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tv   American Artifacts BO Railroad the Civil War  CSPAN  June 23, 2018 1:06pm-1:46pm EDT

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adjustments of its combatants. continuancertually everyday fighting marching entrenching, with your ocalan campaign men now had to adjust to petersburg's long stretches of boredom, quiet, and activity. quietness is making this careless, haley wrote in late august. satnow the works and we there for hours reading and playing cards come anything to kill time. if isn't quiet here, i don't know the meaning of a word. the quiet to be terribly unnerving. inviting the imagination to work overtime, keeping soldiers constantly on edge, wondering when and where the next attack might come. wayfully quiet down this became something of a refrain.
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innocent noises, the unexpected snap of a twig, the crunching of autumn leaves, the frenzied scamper of a squirrel of these things were sometimes enough to send a man in these trenches into a state of alarm. or alert. but don't get me wrong, plenty of battles punctuated these unnerving stretches of petersburg as my friend likes to point out. petersburg was hardly an inert campaign. grant launched several major in the summer and fall of 1864 against the confederate works as he extended his lines ever west, with every step and shovelful of earth rendering lee's threadbare position around petersburg less and less tenable. sniffing important roads and railroads and supply lines.
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final assaults that the union armies make it petersburg will come the following april. 1865. after securing the south side railroad with a victory at five forks, grant ordered an all-out push on april the second, 1865 which was the day the breakthrough when lee finally evacuated the richmond petersburg front and slipped but in anin retreat, effort to make it down to north carolina. to link up with joe johnston's wrestling have been with william tecumseh sherman. grants, for his part after the collapse of the richmond petersburg front, something that had been willed by the awful losses of your berlin campaign before it, grant now started on
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a breathless chase through southside virginia that would lead him to the place called appomattox. as we will discuss in greater lee theirtuesday, surrender the army of northern virginia to ulysses grant. noted, the hope longilled the niche shown occupied bites that there -- by despair, he said he was still reluctant to make a sweeping conclusions about the war. he was reluctant to deem the war redemptive, there are days when the climax of a four-year war that entailed much suffering and no benefit.
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it would be two more months before john haley received his coveted discharge papers. and made his way back to main the journey north invited him to reflect on the tribulations and trials of the war. as the armies marched over much of the same ground they had andested between the james the rapid and that previous summer. he marveled at the extent of the destruction of the war visited on virginia for scenes of reduced to heaps of smoldering rubble. two miles of empty works that eerily looped through shell talked once. -- woods. so easily combined with the heirs of those northern commentators celebrating union victory and toasting the end of the war, maintaining his dutiful
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characteristic incredulity to the end. bedoubted the war would ever faced with cheap slogans and public expressions of sentiment. , he wast turned out right. some scholars have posited that civil war veterans emerged from the war so scarred, so traumatized and so embittered that immediately after have a period ofped into a hibernation or incubation for at least 15 years, during which they turned from the war and refused to think about it. refused to write about it. this is the argument of the 1987 book called embattled courage. hibernation was not the case for john haley, nor for a lot of union veterans, i think. for the balance of his life, john haley was annexed by what he had experienced on those bloodsoaked fields.
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scenes will be fresh and memory for as long as hopes sway, he wrote. forget them, i never can, and i never want to. the nation at large would have no such results in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. as we will discuss after thanksgiving, by the end of the century, americans had embraced something called the romance of reunion. it rendered the war bloodless, the brothers war, for the combat of 1864, battles that serve as stark reminders to the stubborn lengths to which white southerners would go to defend slavery.
