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tv   Electric Grid Modernization Security Part One  CSPAN  June 8, 2018 3:12am-4:44am EDT

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do. and finally, that's why i am optimistic about the future because of how unbelievably tough we are proving to be. i have encountered many people in recent months who give me hope. the students in parkland and now the students in santa fe. many people in communities who have responded with courage and resolve. and the leaders and groups that i'm supporting have given me a real rush of hope because when i started after the election, it was to help support this rush of activity from the grassroots level, to encourage the outpouring of that engagement. so everyone who is marching, registering voters, diving into the issues facing us like never before -- some for the first time in their lives -- the leaders here at the radcliffe
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institute doing cutting edge research, bringing together some of the brightist minds in the world to discuss and debate big ideas. and, yes, i find hope in the wave of women running for office and winning. and i find hope in the women and men who are dismantling the notion that women should have to endure harassment and violence as part of life!!! [ applause ] >> so, yes, i know there are many fights to fight and more seem to rise everyday. and it'll take work to keep up the pressure and stay vigilant, to neither close our eyes or numb our hearts or throw up our hands and say someone else take over from here. but there has not been a time certainly in 50 years and maybe not even for longer than that where our country depends on every citizen believing in the power of your actions even when
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that power is invisible and your efforts feel like you are in an uphill battle. and, yes, voting even when your side loses, it comes down to being really a matter of infinite faith. so pace ourselves, lean on each other, look for the good wherever we can, celebrate the heroes, encourage children, find ways to disagree respectfully, be ready to lose some fights, but don't quit! as john mccain recently reminded us, no just cause is futile, even if it's lost. what matters is that we keep going. so no matter what, think about our children and our grandchildren who are counting on us. and think, too, that our country and the world are as well. thank you so much, radcliffe and harvard!!! [ applause ]
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>> it was such a high!!! oh, my gosh! >> you deserve it! you deserve it! >> thank you. thank you. >> okay! i just want to say -- i want to thank secretary clinton one more time for this really remarkable, inspiring day. i want to thank nick and our panelists who were incredibleblly stimulating and gave us so much to think about. and i want to thank all of you for coming and making this historic radcliffe day so memorable. so on to the future! yes! >> yes, onward! >> i would love to talk more with you!
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>> i'd love it! c-span's washington journal live everyday with news and policy issues that impact you. coming up friday morning. new york republican congressman to me reid will discuss emigration and trump administration trade policy. and california democratic congressman ted lou will talk about the upcoming north korean summit in singapore. be sure to watch "c-span's washington journal" live friday morning at 7:00 eastern. join the discussion. next week, live coverage from the u.s. north korea summit between president donald trump and north korean leader kim jong-un starting monday night. and then join "washington journal" tuesday and wednesday mornings for analysis and your comments. watch live on c-span and
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cspan.org or listen using the free c-span radio app. next, a look at the nation's electric grid and the efforts to modernize it. how science, space, and technology subcommittee runs about an hour and 25 minutes but was interrupted by votes on the house floor. energy and water will come to order. welcome to today's hearing entitled the electric grid of the future. i now recognize myself for five minutes for an opening statement. by the way, we may have votes called just in short order. we will probably be called quicker than normal here. nothing that we do here is very normal.
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today, we'll hear from the department of energy. the private sector and texas tech university on research for creating the electric grid of the future. the goal of this research is to ensure energy, delivery systems are reliable, resilient and secure. they deliver energy to businesses and homes on demand regardless of energy sources. a resilient grid helps even during a hurricane. a secure grid protects our energy infrastructure from hostile disruptions due to physical or cyber attacks. i need water for a minute. they are a growing risk as more industrial control systems are connected online. thank you. the office of electric office is leading the research and delivery programs that promise to deliver advancements in grid technology. small but mighty, o.e. has the least amount of funding for applied energy programs at
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d.o.e. but carries out research conducted by the national labs. los alimos adds to the physics to help optimize modern electrical grids. los alimos developed these capabilities through its nuclear weapons. this basic science expertise with multidisciplinary actions is part of what makes the national lab system and incubator for new technologies and continues to advance research beyond its originally intended goals. academia and industry are also partners on grid modernizational research. texas tech university hosts the global laboratory for energy asset management and manufacturing or gleam facility that works to develop innovative power technologies and information delivery technology.
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gleam focus on wind, solar, battery storage, cyber security, and microgrid technology that is will all encompass the electrical grid of the future. advance grid technologies 6:00 a significant impact when the grid is faced with weather related event that is can threaten reliability. this month brings the official start of the 2018 hurricane season and last year communities in my home state of texas as well as florida and puerto rico lost power. modern grid technology in texas such as the use of smart meters were able to identify power outages and quickly help restore power after hurricane harvey. unfortunately, while they have made significant progress rebuilding capabilities, there are still communities in puerto rico without power. that's what d.o.e., o.e., and five national labs led by argon laboratory are working daily to provide grid monitoring tools through puerto rico. the national labs are combining
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their current skills and capabilities in order to help puerto rico to plan, to operate, and to rebuild a more resilient grid. these models help grid operators better predict where the highest risk of power disruption could be and determine the potential impacts on critical power loads that support puerto rico's power health and infrastructure. the national labs hope that by improving existing grid models, the island will be able to make key investments in resilient power infrastructure before the current hurricane season. they will inform puerto rico on long-term investment priorities for electrical transmission, distribution, renewable energy, battery storage, microgrids and strategic power reserves. the partnership between the federal government, the national labs, academia and history has the potential to transform energy delivery systems as we continue to support advanced grid research, i'd like to learn more about
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how doe can help the improvement of technology and our understanding of electrical systems. i want to thank our panel of witnesses for their testimony today and i look forward to a positive discussion about grid modernization research. i now recognize the ranging member of the subcommittee, the gentleman from texas, mr. beasley for an opening statement. >> thank you, mr. chairman and fellow texan. everyone else here today, our distinguished panel. just last week, i want to remind everybody that a white house memo was leaked that raised several questions. it detailed a plan to direct the energy secretary also from texas to ease authorities invested in him from the federal power act under the defense act to save coal and nuclear power plants. section 202 of the federal power act has historically been used to address energy supply concerns related to natural disasters or other major energy shortages. likewise, this act is a cold
