tv American Artifacts Puck Magazine Cartoons on Congress CSPAN April 29, 2018 9:58pm-10:29pm EDT
dominate the debate, the long viewtake that those founding fathers were geniuses. absolute they understood human nature so well. to divide xactly how the power, how to keep us from abusing each other and how to diverse country together all these many years. i'm optimistic about the future and i hop you enjoyed this past.sion of the thank you for the opportunity to be here today. [applause]
>> next sunday at 8:30 a.m. eastern, we're live continuing series, 1968 america in turmoil, with a look at the vietnam war at home. war was fought not only in the jungles of vietnam but on american streets. and acts of es civil disobedience dominated our guest, our author that's next , on american history 26. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp 2018] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy.
visit ncicap.org] in our studios is the coauthor of the book, the puck, published by the library of american comics back in -- it was a beautiful cartoon and i was hooked. since then, i have collected the cartoon. will talk about that. what was it like back then? >> there was no intervention, no television. there was a lot of newspapers,
puck was the first cartoon that was colorful, talking about politics. it was more influential than all of the newspapers combined in terms of influencing the population. the: let's look at some of illustrations. we should point out this is in german. what are we looking at and why is it in german? >> this is the very first issue of puck. the founder was german. he also published german versions. if we take a look at the top right-hand corner, you can see mr. punch and other characters from famous magazines.
on the table saying, i am going to now join new york as part of the new york publishing community. oft this is also a reminder immigration. -- host: this is also a reminder of immigration. guest: absolutely. interestingly, he uses a theater motif in the first cartoon. host: these are three men who were responsible for the publication of "puck." wast: the one to the left responsible for publication. the one to the right --. the other was the editor. they were terrific. host: where was it published and
what was its readership like? guest: it was published in new york city. published 124,000 each publication. you can multiply that times 10, the influence was enormous at the time. puck who was the symbol of ? she?s he or guest: neither he or she. modeled on the editor's daughter but it is meant to be neither he nor she. an it. so influential?
guest: because of the color i think. it was very innovative at the time. i 1880, they had lithographic process. they used the process to produce these beautiful cartoons. it was the first of its kind in america. people saw them and they were very impressed by the image, the message. -- first host: the first in german, then english came out. egg with image of an puck coming out of it. puck you canound othere images of publishers in new york. cartoonists. the chickens in the chicken house are welcoming the newly
hatched and to disturb the roost, another chicken has come. ey always liked to have allegories in his humor. he would have animals. in this particular case, i guess he was saying the new york publishing company is like a house of chickens. epler were here k toay, would you compare him -- guest: i don't think so. had white-ranging interests. today's cartoonists are more specific. i do not think there would be any comparison. host: in new york city there is
a building known as 'the puck --where is it? significant they can afford to build the largest lithographic house. the largest building in the world for lithographic printing. puck was so successful, they used the entire building to publish that and other magazines. building is located at lafayette and houston in southern new york. and looks like you can see the white house, the capital, the brooklyn bridge. what does this represent? puck like roosevelt to begin with.
host: was it viewed as revolutionary with these images? yest: in the united states, . however there were quite a few european magazines that had such cartoons. in the united states, keppler was revolutionary but in europe, not so much. cartoon without seeing a reference today. if you look through our book, you will see tons of cartoons that you could publish tomorrow and the readership of today would say -- i would recognize what is going on. --ey in politics write, throughout its history, puck has written a nation slid about the effect of money on government. campaigning against the
political interference of millionaire businessman who attempted to manipulate the legislative agenda. guest: i know it is hard to believe but money was a worse problem then that it is now. there were no limitations, no restrictions. objected to ak greatly. >> do find the issues resonate today? >> very much so. electoralssue of the process, some issues are exactly the same. >> let me ask you about the detail of the work. let's get back to this image. explain what this represents and how it resonates today. the 1880 time, the
republican party was much as it is today. the republican party was the one in power. you can see the president are -- president garfield in charge. but over to the right, cutting off the limb because the republicans were fighting among themselves. puck was saying republicans are not able to get along and they are going to destroy the franchise. senatetake a look at the group of donkeys that are out of color.they have no it is like the situation today where the internal fight of the republicans and the democrats are in the indolence hoping to get -- are out in the hinder lens hoping to get their power back.