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late 19th century americans had
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>> the b&o railroad museum in baltimore is called the birthplace of the american railroad. american history tv visited the museum to learn about and industry that began in 1827 with train cars pulled by horses rather than steam engines. >> my name is dave shackelford. i am the chief curator here at the b&o railroad museum, the baltimore and ohio. this is one of the premier railroad museums in the united states. it's also the birthplace of american railroading. railroading began in 1827. the b&o was in continuous operation until 1986 and is a legacy now. its track is basically formed with csx today. the museum is 40 acres and five buildings. the 1884 roundhouse is the jewel. inside the round house are some of the most significant pieces in our collection. we have a rolling stock locomotive collection of approximately 180 pieces. the roundhouse is filled with some of the most unique, world-class, one-of-a-kind locomotives you are ever going
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to find anywhere. railroading began in the united states in maryland, the baltimore and ohio was the first common carrier, the first to carry passengers and freight on a regular schedule. the baltimore and ohio was basically formed because of the canal craze in the 1820's. the success of the erie canal lead people in washington to propose the idea of the chesapeake and ohio canal, which would leave baltimore out of the loop. a bunch of businesses were very familiar with what was going on in england at the time, where railroading began about 15 years earlier. so they went to england. they explored the idea of building a railroad here. and they decided that it was going to be the best way to go. so the baltimore and ohio was incorporated in 1827. the intent was to take it from baltimore to the ohio river, a journey of 382 miles. it took the b&o 25 years to complete at a cost of approximately 14 million dollars. it was a big feet. an historian called it the 19th century equivalent of the moonshot, and he wasn't kidding, when you think about what they had to overcome. steep grades, the allegheny mountains, untried technology, really when you think about everything that is involved with it, it was quite a feat. the locomotive behind me was built in 1927, and it mimics the tom thumb, the first steam engine used in the united states.
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is showing these cars during the cold was so vital to the profit margin. in the industrialization of baltimore city. the south was greatly at a disadvantage in terms of number of railroads, rail mile of 30,000 miles of track in united states at the beginning of the civil war, probably one third
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were in the confederacy and some states had barely a few hundred miles of track and with the different gauges it made intermodal transportation or intrastate transportation quite a challenge for the confederacy. we are standing here now in the other side of the john hancock and this is a very small locomotive, situated in the yard with our yard man. the railroad was one of the most efficient industries in one of the first industries to really address recycling. nothing was ever thrown away, everything was recycled. at one time, this locomotive would've been the largest locomotive and service. as the decades past, it became too small to the loads to kerry and it was relegated to yard work. it became too small for yard work, the power system would be transferred to run a saw mill or a water pump or everything it would be cannibalized and scrapped and made into new material.
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another personality you're going to need today is captain thomas , a railroad executive prior to the war. he worked for the quartermaster department in richmond, virginia. , a railroadin the spring of 18l jackson captured about 20 or 30 trains, number of railcars, locomotives, and other equipment and martinsburg. unfortunately for the confederacy, there was no railroad that ran south from martinsburg along the shenandoah valley until you got to strasburg. sharp and a team of experts cannot to martinsburg and he went with the idea of moving the jackedives by road, they up the locomotives and took off all the extra wheels and bells and whistles and the headlight and then they booked up teams of horses, 30 and 40 horse teams and hold locomotives from martinsburg, was virginia 38 miles along the valley turnpike just prosper, virginia, where
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they were reassembled and put on the rails and used and taken to richmond for reconstruction and restoration. they were then used for the confederacy throughout the war. of 1861,d of the fall kept a sharp his crew had moved 14 locomotives and 83 railcars by horsepower from martinsburg to strasburg, virginia. to give you an idea how important this was for the confederacy, as we mentioned before, confederacy was very much under industrialized and during the civil war, not a single locomotive was built in a southern railroad shop. the only way to get new equipment was to capture it from you and railroads. ironically, captain sharp then went on to run a number of other railroad operations after the war. war, thed of the president of the baltimore high railroads and demand for virginia, north carolina to
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search, find, and recover all the various pieces of equipment that had been captured by the c during the war. hundreds of railcars and miles of track and switches and other agreements. at the end of the day he was able to bring back 12 complete one,otives, part of a 13th the 14th one had been used as a power plant for a naval gunboat and sunk, so we did not get the 14th locomotive back. a footnote to the story is captain sharp, after the war, captain sharp opened a machine shop in delaware and working with the bnl, he helped recover this equipment for the railroad. it was then that the master of transportation, william prescott smith, died. president garrett invited thomas sharp to baltimore to his headquarters at camden station a $1ny man can steal million more than his equipment reviews on somebody else's road was the man he wanted to run his railroad.
