tv Electric Grid Modernization Security Part One CSPAN June 29, 2018 1:42pm-2:28pm EDT
agrees, this is going to be a continuing focus of attention moving forward on policy. it certainly has lots of dimensions to it. so we need to better understand it and respond in a most effective, constructive way. thank you all very, very much for joining us. [ applause ] today the conversation with the chief justice of the united states, john roberts from the judicial conference of the fourth circuit live today at 3:30 p.m. eastern on cspan. cspan.org or listen on the free cspan radio app.
next a look at the nation's electric grid and the efforts to modernize it. this house science space and technology subcommittee hearing runs about an hour and 25 minutes. subcommittee will come to order. welcome to this hearing on the electric grid of the future. by the way, we may have votes called just in short order. we're going to be a little quicker than normal here. not that anything we do here is very normal. today we will hear from the
department of energy, the private sector, and texas tech university on research for creating the electric grid of the future. the goal is to assure energy delivery systems are reliable and secure. reliable grid delivers energy to consumers on demand. a resilient grid assures restoration of energy once an outage has secured. a secure grid protects our energy infrastructure from hostile disruptions due to physical or cyberattacks. which are a growing risk as more industrial control systems are connected online. the doe office is leading the early stage research and development programs that promise to deliver advancements in grid technology. small but mighty, they have the least amount of funding for applied energy programs at doe but carries out a vital mission.
science expertise in physics, network science, algorithms develop modeling and data and analytics to help optimize modern electrical grids. they developed these capabilities through it's nuclear weapons program. this is part of what makes the national lab system an incubator for new technology and continues advance research beyond its originally intended goals. academia and industry are partners on grid modernization research. texas tech university hosts the global laboratory for asset management and manufacturing facility that worked to develop intelligen technologies. they focus on wind, solar, battery storage, cybersecurity
and microgrid technologies that will all encompass the electrical grid of the future. advanced grid technologies can have a significant impact when the grid is faced with weather-related events that can threaten reliability. this month brings the official start of the 2018 hurricane season. and last year communities in my home state of texas as well as florida and puerto rico lost power. modern grid technology in texas, such as the use of smart meters, were able to identify power o outages. unfortunately, while they have made significant progress rebuilding capabilities, there are still communities in puerto rico without power. that's what doe, oe and five national labs led by oregon national laboratory are working daily to provide grid modeling tools to puerto rico. the national lab is combining
their skills and capabilities in order to help puerto rico to plan, to operate and to rebuild a more resilient grid. these models help grid operators better predict where the highest risk of power disruption could be and determine the potential impacts on critical power lodes that support puerto rico's public hemalth and safety infrastructure. the hope is the island will make investments before the hurricane season. battery storage, microgrids and strategic power reserves. the partnership between the federal government, the national labs and industry has the ability to transform systems. as we continue supporting research i would like to learn
more about how doe can help our understanding of systems. i want to thank our witnesses and i look forward to a positive discussion about grid modernization research. i now recognize the ranging member from texas for an opening statement. >> thank you, mr. chairman, our distinguished panel. just last week i want to remind everybody a memo was leaked. a detailed a plan to direct the energy secretary, also from texas, to use authorities vested in him from the federal power act to save coal and nuclear power plants. section 202 has historically been used to address energy supply concerns related to natural disasters or other shortages. like wise the defense production act is a cold war era statute that allows the president to
nationalize elements of u.s. industry in the interest of national security. this proposal has been roundly criticized by a wide range of trusted independent experts as poorly justified and legally dubious. utilities, states and researchers do the hard work of hardening our infrastructure to cybersecurity threats and national disasters. meanwhile, the trump administration is inventing emergencies to bail out coal and nuclear plants while ignoring the real problems. i'm sure the white house views this legal loophole that surfaced in the leaked memo as an easy way to try to fulfill campaign promises, which is very bad and very unsound when it comes to energy policy. however, the real impact has not been thought through by the administration. it would wreak havoc on our energy markets and create a number of misaligned incentives.
