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tv   1968 - America in Turmoil Medias Role  CSPAN  May 30, 2018 8:00pm-9:32pm EDT

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cspan-3, where history unfolds daivment in 1979, cspan- 3 was -- daily. in 1979, cspan-3 was created as a public service television company and through today we continue to bring you coverage of congress, the supreme court and public policy events in washington, dc and around the country, cspan-3 is brought to you by your cable or satellite provider chicago, illinois, the convention of the democratic party. nominating tonight, it's candidate for the presidency,
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that man will be vice president hubert humphrey. speeches are being made for senator mcgovern, then we have a speech for channing phillips of washington, dc, a favorite candidate for the black caucus of this country, there is 212 negros here, those that are not bound by primary elections are expected to vote their first vote for channing phillips. in the cheater, they are holding a caucus. hal is there. >> you are wasting valuable
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time. >> several hundred of the mccart -- mccarty supporters are opposed to the actions taken in the convention, the actions of the police and security agents against the deghts, they gather together and go fourth to the rostrum and they ask to be permitted to present a resolution, if not permitted to present the resolution, they said they will not kurn to the convention tomorrow, they will return tonight but not come back tomorrow. they are saying they will bring to a geunding halt, the entire convention, he was given a round of applause by delegates in the convention. >> has there been a suggestion
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that the new york delegates attend the new party caucus. >> it has not come up. these people are very angy about the way that the delegates are being treated. they are going to walk out of this meeting, they have not said what they will do in subsequent meetings. >> thank you, hal, do you have more? >> that was it. >> that was morris raskin forming a meeting of a third party. he expects 200 delegates to attend. >> that was 1968 with walter cronkite, our focus for this seght -- segment, the role of
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the media, we have david hume kennerly and martin kalb, lets begin with walter cronkite, what role did he play? >> big time. when the tet offensive began and the communists seemed for a week or two to be in the ascendancy and probably victors in the war, walter cronkite wanted very much to see what was happening, he was a very old fashioned reporter in that respect. he asked the president of cbs, can he go, they did not want to send an anchorman but he went. he spent a brief time but he absorbed a great deal, he realized when he was there that the war could not be won, he said, i have to do something
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which expresses my opinion, so the president said, i do not want your opinion, you are the news man, tell me what happened. >> he said i can tell you what happened but i have to tell you what it means, the president argued with him but walter cronkite won and went on the air, he added the extraordinary line, we are a great country, we did what we could for the people of vietnam but the war is dead locked, it's in a stalemate. president johnson was watching that, he said when you have lost walter cronkite, i have lost middle america, he meant he lost their support. >> how significant was that? take us back to where the media was in 1968 without twitter,
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there were no websites. >> young david hume kennerly, photographing antiwar demonstrations, for me, what really effected me the most was life magazine, particularly, and wire service proafs, i think that -- photographs, if you look, the biggest photo of the year was the photo of the general shooting the suspect in the head, that was on the front page of every newspaper in the world. it's funny, as this flashes forward to watching the president of south korea and north korea holding hands and stepping over the lines, those images stay with you and they effected everyone's life, we
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did not have the torrent of information that you are getting now so they locked into your psyche. >> some people said he was on a plane, he was not watching cbs news at that moment. >> my understanding is that he was at the white house, bill moyers was with him. his spokesperson was with him. they remember they were in his office, he was watching it, he saw walter, he said what he said and then the president said, i lost middle america. >> lets talk about what was happening in vietnam, the so called television war, how significant was that as the war was unfolding. >> at that point for me, that was the beginning of my career in the news business, i grew up in a little town in oregon, i went to portland to work on the
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newspaper and then down to los angeles, i had not been to vietnam but before i came on today, i was looking back, there were four of my classmates from westland high school in oregon who were killed in the vietnam war, one in 1968. bob clark, he was 21 years old. these are guys i went to school with, it was a profound effect for mow. i think -- me. >> i think that i was getting it from knowing that my friends were getting bumped off in vietnam. i know i wanted to go over there, all that you had to do, he was living and working in los angeles, i remember you could see the rised tide of people protesting the war.
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>> this is from a cbs radio network ad, mr. k from the kremlin, i mention that because you are also the ator of the year i was peter the great. what were we we so concerned about with the soviet union. >> in 1968, we were caught up in what was called the cold war, that was an existential quarrel, fight, argument with the communist world. we were in the capitalist world, the entire world itself was divided up by the cold war, vietnam was the pivotal war which turned the cold war around in my judgment. in 1968, more than in any other year, it seeped as if the united states had lost its innocence in that war, the
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media lost its innocence in 1968 as well. there was a credibility gap where the people in vietnam, the officers, the majors, the colonels, would tell us what we had covered that day, it had nothing to do with what we had seen and heard. there was a credibility gap. the government itself, the lyndon johnson administration was up against it, that's a reason that the president felt he had to get out. that's what he did on march 21, he felt he no longer had the country, he had made up his mind he could no longer lead the country, that the war brought him down. president johnson was a proud man, he had done great things on the legislative front. the domestic front.
