neutral and open to all your nations. this cartoon here from may of 1940, was published during the years leading up to world war ii. at that time, isolationists were calling for u.s. governments to build a fortress america which is a defensive shield to protect america. now, internationalists at the time saw this as reversal of policy during world war i when american troops had gone and fought to the aid of france. here mocking the isolationists by showing uncle sam sealed off in a heavily defended united states, this cartoon was published on the eve of
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germany's invasion of france. and three days earlier, jeegerm gained access to the english channel leaving french and english troops trapped. here berryman portrays american isolationism as a portrayal of france and he's suggesting that the united states should go to the rescue of france and honor its responsibility to its oldest allies. this cartoon is october of 1940. it is after the selected training and service act had been passed for the first time in a peacetime draft in the united states. you can see mars, the roman god of war selecting a capsule out of a basket and the cartoon was published on the day of the first draft numbers were drawn. you can see over on the left uncle sam looking up on and in the background, the nation of
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greece, england, germany, japan and france all marching off to war. here is berryman is for shadowing the united states's ultimate involvement in world war ii. berryman drew from 1900s to 1948. i want to show you a few cartoons in those collections. this was 1912. in that election, you see a three-way race. we have the first is former president roosevelt who came back to run, the progressive party. in the middle we have woodrow wilson and we have taft running for the republican party. in the cartoon, you see on the eve of the election, you see all the candidates' public persona
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how they are behaving and confident and jovial and laughing and you see how they feel inside, how they must be nervous and anxious. in that race, the republicans were split and woodrow wilson went onto win the election. so this cartoon deals with the presidential primaries. if the party goes to a divisive primary, they'll have a hard time for people to coalesc coalesce -- you know he has cc on his little golf ball. he's saying i breathe through the primary links and i was never once off the fair way. he easily won that election.
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some more modern elections towards the end of berryman's career. the last election he drew was the 1948 elections. this was in the early part of the election. this is senator taft from ohio, he's looking at the electoral college map planning his schedule. if you are president, you have to win popular vote. he's looking at the map and deciding what the summer schedule would be, what states he needed to visit in order to win the election. but unfortunately, he wasn't able to secure the nomination and it went to dewey who eventually went on to become the republican nominee. this last cartoon on presidential elections is probably our most famous cartoon and it has to do with probably the most famous election we have, and that is the 1948 presidential election where you had true man, harry truman
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running against dewey, thomas dewey. and before the election polls had widely forecast due which w -- dewey was going to win. we have dewey going to up true man, what's the use of going through the election at all? you see the polls due whiewey ig to get. what ended up happening was true man won that election and became president. this cartoon represents the frenzy of activity happening in congress after the election of president franklin roosevelt. and here you can see members of congress going from the house with the assistance of a young page, carrying lots of different legislation relating to ways to help solve problems that arose during the great depression. and they're sweating under the burden of all the legislation that they are trying to pass,
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carrying it over to the senate. this cartoon here is from 1906, and in it berryman is sort of poking fun of the legislative process. the bill here is called the hepburn rate bill. it was a bill quite popular at the time intended to regulate the rates that railroads could charge. but really, the particular piece of legislation in the cartoon is almost irrelevant in terms of the timelessness of the cartoon. you see this bill coming out of the senate, going back into the house. it's limping along on crutches. he's been heavily amended by the senate. and the bill is looking a little worried because it knows that the constitution requires that it be passed in identical form before going to the president for signature. now, down in the bottom here you can see berryman's little teddy bear representing the president. he's looking happy.