as severe weather driven by climate change becomes more intense and damaging to the electric grid, this administration wants to address the problem by offering financial bailouts and picking winners and losers as losers ass to coal. and any reasonable person would agree that this seems backward. moreover, it wouldn't do anything to make the electric grid more resilient. the grid experts that have examined the issue would characterize our nation's priorities far differently than this politically motivated administration does. that is why ferc unanimously, unanimously, rejected secretary perry's last proposal to bail out coal and nuclear power plants, and while the trump administration works with coal ceos to craft a plan to benefit the industry's bottom dollar, the american people are being left behind, and i look forward to hearing today from mr. gramlich today on his recent report titled "a
customer-focused framework for electric system resilience." i can't think of a better way to approach this issue. the purpose of this electric grid is to supply reliable, affordable power to customers. any conversation that does not first consider the customer is not worth having, and while i am critical of these actions by secretary perry on grid resilience, i want to be clear that i strongly support developing advanced technologies to enable carbon capture on coal-fired power plants in the next generation of nuclear reactors. in fact, i just introduced a bipartisan bill, hr-5745, the fossil energy research and development act of 2018, that would authorize activities that would support the development of technologies and methods for carbon capture, storage, utilization, and removal. it is the most comprehensive legislative proposal for fossil fuel energy research in congress
today, so i certainly have no issues for federal support for these energy options. i just think we need to be a lot smarter how we approach these issues. we're very fortunate to have assistant secretary bruce walker with us today. i look forward to hearing justifications for the actions proposed by secretary perry in the white house, as it was proposed to ferc. i also look forward to hearing your priorities for the office of electricity. in the fy-2019 budget proposal, the administration requested a severe 37% cut to the office of electricity and reorganization of these investments. i'm sure we'll discuss that here shortly. again, while i'm not opposed to the reorganization and concept, i am curious how splitting into two offices will ensure that these activities continue to be a priority in years to come. and before i close, i also would like to take some personal
privilege to note that, unfortunately, this will be the last time that joe will be staffing us here on the committee. at least in this congress. that's because he recently won the bosh foundation fellowship and will be heading to germany in a few weeks. i know that staff on both sides of the aisle recognize that joe has done a tremendous job for this subcommittee in his time here. [ speaking in german ] and we look forward to seeing you when you come back. he played a very key role in negotiating a bipartisan bicameral package. the department of energy research and innovation act that's since passed the house and now is advancing in the senate and he was lead staffer for developing and vetting language for the fossil energy research bill that i previously mentioned. that bill has now been endorsed by a broad and impressive coalition of stakeholders and i know that would not have happened without all the hard
work joe put into this effort. we wish you luck, and i hope that we can find a way to work together again. and i know you're going to have a great opportunity overseas. congratulations, joe. and mr. chairman, i yield back. >> thank you. i'm not sure what you said in german, but i did speak with joey a few weeks back and he told me he's learned to speak german, but more importantly since they are thinking about starting a family, better learn to speak wife. thank you. i now recognize the chairman of the committee, mr. smith. >> thank you, mr. chairman. the subcommittee today is going to examine the department of energy's effort to modernize the electrical grid and i look forward to hearing what our witnesses have to say on the subject. across the country we're working to develop next generation technologies that will make up our future electric grid. this is critical research and development to help address vulnerabilities that range from cyberattacks to natural disasters. another challenge is developing grid-scale battery storage and
incorporating that into our electric grid. renewable energy and distributed energy resources are changing the way electricity is produced and delivered throughout the nation. these energy sources are intermittent and depend on the sun to shine and the wind to blow. without the capacity to efficiently store the energy produced from renewable energy, these resources can only make a minimal contribution to america's electricity needs. energy storage is the key to modernizing the grid without sacrificing reliability. my home state of texas offers a ready example of the impact battery storage could have on harnessing renewable power. texas is the top wind-producing state in the country, so it's no surprise that sandia national laboratory chose to partner with texas tech university on a wind energy site in lubbock, texas. the facility brings together
academia, industry, and the expertise found only at the national laboratories to test and develop wind energy technology. while swift's primary objectives are to improve wind turbine performance and the efficiency of wind energy production, swift also provides a test bed for supporting wind power with battery technology. researchers at swift are testing different battery chemistries and designs to harness the power of wind energy on demand. breakthroughs in grid scale battery storage technology will help incorporate renewable energy resources into the nation's energy mix, but scaling up batteries will necessitate addressing cost efficiency and size limitation problems. d.o.e. research and development can provide these solutions and bill the foundation for the next fundamental breakthrough in modern grid technology, and d.o.e. continues to prioritize the grid modernization
initiative across research programs that harnesses the skill sets of individual labs to develop new grid technologies. at los alamos national laboratory, home of one of today's witnesses, researchers are developing new power system designs that will improve the reliability and resiliency of the grid. with the technical expertise developed through its nuclear weapons programs, los alamos has capabilities to research multiple energy resource delivery systems. the national laboratories are also home to the joint center for energy storage research, energy innovation hub. the d.o.e. hub brings scientists, engineers, and manufacturers together in order to develop transformative energy storage technologies. hr-589, the research and innovation act, has passed the house and authorizes the department of energy, energy hub program to continue this important collaborative research effort. by developing a better battery,
