tv Lectures in History Late-19th Century Development of Skyscrapers CSPAN June 3, 2018 12:00am-1:15am EDT
is that we all need each other to make each other as good as we can be. good evening, and i look forward to seeing everybody tomorrow. >> you are watching american history tv, all weekend every weekend on c-span3. to join the conversation, like us on facebook. washington university in st. louis professors teach a class about the development of skyscrapers in the late 19th century. -- ga professor gardner behindmines the forces the boom and their construion. att, professor mumford looks the practical and comfortable
concerns. right, so today you will get a sense of the two different disciplines that professor and i come from. will give you the more old-style social, political history of the skyscraper as a new kind of a urban form. and then, professor mumford will give you the architectural .istory version garb: pay attention to how we frame these issues. going to see are two different disciplines coming together to explore the same topic. pay attention to what we are doing, ask questions, think about the two disciplines addressing similar topics. i'm going to talk about
skyscrapers, and at the end, hopefully come around to thertment stores heard skyscraper becomes the key emblem or symbol of the american city in the late 19th century. the skyscraper and department store together take form in the become aury, and marker of a new kind of consumer oriented urban culture. emblems of new corporate oriented american economy. the 1890'sd about, marked a turning point in american economic structures and culture. the 1890's wasof the deepest and most serious depression of the 19th century, and certainly the most serious depression before the great depression of the 1930's. in some ways to
mobilize a new reform movement and to radicalize some of those reformers. but it also transformed the dominant structures of the american economy. you can see that transformation as you look at the american. this is the moment america becomes a major industrial power , a major industrial force on a global scale. early 1890's, america is out producing england in terms of steel. america is also mining most of the world's copper, which is crucial for electricity, for telephones. by the mid-1890's, america is exporting more than it is in. also a. of a new phase of american
expansionism. in the first half of the 19th states went united west world westward until the united states covers the entire continent. by the late 19th century, the united states is moving outside of the continental down trees -- boundaries and in the spanish-american war. the war of 1898, and into the early decades. the united states acquires the philippines, puerto rico, and spain gives cuba nominal independence and the u.s. moves quickly with the passage of an amendment to assert its right to intervene in cuban affairs if it chooses to. in the same period, they begin to intervene in cuba, venezuela, and to take territory and establish a new nation up and a -- of panama.
it is a moment of american expansion outside of the continental borders. here's where the u.s. joins the european powers in this great imperial drive of the late 19th century. foreign trade becomes the key motivation for this kind of expansionism. just to give you a couple of numbers, america's exports jump from 392 billion in 1870, two 392 million to 1.4 billion in 1900. the acquisition of colonies outside of the united states is part of the larger drive leading up to expanding american markets overseas and to transform american capitalism. as early as the 1890's, the corporation becomes the dominant mechanism for doing business in america.
increasingly, the corporation is replacing the older form of business, sole proprietorship, partnerships running an operating locally oriented businesses. the new york stock exchange was established in the early 19th century, 1817, but it expands rapidly between 1880 and 1900. it is in 1903 the new york stock exchange moves into its current building on broad street in new york city. that building, pointing out, was designed by george b post who also designed a couple of buildings here in st. louis. the renaissance hotel downtown, also designed by him. one more point, the roots of consumer culture are located in the 1890's. department stores, the earliest ones you could say appear in new york and 1830's, but really the
1870's are the beginning of the department stores in cities. the 1890's is when department became dominant for shopping in american cities. as department stores moving to cities, they undermine the status of older, locally owned, often immigrant owned neighborhood businesses. small shops, owned by recent immigrants and working-class neighborhoods are slowly displaced by the rise of the department store in cities. department stores also have an ,nd -- impact on overall areas as big companies initially based in chicago begin printing it enormous catalogs where you can see a whole range of commodities. typically household furnishings.