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a man who is comes still in all these trends railcars was given a job of master of transportation of the baltimore ohio railroad and the timetable shows his signature. began, john were garrett was the dynamic railroad of the ohio and he ran the railroad throughout the war and became a great friend of lincoln and stanton which was no small trick to be a friend of stand and they were very well together. then we can rely on him in an emergency -- lincoln relied on him in many emergencies. he is without question the most important personality of our story for the entire five years. he was president of the b&o railroad, and the outright of the war, some historians said the history of the b&o railroad can be written in three time p garrett, during
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garrett, and after garrett. i agree. he understood how to get things done, he was very demanding and working with his most able assistant william prescott smith, master of transportation, they provided the first support for the union war effort in 1959 by sending marines and robert e. lee and jeff stewart to harpers ferry to counteract john brown's raid. they were instrumental in moving troops and supplies to and from washington and western maryland and then maintaining the mainline line of the b&o throughout the war. one of the aspects that may the civil war the first modern war without question with a railroad and its application to the moving of supplies and troops. the army did not have a component until the civil war when it created the united states military railroad. part of the united states military railroad was the construction core demanded -- committed by a general. as the war progressed, he was
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given regiments of white troops to work as construction crew. these troops were basically whatever was handy, they weren't interested in doing the work and they were short term anyways, so they never learned the job very well and they weren't very interested. at the same time, the ex slaves began to pass the does the union army went deeper into the confederacy. known as contraband, they were allowed to go to work for the union army. he on this ability of men used a hard labor willing to work, thrilled to be away from the ' lashowner/slaveowners and, the end of the war on employed 10,000 as is part of his railroad construction crew. the contraband into the union lines and went to work for the union army, they originally worked for free, but it never granted pay, rations, they were given use uniforms for clothing.
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they were given as much as possible. there were not part of the united states army, they were civilian employees, but he often wore discarded uniforms. his exhibit for trays john boston, one of those men who had escaped slavery and went to work on the construction core of the united states military railroad. here we portray the damaging of a railroad, the ties were ripped up in the rail was heated in bentz. immediately look at this as a sherman's, but the first instance of rail being heated and distorted like this was near cumberland, maryland in 1961. when the confederates captured the bridge over the potomac river and ripped up a mile of track, he did the track and wrapped it around trees. clare was at massive industrial complex. probably by the turn-of-the-century some 400 or
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500 acres. ,nd here during the civil war the the and oh railroad built its own locomotives, the railcars, cast its own rail, and built every kind of apparatus and piece of steam agreements. they also prefabricated bridge sots, sections of equipment that as the confederates would damage the main line somewhere between harpers ferry and martinsburg or grafton, they would simply send a repair train out and usually rebuild the damage faster than the confederates could inflict it. during the gettysburg campaign, one bridge was the floor -- destroyed at site for a, maryland and repair crew came and replaced it in 15 minutes. douglas lamented in his memoirs it was almost not worth the effort for many occasions he saw hours hours of labor for nothing as the repairs range just came and put things back together again usually within 24
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hours. this section of the exhibit example of the exhibit exemplifies how the b&o railroad considered to perform as civilian tasks, mail, freight, messenger service continued throughout the war as long as military demands organs that are damaged not disrupt service. here we meet alisa fairchild the nice of jedediah hotchkiss, the famous cartographer of stonewall jackson and she was down in the shenandoah valley when the war began in one mother became ill, she met her father and martinsburg, virginia and traveled home to see her sick mother. fortunately for us, she wrote a letter describing that entire trip and how desolate of the south was and how pristine the northern territory was once she crossed this is when a river. we have are associated with this very typical civil war passenger car which we will visit in a second. the railroad continued to function whenever possible under its civilian time schedule and freight rates.