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the great society but the war was always dl pulling him down and ultimately, it dragged him down. the american people had to face the loses of a president, the loss of its innocence, the media itself, our own government was lying to us, i was a moscow correspondent, i assumed that the rush -- russians would lie to me but i had not assumed that my own government would lie to me, that was a big grown up moment for me. >> you were with uti in 1968. there were other things happening on the home front. i wanted to share some photographs, you were based on the west coast, escaped convicts from san quentin, explain what you saw and reflected on. >> i lived in manhattan beach,
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california, i got a radio report that there was a guy hold up in a little motel, it was close to where i lived. i went into the driveway and the cops were talking to this guy through a window, his name was arthur again jones, there was a cbs camera man, a local guy, the two of us were standing in the driveway, that would never happen any more, i do not know how i did not get killed. were there other pictures. >> just the one. >> they could not talk to him. then all of a sudden there was an explosion and he set off dynamite and the cops started to shoot him. he ended up crawling over to
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where he is right there, the bomb squad got him. it was terrifying but i sat there and i shot the whole thing, that was right after lbj announced he was not going to run. but these pictures were all over the paper. in my whole vietnam experience, i had a lot of photos like that but that was an early one. >> in 1968. six and a half million americans received a morning newspaper. now that number is down significantly. what does that tell you. >> it tells me that the world of newspapers was big and alive route then, now it has been supplanted by television and radio and the internet, it's
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amazing to me that there are still as many newspapers as they are frungsing but we live in a world today that is so completely different from what it was in 1968, in that world, we were closer to events, we depended upon a more limited group of people. that could be argued as a negative because you have the slant of only those people but at the same time, they were highly experienced professional reporters, today people do not really regard reporters as professional, they regard them as propaganda. that's a horrible change taking place but its true. >> our series, america in turmoil. joining us is martin kalb and day wen ken ken -- david hume kennerly, our line for
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democrats is (202) 748-8000, the line for republicans is (202) 748-8001. >> good morning, thank you for being on, thank you to cspan for having me and having this program today. i just wanted to get your comments, we talked about the war in 1968. i used those years, 1967, 1968 and 1969 to teach my grandchildren that we survived those years and no matter the conflicts like 9/11, that the country is going to hang together and we are going to survive but i want to get your comments about the fact that the vietnam war did not end after president johnson, it became president nixon's war,
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thank you for taking my call and i will listen to your comments off line. >> that's a good point. it did not end when johnson left, as i 21 year old in 1968. i would vote for the first time. i actually believed richard nixon when he said he was going to end the war in vietnam, so i voted for him. that had a direct impact on me, i was in college, then i went into the army for six months and the national guard, basic training and all of that. but richard nixon, i do not know the exact numbers but during the nixon as managers, 28,000 americans were killed when richard nixon was
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president. >> yes. >> i went to vietnam in 1971 after eddie adams who won a pull -- pull -- pulitzer prize said all of the pictures had already been taken. good morning, reporters at the time of the vietnam war described free and open access to the combat teams, they had a plane and they were able to see the fighting as it occurred. then tet came along and the pentagon papers came along and there were great surprises, how do you reconcile the gap and the access. >> i am going to allow you to explain the answer to that question.
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>> in those days, what you had was a camera crew, if you were in television, you had a camera crew that consisted of of a camera man and a live man and you went to cover the war, i did most of the coverage of the vietnam war from washington, dc, my brother covered it for cbs from the war front itself but you would go out with a team. there was no censorship. you covered what you saw and then brought it back, it had to be shipped up to japan then shipped to mocker new york, you did not have live instant coverage, the commenting is something you could do a day or so later, you layered it over the footage but you did not have a live comment period. that made all of the difference in the world. when you are doing a life story
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now, you have to go in and immediately know what it is that you are going to be saying, 30 or 40 years ago, we had an opportunity, it sounds funny now but we had an opportunity to think about what it was that you wanted to say, you had an opportunity to spend a day or two checking with people. that's what you saw, but what did it mean? i think that 20 or 30 years ago, we may have had a rich ir diet of news than we have today. >> you went back for the first time? >> yes, the press was supporting the fact that things were not going well. i am not sure what he meant by, when the pentagon papers came out, he found inconsistent activity in the white house,
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the reporters were constantly talking about how things were not going well over there, at the time, the route wing was blaming the press for the war, the government should not have been there in the first place, probably but having been there, i spent over two years there, we could go anywhere, any time, i never bought into that idea that somehow we lost the war for the united states, i mean, that's not true. >> lets go to dan. >> i just wanted to add, also in the coverage, on cbs and the other networks as well. you had the coverage from vietnam but you also had coverage of the war as seen from the nation's capitol. you look at the capitol building right now and you realize that at that time, the war was being fought in this country as well.