would immediately recognize roscoe conard then. the would also recognize president. in recognize these are the faces of politicians. the thing they would like most is these really powerful people are depicted as monkeys acting foolishly, out of control. these are the kind of images that puck liked and the population enjoyed. posts: how did you research this book? guest: i read a lot of history books. i took various references to tookcartoons and i cartoons that were most prominently featured and put them in the book. host: uncle sam, it reads "look here, uncle sam isn't it time
?"u gave those jobs to me that democratic party was associated with the irish. secession.to the republican party was depicted by some very bad scandals. what puck is saying is republicans and immigrants are horrible -- we need a new party. and democrats are a new party.need they are saying, this is a terrible problem, we need a new party. on towe're going to move the next. tariffs init shows
congress. what were tariffs? taxes that were added to imports to the united states. and it isbuy a chair $20, you add a tariff and it is $40. the major income source for the united states was tariffs. take a look at the cartoon. -- it by the mid-1880's shows by the mid-1880's there was a huge surplus in the american budget. because of that tariffs. the surplus was viewed as a problem. puck was against the tariffs. tariffs werethe attacks on the wealthy man. they were making the point that the tariffs were a terrible problem.
have trillion dollar debt in the united states. that: then, i think surplus was less than 100 million. the numbers are amazingly small compared to today. host: here's a not very complementary look at the house speaker. why? -- puck is a democratic magazine. you have him tied up in scandals. the name scandal is written. right, the man was thought to be a bit of the fool. the gentleman at the bottom was
the speaker of the house. that everyone of these speakers were immoral and the relationships work corrupt. host: how long would it take him to come up with these editorial cartoons? ideas all themany time. you would come up with ideas. they would have a staff meeting. it would not take very long for him to do it. >> what was he like? >> very energetic. very entrepreneurial. terrific businessman. 1883, he worked himself to death that the chicago world's fair. >> helen was he when he died? i'd say think he was in his mid-50's.
old was he when he died? mid-d say he was in his 50's. >> i'm sure is a member of the press, you want to find out what happened. this is what they are complaining about. the press, in the 1890's, they were trying to shine light on behavior. here the application it is terrible things are happening in congress behind closed doors where the public cannot see. host: we should point out we began this narrative because we want to show the process. gentleman and the lady shining light.
the main legislative activity of the republican party of the 1890's was that tariff. a fellow named william mckinley, a congressman from ohio, here mckinleyuggesting that is causing it to happen. you see mckinley is the pharaoh on the left. portrayed as mckinley's wife it is senator reid up there having congress to his bidding. host: of course he would go on to become a. guest: he would do that, yes sir. in 1892, the democrats one and of course uncle sam is already
portrayed as being for the people. , people whoan party had contributed to the bad policies were to be shifted. from 1897, the speaker of the house at the time. explain why the speaker became such a target. different era. a congress had much more consolidated power. the speaker of the house had to decide who was on the committee. this was an illustration of the steeredt the speaker the congress. many of the speakers, there was a whole series of speakers that were very, very powerful.
debt and20 trillion growing today. what happened? 1892, the democrats want them there was a big recession. andrepublicans came back in 1896. the tariffs did not raise revenues. of his son, congress was faced with the huge deficit. -- all of a sudden, congress was faced with a huge deficit. a large number in those days. making the point, your tariff resulted in this bad result. host: --
guest: i think so. rockefeller was richer. morgan was more powerful. it carnegie was more philanthropic. publish thisld cartoon in january of this year. -- guest: you could publish this and january of this year. their sing the policies are making the rich people even richer. ironically, mr. buffett in the last couple days announced the giving a reward. so you could put mr. buffett right there where mr. carnegie is. this is one of the most famous puck cartoons ever.