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in her account of the trip, she mentions moving up north of the strasburg,pping in having that has to the confederate lines and then having to pass through the union lines, finally meeting her father in martinsburg, waiting all night for a train and then traveling through the baltimore and the north average of new york. she was continuously impressed by the fact that the south was ravaged by war and the north was untouched. she later married a confederate officer. this is a typical civil war vintage passenger car, its capacity was up to 50 people in the bnl had approximately 138 and service at the beginning of the civil war. for its time come its accommodations were quite effectual. you have padded seats, you headlights, you had heat during the winter and even a water closet in the rear of the car. rare thedea how railroad equipment on exhibit here is today, there are
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approximately 30 pieces of known civil war locomotives and rail cars around the entire united states and we have eight of them. is the largest collection of civil war rolling stock in the united states. here we have the highest rated personnel he our exhibit, general benjamin kelly. as with most of the people -- all the people in our exhibit for 90 percent of the 200,000 people to visit us each year, they are totally unknown characters, however, as i mentioned before, these are the people that were civil war railroading. kelly was a prewar employee of the baltimore and ohio railroad and when the war began, he became colonel of the first virginia union regimen and later the first west virginia regimen. it was kelly's troops drove the confederates autographed in, kelly plans the battles of philippi and at the end of that battle was seriously wounded. upon his recovery, he was promoted to brigadier general and given command of what was
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known as the railroad division. kelly spent the entire war guarding the bno railroad roughly between cumberland, maryland and the ohio river. it was rewarded with a private major generals commission. however, because he did not fight in any famous battles like gettysburg or fixed burger bull run, he is not known to the ever civil war historian. but he was a great hero to those of us who knows the bno history. when it is major problems with the composition of his defense force. during the civil war, soldiers learned on the go, therefore many times the first stop in any regimen before they went into field service was to temporarily guard railroad tracks. kelly was continuously being troops thatn out were new, untested, untrained, and as soon as they learned their job, they would be sent off to the battlefield. a number of his regimens were west virginia troops, for the
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state of was virginia comes into play 1863, when our further west virginia, i'm also talking about those virginia counties pre-1863. many of the regiments were west virginia troops and a number were maryland troops such as the potomac home brigade and in 1864, there were a large number of regiments sent from ohio, known as the 100 day men and they came in to fill the gap as the army needed to be recruited as the three-year enlistment ran out. a number of these 100 day ohio regiments guarded the bno railroad between baltimore and cumberland and the points west in the last virginia. here we have the pioneer, the pioneer built in 1951 was owned by the cumberland valley railroad, conlon valley railroad harrisburgst west of down the conlon valley to hagerstown, maryland through chambersburg.
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as you can see, this is a very small locomotive that pull only two or three railcars and the problem was that the conlon valley rail system, the tracks and the ties were very poorly constructed, and it couldn't handle anything larger. rather than rebuild the tracks, they simply bought small locomotives. by this time the war began, the regarding their system, with his engine was still in service. in fact, in 1862 after the antietam campaign, jeb stuart made a cavalry raid into chambersburg and during that rate, this locomotive was severely damaged. in no belongs to the smithsonian institution is on loan here and one of the many locomotives we have restored in our restoration. imagined, one of the primary missions of the b&o railroad was hauling freight. war, thed of the civil railroad had over 1200 boxcars
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and when the war began, the always on the leading edge of technology was experimenting with iron boxcars as opposed to would. would was lighter, but obviously the iron was more durable. always on the leading edge of technology was experimentingthese particular ts were often used for hauling gunpowder, different types of ammunition during the war. and were built right here in the montclair complex. approximately one hundred 40 v stein railcars in service during the civil war. i had the privilege of giving the curator of the west point museum it to her, and he was complete we overwhelmed with the fact that this had survived the war. somethingrkable that of his injury was not damaged, recycled, or simply rusted away in history. share very pleased to this 1863 iron civil war boxcar. become a now to the other side of this fairly rare boxcar and
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you see the business end of it, the doors are open and it's an interaction between the adams express wagon and the railroad. adams express was virtually united parcel service after the civil war. by adams ship anything express or the railroad interacting, male, ammunition, bread, even a dead soldier to be sent home to his widow. this is a real adams express company delivery wagon, adams express today is a financial institution, but during the civil war, was the ups of the period and interact with other railroads, with u.s. mail and has been restored as you see coulda variety of cargo be utilized for military supplies come ammunition, bread, cakes and ale, personal packages, and when the soldiers
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died or were killed in battle, they could be shipped home for burial. this particular exhibit portray's the troops the regarding the railroad, you asked about the negative of general kelly's troops, this is private john g rec, in the second maryland potomac home brigade stationed to the little town called mt. airy, maryland. ironically, in 1864, the spring of 1864 he wrote a letter to his sister telling her he was going in the railroad and there were were inside and they're probably never would be and this was just a mother to before a famous battle. we try to make things as lifelike as possible, here we were inside and they're probably never would be then thewas just a motherhave d backdrop, we installed what is my favorite civil war railroad citygraph, it's actually point, virginia, but the story is the same, you see the soldiers so closely camped out by the tracks, you can imagine what it must've been like as those locomotives went through
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their day and night, belching steam and tooting their whistles and the clank of the cars interchanging and locking up. here we are posed in front of the davis campbell built 1869, shortly after the war. it represents the style of locomotive that was built here on site before and during the civil war, known as the lyman camel. the locomotive is called a camel because we account for the locomotive engineer is on top of the boiler, not behind it. his idea was the more weight you put over the drive wheel, the more traction. strong locomotives were specific we designed to haul freight trains over the allegheny mountains. normally in the spot we have the william mason, the william mason is the only fully operating steam locomotive from the civil war in the united states. it was the locomotive that took president lincoln to his inauguration in 1861.