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the country was split. it was dramatically, violently split in two between those people that supported the government and wanted the war to continue and those people, by the hundreds of thousands who were out in the streets objecting to the war, there were no angles of vision on the war, where it happened and the impact that it had on this country. >> you captured that in your photographs. >> yes, another thing about covering the war, it's funny, you say it was a 50/50 split between casualtyies, two of my buddies were killed. >> splil this photograph, blood
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on the face of an antiwar demonstrator,. >> that was very reflective of what was going on at that time. i got beat up by both the cops and the demonstrators, it was equal opportunity. in vietnam, the soldiers loved it when somebody like me showed up. an outsider that did not have to be there. contrary to what you may here, we had a very good relationship with gi's and the officers, they wanted to tell their story, it was important to them. that was another facet of what i did when i was there. >> our focus is 1968. this program is the media in particular, martin kalb and david hume kennerly are our guests. dan is killing from our independent line. >> in 1968, you could not tell
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whether a journalist was liberal or conservative. it seems more flagrant, that's more of a comment than anything else, that the journalism today is more liberal but back then you could not tell if they were liberal or conservative. >> clearly you do not watch fox, for me, photographers, i will say, speaking for myself but knowing a lot of them. we really do not take sides, i was brought up that way, i think that we have brochured the lines between commenters, people like sean hanity are definitely not journalists and the reporters and the people i have always worked with, i think that is part of the problem, you do not know why someone is saying what they are saying, normal are you a reporter will give you the straight information, but you
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are right about the question, people do think that, i do not believe its true of real professionals in the news business. >> under the category of how their stories are categorized in media, you have significant players, the governor of california, ronald regan. >> this is the 21 year old david hume kennerly and ronald regan, he was the governor of california, he had been a democrat and then was a republican, i had a long history with him. he was the governor there then he ran against my boss when i was the white house photographer, they had their show down at the republican convention in 1976 then rayingon went on to become president, i covered the first
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four years of his administration, one of the beautiful things about my career is i have seen people progressing through it, this is ronald regan in 1968. then i covered his funeral. these are people that i got to know. >> ronald regan and the influence he had on that year. >> into 1968, i do not think his influence on the war and domestic events was so great. it was later that he picked up a head of steam. at that time, as david was saying, he was a young politician on the rise, on the make, he had not yet become the governor of california. >> he was governor at that time. >> a young governor, he dealt at that time with student unrest, he became associated with the government cracking
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down on student demonstrators, a lot of people felt that ronald regan had gone too far, one of the reasons that he developed a following among the right wing of the republican party was for reasons like that, that he was capable of ordering a crack down on the young demonstrators. >> i believe they had helicopters going over uc berkeley, i have a son at uc berkeley right now, i am glad that things calmed down there for his sake. governor rawingan was about law and order and he definitely cracked down on the universities and demonstrations. >> another significant player, senator eugene mccarthy.
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>> thomas is joining us from maryland. >> i find it interesting in the conversation that you are having, it seems like they are coming cross, to me, that they were just in a white world. a white supremacist world with porks, whether you were liberal or kefort conservative, there were still white supremacy, i notice that you are talking about regan and you showed the first clip the walter cronkite, you were talking about what was addressed to white people, for white people, by white people. primarily, you have not talked about the south and minorities and the great suffering that went on internally in this country, white supremacy was at the root of it, rayingon and johnson were forced to accept
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black people as people. lets be real. you are a journalist and photographer, lets get down in the dirt, lets be real about what is happening in america, it was not just about white people. all of of your pictures show white people. the police crushing people's skull under the command of a white person, lets be real about what is really going on. >> thank you for the call. we focused on this in the previous installment. this is a nine part serious, today we are focusing on the media. >> you have a good point but we cannot cover the most tumultuous year in american history without covering that. the photographs taken by my colleagues, particularly of
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civil rights, unrest, pictures of martin luther king made a big impact on all of that. we were telling those stories, i think that he has a good point. as a young white person from a fairly white part of oregon, that's what i knew growing up but i have certainly come a long way from there and, we did talk about that in the previous segment. >> we are on the front lines of the television war, how powerful were these pictures as americans were watching walter cronkite or david brinkley on television and saw the body bags of the servicemen. >> television came of age in the 60s, clearly when we got to 1968, beginning as it did with
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the tet offensive in vietnam followed by johnson's statement that he was not going to run for president followed by the killing of martin luther king and the killing of robert kennedy then the effort to true to wind down the war, then the democrat iks convention in chicago, you were showing the coverage of it, we were in the misof one of the great years of american history. it touched every aspect of our lives, the war, the peace, the extraordinary downfall of a president, the killing of a black leader. all of these things meant a great deal, i think, to everybody and television news was the way in which most people. not everyone but most people found out about this country and found out about what was going on.
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it had an enormous impact on people. television absolutely came of age in 1968. >> i also believe that it was tv that brought the war here, the vote new hampshire war here, the still pictures took it a little bit further in your heart and soul. if you look at eddie adams photos, the little girl running down the street with the napalm, the indelible pictures. >> you would agree with the time special edition, it shaped a generation in 1988. >> yes, it did, the world saw things from there, it was really very good. having lived through it in my
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own place, the one thing being in california, california gets neglected a lot because you are away from the center of power in washington, dc but it seems that i got every element of the vietnam war and civil unrest in california, as a 21 year old in 1968. i got to see the show. >> one photograph, in the streets of chicago, after the assassination of doctor king. >> these pictures were taken by a brave photographer that wanted to tell the story. >> we are going to the democrats line. >> i appreciate the two journalists and what they are writing about and what they wrote about, i lived that as a black soldier drafted in 1966