top left, this is the senate. a monopoly, for the not mildly -- for the monopoly, by the monopoly. this is a very famous cartoon. specialtatives of interests. the government is of the special-interest, for the special interest. at the time, it was monopolies they were representing. host: september, 1918. explain what we are looking at. guest: the final issue. it is self-evident. look at our political cartoons. -- by then, puck was much more a magazine of art. less political. pictures of pretty women.
here, we are still in world war i. this is representative of a wave. this was a final issue. at the time, the magazine was owned by the hearst corporation. host: we will complete it on that note. the book is "what for these puck." be: the story of thank you. >> on c-span, this week in prime at 8:00 p.m., health executives and the state of american health care. go for screening more effectively when they have insurance. it has brought down the death rate of three cancers because people got identified, diagnosed earlier. announcer: tuesday at 8:00 p.m.,
discussing philanthropic efforts. chan.lla >> we take an approach to decide what student needs are to succeed. and justice stephen breyer. >> we have a criteria. has the lower court come to different conclusions on the .ame questions involved announcer: thursday at 8:00 p.m. eastern, look at how the criminal justice system handles people suffering from mental illness. >> since 1980, the number of people going to jail has tripled in their sentences have 166 percent. in sheep you back the onion and
tried to figure out what the heck is happening, what you will find as most of this is due to untreated mental illness and substance abuse and disorders. announcer: and legal experts discuss surveillance and privacy. >> in my world, you have the u.s. not regulating, you see moree.u. regulating a lot, than i think they should. with theve not come up imagination for what could be in between. c-spaner: this week on prime time. >> american history tv is on c-span3 every weekend featuring museum pores, archival films, and programs on the presidency, the civil war, he and more. here's a clip from one of our programs. >> are their civil rights that women do not enjoy?
>> i think there certainly are. turn it back. i would like to add one footnote to what she said about the 1964 civil rights act, because the moral sex perversion that was added more as a joke -- >> it was not as a joke. the man who originally offered it thought it was really going to hurt the bill. i made your argument and i was not joking. i understood exactly what we were doing. it was accepted not as a joke but because the people who set their agreed with my argument that you were giving black women rights that white women never had. i do not think i made the statement that no one had brought that to bear had ever issidered that -- the truth
that black women and white women got those votes together but no one who voted that dave voted as a joke. -- that day voted as a joke. >> maybe but there was a great deal of levity -- >> -- >> i'm pleased to hear that. >> i did not do was that way at all. but this is one of the things, it is a myth that has been put out that it was a joke. and, everyone who says it again makingin really aids in -- >> can we discuss for a moment, what the civil rights of women after.ore and >> women didn't really have any rights. the 14th amendment, equal protection -- only the right to vote and the right to hold public office.
those are the only two rights that the constitution guaranteed her. on everything else, she is protected by the common-law of england. she had no rights. one piece has gotten to the supreme court under title vii. courtt case, the supreme made a very poor decision. >> could you elaborate? the woman applied to martin marriott i believe in florida. she had five children. they told her they would not childrenman who had under the age of six-years-old. it was a three dollar an hour job. theyadmitted in court that would not think of asking a man that. the man who got hired did have
children. this was his supreme court. the supreme court sent the decision back to the lower court for further information as to whether or not women with children under six-years-old were good employees. what kind of nonsense is that? announcer: you can watch this and other american history programs on our website where all of our video is archived. that is c-span.org\history. announcer: monday, on landmark papers case.tagon in 1971, a former military analyst released a top-secret pentagon study to the new york times and the washington post. the supreme court's decision broadened journalists first protections.s -- our guests are two of america's
top litigators. watch landmark cases monday at 9:00 eastern on c-span and join the conversation. us at c-span. we have resources on our website for background on the case. to the national constitution. >> next, we continue our series "1968: america and turmoil." americans were eyewitnesses to vietnam, astronauts orbiting the moon, chaos on city stet