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says, looks good to me. the president wasn't a proponent of the rate bill. despite the bill was heavily amended by the senate, it did go on to pass shortly after the cartoon was published. you can see the president feeling -- berryman showing the president feeling pretty confident about that. this next cartoon is from 1921, but it truly is timeless and really could represent almost any time in congress. here you see a congressman going home to face his constituents. you see the capital building in the back and he's racing home saying, it's not going to be such a restful month at that. and he has his satchell in hand, and tucked under his arm are a bunch of speaking points addressing topics like explanations, questions to be answered, why i voted for this. why i didn't vote for that. it really just addresses a congressman's constant need to be addressing congressional issues and thinking about reelection. this next cartoon also
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really represents a timeless theme for members of congress. this is a cartoon from 1922, and it's showing congress getting out, breaking for session, and here you see the republican elephant and the democratic donkey, two symbols berryman used regularly in his cartoon. and the background you can see uncle sam. the republican elephant was saying, you know, it's a great session. the democratic donkey says, i know you ought to be ashamed to face the folks back home. this cartoon really is alluding to the constant dilemma of successes and disappointments that happen in a session of congress in a way in which those really translate into the potential for reelection. and i love how you see uncle sam in the background saying, they won't agree on anything. this cartoon is from 1920 and it shows mr. district of columbia which was a recurring
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character in berryman's cartoons. and he's standing in front of the capital building and he's holding up a sign that says d.c. beats 28 states in federal income taxes. basically d.c. residents who don't have representation in congress paid more taxes than 28 states. and furthermore, he says that they've paid a million more dollars than five states combined. this is a big issue still with d.c. residents today, and mr. district of columbia says, they called it tierney in 1776 bringing back the idea of taxation without representation which is on the d.c. license plates. this next cartoon has to do with sports and berryman, as he lived in washington his whole adult life, was an avid sports fan. this cartoon deals with the washington senators which was the baseball team in 1924. the precursor to the washington nationals. that year in the summer the washington senators were ahead of the american league for most of the time, but around the same
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time the new york yankees were trying to creep in and take the lead for the american league. and you see in the cartoon washington driving the car with the yankee trying to come in and say, i like this front seat. washington says, no, i'm not through with driving yet. and that year, which was a rarity for washington sports fans, the senators went on to win the world series over the new york giants. this next cartoon has to deal with another common theme in berryman's cartoon with government workers. and while most federal government employees aren't in the washington, d.c. area, when he was drawing this he was really thinking about washington workers and federal workers in particular. and every year when congress goes to do the appropriations, they decide if they're going to give a cost of living adjustment to the government workers. and he shows the government worker and he's trying to steer through these increased rent and
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increased cost of clothing and increased cost of food, and he has his stick, his salary scale from 50 years ago. perhaps berryman's favorite topic was washington weather. he loved to draw washington weather. he loved to talk about washington weather. we're talking about it right now. this cartoon was done on march 21st, 1920, and it has to do with the coming of spring. and you see old man winter. he's sitting in front of a pot bellied stove. he has his bag seemingly ready packed to go. and you have spring, the young spring with her beautiful flowery hat on admonishing him saying, you know, you were supposed to be gone by midnight. well, this year it was particularly cold spring and so winter stayed a few extra days and berryman and the washington public were very unhappy with that occurrence. and finally, if you've ever spent any time in
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washington, d.c. in the summer, you know it is oppressively hot and humid. and that was the case when -- in 1899 when this cartoon was published and this is the oldest cartoon we have we're showing you today. it has to do with mefisto who is a devil sitting on a park bench in washington, d.c. you see the washington monument behind him sweating. and he's fanning himself saying, what have i done to deserve to have to be in such a hot climate? it tells you that washington was really hot if a devil thinks it's too hot for him. political cartoons have been drawn and enjoyed since before the founding of the nation, and part of the reason political cartoons have flourished throughout american history is because they really are able to concisely capture events of the day, complex issues, and controversial issues, and translate those into enjoyable and entertaining drawings. that can help sell newspapers. i think preserving this
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collection gives us a sense -- a glimpse into what the important events of the day were during the first part of the 20th century. and by having these here, preserving them and making them available to the public, there is something -- a resource that can be used by all. i would say that to save these cartoons, because political cartoons are very important in the democratic process. if you can't poke fun at your elected officials, then that's a big problem, i think. so, when berryman was drawing a lot of these cartoons, even though they're 100 years old, they are very relevant today. and to save these, people can see how democracy worked 100 years ago and see how remarkably similar it is today. >> c-span's washington journal live every day with news and policy issues that impact you. coming up tuesday morning, foreign policy magazine's bethany allen abrh emia a
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discusses diplomatic developments in u.s./china relations. the you're asia group talks about the future of u.s./china relations. be sure to watch c-span's washington journal live at 7:00 eastern tuesday. join the discussion. >> here's a look at our live event for tuesday. the heritage foundation holds an event focusing on at-risk youth and school safety. that's at noon eastern on c-span. wednesday, march, the 50th anniversary of martin luther king's assassination. that is from the national civil rights museum in memphis at 1:00 p.m. eastern. our 2020 road to the white house coverage continues with remarks from ohio governor john kasich.
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he'll be in new england, new hampshire. that starts at 5:30 p.m. eastern. on c-span2, a look at the future of iraq and syria and some of the security challenges in the middle east. that's from the u.s. institute of peace at noon eastern. >> this week is the 50th anniversary of martin luther king, jr.'s assassination. join us for live coverage from memphis on c-span and american history tv on c-span3. on c-span tuesday, we're live from the university of memphis holiday inn with taylor branch. and wednesday beginning at 4:30 p.m. eastern, live coverage of the outdoor service in front of the lorraine motel, the site of the assassination with remarks by civil rights leaders including jesse jackson and an american history tv on c-span3 tuesday, at 8:00 p.m. eastern, archival events including news
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anchor walter can cronkite announcing dr. king's assassination and the funeral. live coverage with civil rights leaders both past and present including georgia congressman john lewis, marian wright edelman, and tamika mallory. the 50th anniversary of the assassination of martin luther king, jr., live tuesday and wednesday on c-span and american history tv on c-span3. >> c-span where history unfolds daily. in 1979, c-span was created as a public service by america's cable television companies. and today we continue to bring you unfiltered coverage of congress, the white house, the supreme court, and public policy events in washington, d.c. and around the country. c-span is brought to you by your cable or satellite provider.

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