tv U.S. Global Leadership Coalition Summit Madeleine Albright CSPAN June 26, 2018 11:54am-12:24pm EDT
to be a bad word. >> be sure to join us july 21st and 22nd when wll feature our visit to alaska. watch "alaska weekend" on c-span, c-span.org, or listen with the free c-span radio app. former secretary of state madeline albright spoke at the u.s. global leadership coalition conference. she talked about president trump's meeting with north korean leader kim jong-un and secretary of state mike pompeo's leadership of the state department. after that, a panel reflected on the president's emergency plan for a.i.d.s. relief 15 years after its creation during the bush administration. [ applause ] >> thank you. good morning. as liz said, i'm sarah thorne, senior director for global government affairs at walmart and a proco-chair of the usglc
board of directors. to start today's program, we have a wonderful opportunity to hear from one of our nation's most experienced and most widely respected foreign policy leaders. someone who knows more than most how global changes have local impact. secretary madeline albright is a universally recognized as one of our nation's most insightful on servers of the world today, not to mention the owner of a remarkable collection of brooches and pins she famously uses as a diplomatic tool. she served as the 64th secretary of state and u.s. representative to the united nations under president bill clinton, becoming the highest ranking woman in history of the u.s. government. secretary albright is the long-time chair of the national democratic institute, which works around the world to strengthen democratic institutions and citizen participation. and she's also a distinguished professor in practice of diplomacy at georgetown
university and chair of the albright stonebridge group. our discussion today with the secretary will be moderated by our own liz. ladies and gentlemen, please join me in welcoming to the stage secretary albright and liz schrayer. [ applause ] >> what a treat this is for me. >> i want to thank sarah for telling everybody who i am because not everybody always knows. not long ago i was coming back from china. chicago is the first port of entry. i was there getting undressed for the security people. i put my stuff down on the belt, and the woman behind me said, so where'd you get all those
screw-top bottles? i said, i got them at walmart. then i'm going through the mag any somer it and the tsa guard says, oh, my god, it's you. he said, i'm from bosnia and we all love you in bosnia, and if it weren't for you there wouldn't be a bosnia and you're welcome in bosnia and can i have my picture taken. we have our picture taken. it screws up the whole line. the lady says, so what exactly happened here? i said, well, i used to be secretary of state. she said, of bosnia? so thank you. >> i'm not sure how to follow up that one. i'm going to have to go to new questions. it is so fabulous to have you here. thank you, thank you. you are an amazing friend of the u.s. glc. now i know you're secretary of bosnia. i want you to know, she got a
shoutout from bono last night. >> before we begin, liz, you are the most incredible leader of this inkreecredible organizatio. >> very sweet. >> really remarkable. you have built it, expanded it, and are the most dedicated human being and a really good friend, and i think everybody understands what a huge role you play. >> thank you. thank you. well, we have a lot of fun doing different things together. this is a treat. this is a treat for me. there are so many things i have to ask you. we don't have a lot of time. i'm going to jump into one because you just finished your sixth book. so -- and it hit the number one "new york times" best seller. all of you need to get it. but it's a little scary one. it's not like your pin book. this one is scary. it's called "fascism: a warning."
and it is this really insightful history looking back and telling us a warning, alarming warning, of the trend of rising authoritarianism around the globe. it's a history lesson, but you bring it also into today's world. so madam secretary, please, dare we ask, what is the warning that we all need to be scared about? i read it, so i know how scared i am. >> let me just say, it has kind of a skir cary title and a scar cover, and it's meant to be because i think that we do need to watch what is going on everywhere around the world. i wrote it because it has something to do with my own background. i was born in czechoslovakia in 1937, and the nazis came in. we spent the war in england because my father was a diplomat. i didn't know about my background as being jewish until
1976. i was raised a catholic, married an episcopalian. i do know what happened when fa fascism took over. everything changed and people were not only discriminated against but killed for who they were. and so i really felt that it was worth putting out a warning given the kind of things i was seeing that were going on. by the way, i was going to write the book no matter who got elected. i was beginning to see more and more divisions in our own society, certainly in countries abroad, and i wanted to go and really write a historical book that explained what happened, how hitler came to power. i write about what's happened in hungary and in poland and in turkey and in the philippines
and in venezuela, just as an example of some, which is what happens when the divisions in a society are exacerbated by a leader who dwells and makes them worse for the sake of his own power. so it is a warning. the best quote in the book is from moussolini, which is if you pluck a chicken one feather at a time, people don't know. that's what this book is about in terms of the feather plucking. it's hard to say that properly. >> i highly recommend it, but it will make you nervous. it will make you nervous. let me ask you to bring it to a point where you were in government. you became secretary of state at the turn of the century when soviet union had collapsed.