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war era statute that allows the president to nationalize elements of u.s. industry in the interests of national security. this proposal has been roundly criticized by a wide range of trusted, independent experts, including wall street journal editorial page as poorly justified and legally dubious. our utilities, states and researchers do the hard work of hardening our energy infrastructure to cyber security threats and national disasters. meanwhile, the trump administration is inventing emergencies to bail out coal and nuclear plants while ignoring the real problems. i'm sure the white house views this legal loophole that's surfaced in the leaked memos as an easy way to try to fulfill campaign promises which is very bad and very unsound when it comes to energy policy. however, the real impact has not been thought through by the administration. it would wreak havoc on our energy markets and create a
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number of misaligned results. as climate change becomes more intense and damaging to the electric grid, this administration wants to dress the problem by offering financial bailouts and picking winners and loses as it relates to coal and any reasonable person would agree this seems backward. moreover, it wouldn't do anything to make the electric grid more resilient. the grid experts that have examined the issue would characterize our nation's priorities far differently than this politically motivated administration does. that's why they unanimously rejected secretary perry's last proposal to bail out coal and nuclear power plants. and while the trump administration works with coal c.e.o.s to craft a plan to benefit the industry's bottom dollar, the american people are being left behind. and i look forward to hearing today from mr. grenwitch today
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on his report entitled a customer framework for electric resilience. i can't think of a better way to approach this issue. the purpose of the electric grid is to provide reliable, affordable power to customers. any conversation that does not first consider the customer is not worth having. and while i am critical of these actions by secretary perry on grid resilience, i want to be clear i strongly support developing advanced technologies to enable carbon capture or coal fired power plants in the next generations of nuclear reactors. in fact, i just introduced a bipartisan bill, h.r. 5745. the fossil energy resource and development act of 2018 that would authorize activities to support the development of technologies and methods for carbon capture, storage, utilization, and removal. it is the most intensive, legislative proposal for energy and congress today.
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so i certainly have no issues with federal support for these energy options. i just think that we need to be a lot smarter about how we approach these issues. we're very fortunate to have assistant secretary bruce walker with us today. i look forward to hearing justify if you indications for the actions proposed by secretary perry in the white house memo as it was proposed. i also look forward to hearing your priorities for the office of electricity. in the fy2019 budget proposal, they requested a severe 37% cut to the office of electricity and reorganization of these investments. i'm sure we'll discuss that here shortly. while i'm not opposed to the reorganization and concept, i'm curious how splitting d.o.e.'s smallest offices into two offices will ensure these continue to be a priority in years to come. and before i close, i also
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would like to take some personal privilege to note that unfortunately this will be the last time that joe florida will be staffing us here on the committee, at least in this congress. that's because he recently won the bosch foundation fellowship and will be heading to germany in a few weeks. i know that staff on both sides of the aisle recognize that joe has done a tremendous job for the subcommittee in his time here. [ speaking german ] [ laughter ] >> and we look forward to seeing you when you come back. he played a very key role when negotiating a bicameral package. the department of research and invasion act that's since passed the house and is now advancing in the senate. and he was lead in vetting language for the fossil energy research bill that i previously mentioned. that bill has now been endorsed by a broad and impressive coalition of stake holders. i know that wouldn't have
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happened without all the hard work that joe put in this effort. we wish you luck. and i hope we can find a way to work together again. i know you'll have a great opportunity overseas. congratulations, joe. and mr. chairman, i'm yield back. >> i don't know what you said in german. but i talked to joe and he said he's learned german. and since they're starting a family, he better learn how to speak to his wife. i thank you! >> thank you, mr. chairman. the subcommittee today is going to examine the department of energy's effort to modernize the electrical grid. i look forward to hearing what our witnesses have to say about the subject. our national laboratories and universities across the country are working to develop next generation technologies that will make up our future electric grid. this is critical research and development. it will help address vulnerabilities that range from cyber attacks to natural disasters. another challenge is developing
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grid scale battery storage and incorporating that into our electric grid. renewable energy and distributed energy resources are changing the way electricity is produced and delivered throughout the nation. these energy sources are intermittent and depend on the sun to shine and the wind to blow. without the capacity to efficiently store the energy produced from renewable energy, these resources can only make a minimal contribution to america's electricity needs. energy storage is the key to modernizing the grid without sacrificing reliability. my home state of texas offers a ready example of the impact battery storage could have on harnessing renewable power. texas is the top wind-producing state in the country. so it's no surprise that the sandia national laboratory decided to join texas tech on a testing site in lubbock, texas.
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the scale facility brings together academia and industry only at the national lara tories to test and develop -- national laboratories to test and develop technology and to improve wind turbine performance. it also provides a test bed for supporting wind power with battery technology. researchers there are testing different battery chemistries and designs to harness wind energy on demand. this will incorporate renewable energy resources into the mix. but scaling up batteries will necessitate adding cost, efficiency, and size elimination problems. d.o.e. can provide solutions and build the foundation for the next fundamental breakthrough technology. and d.o.e. continues to prioritize the
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grid modernization initiative that harnesses the skillsets of individual lands to develop new technologies. home to one of our today's witnesses, researchers are developing new designs that will improve the reliability and resiliency of the grid. with the technical expertise developed through its nuclear weapons programs, los alimos uses advanced mathematics and technologies to research delivery systems. the national laboratories are also home to the joint center for energy storage research, energy hub. the d.o.e. hub brings scientists, manufacturers, and scientists together to develop transformative energy technologies. hr589 act has passed the house and through the department of energy invasion hub program to continue this important collaborative research effort.
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by developing a better battery, national labs and universities can help the private sector lead the way and bring battery storage technology to the energy marketplace. this early stage research will help create a modern, reliable, resilient grid. that's what we all need in this country. thank you, mr. chairman. >> i thank the gentleman for yielding back. it is now my distinct privilege to yield to the ranging member of the full committee, ms. johnson. >> thank you very much, mr. chairman. i need to catch my breath. let me thank all the witnesses for being here today.