these catalogs get sent to rural areas around the country and people can purchase them through mail order. it is not just the purchase of these new commodities, it is the ability to see them. to page through a catalog and see the possibilities for what you might be able to have if you could afford it or if you lived in the city, you might be but to purchase these goods. it is transforming people's aspirations and the way they imagine themselves as part of american culture. the way they imagine their homes and relationship with their homes and the homes of other people into these and suburbs -- cities and suburbs around the country. has anyone seen those old catalogs? the montgomery ward, sears. sears developed so fast that by the 1920's and 30's, you could purchase a house from the catalog. they would ship it to you. you could purchase almost anything from sears or from montgomery ward.
with the catalog in your home, you could page through in look at all the whole range of commodities you might bring into your home and transform your home. even if you could not purchase them, you could dream of purchasing them. let me say a little it about the corporation and its importance in transforming labor relations and the american economy as a whole. by the 1880's, 1890's, a growing number of americans are beginning to consider purchasing corporate stock or partial ownership of a business represented by a piece of paper. people are beginning to think about corporate stock or bonds as a good investment and as an investment that competes with the purchase of real estate.
of landed property or housing. increasingly, corporate stock is competing for surplus capital with investment in property or housing. yeah? [indiscernible] prof. garb: no. good question. it is not because land values fall significantly in the 1890's. it is no longer clear that investing in real estate is a good investment. land values were in the rise in 1880's, especially in cities like chicago, st. louis, and so lots of people were purchasing property housing, developers were building housing in cities and with the depression of the 1890's, property values crashed.
people have already begun to investing corporations, buying stock. they are beginning to the see the stock market -- they are beginning to see the sea as more profitable than housing. corporate stock does fall, but not as rapidly or as widely as property and housing in the 1890's. wealthy people begin to think about where to invest their money. what will be the best investment for their money? now, they have new forms of property to choose from. in the late 19th century, stockholders, people we think of as investors, were called proprietors. if you own the stock, you are a proprietor or a partial owner of this company. even though your investment is a tiny piece of your control over the corporation.
after the turn-of-the-century, those proprietors become known as stockholders. it is a shift that shows a growing distance of the owner of the stock from responsibilities for the day-to-day operations of the company. here, with the emergence of stocks and bonds, comes a new form of property. if you think of the relative benefits, calculating where your money is going to be best spent in terms of investing in stock or investing in land and property. stock is more liquid. you can buy and sell ownership of a peaceable corporation more rapidly and easily through the stock market. you don't have to wait for somebody to buy your house or your chunk of land and subdivided.
part of the attraction of investing in stock is it is easier to move that capital through the stock market than it is to move through a housing market or real estate market. it is worth recognizing that what you are seeing here is the emergence of a new form of property that is going to compete with urban real estate for investment. by the mid-20th century, urban real estate is going to be remade and repackaged so it can be as liquid as a stock. you can buy and sell investments in real estate and creates real estate investment trusts allowing you to have partial ownership of a piece of property that you don't see or touch, but it is represented by the piece of paper that shows your investment in this trust. it will take another half a century before real estate is going to catch up with the business corporation in terms of transforming the rate of
property functions. does that make sense? ok. the railroad companies are the first to incorporate and begin to sell stock on a mass scale. corporation quickly spreads from railroad companies to steal with andrew carnegie using the corporate form to raise investment capital to invest in these steel plants. corporations bring new approaches to management. these are large national business enterprises that need a more systematic administrative structure than the local ventures of the past. corporate leaders introduce what might be seen as a modern business administration that relies on the division of responsibilities, and the carefully organized hierarchy of control. modern cost accounting
procedures, and a new breed of the business executive, the middle manager forming the layer of command between the workers themselves and the owners of the business. these new efficient administrative techniques speed the process of doing business and after the depression of the mid-1890's, you see a whole series of corporate mergers and companies getting bigger and bigger, and much more your -- bureaucratic. they start moving their administrative staff up into headquarters of central business districts. and begin separating the physical labor of production from the bureaucratic labor of administering the business. by the teens in most industries, there is a clear separation between administrative offices and industrial production sites. here, the middle class of american cities move from being
small proprietors to being part of a salaried managerial class. while the engineers, as we talked about last week with taylorism, are studying factory production and how to make it more efficient, they are also studying the flow of paper through corporate offices and trying to make administration more efficient as well. this shift from an entrepreneurial to a corporate economy is expressed visually with the skyscraper. that is where the skyscraper comes into this story. here, an early birds eye view of chicago. i'm not sure if you can see this but it is a lowrise city on the lake. a lot of trade is oriented towards the lake and ships moving through the lake and, in and out of the harbor.