the ideal of america, the ideal of democracy was on the rise. it looks a little different than it does today. you talk about that in your book. you have spoken often about america as the indispensable nation. america global leadership being so important, kind of who we all are, why we're gathered here. so playing off of your book, playing off your time as secretary of state, talk about where we are right now and that moment when you were secretary of state where america was on the rise. how important is america global leadership today? >> well, it's crucial, but let me again go back to my own story. what happened for czechoslovakia, the munich agreement, which will be a hundred years old -- or no, i'm sorry, a year that ends in eight, 1938. there was a time there was an agreentade between the british and french and the germans and italians about czech
s -- czechoslovakia over their heads. i think america was not there. that was something i grew up with. then spending the war in england when the americans came in, that's when i first fell in love with americans in uniform. i was a little girl, and it was so clear that everything had changed once the americans came in. then as a result of world war ii, europe was divided and the country that i was born in and owl all of central and eastern europe were behind the iraon curtain. my whole life has been affected by where has america been, what has america down. the marshall plan was absolutely key in putting america into a role where we were for our own national interests understanding what would happen if europe went communist. so we have been able to think about how the national interest plays into our role in the
world. so what happened -- and i was at the united nations in 1993. partially, there was a question as to whether americans were interested in foreign policy. especially after the gulf war and a number of issues and things were resolved and television the end of the cold war. so we had to make clear that our engagement was very important. president clinton was the first one to use the word indispensable, but i used it so often it became identified with me. but there's nothing about the word that says alone. it just says we need to be engaged. americans don't like the word multilateralism. it has too siyllables and ends n an "ism." that's why america needs to be a part of being interested and involved in global governance, because it's good for our people and obviously good for the world. but that we are indispensable, and if we're not engaged and
begin to act as though we' victims all the time, i think we are losing in so many ways. by the way, i'm going to europe tomorrow. i'm going to spend quite a lot of time there at a variety of different conferences. it is something that is not appropriate normally for a former diplomat to criticize your own country when you're abroad. if i'm going to be truthful, i think the last few weeks have been appalling in terms of what we've done to partnerships, to understanding how the international system works, and so how i'm going to explain to members of the g7 what just happened, but i do think we are indispensable, and if we lay back, then it's going to be very damaging for our own people and for the world. [ applause ] >> let me ask you if you could pick up on something i just said at the opening, which is about
this competition. you and i have talked about this. i know you have been visiting on your book tour some businesses around the country. i often hear about china or our competitors are going to europe. the germans, the french, the japanese are out there in the developing world. china has now a development bank. china is spending seven times more on their one belt, one road initiative than we spent on the marshall plan. in africa alone, they have invested 520% more on their development, increase in their development plan than they did in the last 15 years. so my question is, do you think we're falling behind? you just said you are concerned about it. but in our investment and development diplomacy, our democracy programs, are you concerned about it? and how do we talk about it economically?
>> i am very concerned about it because it was interesting when i was in office at the u.n. and then as secretary, to understand how our policies affect what happens in other countries and how we build our strength as a free nation on the fact that other countries are free and people are not living in a terrible situation where they are then subject to those people that don't like us. so it's essential that we understand our role. i think the other problem that is out there is we are not living in kind of a benign world. the chinese are out to challenge us. it's very interesting because i go to china quite often, and they are -- i'm always tired when everybody says they're a proud people. everybody is a proud people. but i think that they have felt that they have been
disrespected, invaded, and subjected to western values. they are now in a position to exert their influrngs aence, an are doing that. they must be getting very fat because the one belt is getting larger and larger. they are, in fact, in so many different places doing exactly what you have said. and we are kind of -- we have helped to create a vacuum that they are filling. they are also doing not only investing in countries but providing grants in a lot of different ways. they build roads wherever anybody wants them. they also are beginning to create regional alliances for themselves. when we left tpp, they're the ones that picked up the pieces, but they also are pushing in central asia, in the middle east, and in africa and in latin america more and more. so i think that we need to understand what that is doing to us. i do think the hard part, and
you and i talked about this and it's wonderful to have leaders from all over the united states, and your appleton, wisconsin, story is very important. how do you explain foreign policy to people? i have made it my mission, and it was when i was secretary to make foreign policy less foreign. i had travels with madeline. i would actually go into classrooms. what's interesting is our -- mostly in our classrooms, these maps are flat maps with the western peninsula in the middle with a couple flaps on either side. i would always ask the teachers to bring in a globe and show that most of the people live on the other side of the globe. so any number of things. so mideaost recently i have to say -- and i do want to spend some time talking about the private sector in all of this. but i was at a starbucks. they have this whole thing of tasting coffee every day. you would think it was fine wine
because they make you inhale it and slurp it. but -- and they talk about where their coffee comes from. on that particular day, the coffee was from the democratic republic of congo. they were explaining how what they do to make sure that there are not kids picking the coffee beans or that they are worried about the environment and any number of different things, which i think is very, very important. but also since we are coffee drinkers that are the leaders, and coffee is only grown in hawaii, we need to be -- win all those countries and doing good at the same time. i think there have to be stories that can explain why "x" city has some interest and the people. and there are any number of stories. >> that's a great one. >> i think that's what has to be made relevant to the people.