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office of electricity support programs are critical to improving the flexibility and reliability to our electric grid while also enabling a broad range of clean energy resources to play a far larger role in our nation's power and transportation sectors. this is another reason that i'm so concerned about the administration's budget proposal that would cut funding for this office by 37% and that overall cuts include 62% cuts to clean energy transmission and reliability, 74% cut to smart grid research and 81% energy storage. despite the fact that secretary
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perry has now referred to energy storage as a holy grail of energy in several congressional hearings. these large proposed cuts to energy reliability and resilience research are also curious in light of recent proposals made by the secretary to take unprecedented urgent actions that would proper economic power plants under the guide of ensuring the reliability and resilience by electric grid. experts have resoundedly rejected these proposals in favor of more rigorous, well justified approach to addressing these issues while continuing to make substantial progress toward our nation's clean energy future future.
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and i believe he will be able to discuss this in more detail. there's no reason we can't have a secure, clean, reliable, and resilient energy sector that takes advantage of a broad range of our resource and technology options, including renewables, energy storage, nuclear power, and fossil fuels with carbon capture. without going to such an extreme of ill conceived lengths to save one particular resource at the expense of builders. lastly, i'd like to take this opportunity to note sadly that this will be the committee's last hearing staffed by joel frazier. she's worked with us over the last fiviers, started out as an intern and rising to become one
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of the top staffers of the team. he's been an outstanding job. he's the son of a nurse. he's a highly profession -- he's done highly professional work during his time on the committee. including developing several legislative, bipartisan proposals that i'm confident will continue to advance even as he moves to bigger and better things. in a few weeks, he'll be moving to germany for one year. and then i'd like to congratulate you and wish you well and hope you'll come back to see us after you leave our country proud. i thank you, mr. chairman. i yield back. >> the ideal yields back and i echo her comments. can we all give joe a hand?
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[ applause ] >> our first witness today is the honorable bruce walker, the department of energy's secretary for the office of electricity and the acting assistant for cyber, security, and emergency response. assistant secretary walker has more than 25 years of electric utility experience, previously working as the vice president of asset strategy and policy and national grid and corporate. he's the founder of modern energy insights inc. assistant secretary walker has served as a member of d.o.e.'s advisory committee for the megawatt, scale, and invasion lab and was a member of grid- wise alliance incorporated. she was confirmed as assistant secretary by the united states senate in 2017. he holds a bachelor's and a
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doctorate in energy. welcome, mr. walker. >> i'd like to welcome witness john sorro. am i saying that right? the principal director of science and engineering at los alimos. recently he was the director for the are science programs. from 2013 to 2018, he served as associate director for theory, simulation, and confirmation through at the merging national security admissions. he's held a number of leadership positions between the materials committee, including the divisional leader of the materials, physics, and applications and thermal physics. he's served on d.o.e. science advisory committees and subcommittees. dr. sorro is a fellow of the american association for the
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advancement of science, machine physical society, and national laboratory. he received his phd in physics from los angeles. welcome. rob grant will make our next witness, president of grid strategies, llc. prior to his current position, mr. grahamlick oversaw policy at the american wind association, as senior vice president of public affairs, interim c.e.o. and policy director. he was economic adviser to pat wood iii from 2001 to 2005. he's served on advisory committees as vice chair of the business council for sustainable energy and as interim executive director of the wind energy foundation. mr. graham grahamlick has been
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awarded several awards. he received a bachelor of arts with honors in economics from colby college and a master from berkeley. welcome. i now recognize mr. smith to introduce our last witness. >> okay. thank you, mr. chairman. i appreciate being able to introduce our last witness today. and that is dr. joseph pepper who is vice president for research at texas tech university. so happens that my district includes fredricksburg, texas, which has a satellite campus of texas tech with about 200 students. and believe me, i leverage that to the maximum extent possible. we're glad to welcome dr. hubert today to hear about how texas tech is contributing to research that benefit it is electric grid. previously, he served at the university of kansas and shared ku's chemistry department and was a founding department for the center of science and education. he's been active in projects to improve science teaching and science teacher preparation and
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is the past chair of the american chemicals society's committee on education. he is a fellow of the american chemical society and currently serves as chair of the american chemical society's committee on budget and finances. he received a bachelor of science and chemistry from san jose state university and a phd in inorganic chemistry, often thought to be the toughest subject from the university of wisconsin madison. we welcome you and appreciate what texas tech is doing. yield back, mr. chairman. >> thank you and thank you for all the witnesses being here today. i now recognize assistant secretary walker to present his testimony. >> thank you, chairman. chairman weber, chairman smith, ranging member vc and johnson and distinguished members of the subcommittee. i appreciate the opportunity today to discuss the priority of research programs within the department of energies offices of electricity and energy security and emergency restoration.
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the department of energy is focused on ensuring that the energy infrastructure is capable of securing our national security. therefore, the resilience and reliability of the nation's electric grid is of the up most appearance. we collaborate with industry, academia, state and local governments and other stakeholders on numerous research and development programs to achieve these objectives. using the definitions set forth in the presentation policy, resiliency is defined as the ability to prepare for and adapt to changing conditions and can stand and recover rapidly from discussion. resilience includes the ability to stand and recover from deliberate attacks, incidents or naturally occurring threats or incidents. d.o.e., which is a national security agency with a comprehensive intelligence committee formed in view of resilience, recognize this has
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been the main focus of cyber attacks and threats. we are addressing the very real risks we face. first, the former office of electricity, delivery and reliability has been divided into two separate departments in order to significantly increase focus mississippi rat with the known risk -- k -- increase focus in line with the known risks to cyber threats. my office's first priority is the creation of a north american energy system resiliency model. this capitalizes on previous lab work and understands the resiliency risks of operating a reasonably energized grid for north america. most importantly, the model will include the analysis of interdependencies that have evolved over the last couple
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decades between the various energy infrastructures. significantly, the model will highlight whether our strategic opportunities for specific capabilities offered by certain types of infrastructure. for example, energy storage for frequency control. most importantly, from d.o.e.'s vantage point, the model will inform national security investments will improve our overall resiliency capability. another priority is to revolution news technology. the goal is to use high fidelity, reasonable cost and technology to integrate real data into the north american grid model. we will also be able to use signature recognition and coordination formed by artificial intelligence from machine to machine learning to significantly improve the performance of the grid. furthermore, these efforts will enable strategic investments by highlighting system invulnerabilities and enhance distributed energy resources in the use of microgrids and energy storage.