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through 1968. coming home at the end of 1967, preparing for riot control, now i have to back off crowds after kipg's assassination, i lived fighting a war, being questioned in the streets. america would later give amnesty while the poor fought wars overseas. >> thank you for the call, as you answer that, you are talking about photographs, this is reverend jesse jackson reading a number after kings assassination. >> you make a great point coming back from the war and having to stand off demonstrators protesting the
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war that you were in. i have such sympathy for people like that, particularly african americans that came back to basic lirks the same old problems with racism and then having to live also as a soldier, being kas tig -- castigated for being in a war you had had nothing to do with, it was not about the warriors it was about the war, i spent a black and white soldiers in vietnam. it was not good. >> next caller from maryland, republican line. >> hi, how are you doing? >> i want to point to the fact that i am more involved with this. it's an absolute disgrace in my
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eyes, the trouble today is we have no respect, we do not talk right about our leaders, we should. around the world, this would never be allowed to happen anywhere else. now as far as 1968. my dad was a diplomat, i was a young girl when president kennedy got shot. i remembered how it effected my father and mother, it touched my heart very much to where i grew up with a passion to stop the bigotry and the hate. i am about unity, my nickname is unity but today i think that the trouble is we have no respect. adults need to grow up. people are not showing a good example to their children which scares me, i am a grandmother,
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it scares me to think that if change does not happen where we show respect for our leaders and for each other, i do not know what will happen. >> have we lost that? is it appears to be that there is a culture war, it's not political, it's a belief on the part of any number of people that their control of the world, of their country has been taken out of their hands, and is in the hands of strangers, of them, as it's put quite often. they want it to be reconstituted. one of the reasons that president donald trump's slogan about making america great
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again makes people feel that they want to go back to a time when they felt more comfortable living in this country. this country has, since 1968, a great year in american history, since that time sto now, half a century, plus, we are still living with the consequences of 1968, the way that the country was literally torn apart in that area by assassinations and mass demonstrations and students being killed on college campuses and what was going on in vietnam and questions that were raised at that time, is that war worth worthwhile. even in the senate, the argument was intense, led by senator fu lbright, there were people that were saying, the
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war is immoral and it had to end. then there were people on the other side saying, we were facing global communist world wide and it had to be stopped. nobody could argue that point sensibly. you hear people saying, we could be facing another civil war in this country, it's a reflection of the frustration of being able to steel with radical change in a limited period of time and how do people catch up with that. >> you mentioned some of the iconic photographs from that time. how did this come about and why was this so significant. >> that photograph was taken in the chinese section of saigon,
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at the height of the tet offensive where the viet t kong took over the embassy, it was rough, the general on the left, who eddie had known, he it some of his guys killed in heavy street fighting around that area, they addested these -- addested these people. there is an nbc film of that happening, this photograph was one of the most powerful pictures ever taken, so they brought that guy over and he, the general, pulled out his gun and shot him, right then and there. and of course he was a reviled
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character after that. he lived right across the way in arlington at the end of the war, eddie was always torn by this vote. certainly the vc who was killed and also it was subject to the the revision everyday after that. >> the cruelty of the war is what comes up after that, there is a cold dispensing of life. there is no feeling attached to two. just, this guy was on the opposite side. just kill him and move on. >> there are three photographs in my mind, they are all taken by ap survivors, joe was the opposite of that one, it showed the marines raising the flag
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and red white and blue and honor and glory but this is the dark underbelly of it all. this is really what war is about, is what i saw and what everyone saw, when you have john wayne movies there is never in blood or violence. >> we are looking back to 1968. america in turmoil. we have david hume kennerly and martin kalb who at the time was at cbs news. good morning, great show, gentlemen. my question is for either gentlemen, less than a year into the vietnam war, president johnson was given a report from our military that the incident in the gulf as reported never happened but i wanted to know if the media at the time know
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of this report? >> the answer to that question is, at that time we did not know about the report, but that particular incident was the one that moved the united states, very dramatically, into the vietnam war, it happened on august 2 and august fourth of 1964, there were two atabs against an american destroyer off the shores of north vietnam. the first attack did take place, but president johnson did not take retaliation after that attack. when the second attack took place on august 4. he did but we knew it did not take place, it was bad reporting on the
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ships captain's part. mcnamara knew it did not take place but johnson went on the air and declared that the attack took place and therefore, the united states was going to bomb north vietnam. they started the idea that the united states would be using air power to go directly against vietnam. that started with the resolution passed right hear in congress, at that time, it said that the president of the united states can take any action, anywhere, in defense of america's interest against the communists. that was a big statement but most of the reporters did not, i'm sorry to say, pick that up. i think that the people at cbu knew it and the people at the washington post did but that was it. >> you began the conversation by saying that the tet offensive in 1968 proved that the united states government
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was lying to the american people, why? >> because at that time, remember, it was already 25,000 american deaths into the war. we had been experiencing over a period of three years, what it was like to fight that war and to realize that you could take a mountain top and lose 100 marines doing so and that night, willingly pull out from that mountain top. then the question was, why did you take it in the first place, questions about strategy came up and the credibility gap came up and the american people were beginning to realize that, when the people who were dying, was the man who spoke to us a couple of callers before, when you talk about the war, remember that most of the people dying on the american side were poor kids from poor
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families coming from poor neighborhoods who four no way of saying that they were going to college and they were drafted and they were the people being killed. that had a big impact on minority communities in this country that led, eventually, in 1968, after the tet offensive, to these nation wide demonstrations. >> why did people listen to walter cronkite? >> he was a man who started out in world war two with united prerks he had a print background and i knew walter cronkite very well, he talked about hanoi and american pow's, people trusted him. i have a personal story.