>> when i say about the stories, there secretary albright's story of starbucks. so let me switch to a couple topics here that are a little more current, which is north korea. before all that happened with north korea in the last week leading up to it, you were the last sitting secretary of state to meet with a north korean leader. my question is that from your experience, hope that we might get somewhere, and my question is, especially with the new sheriff in town, secretary pompeo, i know he reached out to you. do we have some hope? >> i'm often asked if i'm an optimist or a pessimist. i'm an optimist who worries a lot.
ooinl very glad that the summit took place because i do think that having diplomatic exchanges is better than shooting wars. but i am worried because i don't know how this is all going to be followed up. what is interesting is to look at the flimsiness of the agreement that was signed. it's basically just a lot of general phrases. if i go back and look at the other agreements that we've had with the north koreans, whether it's the agreed framework or six-party talks, they were very, very detailed and yet still they were not lived up to because part of the issue here is verification. and i think that from what i can tell, there hasn't been much discussion about that. so i am hoping that secretary pompeo really has ahe things that he needs within the system in order to make this work is.
i do think it's very important to have a functioning state department. and by the way, what happened, as i listen to his hearings, what impressed me was that he said he wanted to make sure the state department was revived and so tha democracy was important. when he called me, that's basically what we talked about. now he's got to deliver on that because you can't do diplomacy without diplomats. and i think that there needs to be more in terms of the very technical parts of this on denuclearization. i found the whole summit fascinating to watch because there were so many signals. i was asked just now when i was out of the country whether it was a win/win or a kim win. i thin it was a kim win. we haveo make sure that it is a win/win, and secretary pompeo has a very big job, including
trying to figure out what his leader says. >> so let me go back to -- thank you on that. let me go back to secretary pompeo. you and i have both been very vocal over the last year about concerns over the budget cuts, concerns over filling and making sure that the state department that foggy bottom has its share of full personnel. democracy programs have been a priorityerinly for both of us. when secretary pompeo reached out to you, and i know he asked you for your advice, what was your advice? >> well, he didn't yet ask for the advice. >> okay. well, he at least called you. >> he called, and he said that he was interested in some of the things that i'd written. i had, in fact, written about the state department budget and the importance of it and democracy. i do think the following thing. and this is the last group that
actually needs facts on this because you all know it. but when you talk about how much the state department budgeis, i am all for the military. i really am for the military. so this is not a matter of trade-offs. but the budget for the defense department is kind of like $700 billion. and the budget for the state department is like 38 billion. it's crazy. and we are asking our dts to do things that's very difficult for them to do. plus, in fact, the money that goes for foreign assistance. by the way, we always talk about this. i don't think foreign assistance are two words that go together real well. i think we should call it national security support. i know that a lot of development people would prefer that not be it, but i think one has to explain why it's good for us to be able to help the countries.