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storage, the holy grail of energy, has a huge role to play in national security. there are various initiatives within d.o.e. from pump storage to flow batteries. there's never been a time where the available of megawatts scale storage has been more important. they're for butting sigh -- pursuing real -- they're pursuing real control. working with the national laboratories, o.e. is pursuing three high probability capabilities. equally soluble organics, sink, manganese batteries. these are members of the grid modernization initiatives. they focus on the development of new technologies that will better measure and only analyze, predict, and protect the grid. urgently consisting of o.e.
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and office efficiency, they have included cesar, and the office of energy to ensure coordinated and comprehensive d.o.e. approach. the grid modernization lab is part of the g.m.i. and establishes a strategic partnership to the national labs. we are presently defining the multiyear plan to continue our efforts for our projects with our labs. in conclusion, the energy sector continues to face challenges and threats everyday. the department continues to pursue diverse yet targeted projects to further enhance the resilience and reliability of our energy grid necessary for national security. the cutting edge technology developed at our national labs and the ongoing research will continue to strengthen the resilience and reliability of the grid for years to come.
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thank you and i look forward to your questions. >> thank you. you're recognized for five minutes. >> chairman weber, smith, vc, johnson, members of the subcommittee, thank you for the student to address future research opportunities for the united states' electric grid and describe the many benefits and reduced risks that would result from a more integrated, resilient, and modernized grid infrastructure. i'm the principal associate director for science and technology at los alimos. i'veemphasized national security science, physics research to design and discovery. energy security is a national security priority and at alimos, we contribute meaningfully to grid research for many years. the challenges of today's domestic electricity grid face include the need for enhanced
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resilience against natural events and other factors, robust invasion and expanded tools for grid operators to detect anomalies. in responding to these challenges, alimos brings expertise in physics and engineering, applied math and physics. we have a proven track record weapons, physic, and design, high fidelity or systems modeling and space science and space weather capabilities. finally, los alimos is deeply committed to work for its development and idea simulation, posting a regular grid science conference to educate and expand the grid research committee. to further support these efforts, los alimos has launched the advanced network science initiative. it's designed to facilitate cross projects on modeling and understanding the nation's
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critical infrastructures such as electric power, water, petroleum, and natural gas. given our demonstrated history in infrastructure analysis and grid research, los alimos was excited to participate in the grid modernization, gmlc, beginning in fiscal year 2016. it's allowed a number of laboratories to work together, bringing their complement rare benefit together. as we look to the future of grid research in the offices of gmlc and broadly, los alimos sees several challenges that need to be addressed. first, complex threats to u.s. power systems. u.s. power systems are potentially vulnerable to large scale impacts from complex threats, including electromagnetic pulses. second, cyber physical threats. cyber and come signed cyber attacks on infrastructure 6:00 widespread and lasting impacts.
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this would enable stakeholders to know the consequences of cyber attacks and prioritize investments. natural gas pipelines are a key energy infrastructure for the united states and may only be more so with the addition of supply for unconventional gas resuccessors. the expansion of central plant and electric transition systems and the expansion of gas fire systems further expand that. and fourth, grid water coupling and control. particle and waste management systems can be controlled to the benefit of water systems. with storage naturally built in, these are an infrastructure that could play a key role in advanced technology. however, these wider resources must also maintain their own reliability and resilience.
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i appreciate the opportunity to make these brief remarks to describe some of the future challenges and opportunities for the united states electric grid that we see at los alimos. success in these endeavors would result in a more resilience model. this has been a positive suv step forward in addressing these issues. and loops los alimos is glad to play a role with g mlc. as we look to the future, we see additional challenges in responding to complex threats, including cyber physical challenges to our grid infrastructure and considering the systems represented by our gas infrastructure. in closing, thank you for the opportunity to appear before the subcommittee. i look forward to answering any questions you may have. >> thank you, doctor. you're recognized for five minutes. >> thank you, chairman weber. ranging member vc and members of the subcommittee for me to testify in the electric grid of the future. since modern society
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requires affordable, clean, and reliability electricity for most commercial and personal pursuits, there's no infrastructure more important than the interstate electric network. reliability is very high and growing as reported today across town, the grid is evolving rapidly and threats are changing. we need to expand grid capacity, protections against secretary clinton secure veer weather and sibber attack and make better use of the grid. d.o.e. can play a key role in each of these areas. o.e. can contribute by continuing research development and demonstration of new technologies for the grid, promoting grid expansion through studies, developing and bringing grid operations technologies to market, developing customer end reliability and resilience options for critical uses such as military facilities and hospitals, and supporting studies from both power system
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reliability to address the resolving resource mix and evolving threats. the national academies of sciences recently had a resilience report that had 12 recommendations. eight of those were for d.o.e. o.e. could play a lead role in those recommendations. given the importance of a reliable electric grid to modern society and the critical role it plays in integrating new and centralized and distributed resources and managing various threats, o.e., should have far greater resources than it has. at the same time, o.e. resources and attentions should not be diverted to support the recently announced presidential directive to extend the lives of old nuclear plants. subsidizing such resources will ultimately harm rather than help customers and o.e.'s work will detract from its otherwise important in addition. there's no basis for this
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directive or d.o.e. action under section 202c. the directive ignores basic facts about electricity. it ignores that coal and nuclear plants are just as susceptible to cyber attack as any other facility. it ignores the fact that coal plants have fuel delivery interruptions and often have mechanical failures during cold weather. it ignores the fact that both coal and nuclear drafts are vulnerable to drafts and there's evidence to suggest some other attacks as well. and coal and nuclear plants shut down to voltage and frequency deviationings in a narrower band of tolerance than, for example, wind plants. this is what happened in the 2003 blackout when a large, first energy coal plant shut itself down. the director ignore that is 50- year-old plants have outage rates typically three times as high as new plants.