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his voice, his demeanor, his straight ahead manner but when we have where they were housing united states prisoners, it was a plantation but it was called the hanoi hilton, they released early prisoners two weeks before but they were in their pow pa jappas, one said, i did not think that they were going to let us go until i saw walter cronkite there, that's the kind of impact that walter cronkite had. i want to go back to the convention in 1968. the turmoil taking place outside of the convention center as democrats are about to nominate vice president hubert humphrey. >> as we reported to you earlier, and this is not live, it's on film, this happened
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some time ago, 45 minutes or an hour or more ago, the demonstrators did get into the lobby of the hilton hotel and the national guard was called. we do not see the national guard in this scene, i assume that this film is longer than the last videotape we saw, this was before the national guard was called. that puts it at two and a half hours ago. >> wisconsin. >> mr. chairman, most delegates to this convention do not know that thousands of young people are being beaten in the streets of chicago. for that reason and that reason alone, i request the suspension of the rules for the purpose of adjournment for two weeks at 6:00 p.m., to relocate the
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convention in another city of the choosing of the democratic national committee and the presidential candidates. >> wisconsin is not recognized for that purpose. >> that's carl albert. >> that was interesting to me to see that. >> we should point out that the convention was late august to be timed to president johnson's birthday but of course he was not the nominee into 1968. >> i wanted to say, first of all, that's wonderful footage illustrating how torn apart not just the whole country but one political party was torn apart of the outside of the convention center, reporters were being beat un up by mayor daly's police because they were
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doing their job, you asked about walter cronkite, why? walter cronkite, in the late 1960s was regarded by 80% of the people as the most trusted man in america's not the most trusted anchor man but the most trusted man, he ended each broadcast, and that's the way it is, people believed that's the way it is. >> also he is calm and he is explaining what is going on, not giving his opinion. >> he was not interjecting his opinion but he was emotionally very moved by the fact that dan rather and other cbs reporters were being man handled by the police on the floor of the convention
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for time magazine. >> it is my first time covering for them. the minority leader for the first time cover. >> randy is joining us from clearwater, florida. good morning. >> yes, hello. i want to respond to a couple of the black callers.
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they were saying, you know, white supremacy, all this other stuff. well if you remember, you know, starting when we only had three tv channels with three anchors, you know, they would not tell you that the democratic party were the ones who were the segregationists, the ku klux klan. you know, like 95% of them. you know, compared to the republican conservatives who
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were offering opportunity, but the democrats, you know, they were saying that they hate you and they don't want you to succeed. >> okay, randy, we're going to jump in and get a response. >> yes, very quickly. i don't want to get into the political side of it, but it is a fact. for a period of time after world war ii, most of the seven states were represented by democrats in congress. at that very same time, there were some of the worst that did take place and one became associated with the other. >> good morning, democrats. >> good morning. i'm a frequent caller. and i was a democrat for many
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years, and i did leave after this last election and became independent. i wanted to thank the two gentlemen for being here today. photojournalism is something that seems to be on the waist side right now. and i'm a little of a photographer myself. but i was a sophomore in high school in '68. we would sit in the morning, and listen to announcements, and we would listen to, we lost two classmates from the class of '68 in vietnam. and then we saw kent state. here we were preparing to go to college. it had a huge impact. my generation suffers a little bit from post-traumatic stress from this. i watched this vietnam thing that's on pbs right now. i have to turn it off because it just draws so much from me. and i want to thank them for their work and for all the photos they have done. i think they are great for being here after what the press
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has been going through lately. and i do want to say one more thing for the black gentleman that has called. i do think it is very difficult for any white person to understand because they were notprejudice. we will never foe what the black people have gone through. we will not experience it. my daughter had a friend for two weeks. you have no idea what it is like to go through a revolving door, and is have a white mother pull you away from them saying you're going to contaminate her in some way, but thank you. >> thank you. we know you were behind the cbs series. joining us next week in 1968. and the work and what others have been seeing throughout the years. >> i think that i would take the exception to the fact that photojournalism has gone by the waist side.
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it's not -- there's still photographers on the front lines of history every single day. the example that i used earlier, the meeting between north and south, going back and forth across the line that was on the dmz. in korea, there is a good example of photographers. they are out shining light in the corners of the world that people need to see. everybody is a photographer now, but not everybody is a professional photographer. not everybody is taking a risk, putting their lives on the line to report the truth, the way i look at it. so i think it is alive and well as you were saying. it is a different world from your newspapers, that's it, or television. >> your reaction to the cover
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story of life magazine, june 14, 1968, following the assassination of robert f. kennedy. what does this image tell you? >> great efforts, by the way. >> what it says to me in the way of the poor kennedy family. the family that in the 1960s, they were like a star burst. everyone, not everyone, but a lot of people were very excited about john kennedy, the way he was governed, then killed. robert kennedy comes along, he'll run in 1968, and he's going to take on linda johnson, a guy he really did not like, but it was a member of their own party. then robert kennedy is cool. so you look at the picture like that of somebody skipping off
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across the beach. it's two things. the excitement of being alone on the beach, running there. at the same time, it is the end in the sense of a major chapter in the history of the kennedy clown. >> we have some of your photographs from the ambassador hotel that evening. senator kennedy winning the primary. tell us what happened. >> well, just very quickly as you go back to the photo. the photographer who did that cover, which is on an oregon beach. that's why when i first photographed robert kennedy, it was 1966. and i never saw a big political figure like that before. there was a photographer at the edge of this very crowded room. he looked like he was traveling with that group. i went over to him and i said how do you get through these crowds? he said hang on to my coat. he took me through.