chicago has a dramatic and quick shift toward the skyscraper because of the chicago fire of 1871 which decimated much of the downtown district of the city and many neighborhoods. the fire raged for many days in some neighborhoods. it destroy the central business district of the city. at chicago begins to rebuild, workers flow into the city, architects flow into the city, and chicago begins to look toward the skyscraper one of the , early corporate forms, one of the earliest skyscrapers in chicago -- i'm not even sure if it is considered the skyscraper, would you say? prof. mumford: yes. prof. garb: is the manon. building -- manondot building. it introduced steel to build high-rises. it has these thick walls of the
base to hold up the structure. can you see how thick talls are at the building -- bottom? it still stands in the loop in chicago. it is the last of his old style skyscraper type of building before the use of steel and large plate glass windows to build this new design which eric will talk about in a minute. this shift from an entrepreneurial to a corporate economy is expressed to the rise -- through the rise of the skyscraper in cities. you see architects taking advantage of new possibilities made available by still frame, by the elevator making it possible to build taller buildings, and you also see transformations in the labor force. the emergence of this new
managerial class is a result of changes in clerical work in offices. another key point in all of this, until about 1890, an office clerk, somebody who copied things, carried paper around, was typically male. a young white man. as working in the office was seen as a stepping stone to becoming some type of entrepreneur. a businessman on your own. typically, until about the 1890's, most industries the office where all of the paperwork was done was often upstairs from the factory. they are connected in the same building so they are having factory production on the ground floor and accounting, and basic administrative work occurring on the floor above, or the third floor of the building. this office clerk might spend part of his work doing white-collar work in the office, but there not that much
administrative work until most of these small businesses and factories so they would spend most of their week on the factory floor as well. they would move back and forth between what we consider white-collar and blue-collar labor. as this becomes the dominant mechanism, as corporations become bigger and more national, enterprises, and as the administered at work becomes larger and larger, there is more and more paperwork flowing through corporate offices. corporations can no longer afford to have an office clerk moving back and forth from factory floor to the offices. increasingly, the office clerk is being replaced by a new group of laborers, typically white nativeborn women who become as what we think of as secretaries using the new technology of the
typewriter. calculator to work in offices. the young man who might have once seen being an office clerk as a stepping stone to bureaucratic work becomes an accountant or a middle manager 's, salaried worker, in a corporation. then, we have a new kind of female labor force appearing in all of these corporate offices. businesses could pay women lower wages and increasingly, after the civil war, growing numbers of women had a high school education. so they were prepared to go work in offices. as nativeborn white women take office jobs, growing numbers of immigrant women are taking factory work and working for wages outside of the home to supplement their household income. african-american workers are typically denied jobs in factories and they are increasingly working as household servants or commercial
laundries for even lower pay and more dangerous and difficult working conditions. middle-class white men move into offices as managers, accountants, and supervisors. you see a separating of the class, andlong race, gender. all of this shift you see in the urban landscape as skyscrapers are rising in new york and other cities in 1880's and 1890's. my point is, the skyscraper is the cultural expression of this transition. the separation of white-collar from a blue-collar labor. the emergence of a new middle-class focused on salaried work, and as a corporation of a dominant mechanism for doing business in america.