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so the point is not to criticize any one technology or couple technologies. all technology, all generating resources have their strengths and weaknesses and contribute to reliability and resilience in different ways. but none of them are essential. reliability comes from having reserves. all generators fail to operate at some point. in fact, each region already has a strategic electric generation reserve. it's called the reserve margin. and there's significant surplus condition right now in most regions. whether or not there are national security interests at stake, the proposed solution will not help. due to the few tilt of this directive, o.e. should steer clear of it and focus on what matters. their monitoring to support the bailout plan should be scrutinized so resources are not diverted for efficiency and the grid's evolution, giving changes in the resource mix and
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evolving threats. it will be important for congress to riggously oversee the department of energy and o.e. specifically to make sure an important work gets done and taxpayer dollars are not wasted on ill conceived programs. thank you. >> you're recognized for five minutes. >> good morning, chairman weber, chairman smith, and members of the subcommittee. i'm vice president for research and professor of chemistry at texas tech university. and i'm pleased to address you on behalf of the texas tech university system. texas tech university system's original mandate was to serve the educational e needs of the citizens of west texans. but its ambitions as framed by the first president has always been to make a mark in education, scholarship, and invasion for the nation and world. today our tech system rankings among the major research facilities in the united states. as many of you know from working with research
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universities in your districts, these play critical, innovative roles in defining the future of energy grid research. both natural hazards and actions by our adversaries pose threats to our grid. in the 2017 hurricane season, that was a what are rowing reminder of the intense -- harrowing reminder of the intense loss national events inflict on us. events in texas, florida, and puerto rico and other places devastated in the aftermath of these storms. basedded on modern mod -- base on modern models, the world can face for many of these events in the future. we may expect cyber attacks as grid as a prime target. state and nonstate actors have already targeted and demonstrated the ability to threaten our grid. any grid of tomorrow must be
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developed with the assumption that the market of renewable energy generation will only continue to grow and in turn provide a more decentralized and resilient system. in light of these challenges and support of the state of texas, department of energy and at the national laboratories, texas tech has been working hard to address a central question. how can we make the u.s. energy grid more secure, reliable, robust, and resilient under threat? through the pioneering work of faculty texas tech is providing answers. one of our professors has evolved a grid that allows for an array of resources to work with the grid. the real world applicability of rebuilding puerto rico's infrastructure posthurricane
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maria. dr. steven bain, a senior faculty member of electrical engineering is a distinguished power grid researcher. his group continues to develop techniques that enable grid gridinvasion. this research when coupled with models for the performance of systems rely on distributed generations such as wind contribute to a more reliable grid. the state of texas provided money to contribute gleam. when fully operational later this year, the global, laboratory for energy will provide a world class microgrid and unique platform for testing optimization of renewables and grid systems, new hardware and software solutions for managing grid function and cyber
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security of grid systems. this work would not be possible without the support of rick perry. his vision as governor of texas, the state of texas was critical to making this facility possible. the innovative team of researchers of tech is committed to a research vision that enables the electric grid of the future. we intend to invest a minimum of $8 million into the research of cyber security and energy grid resiliency to create a sustainable and diverse energy economy. we're confident this investment will help the nation obtain its goals in energy security, traditional and alternative energy utilization and a 21st century energy grid. i'm proud to have the opportunity to share our vision for the future and serve as a resource for the subcommittee. i look forward to answering your questions. thank you for this invitation. and go tech. >> i'll leave that alone.
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so we're going to recess and we'll reconvene immediately following the last vote.
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this hearing has been reconvened. i thank you for your testimony. the chair was recognized for five minutes of questioning. mr. walker, you stressed that o.e.'s priorities are the development of grid modeling capabilities, megawatts scale storage, and the grid modernization initiative. as the smallest of the applied energy offices at d.o.e., how are you able to accomplish your research and development goals that tight budget? number one, essentiallily how does o.e. do more with less? what do you say? >> thank you, congressman. the focus with o.e. is definitely on those three
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things as well as sensing technology. how we accomplish our work is through the hardworking people of o.e. working with the other applied sciences at d.o.e. along fossil energy, nuclear energy, and the energy efficiency. primarily relying on the platform of the g.m.l.c. and that's why we expanded the charter to include those other applied sciences to be able to leverage and ensure that the investments we make are the best across the entire department and to leverage the resources, you know, equally from my national security perspective. >> so prioritize. the programs within o.e. are squarely within the department. and they're tied to the needs of the energy industry. the department's fiscal year of 2019 budget requests places federal funding only going to
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early stage research programs, only towards early stage research programs. what steps have you taken to ensure responsible stewardship of those taxpayer dollars by funding only the rnd that can be performed by the energy industry? >> so we have focused very much on early stage research, utilizing the capabilities on the super side and o.e. to identify where are the cutting technologies realized through our national labs. so we identify using a risk based approach how to best invest that money. >> thank you. this question is for you. in your testimony, you explained how texas tech university partners both with the national lab and private industry to conduct research. what is the difference between
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research conducted at the gleam facility and the research conducted at the san dia swift site? and should there be more coordination between the national labs and academia on grid challenges like those identified in the gmi? >> sure. i -- i -- i think there's a degree of commonality in terms of some of the research. the swift site really has been a test bed for understanding wind farms and the fundamental impact of atmospherics and of fluid flow through wind farms. we've got highly instrumented systems there with radar that can help us model that and help us understand the impact of environmental circumstances on the performance of those systems. so it's really in part about predictive modeling and understanding how to optimize the configuration and structure of future wind farms. okay? the gleam system is really
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going to be a test bed that will allow us to actually connect to some of these existing resources in addition to some resources that are held in the private sector nearby of both wind power, solar power, and battery capabilities. the focus there is really going to be on being able to test bed new technologies both software and hardware technologies to allow us to understand how to better integrate those and seamlessly integrate those systems. modeling in realtime. to be able to model conditions that will lead to potential grid failure and to understand using artificial intelligence technologies how we can more effectively integrate these and also how we can improve and enhance the economics of utilizing energy from these systems as well. so i would say on the one side, we're talking about looking more at the fundamentals of
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wind. and we're very pleased on that side that we'll be helping to cohost the wind blade design conference that san dia has held at san dia. this year in lubbock. but this year, we're looking at how we integrate these technologies effectively. and it'll be a great test bed for a.i. technology and new power grid technologies hardware and integrate them into a system. >> thank you for that. can you get the dates of that conference to argue staff here? >> i'll be happy to do that. >> yep. okay -- to our staff here? >> i'll be happy to do that. >> yep, thank you. now mr. tak ano for five minutes. >> thank you, mr. chairman. they both -- the trump administration has proposed a 37% cut in fyi in 2019 for the