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he put me up on this one place and said here is the photo, you'll see the clouds in the background. bill took that photographer. he helped get it out, 19 years old. now flash flash forward, i was covering for upi. and it is after he had been declared the victor of the california primary. he had won the oregon primary the week before that. and this is the moment if you see the film, it just happens so fast. ron bennett was the other upi photographer there. he was in the room. he went off the stage with him. when i heard they were shot, i ran outside. i got this photographer in the ambulance. it was one of the worst nights in american history. one of the worst nights for me. i had talked to robert kennedy that very evening. this is bill barry who is his
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bodyguard or former fbi agent, who was with him at his site all the time. there was nothing he could do, he popped out of the crowd, shot the senator. when his body was being put on the plane, this is former first lady, jacqueline kennedy. she was at the airport. this is a woman who has experienced this tragedy. and these are all pictures i took as a young guy, you know, photographing history, watching a nightmare unfold. >> we should point out, kennedy just turned 90 years old. her daughter was with us a few weeks ago. back to your phone calls. jenny in honolulu, hawaii. democrats line with marvin kelb and david kennerly. >> was it yesterday in honolulu? >> it is every morning. go ahead, jenny. >> good morning, thank you, david and marvin.
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i've got to wonder about you guys. in 1968 he was in woodstock. he wasn't out in public. but we were some kind of separation anxiety. fm radio, his songs were playing every 15 minutes. nobody could escape the awareness of what he had to say about americans and their militarism, beginning in 1962 and 63, 64, 65, when you hadn't figured it out yet. none of us had. >> i was still in high school. any way, i hope you'll stop and think about it now. i wrote a book on the subtitle, the study from 1961 and 1967, emphasizing that use, comparing
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them. the title is rough. he is a profit. >> i thank you. >> well, i mean bob dillon, he was one -- bob dylan was one of the great ones, of course. i would point out we can't pension everybody had anything to do with the year of '68, but you're right. it's why he was awarded the nobel prize. he is still at it, which i applaud. >> you're next, the republican line. >> thank you for taking my call. i remember the 60s very distinctly. i lost a father during the arch but the 64 democratic convention, i remember very well. and they would get out from the states, but it was a big joke
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at work. but the podium and what they interpreted, they were totally different. we laughed about it at work. and the big difference that there was with it. i had a neighbor that got so upset watching it. they would shoot through the television. during the 60s, they were financed by the kgb. this came out and collapsed. this was all paid for. >> i'm sorry. i don't believe that. >> let me tell you a story you did cover in 1968, the invasion, august of 1968. set the stage. what was happening in the cold war? what were our relations like and why was it a big
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development? >> well, 1960, sort of brought ahead to a number of things in the cold war, intensifying the tensions between the two sides. everybody in the west, they assume that because the russians, they had a very major force in eastern europe. they were there essentially to start with the west, but not to actually take action against the west. on october 20, 1968, the russians moved tanks. i happened to be on vacation that time, it was way out. and like i got a call in the morning from walter cronkite. he said did you hear the news? i said no. they moved in to czechoslovakia. we said yeah, that's right. you'll be the leader of the program that night.
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take as much time as you would like, but explain why the russians, they would move with what at this point. in europe, we are communists, they kind of move west, they take advantage with the vietnam. that's one of the reasons, but there were others. and it happened about 1:00 in the afternoon, i thought it was terrific.
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they had a big process, all that stuff. they called me and it was great. and we really wanted to run that footage of the fire. and how you could move them into czechoslovakia in 45 seconds. i said sure. and it will be 25 seconds. the nature of the news. but if you had footage of a great fire in new orleans, then you're going to run that footage. were you still the lead. >> yeah. number 45. >> and let's go to robert in missouri. you're next.
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it is just momentarily for people. and that is the heck out of it. but i remember they would have the rights from what happened. and they will need to decide it. to give back to the citizens. i remembered in 1964, they would say, well, you need to give the minorities for them and the civil rights, and the voting rights. it will be a great part. but it will be all those pieces that will need to be transferred, just a wild side for them. over to the republican part. and they will need to carry
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that tradition to the republican parties. every president, the misuse of present time, and it will be during, you know, the running for president. and it will be all of those people. >> robert, thank you for the call. you teed it up perfectly, what we want to call it next. and robert was referring to gently about it. and how they were viewed in the media, what was happening in the cities. now let me share with you what this report concluded back in 1968 by governor audo. we found an imbalance of what happened between the coverage. the news media has failed to analyze and report adequately on racial problems in the united states, and a related
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matter to meet the negroes legitimate expectation of journalism. the news organizations, they have failed to communicate to both their black and white audience, and a sense of the problems america faces, and then the sources of potential solutions. from that commission and the college point, your reaction. and it was a photographer at that time. in '68, i didn't cover any race riots in l.a.
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and one could make the argument that the kind of coverage required to deal with the issue of racism in the united states is so profound and so deep, and it would require almost constant coverage to be able to get the heart of the problem. i think in fairness of the press, that it has done a remarkable job of moving towards a solution of that problem. but what it is, that the current commission said about the failings of the press to report this issue. i think they were right then. and i think that they will be right today. and there has been, what i think will be foolish to ignore this with enormous progress. the number of african americans, who are reporting today. as anchor people. and just key people of the three major newscasts in the evening.