skyscrapers express andperity, competitiveness, an aggressive pursuit of private goals, profit. it separates the workforce in two different spaces within this new urban form. the emphasis on the corporate form as on the product -- rather than on the product can be seen in the skyscraper but i think it is also interesting that you can see the stationery used by lots of businesses. we talked about the mccormick reaper last week. this was the image that was typically at the top of the stationary for the reaper company. up until the mid-1880's when they had the strike at the mccormick reaper company, they
shifted their stationary away from the focus on the products, but they are producing towards their office buildings and later, they shifted toward the sky's rivers. -- the skyscraper. i do not have an image, but i will show you other business is doing the same thing. they shift away from focusing on the product of production and towards focusing on the office space and the new design of their businesses. on the one hand, the skyscraper is expressive of the city's prosperity, competitiveness, and of an aggressive pursuit of private goals of profit. the skyscraper stands for a new cultural value, emphasis on the
corporate form, and on the product rather than the process of production. are -- architects and builders skyscrapers represented more than a profit motive. if you look at contemporary writing of skyscrapers, particularly among architects and some builders, business leaders who commission them, you see an effort to transcend the commercial utility. to reconcile competitive market relations with specific responsibility. architects, business leaders did not want their cities to be known only for competitive corporate capitalism. they wanted the skyscraper also to demonstrate a sense of civic culture, civic responsibility, of beauty, of aesthetics to balance the competitiveness of the corporate markets.
so, lee sullivan is one of the people who most emphasizes this notion -- here is the wainwright building in st. louis. has everyone seen it? no, yeah? downtown? most of you? prof. mumford: there are actually two others. prof. garb: there are two others? prof. mumford: [indiscernible] prof. garb: i knew about that but that is not standing anymore. yes. yeah. that he designed, but it is not a skyscraper. oh that is cool. louis sullivan is one of the people articulating that the skyscraper should not just be an emblem of capitalism and the pursuit of profit.
so he wanted to demonstrate a larger civic purpose connected with the skyscraper as an urban form. so he and others produced elaborately adorned the lobbies. they adorned the buildings with elaborate, almost a sort of natural type designs and forms. they attempt to create a new aesthetic that is civic and oriented rather than corporate oriented. the aesthetics are really essential. here's a piece of the masonry on the outside of the wainwright building. that is designed to show beauty, culture, a concern with a set x -- aesthetics rather than concern of just the corporate side.
we see this again in chicago with daniel burnham's buildings in chicago doing the same kind of things in an effort to offer some kind of beauty to the building. it is not just a corporate form design to promote profit. part of it is about profit, because as business leaders are well aware, they have to attract tenants to these buildings. the potential of these buildings for advertising not only the wealth of the business leader who built the building, but also of the tenants who live in the offices in these corporate buildings is important. during this period, when there are regular outbreaks of labor conflicts, regular strikes and violence with workers in the streets of cities like chicago, business leaders could look to skyscrapers as a means of expressing their personal and
business culture. they used the skyscraper to be an expression of the good taste and also of the sense of public spirit, civic responsibility. on the one hand, status is based on wealth and the skyscraper represented wealth of the companies that built it, or the health of the tenants in the sky stripper. -- wealth of the tenants inside the skyscraper. but it is also an expression of your tasteful expenditure of your wealth in elaborately adorned lobbies, staircases, columns. you could see the good taste of the designers. here is an ad for a corporate office building in chicago showing here that it is even safe for elegant women to move up and down in elevators within the office building. here is the interior of the building which is just restored and renovated about 10 years
ago, something like that in chicago. again, part of what you also see his these interior atriums, with glass ceilings bringing in lots of natural light into the building. there is this emphasis on aesthetic, but it also corresponds with an emphasis on health and public health. light and fresh air are seen as signs of health, a home, a family home, with lots of open windows is a sign of the health of the family. the same thing with these new skyscrapers. there is an effort to present them as places where the health of the urban public is protected. in this case, is the new managerial middle-class health. so, much of this new, healthy environment in the skyscraper is
made possible by new technology in terms of steel, glass, but also eventually electricity. electricity is available in skyscrapers before it is available in family homes. if you go to the office and have electricity, but you probably would not have it it in your home around the same time -- . by the early 1880's, electric light is replacing gas lamps. skyscrapers have centralized heating and ventilation systems, which many family homes did not have. they also have indoor plumbing. expensive, sewage and water systems connected to downtown business districts where skies -- skyscrapers are. it makes possible to have running water and private toilets on every floor of the skyscraper. by the 1890's, the skyscraper is seen as a vertical park and we will talk about public parks
next week. it is a space where it will bring health and energy to the city. almost the same way as the horizontal park, the green space is going to bring health to the urban public. what also gets hidden behind all of this is a new, invisible labor force. just showing you some of this elaborate grill work here. beautiful workmanship on the interior of the skyscraper to show the kind of civic culture of the city. i don't know if you can really see that. here we go. on the one hand, this shows the visible labor of the managerial middle-class is and workers.