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office of electricity or o.e. which stewards the largest portion of our federal investments in grid research. within o.e., the budget proposes a number of steep cuts to important research, including a 74% cut to smart grid research, a 67% cut to clean energy transmission and reliability, and 81% cut to energy storage, research, and development. i just want to know from all of you, what role do you think energy storage and the development of battery storage can play when it comes to distributing wind and solar as well as grid resilience? >> well, i would say that the magnitude of the cuts you're referring to are quite
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concerning. we'ring with technologies here that are -- we're dealing with technologies that are really in development here. the challenges we're facing in terms of the scale of renewables that have been to be integrated into the grid has changed dramatically the last five years. the challenge is associated with both creating a resilient system, understanding how to use battery technology effectively in order to create a stable microgrid system and regional grid system, and doing the kind of effective modeling on how to optimize those systems. those are all landscapes that are changing. and in addition to that, you'll recognize what a number of us talked about with regard to security issues which is a constantly changing landscape as well. so i think federal funding is critically important. sustained federal funding is
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critically important for us to be able to take advantage and leverage some of the model systems that we've developed across the country, including what's going on within the swift and gleam programs and my institution but also other institutions. so as far as impact is concerned on our programs, i would see, you know, in any one year, we're in the vicinity of 2 1/2 million dollars worth of funding that could potentially be impacted by some of those cuts. and that, again, would make it very difficult for us to leverage the investment that the federal government, the national labs, and the state of texas have already made in some of the unique model systems that we have in our campus. >> thank you for the question. as you know, certain will you a decrease in budget would create challenges. certainly from a los alimos perspective, one of our goals
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is to use -- so we can diversify our efforts in that regard. certainly our focus on early stage research as well as partnerships like the gmlc cause us to be as effective as we can be. and to energy storage, i think both thinking about fundamental -- for example capabilities and storage, and how you think about that broader in electricity grid is something our efforts have been able so we can find the right challenges we can focus on on. >> in your testimony, you note that the recent d.o.e. grid reliability staff report found that, quote, increased deployment of solar and wind does and will not negatively impact the operation of the grid. what role do you think energy storage and development of battery storage can play when it comes to distributing wind, solar, and grid resilience?
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>> i think energy storage can provide many services to the grid, to customers specifically, distribution systems, transmission systems and provide services that are typically considered generation services. so it's really the only technology that sort of provides almost some of everything. it will be, i think, important when we get to very high energy futures. you can integrate a whole lot of wind and solar without a huge amount of storage now currently in most regional grids. but certainly island systems and other areas require more balancing. and over time as penetrations of renewable, reliable systems grow, storage will become more important. >> thank you. my time is up, mr. chairman. i can yield back, please. >> okay. the chair now recognizes representative of alabama, mr. palmer, for five minutes. >> thank you, mr. chairman.
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mr. walker, can you speak to the concerns that the more connected to grid becomes more vulnerable, cyber attacks similar to what happened in our own last year? >> as coates noted, we are recognizing more frequent and more sophisticated cyber threats. there is no question that the grid is vulnerable to cyber threats whether they're isolated or whether they're fully integrated. what is clear, as we introduce cyber enabled technologies through the internet of things and the advancements of things like smart grid, we introduce more and more devices on the system that have the capability of being penetrated through
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cyber. so it is extremely important that as we develop these newer technologies, as we integrate additional technologies on the system, that we do it with a cyber security focus. we have just recently issued a funding opportunity for $25 million back into the oil and natural gas as well as electric sector to look at the architecture and the design of cyber enabled devices in order to keep off that risk going forward and capitalize on the existing underlying physics on that system. >> i understand we want to protect our systems from being hacked. but also i think we've had some experiences particularly the last few years with hurricanes and the last couple of decades with katrina and others are you lost whole sections of the power grid. and one of my concerns is if we
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had a cyber cyber attack or emp attack, it's not just about having equipment to replace equipment fried basically. or whether or not how quickly you're able to shift from a technology controlled system to a manual system, whether or not you have trained employees -- you're nodding your head there. those are the concerns that i have in terms of preparation. how long would it take? and depending on the time your house serious to restore power would become. and so that, mr. chairman, i think that's part of what we have to figure out here. in the event we have an attack like that -- in the case with the storms, it takes anywhere from a day to a week. that's tolerable. but when you're in a situation where you have a massive loss
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of equipment and you can't shift to a manual system, then you really have a problem. is that some of the things that -- >> absolutely we are 100% focused on. so under the fast act, there was a requirement for the secretary to identify the defense, critical infrastructure. and we continue to evolve that list of critical infrastructure with the understanding of what the impact is across the 16 critical infrastructure sectors throughout the united states. and we are developing within o.e. operational strategies that are -- we're executing on some of those now to better ensure that when we do have those widespread events, whether it's cyber or hurricane, that we have capability to restore the system, whether that be -- and that's one of the focuses of having a fuel secured generation source. when we have that, we don't
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have to rely on the supply chains and risks with saw chains that would be at risk with -- with supply chains that would be at risk with a hurricane or other event. >> maybe the other two could address this. but when you're talking about a massive loss of the grid, you look at it in the context of what's the first thing we do when we have a major storm? we go in with food and water and medicine, that sort of thing. in a massive loss of the grid, that will be the number one thing because most people depend on the grocery store for their food and sustenance, things like that. so it's going to become absolutely critical that we either have those systems in place, able to shut to a manual system. >> i think you're absolutely right, congressman.
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preparing for that situation in advance, low probability as it may, is absolutely something that needs to be done. i think the national academy scientists report recently was strong, had good recommendations in that area. i would comment that for more information. >> i'd come back again to the concept that having both diverse grids and grids that have survivability at the local level where you can go down from a macroscopic grid to a microscopic grid that will still operate and you can bring up portions of that grid where the technology is repaired without risking, bringing down the system again as a result of the initial insult is something that's really critical. i think that's part of the reason that the kind of modeling we've been describing and the research we're
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promoting is really important for the future. >> mr. chairman chairman, if i may -- if you'll indulge me for a moment here. i work for a couple of engineering companies before with a think tank. and unless things have not a uniform grid. and in some cases, that could be helpful. in other cases in a massive loss, again, i won't emphasize -- and to your but we need to be prepared -- a low probability event could have absolutely catastrophic and deadly consequences. so i really think that we need to be prepared for that. we need to recognize that it's a diverse grid. it's a patchwork. and that we have some ability to address that in a relatively short amount of time. so with that -- and you can comment on that as you will.