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one is being done by the african american. and so it is not as if the issues, they will be ignored or shelved, but it is being addressed, and it is so profound that yes, it still needs more cover. >> 1968, american history tv, the special series, also here onc-span's washington journal. now all of it. don is joining us out in california in bakersfield. >> yes, so i wanted to just comment on that time frame also, '68, where robert kennedy passed away. pretty much they tore the heart out of the american's beliefs and the truth and david hit on that earlier about what we believe the journalists will do. and that is to bring the truth out. and they should have more influence. congress should get to listen to them. and that whole era, pretty much
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has caused the concerns and beliefs, by beliefs, that we don't trust the government. i could remember in 1970 with nixon, the group of us, 12, they sat down with the envelopes from the military. and we saluted with a shot and we all opened them up at the same time to see what our draft numbers were. i grew up in the heart of detroit. so i lived through all of that era. but there is a definite not trusting the government, and we're seeing it today. i'm open to your comments. >> thank you. the bookends of the vietnam war and watergate. >> watergate and then to now where we have a relentless attack on first amendment and
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the press. i can't tell you how deeply offensive that is to me having gone through firsthand experiences with my colleague being killed in the line of duty. they were both navy veterans from the pacific. and debris is back into perspectives. and donald, who was the chief of staff, he has a new book coming out in a couple of weeks. it is called the center. and it was talking about ford who had been in a great way of playing football, but he held the line against the rip and
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the fabric that was caused by water gate. it is a great testimony to our system. >> we'll focus the book on tv and they will be sitting down with vice president dick cheney. and what he said afterwards, and the taping of schedules for early next month. >> that is the little notes of the conversations with the president, the whole book that is about the memos she wrote at the time. let's go back to >> we are talking about photographs, when they marched in chicago. we also marched on the eastside. i made the front page of the local newspapers, protesting the march on the east side. but that photographer, they changed my life. and in '68, i was 16 years old.
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that's what they were telling us to do. i started a conversation with them and it changed my outlook on the demonstrators, all that stuff. cronkite combined, he said the war is full of bologne. and i talked my buddies into joining all of of the events. when you call for help, you don't care who comes. it could be tall, short, black, green, it doesn't matter. those kinds of things change my life. i fight every day not to be prejudice to you guys. i hope america is learning out there, and how they are not to be prejudice. come and talk to me. >> i love you. [ laughter ] >> i want to go back to the other piece of film from the
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democratic convention. but before we show you that, what was happening on the republican side? and how was the gob convention -- gop convention that year? >> i wasn't there, but david douglas duncan did an incredible photo of being inside with nixon. duncan who was just a great korean war journalist for us and all that, they have known him out of the pacific, when he was also in the navy out there. and his photographer, the side of the nixon campaign and then inside the democrats, it is a fantastic view. all i know is what i saw from those photographers, and it was a hell of a lot more orderly than the democrats, which is probably one of the reasons nixon would help their campaign. >> one more moment from the democratic convention in chicago, courtesy of cbs news, walter cronkite.
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>> other reporters, with chairman bailey about the downtown side. just the convention of what's going on downtown. >> i had not been watching television, and i understand that they were in trouble and they handed me something and 60 people were arrested. >> it will be a rather large disturbance around town. but some of these delegations now, they will need to decide not so much to walk out tonight, but not to come back tomorrow and because of what they call the police tactics, being used around this convention hall. and downtown. >> well, i assume the people who are kind of scary here, making sure there was no interruptions for the convention itself. that this will be a very serious convention, we are going to nominate the next president of the united states here. >> and the charge is unused force by police and the national guard. >> well, i know nothing about it. as i said, he's in the front
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row with my connecticut delegation and on the podium where i belong. >> and there is no delay in this event? >> and i'm sure that the candidate will presently nominate them tonight. tomorrow the vice president will be nominated. >> okay, thank you, mr. bailey. john bailey, chairman of the democratic party. reporting what's going on at the convention and with all of the reports of undue force being used by chicago police and a national guardsman. he was reading a report. he looked rather amazed and interested, that some of the people who were standing with it. >> marvin, it is important to point out that this is pre- cable, pre-c-span, the networks tearing theseconventions. almost gavel to gavel. >> that's right and it was a very exciting experience to watch that. and it also saved them out. it was a great example of mr. bailey, engaging in what is called a credibility gap. he claims that he knew nothing about the police whacking
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reporters over the head. it was all over television at that time. you just need to open up your eyes and you would see it. but he was claiming that he knew nothing about it. he was just on the front seats, doing his job. that will be nonsense. and the american people watching that, they knew it. because they had seen what was going on outside and inside the convention. and so this is one of these things that when people look back upon 68, and they try to answer questions today about a lack of safe in the u.s. government, why don't we believe what it is that is present instead or what they say? i'm not saying if you went back to '68, you would get all the answers, but you get some of the answers. because that is where it would respond. that's where the whole idea of power talking lives to people rather than journalists finding out what the heck was going on and telling them that as truthfully as they could.
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>> good morning. >> and we don't have too much to do it. my wife and i were married. the day we were married, i would listen to teddy kennedy's eulogy. and it was the best speech that i had ever heard. that's it. >> thank you. >> congratulations for 50 years. that will be a real landmark. being married that long. >> and that speech, senator kennedy, he delivered in new york and st. patrick's cathedral. >> it is one of the great speeches, that kennedy, ever gave. and he was thinking of doing great speeches, and the american people over the years, they would learn about this great skill that he had, which was something in the kennedy genes. and i think that at that particular time, people realize that ted kennedy, they had taken it upon himself, the responsibility of being the leader of the kennedy clan.