the new mechanization of the buildings is made possible by the labor of electricians, steamfitters, janitors, people who wash windows, wash lamps, as well as the people who clean the offices and bathrooms. this is this largely invisible wave of labor force that is providing the comfort, health, and luxury of this new, middle-class of office workers streaming into the office buildings. is that clear? questions? let me say a little bit about department stores, i will not go on for too long. if middle-class men are heading downtown to the commercial center to work in skyscrapers. their wives and daughters are heading downtown to participate in a new kind of leisure activity. that activity also represents a kind of new consumer capitalism. the rise of the department store and especially with the glass
plated window, the public display of all of the goods you could buy in the department store, that you can see from the street. windowshopping becomes a major feature of the urban center and transforms the way that downtowns and cities look. the commercial center of the city looks specifically, with with theently, introduction of the department store and these new plate glass windows displaying a whole range of consumer goods. in some ways, it is a new strategy for democratizing desire and for selling commodities. not everyone will be able to afford these goods, but just like everybody can page through anybody cantalog,
walk past the store window and desire any of these new consumer goods, even if you cannot afford them. part or begins the shift from an older culture of self-sacrifice, saving, the 19th century culture that emphasizes character and inner life to a new culture, what you might think of 20th century, that emphasizes personality, , individual growth, comfort. a new culture that emphasizes production.over the department store represents that cultural shift away from in and this is on production and toward an emphasis on consumption. away from self-sacrifice and toward the new 20th century emphasis on self-fulfillment.
the use of glass, light, color to display goods makes the -- remakes the streetscape, but also uses new technologies to sell a whole new range of consumer goods. even during a serious economic depression in the 1890's, the department stores are essentially telling the consumer you can be lifted out of the reality of work, depression, struggle into a new reality of comfort and consumption. as i say for wage workers or the immigrant, urban laboring classes in the city, most of the goods in the department stores were not available. they cannot possibly purchase any of these consumer goods.
but they could see them. they are visible as you come into the city to look for other leisure activity. the department store is a gendered space. it is a space for women who can travel downtown on streetcar and it creates a whole bunch of other leisure activities. there are tearooms, restaurants, and some department stores even have childcare facilities or you could travel downtown with your kids, leave them in the facility and go off to have your lunch and go off to have your lunch with other lady friends while you are shopping and talking. so it is a new type of space in the center of the city, in the business district of the city designed for particularly middle-class women. in addition, in the 1890's, as the first decade of the 20th century, many goods displayed in department stores were goods that expressed to kind of -- different kinds of cultures. they don't do it literally but there is an emphasis on middle
eastern carpets. one of the most popular forms is a turkish design the called it turkish design, not really turkish but it looks exotic. beautiful big elaborate lamps, carpets, curtains, lots of heavy cushions with drapery. it is supposed to look middle eastern or moroccan, or foreign and exotic. part of what i think is going on here is the department store is selling all of these new foreign and exotic goods that you can move into your home and used to decorate your elaborate the victorian cottage with these goods. it is at the moment where the united states is reaching beyond its borders in attempting to domesticate or take control of peoples outside of the united states.