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but chairman, thank you for indulging me. and i yield back. >> thank you. mr. tonco, you're now on for five minutes. >> thank you. secretary walker, good to see you again. you may not know this, but we went through energy operation in new york state together. i think it was a bold move. our electricity markets may not be perfect but they have blindspots. and i think congress and states and grid operators and regulators can all work together to address some of those market failures. but in 2018, the tooth paste is out of the tube and drastic and unnecessary inventions are unacceptable. mr. secretary, i will not ask you to respond to that. but i hope you you will carry that message back to d.o.e.
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however, i do want to ask about the future of puerto rico's grid. as we enter hurricane season, i'm concerned about the lack of resilience of that system. can you give us a sense of some of the recommendations that work that has been done to strengthen puerto rico's grid for the long term? >> sure. we -- we have been working with puerto rico to develop a sophisticated modeling system that enables them to better operate their grid and we've been working with the technical advisory committee that was established by boards to accomplish that. that model will also help identify the relaying setting changes that need to occur in order to better optimize the grid so that they don't sustain the blackouts that they've recently seen over the last year or two. that being said, with the work that has been done from the
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emergency restoration component, you know, equipment was put back in place consistent with the standards. so you -- the lack of o. and e. on the system has been cured. the weak poles and guiding on the transmission system has been replaced. they're continuing and still working on one of the major transmission lines that still goes through the north and south corridor. we're still there. d.o.e. is still providing technical assistance where we can for any of the technical components on the system. and we're still continuing to work with fema. the prep is still continuing to identify some of the strategies they will employ for any events to be realized. one of the key components is we still have a significant number
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of federal resources down on the island, including the generators which were supplied for the critical infrastructure, the ones referred to by congressman palmer. this highlights that the 2,000 plus generators down there represent those critical infrastructure that we really need to make sure that we have those distributed resources that when they do realize an event, it has less impact on the safety and health of the people in puerto rico. >> thank you. and mr. grahamlick, i'd like your thoughts on this. americans in puerto rico are reeling from the most devastating blackout in our nation's recent history. and puerto rico had unique challenges. but it's my understanding that one of the greatest grid vulnerabilities, damaged transmission distributions, the causes of most disruptions in
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our continental u.s. so puerto rico could be a test in modern innovation. >> i haven't spent much time researching puerto rico. but we do have a lot of technologies and options available to any system that may be rebuilding its grid. in fact, our mainland transmission grid is aging. so we have opportunities to improve the technology there as well. one key area that d.o.e. and o.e. specifically support is the development of microgrids or backup generation. so when we're talking about national security or military bases or other critical uses or hospitals or police stations or other critical needs, recognizing that there are still tremendous efficiencies of the large grid and large regional markets and all of
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that. but there are also thousands of entry points and risks on such systems. so when you're focusing on the customer and their critical reliability needs that exists, those abilities to have backup generation or islanding capability that d.o.e. can help and bring down the costs for will be very important. >> it seems as though in response to their need as an island, as a people, we can come up with a nice, innovative response that will also serve as a template for what can be done across the continental u.s. with that, i don't know if you want to see anything. but i'm out of time. but if the chair would allow to comment? >> sure. >> with that i would yield back. >> i just wanted to point out that one of our faculty members, dr. wren, is involved with a collaboration with puerto rico telecom which
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involve ace number of national laboratories to implement some innovative new technology for democratiesing their telecommunications grid and bringing it back. i think this has been a great example of that partnership between the private sector universities and national laboratories can really help to have an impact in realtime on these kinds of situations. >> chairman, if i may write to his question? >> go ahead. he has needs all the help he can get. [ laughter ] >> congressman, there are some very specific items that we are working with the labs on putting into puerto rico that are cutting edge that would -- basically looking to accelerate the commercialization of them and therefore utilization on
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the mainland by putting them on puerto rico. things like our dark net, the black fiber on the optical ground wire on their transmission system is one idea. using correlation through this high fidelity sensing capability to enable optimization of their grid is another. that will be utilized in conjunction with the development of sophisticated microgrids that have the capability to expand and contract similar to some work that's being done at the electrical power board in chattanooga with the oak ridge national lab. so there are a number of specific things we think puerto rico is uniquely poised to be able to integrate. we've been -- i've been working with walt and my team has been working with hud to help define the guidance document with the supplemental funding that congress provided all to ensure that, you know, these types of
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technologies, microgrids, d.e. d.e.r.'s really do get in. one of the things very interesting -- you're familiar with the green bank. we've talked about a critical infrastructure bank in puerto rico and the possibility of that to enable those 2,000 plus locations that we previously identified through the installation of generation to come up with unique ways to basically island themselves and create the capabilities of public safety that they do. >> thank you for that info. i think it speaks to the wisdom of that cutting research and investments. we are on the cutting edge. we're an innovation nation. >> i recognize the gentleman from virginia for five minutes, mr. myers. >> thank you very much. senator walker, you stated on february 20th of this year -- and i quote, we would never use
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the 202 to administrative off an economic issue. that's not what it's for -- to staive off an economic issue -- that's not what it's for. does that imply or do we understand that you won't use the 202 for them? >> the 202 application from first energy is being reviewed by my department as we speak. >> okay. well, thank you. i'm hoping your earlier strong opinion will still prevail. the draft grid matter was circulated before the national security council last friday. widely understood this draft came from the department, intended to fulfill the president's first of june planned plant enclosures. there's been a pushback through people and grid operators and grid experts. the c.e.o. of excelon said, the retirement of coal plants do not
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constitute grid energy through the president. -- studies say the large, industrial electricity users, say the newest proposal would, quote, devastate u.s. manufacturing. have you calculated the costs on american businesses, specifically american manufacturing? >> i have not. >> the previous proposal rejected because it was unsubstantiated, it would increase consumer costs by $8 billion from pjm alone. the new plan nationalized to the 403 proposal. i would expect that $8 billion would go up significantly. and putting together this draft plan, have you estimated what this would cost the american taxpayer? >> i did not. >> i have to give you wonderful credit for being able to answer these things very tightly.