i think it is very important to -- when people go to the hill, to explain as local leaders that this is absolutely essential. not only that, we have to pay the dues to our international organizations. it's ludicrous. i'm hoping he will call me. i'm very -- i've been up to the hill a lot in order to argue not just for ndi but also the foreign assistance budget generally. i think it's very, very important. and i think that there is help across the aisle. and i have spent a lot of time -- lindsey graham has been really a remarkable leader in all of this. >> you said you are an optimist. and i love that about you. an optimist who's realistic. but you travel all over the world. we talk -- we're going to talk about some of the really big crises in the world today. famines and terrorism and hunger
and refugees. and they're real problems. but share with us where you're optimistic when you travel the world and you see things that give you hope. >> well, what gives me great hope is the younger generation, i have to say. because in all the cotries, frankly, there is a burgeoning younger generation. one of the things that you were talking about in appleton that resounded is many of them want to be or have been educated in the united states. our ridiculous laws at the moment are keeping people out and are, in fact, undermining the education of american students who want to spend time learning about what's going on in foreign countries. but i think basically the younger generation gerally is what gives me hope. they want to help their countries. they want to be really literal
-- literate in terms of new technological capabilities. the same thing is true here. i have to tell you, when i've been going around, i say we're all used tohis saying now, see something, say something. i have added to that, do something. among the to-do things, there's yet to be a book or speech given that doesn't quote robert frost. i have quoted him. he says the older i get, the younger are my teachers. we've seen it here in the united states with the high school students that have been out in town halls. we're seeing it in other parts of the world. that is what gives me hope, the kind of can-do approach of the next generation. >> do you find with -- you teach at georgetown in the foreign service school. do you find with your students, are you getting more students that are enrolling in international foreign policy development? >> well, there are a lot of students that are interested in the subject. what they're not doing is some
of them aren't taking the foreign service exams. to go back to what we were saying, i think that what had happened, and i'm hoping secretary tillerson's views will no longer be, because he went to the hill and they were offering to give him money. he didn't want it. i think the secretary pompeo is more interested. what was happening is not only were there freezes at the state department, but it was basically cutting off the pipeline. if the people that are now in their 20s decide they're not going in, then it is really undermining. but they are interested in foreign policy. what is interesting are the number that have traveled abroad, that speak different languages, that want to be a part of the development story and try to figure out other ways. what i found more and more interesting in my own learning
process is the role of public/private partnerships. many will go into the private sector if they can't get into the public one, which will be a loss for the public sector, but i do think that the partnership with the private sector is very, very important. >> and what's fascinating is the number of people that are here today that are from the private sector is extraordinary. secretary albright has been an extraordinary driver of public/private partnerships and working with the business community. because of time, i'm going to end with the following question. i urge you all to read her not only last but, most recent book, on fascism, which will give you an extraordinary look into both history as well as our current world order but also take a look, which is my last question, of an earlier book, "read my
pins," which is an extraordinary look at her diplomatic jewelry kit and tool kit, which is how you, secretary albright, have set a bar on diplomacy of using pins to help move diplomacy forward. all of us are going to capitol hill tomor to meet with our legislators to advocate for the importance of developed diplomacy and democracy. i want to know not only how you chose your pin for today but what pin should we either virtually or actually wear tomorrow to make our case. so read my pin, which pin are you choosing to wear today and should we wear tomorrow? >> well, first of all, thank you. the whole book about "read my pins" is my effort to make foreign policy less foreign. but it started because i love jewelry. i was at the u.n., and it was
right after the gulf war. the cease-fire had been translated into a series of sanctions resolutions. i was an instructed ambassador. my instructions were to make sure the sanctions stayed on. so every day i said something terrible about saddam hussein, which he deserved. he invaded kuwait. all the sudden a poem appeared in the papers in baghdad comparing me to many things, but among them an unparalleled serpent. so i had a snake pin. i started wearing it wherever we were talking about iraq. so the press noticed it. they asked me why i was wearing it, so i said because saddam hussein called me an unparalleled serpent. i thought, well, this is fun. so i went out and bought a lot of costume jewelry to depict what we were going to do on any given day. on good days, i wore flowers, butterflies, and balloons. on bad day, i wore a lot of spiders an carnivorous animals. the other ambassadors noticed
and said, what are we doing? i said, read my pins. but in order to be germane on some of the russian stuff now, when i was secretary of state, we found that the russians were bugging the state department. so we found the guide listening to us and did what diplomats do which is demarsh. the next time i met with the prime minister, i wore this huge bug, and he knew exactly what i was saying. >> that's great. >> so i am wearing the statue of liberty today because i am a refugee. what is going on now is un-american. i really do hope that people talk about that. the truth is that, in fact, to go back to my book, as i learn my family's fate, what happened is my cousin was separated from her mother. so what is going on now, and i
align myself with general hayden, who made very clear how un-american this all is. so this is not the america that we are all proud of. so i wouldn't mind some statues of liberty, but i also do think that there need to be -- i have a statue, a pin that is a statue of an angel on top of the world. i think that's what we should be, that we are the ones that can help. and if we're doing it for humanitarian purposes or for self-interest, they go together. so just go up there and tell it like it is. >> ladies and gentlemen. [ applause ] how about thanking the angel of the world, madeline albright. [ applause ]