way, the department store is for many american families investigating these new foreign cultures, bringing them into your home. let me stop here and say, the beauty of the department store and skyscraper emerge in sharp contrast to the working-class neighborhood that we talked about last week and are only a couple of miles away. the skyscraper and the department store represent a kind of new stage in corporate capitalism and a dramatic shift in american culture and in the urban environment as a whole. prof. mumford: some of this will overlap with maggie's but i think it will give you some of the bigger context and will in the end focus on chicago and st. louis. a lot of these issues of early skyscrapers, you find in cities
like cincinnati or pittsburgh which are typically not well studied either. the whole backdrop of all of this is industrialization. the kinds of buildings that become widespread in the 19th century which are really the early forms of skyscape is also, they really begin in industrialization in england as early as the 17th and 18th century. you start to find the gradual gathering together of workers producing, mostly textiles in the beginning and eventually other kinds of manufactured products. a lot of that is speeded up by new technologies like the mechanical loom, the steam engine, eventually the railroad. these make possible the great expansion of industry in the early 19th century. a lot of that quickly spreads to the east coast of the united states. parts of europe, belgium, and
eventually france and germany begin to industrialize in the 19th century as well. there are lots of interchanged parallels in these factory buildings. these buildings are conventionally built out of solid outside walls of brick and stone and interior framing of large timbers. what starts to happen as early as the 18th century and some of the timbers start to be replaced by iron. usually rod and cast-iron which is stronger than wood. it is not fire resistant as we see eventually leads to the invention of steel. steel is something that is more fire resistant than iron and allows for all steel framed buildings as we see in chicago in 1880's. the factory system as we have
been talking about tens to set up hierarchies within the factories often involving gendered relations, and to some extent, racially segregated relationships. very often, nonwhite people are excluded from labor altogether. that varies in different circumstances. there's also an idea of social organization's of the use of machines goes along with human organization, of how people produce the goods often under very dire conditions. child labor was common. people would work from dawn until dusk. it was not a utopian environment. it was one where people could make wages that were better and provide a marginally better life than living in the countryside as farmers on the verge of starvation. particularly if the harvest fails. more people begin to migrate into the cities in the population grows.
in the 19th century, there starts to be an idea of laying outger anlarger territory about planning and parks. the idea that the city needs to in some way be organized almost like a factory and begin to have an overall guiding plan that will organize its interrelationships which are becoming increasingly complicated with people, the gathering of more people into these large concentrations. of course in new york city, the -- by the 1820's, the opening of the erie can now becomes the center for urban life in the united states where finance is concentrated, shipping at that time and manufacturing, and it is the model of the city of the west. certainly for chicago, similarly laid out on the grid in the 1830's, and in a lot of ways continues some of the patterns you can already find in new york city. maggie has already talked about
the row house, early ideas of planning on standard size. 25 by 100 feet in new york. that laid out assuming the buildings would only be built up to about four or five stories. as we will see in chicago, you get into issues of foundations and how buildings can be supported that is actually much heavier and taller than anything previously built before. that all happens gradually in the late 19th cent a lot of cities like st. louis, new orleans, develop similarly to the eastern cities. in the early 19th century, with brick row houses, and eventually private streets, this effort to move away from commerce and elites separate themselves into greener kind of areas. often areas that have restrictive covenants which we will talk about which mandates
that houses be of a certain size and maintains the property values of these areas. that is happening in parallel with the densification of cities close to areas of industry and a waterfronts. which up until the 1850's, most trade moves by water. the river is the key highway connecting new orleans to the steamboat which come into use in 1820's which are key elements. where the arch stands in the old waterfront was built up with -- 45-story industrial buildings. it's in that area with the old courthouse does the cast-iron dome and you get a wider use of iron in building. designed by an engineer named william rumble. there, you can go and look at it in the field trip.