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i would suggest, though, as a member of this committee that moving forward with this new proposal, if it'll devastate u.s. manufacturing, will add way more than $8 billion to the electricity costs to our american consumer, this is something that you and secretary perry and others should look seriously at and look at numbers available for. i think it's within per view as a member of this committee, to ask you to go back and do the elementary research on that. please. with that, mr. chairman, i'd like to submit to the record a letter that i read to 36 of my colleagues asking that secretary perry and the trump administration cease the thought that driving out energies in competitive markets is needed in electrical grid movements and plan retirement plants.
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and three official points on the inappropriate -- >> let me -- let me say -- >> yes, sir? >> objection. >> thank you. >> number one, unlike these planned retirements, we have a legitimate grid crisis in puerto rico. thank you for addressing it. this is trump's katrina. number two, this bailout plan does not help coal country. this is a short-term talking point that does nothing to create good-paying jobs, resilient jobs and the families of the appalachian. we need to work together with these resilient and industry families to create good paying job that is will endure. and number three, the bill plan ignores all the experts. instead of listening to the world of energy grids and despite knowing what this would cost the american public, the trump administration is still moving ahead perhaps, unfortunately likely because someone contributed it to the campaign. and this is not how our
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democracy should work. mr. chairman, i yield back. mr. chairman. thank you to our witnesses. we need to think about the specifications phoria you want the grid to -- for what you want the grid to accomplish in terms of reliability because people can be concerned about outages that are temporary, the risk of having an outage six months or longer that can happen in some disaster scenarios. insurance against that tail risk costs money and there is a tradeoff that everyone in life and everyone in business faces. it's how much we're willing to spend to reduce tail risks, how much spare inventory of different components we need to
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have on hand, things like that. do you feel you have adequate high level guidance from congress and the american people about what the specks you're shooting for or do you think we need a wider discussion of that and related issues? >> congressman, i'll answer the question from the doe's perspective. the doe is one of three organizations that fundamentally analyzes the day to day operation of the electric grid. ferc is the other one, nerc is the other one and each of us has different lenses by which we look at the system. ferc looks at it from a market base, nerc from reliability and doe from a national security perspective. the day to day reliability is not something we take a look at from the national security perspective. obviously it's important. we contribute to it. we make r and d investments
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where it makes sense, but we also look at those have. s from how they can be utilized -- those investments from how they can be utilized from a national security standpoint. we recognize particularly given the recent evolution of the grid, particularly its interdependence mostly on gas pipelines that we have now reached a point where different than 20 or 30 years ago where if i lose the wrong gas pipeline, i can lose tens of thousands of megawatts of generation simultaneously and that simultaneous loss of all those generators can have deleterious effects through cascading frequency loss, as you well know as a physicist, and there are real risks in the system as a result of it and unfortunately when we built these systems, both the gas pipelines, oil pipelines, the electric transmission system, things like cyber security didn't even exist and the word domestic terrorism was probably not even coined yet, but today
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we deal with very significant risk every day and while some may say it's a low probability, we deal with tens of thousands of cyber intrusions on a daily basis. it's just a matter of time before the sophistication level increases and those penetrations become real. we've seen this happen. we all watched the ukraine event. so we can pretend it doesn't exist, but we have hard evidence like things like ukraine that these capabilities exist and they're being utilized and we spend our time focused on strategies that enable us to survive those type of events and avoid them. >> other comments? >> sure, congressman. there is the north america
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electrical reliability corporation, nerc. i think that organization and the institutions around reliability need to be -- remain in place. they are doing a good job. ferc oversees the markets and transmission system. their role needs to be respected. i think what we're seeing with this presidential directive is under the guise of national security a nationalization of the electric system which would be extremely damaging for the investment, the private investment that the industry currently relies on for all of the reliability and efficiencies that we get out of this power system. >> this is a tough situation where, for example, if one state decides for their own purposes they want to subsidize a class of electrical generation and then if you're in a multi-state interconnected grid, that looks like dumping that will force other states' generation stations to close. so this is a complex set of
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problems because one state's necessary subsidy for some purpose is another -- it's protectionism viewed from other states. trying to understand as we nationally deal with those misaligned incentives between the states and not have the federal government come in with the other third set of misaligned incentives for their own political reasons will be an ongoing challenge. let's see. i have now negative 19 seconds. i'll yield back. >> i thank the witnesses for their valuable testimony and the members for their questions. the record will remain open for two weeks for additional comments, written questions from members. this hearing is adjourned. >> thank you, randy. >> you bet.
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live friday on the c-span networks the house meets for a legislative bill on energy, the legislative branch and military construction on c-span. the g7 summit begins friday in quebec. at 4:45 eastern we'll join president trump as he meets with canadian prime minister justin trudeau. on c-span 2 at 9 a.m. we join the second day of the saving freedom conference with remarks by cabinet officials and members of congress. on c-span 3 at 9 a.m. the committee for a responsible federal budget looks at the recent social security solvency report and at 11:45 we'll join the leaders of the g7 countries at the summit welcoming ceremony in quebec. this week marks the 50th anniversary of the assassination of robert f. kennedy. >> these last few weeks robert francis kennedy was enjoying himself.
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he really enjoyed getting out among the people. he enjoyed the physical contact. he refused police protection because he said that all the people wanted to do was to touch him, not to hurt him. >> this weekend on real america on american history tv watch the cbs news special report from june 6th , 1968, the night robert kennedy died from gunshot wounds. >> they quickly decided to transfer him to good samaritan hospital where the facilities were better for delicate brain surgery. mrs. kennedy was with him all of the time riding in the ambulance now from one hospital to the other. the suspect now identified as sirhan sirhan was grabbed by rafer johnson and rosie greer, the two kennedy men. then he was led by police back through the ballroom and the hotel. some of the officers had to protect him from the crowd. there were several kennedy supporters, bystanders who were close to hysteria at this point and there was concern for the suspect's safety.
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>> watch real america sunday at 4 p.m. eastern on american history tv, on c-span 3. next we'll take you to the truman centers national security project conference in washington d.c. we'll hear from kathleen hicks, a former defense department official with the obama administration, and a panel of progressive national security analysts. this is about 2 1/2 hours. >> please welcome to the stage truman's managing director of programs jen mill

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