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being a fully operating steam locomotive, it has to go in the repair shop and unfortunately, that's where it is and we replaced it slot with the davis campbell. this is the last section of the roundhouse exhibit and as we passed through, you are seeing different topics presented by the travelers, workers, the soldiers guarding or attacking the railroad. lastly we look at the train crew. the train crew had a very special task, a very exciting job, a very dangerous job. trains were derailed, locomotives and boilers blew up, confederates attacked them, and derailed them and fired cannons at them, so it was quite a dangerous profession. it was also very exciting profession. what you want to about civil war railroading, only under ideal conditions, i civil war locomotive to go 60 miles an hour, that was the fastest thing
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on earth. person, no animal could travel nearly half the speed, half the distance, or have to strengthen locomotive. if you were the crew of a locomotive, the conductor, the firemen, the engineer, you were the same as the shuttle crew, you were the same as astronaut, you are looked up to. this was the highest skill position on any railroad. union soldier on their recently, that unions soldier made $13 a month. his locomotive engineer made four dollars a day. it was a skilled position, a highly respected position and it kind of summarizes the whole workforce of the b&o railroad and civil war railroading in general. opening,ioned at the almost all of our manikins have personalities and many of them have the right faces. were able to gather the information on this particular locomotive engineers because his name is joseph henry to me, my
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great great grandfather and we use our family archives to substantiate his civil war story. while we have the documentation of his service with the b&o railroad, we were unable to find and identify photograph, and courtney wilson, the executive director here decided that i would pose for the picture, so i am the dummy in the locomotive. entirelly, i spent my business career in logistics and so the idea of transportation quite familiar with myself. i have always been interested in civil war history in a written number of books, including the civil war in maryland and baltimore during the civil war and just recently completed the book the war came by train, that he railroad during the civil war. many people have said, i totally agree, that the civil war was the last romantic or in the
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first modern war. and the two technologies above all others were the telegraph and the railroad the changed warfare forever. the telegraph and the railroad combined to conquer time and distance on the battlefield. large troop movements were capable, resupply was capable and many, many campaigns were basically planned around the logistics of the railroad, where they were and where they weren't. it would've been also possible to sustain armies of hundreds of thousands of men without the rapid resupply by rail. b&o railroad participated in a number of very important troop movements during the war. one of the largest of these occurred after the battle of gettysburg in 1863, went to army corps totaling 20,000 men were transferred from the army of the potomac in virginia by rail through a number of states, number of different railroad that arrived in tennessee within a matter of seven to 10 days. these troops were then added to
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grant's army and used to break and thee of chattanooga famous battles of lookout mountain and missionary ridge. at the end of january in the first week of february 1865, a reverse troop movement was used, this time the 20th core was transferred back from tennessee in the dead of winter through the mountains, again using the rail all the way to washington, added to grant's army, the final richmond and the ultimate surrender of lee's army at appomattox. >> review this and other american artifact that her /history.c-span.org which of on our next town to the top of the page or use the search engine to or topics that interest you.
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>> we are back live now from lunch for more of the gettysburg college civil war institute annual summer conference. our coverage continues till about 4:30 p.m. today and we will be live again all day tomorrow, starting at 9:00 a.m. eastern. up next, michael berger of gettysburg college talks about dwight eisenhower and his connections to gettysburg. where he was stationed for training during world war i and later retired after his presidency. you are watching american history tv, live on c-span3. >> good afternoon, everyone. i'm peter carmichael, the director of the civil war institute a gettysburg college and i'm also a member of the history department. it is my pleasure to introduce berger,ague, michael
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obviously, also part of the history department here. taught at gettysburg college since 1989, his scholarship focuses on many of 19th andpects 20th century american political and social history. he has written extensively on the presidency of dwight d. eisenhower and on the role of eisenhower's chief of staff, sherman adams. also is aberger specialist on the presidency of james buchanan, he has co-edited three volumes, the third will be coming out shortly, on james buchanan. it's hard to imagine you could even get a single volume on the canon, that was a cheap shot, i know you were expecting that. the professor is completing a book on the presidential election of 1952,

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