it is the model for the u.s. capitol dome, which is also cast-iron. is the widespread use of this material which had been widely used in construction. it goes along with improved technology and the ability to make scientific regulations -- calculations to design buildings of this type. you can not have done that before the 18th century. in the same context, you have the civil war and transformation of the west as st. louis starts to lose its preeminence as the name to city of the west to chicago because there was concern during the civil war about the whole situation in missouri. it was a contested state and there were a lot of battles between the sides and chicago was seen as a safer place for investment. that starts to put chicago on a path in becoming the second city of the united states which, by 1870, gradually overshadows st. louis. although, st. louis remains a a
center, it remains a row would -- railroad center. the first step towards that is the east bridge designed in 1874 by a man in st. louis. he had built iron gun bullets during the civil war on the waterfront. he uses a lot of the same techniques to build one of the first fireproof bridges which allows the railroads to come into st. louis. , they came uped with a lot of reasons why it would obstruct steamboat navigation. it was a battle for st. louis to get this bridge. once the bridge was built, it connected st. louis into the national railway system which was then emerging and allow them to become the gateway to the southwest as a railway center. it is quite significant in the history of the city. at the same time, chicago is also becoming a major industrial
and railway center. founded in the 1830's, it planned out a grid for shipping, grain shipping specifically along the chicago river. a lot of the early city, wood frame, is destroyed in 1871 fire. from that point onward, there's an interest in rebuilding the city and more permanent material. at the same point, you have a growing use of iron in construction like the crystal palace in london. the use of passenger elevators also becomes into use. the cast-iron front showroom building still exists in lower manhattan and is the first to have a passenger elevator that allows people to move to higher floors, travel to higher floors than it previously had been possible. in lower manhattan, you find the
first commercial buildings which are taller than six stories, the first passenger elevators, not steel framed or necessarily have any change in technology, they're just taller buildings than previously built. they reflect this new and growing importance of the corporate center, the need for places of administration, or large manufacturing enterprises and financial investment firms with lawyers and accountants that serve those. they start to demand more office space in these highly valuable central locations. notably, lower manhattan and also tenets find a prefer the higher floors of a building -- find to prefer the higher floors of a building being less valuable. in new york, instead of the elevator making possible the higher rent ability of these upper floors. there's a whole transformation
occurring where taller starts to be not only valuable in terms of maximizing the amount of rentals on a given piece of land, it also means you can charge more for higher floors, better views and a different aesthetic way to think of tall buildings starts the 1870's. the term skyscraper begins to be used. applied to ships with tall sales, but now begins to apply to buildings. to be applied to the 1880's and these new elevator buildings that are just emerging. most of them are no longer surviving. architecturally, particularly not well thought through, they are often criticized later in piling one story onto another. they do not have a coherent visual language of how to design a tall building. there are bigger versions of small buildings being built otherwise. that is also the same new york where new york and britain eventually merged in the
corporate bridge is used to join them. the suspension bridge illustrates the widespread acceptance of steel. this is as carnegie is developing a steel industry in pittsburgh. that is beginning to make possible a lot of these technical transformations in the late 19th century. we start to find high-rise apartment buildings appearing in new york city, later in other american cities, which also use elevators and start to maximize the value of taller floors in these buildings. this also goes along with territorial expansion. the cities begin to expand. the use of electricity in 1880's makes them even more desirable as a means of commuting. a lot of people begin to seek out lying areas rather than living in what are considered unsafe areas close to the center. you have the high-value downtown, around that are immigrant areas but thought is
not very desirable, and father out, people move along these streetcar lines. so that has a spatially transforming affect we will talk about in later lectures. it leads to the annexation of a lot of areas around chicago. formerly independent rural townships are annexed on monday giving chicago largely its overall borders as it still has them today. in those, you have developers, more people building inexpensive wooden cottages being sold to workman often on cheap credit terms at the beginning of this widespread real estate development that still goes on. all of that is the context of the emergence of the steel framed skyscraper. with high-rise buildings that are not steel framed. the first high-rise building in chicago is not a chicago -- is