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and the people in the political world, they also recognized that. it is a full competition when they simply realized it was none of their brothers when they were around any longer. and the kid was called upon it all, doing the senior member of the clan. and i think as a senator, most everybody, right and left, they would agree that ted kennedy was an extraordinary senator after that. >> the next call is william from new york city. good morning, welcome to the conversation. >> fred william? >> yes. i would just like to say for the record, kennedy -- yes, i
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would just like to correct the record that kennedy lost the primary in oregon. and also the first time a kennedy had ever lost an election. i'm very surprised neither of your commentators knew that. >> you're right, that was my mistake. as a native oregonian, i would like to think everyone comes away as a winner from oregon, but you are totally correct. gene mccarthy won that. and then kennedy, he recovered in california. but good catch on that. >> jeff from olympia fields, illinois. good morning on the independent line. >> good morning, steve, thank you very much. i appreciate c-span's programming. and they will start doing a good job and making sure that
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we have balanced coverage. i appreciate the intellectual approach that you take in the objective approach that you'll need to take to examining stories. and you did mention that the media has done a good job in moving america forward in terms of racial progress. i do agree with that, but i'm curious to know from you, do you think the local press is doing enough to make sure they are not putting negative images before the american people in a very negative light in causing primarily white americans to look at them and to look at it from a very negative perspective. what you put into your stories, they are not being taken locally. and that's what drives anger in
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this country. i'm going to hang up and listen to your response. >> you're absolutely right. this a lot of the data indicates that most americans will get their news from local news and local television news. that will put a huge responsibility for those who put it on the air. and if there is too much of a negativeness with one group, then that is wrong. and it is simply not true. but if it is a fact that something negative is associated with african american community, hispanic, you need to report that. that is also a part of the news. and for the most part, taking
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it into account for the most part, news people, locally, and network levels, they try to do the best job that they can. >> what did he think of any objection son in 19-- nixon in 1968? >> there were two walter cronkites. but he always had a feeling that i don't know how we voted, but if i had to guess, i would say that he was a reluctant democrat, and his instincts would go towards the liberal side of the domestic affairs, but he was very tough on foreign affairs. and it was very difficult for him to say that the war in vietnam was stalemate because that meant that the united states was not winning. and that was something that the inside of walter cronkite rebelled against. he would love the idea of america winning. >> he was a world war ii guy.
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>> yes, absolutely. we are still about a year away before neil armstrong would walk on the moon. but the space program was flourishing in 1968? >> yes. and mainly i was watching that one on television. i didn't get a chance to photograph him at that point. >> but it was a big story and the russians were doing remarkable things at that time too. and when they were sending one of their first rockets to the moon, i was called back to go to cape canaveral to help report that story with walter, which was silly because he knew the entire story and i really did not. but space was open for both powers at that time and there was a recognition in our coverage that we understand they were also going to play a
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major role. >> let me share with you, kind of a big year as you look at this photographer. you see the view of earth from space. >> also what happened in '68. the crew of the uss pueblo is let go by the north koreans, which is something worth talking about right now. and i was in san diego when that crew came off of the airport there and they were playing the lonely ball, the theme song. and now flash flood to possible peacefulness, breaking out on the peninsula, i will never forget what happened on christmas with the pueblo crew. >> our last call.
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good morning, quick question, tom. >> yes, definitely. it is great listening to you. and so i studied 68 very well. just a quick comment and then a question. but i do worry that the media today is not close to what you were in the 60s. and that will be redefining the term and where they use that language. what you're talking about with illegal aliens, to try to take on the discussion when president trump mentioned something about both sides. you'll make the same as if it is a legal concept of thor. but we never hear about the left in the media. >> we only have a minute left and we will respond. >> these are terms that are use today describe complicated processes. i find it very difficult, for
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example, most of the times to look at a reporter. i haven't a clue and i don't care. but as long as you do your job. from that point of view, that is all that is important. but look at the results of what a reporter does. that's enough. >> i was going to give you a minute 20, but i'll give you 25 seconds. what are the lessons? >> i was glad to get out of it alive. i think that was, well, i think we have come a long way. i work for cnn now, covering politics. and i love my colleagues. i think we are still a band of
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brothers and sisters out there telling the truth. and you know, if you put something into a photo or take it out, you get fired. i mean you have to know with the new york times, the networks, all these people, they really hold the line, the line of integrity. >> marvin, you get the last word. >> i think that journalism in 1968 learned one huge lesson and that was about its government. the government of the united states. when it wishes to, it would lie. all to the american people using the press as the middleman and the press, therefore, they had a responsibility to speak truth to power, but to understand when power was lying and to speak truth to the american people. >> marvin with his signature red tie. [ laughter ] from cbs news and nbc. and a long career with upi,
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pulitzer prize winning photographer and later at the white house. and now with cnn to both of you. thank you for being here. >> thank you. >> thanks a lot, steve. >> c-span's washington journal live every day with news and policy issues that impact you. coming up on thursday morning, david sullivan, european union, ambassador to the u.s., will discuss the relations. bloomberg susan wooley talks about financial literally. join the discussions. >> live on thursday for the c- span networks. at noon network, the conversations on social media.
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and how it will need to influence their political debate and democracy in the u.s., hosted by the institute. on c-span 2 at 9:00 a.m., madeline albright sits down with david to talk about the trump administration's foreign policy. including the current talks with north korea about a possible summit. then at 10:00, a forum on how to use intelligence to assess the cyber threats to organizations and companies. that is also on c-span 2. >> december 21, 1968. the shortest day of the year. but perhaps one of the longest in the flow of history. >> we are still a go at this time. ten, nine, we have


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