not a skyscraper in terms of the steel frame, it is the home insurance building of 1884 where it has a partly steel, partly cast iron structure as well as masonry walls considered to be the first true skyscraper. in many ways, it is similar to other buildings that have been built previously. other buildings at the same point, the rookery starts to show the potential of partial iron framing. these are also called new foundation technologies and chicago's soil is mostly clay. a goes down about 100 feet. most of that is waterlogged. the top 10 feet of it is dry and it requires that the foundations be either light in support buildings can sit on them, , nothing deeper than 10 feet. usually crushed stone was used
up to this time, or it has to be much stronger of something for heavier loads so that it does not sink into the waterlogged clay. and so, the floating raft foundation is introduced in chicago which is a unique invention using iron rails and eventually steel rails in a mesh so that the building floats on top of the waterlogged clay below. new drilling technologies are also introduced to make possible drilling down 100 feet to bedrock and then you can build much taller buildings. a lot of the taller buildings in chicago have that foundation. in the same context, architects are interested in celebrating modern technology and they begin to try to expose the steel and iron in the construction. the lobby of the referee -- rooferee. it shows effort to make this technology visible and chained architecture exposing new
-- change the by exposing new technologies. there are new ideas about organizing these large blocks. boston architect hh richardson designs a warehouse. for the department store marshall fields, no longer existing, unfortunately. this building inspires architects sullivan to think about how they can organize a whole block as a single, visual object instead of filing a lot of differently decorated floors one on top of another. the idea is that this building as something like a roman aqueduct. a nice granite is used to express itself a material technology. the making of the building starts to become the ornament rather than applying some sort of decoration to the outside. these ideas lead eventually to the work of sullivan to modern architecture.
they can even be seen in this building which does not have a steel frame but is very plain and has no external aesthetic. partly because the clients did not want to spend a lot of money on these buildings. they saw them primarily as commercial investments rather than something they wanted to make look honorific like a traditional downtown commercial structure. whether or not it is the architect's ideas or a wish for cheap producing, it is continually debated in architectural history. nonetheless, all of this 19th century effort starts to rethink some of the basis of design. we would get back to the park in the auditorium is often consider the building when this comes together. at the same time, this building
uses a steel frame and has a were sullivan and frank lloyd wright worked in the early 1890's. also, the auditorium theater which was acoustically designed for better acoustics. and one of the first auditoriums to have electric light. there is a sense of modernity emerging here. all of it is part of an expanding chicago which hosts the world fair which we will talk about in the later lecture. part of a mostly vanished america is connected by railways with large commercial centers on the east coast and outposts like chicago and st. louis which becomes the fourth-largest city in the country by 1900. it is a whole urban structure that is not at all similar to the united states today, but one that shows a lot of european
immigrants moving into the cities who then begin to work in those skyscrapers and transform them. you can see from 1900, how all of that starts to change. things we will be talking about later in the course. some of the cities remain major cities even down to the present. others like st. louis, baltimore, gradually drop out of the top 10 of these listings and are replaced eventually by cities in the south and west. a process that is still going on today. to briefly talk about st. louis and the skyscrapers at the end here, st. louis in 1900, the fourth largest city in the country, a city that, like chicago, had major industries, many of which involving stove making and shoemaking.
many breweries in st. louis, one of which survives anheuser-busch, and you can , visit it where it has a tour where you can see the preserved industrial processes. also, at this point, st. louis building the world's largest train station. enormous train shed preserved until the 80's when it was turned into a shopping center. also, a building on the interior shows the influence of sullivan in the interior ornament of the main lobbies designed by an architect named lewis malay. it is the same context you have the auditorium building that is all steel frame and tries to express that fact are not using -- traditional ornaments and tries to transform the vocabulary of architecture to express this is a tall building designed in a unified way. where, on the inside, every office is intended to be similar to every other. each one demands natural light,
can be rentable, and non-rentable parts of the building are shunt to a minimum, -- shrunk to a minium, like the elevator, the bathrooms, to maximize the rentable floor area. that means a need for efficiency in design, a kind of thinking through every detail and element to maximize the rentable amount of space. is also influenced by writers in the 19th century. they studied comparatively a lot of ornamental systems from around the world and present those. these appear in sullivan's work