national labs and universities can help the private sector lead the way and bring battery storage technology to the energy marketplace. this early stage research will help create a modern, reliable, resilient grid, and that's what we all need in this country. thank you, mr. chairman, and i'll yield back. >> i thank the gentleman for yielding back. it is now my distinct privilege to yield to the ranking member of the full committee, ms. johnson. >> thank you very much, mr. chairman. get my breath. let me thank all the witnesses for being here today. d.o.e.'s office of electricity support programs that are
critical to improving the flexibility and reliability to our electric grid, while also enabling a broad range of clean energy resources, play a far larger role in our nation's power and transportation sectors. this is another reason that i'm so concerned about the administration's budget proposal by the department. this would cut funding for this office by 37%, and that overall cuts includes 62% cut to clean energy transmission and reliability, 74% cut to smart grid research, and an 81% energy storage r&d. despite the fact that secretary perry has now referred to energy
storage as a holy grail of energy and several congressional hearings, these large proposed cuts to energy reliability and resilience research are also curious in light of several recent proposals made by the secretary to take unprecedented urgent actions that would prop up on economic power plants on the guise of ensuring the reliability and resilience. independent experts across the political spectrum have resoundingly rejected these proposals in favor of far more rigorous, well justified approach to addressing these issues. while continuing to make substantial progress toward our nation's clean energy future, and i believe mr. gramlich will
be able to discuss in more detail, there's no reason that we can't have a secure, clean, reliable, and resilient energy sector that takes advantage of a broad range of our resource and technology options. including renewables, energy storage, nuclear power, and fossil fuels with carbon capture. without going to such an extreme of ill conceived lengths to save one particular resource at the expense of the others. lastly, i'd like to take this opportunity to note sadly that this will be the committee's last hearing staffed by joe freeder, at least for now. he will -- he's worked for us over the last five years, started out as an intern, and rising to become one of the top
staffers of our energy subcommittee team. he's done an outstanding job. he's the son of a nurse. he's a highly professional -- he's done highly professional work throughout his time on the committee, including developing several substantiative, well-vetted bipartisan legislative proposals that i'm confident will continue to advance even as he moves to bigger and better things. he's leaving because he's won the prestigious bosh foundation fellowship. in a few weeks he'll be moving to germany for one year, and i'd like to congratulate you, joe, and wish you well and hope you'll come back to see us after you've made our country proud. i thank you, mr. chairman, i yield back. >> the gentle lady yields back and i echo her comments. can we all give joe a hand? [ applause ] i'll introduce the witnesses.
our first witness today, honorable bruce walker, assistant secretary for the office of electricity and acting assistant secretary for the office of cybersecurity, energy security, and energy response. assistant secretary walker has more than 25 years of electric utility experience, previously working as the vice president of asset strategy and policy at national grid and director of corporate emergency management at consolidated edison of new york. he's the founder of modern energy insights inc. assistant secretary walker has served as a member of d.o.e.'s electricity advisory committee, committee for the megawatt scale integration lab, and was a member of grid wise alliance incorporated. he was confirmed as assistant secretary in october of 2017. he holds a bachelor of electrical engineering, where he was the technical editor on the environmental law review.
welcome, mr. walker. >> thank you. >> our next witness is dr. john sarrao, am i saying that right? okay. the principle director for science, technology, and engineering at los alamos national laboratory. previously, dr. sarrao was the program director for the office of science, programs, and matter radiation interactions in extremes facility. from 2013 to 2018 he served as associate director where he apply science-based prediction to existing and emerging national security missions. dr. sarrao has held a number of leadership positions in the community, including divisional leader of the materials, physics, and applications commission. he's also served on a number of d.o.e. basic energy sciences advisory committees, subcommittees, helping to set strategic directions for materials research. dr. sarrao is a fellow of the american association for the advancement of science, the
american physical society, and los alamos national laboratory. he received his ph.d in physics from the university of california-los angeles. welcome, doctor. mr. rob gramlich, our next witness, is president of grid strategies llc. prior to his current position, mr. gramlich oversaw transmission policy at the american wind energy association as senior vice president for government and public affairs, interim ceo and policy director. he was economic adviser to ferc from 2001 to 2005. he has served on advisory committees for the united states department of energy in the north american standards board as vice chair of the business council for sustainable energy and as interim executive director of the wind energy foundation. mr. gramlich has been the recipient of american wind associations technical achievement award and the ferc's
exemplar of public service award. he received bachelor of arts and master of public policy from university of california-berkeley. welcome, mr. gramlich. i now recognize the chairman of the full committee, mr. smith, to introduce our last witness. >> thank you, mr. chairman. i appreciate being able to introduce our last witness today and that is dr. joseph heppert, vice president for research at texas tech university. so happens that my district includes fredericksburg, texas, which has a satellite campus of texas tech with 200 students. believe me, i leverage that to the maximum extent possible. we're glad to welcome mr. heppert today. previously vice chancellor at the university of kansas, also shared ku's chemistry department and founding director at the center for science education. dr. heppert has been active in projects for science teaching and science teacher preparation
and is the past chair of the american chemical society's commission on education. he is a fellow of the american chemical society and serves on the chair of budget and finance. dr. heppert received a bachelor of science and chemistry from san jose state university and ph.d in inorganic chemistry, often thought to be the toughest subject, from the university of wisconsin-madison. dr. heppert, we welcome you and appreciate what texas tech is doing. yield back, mr. chairman. >> thank you, mr. chairman. and thank you to all the witnesses for being here today. i now recognize assistant secretary walker for five minutes to present his testimony. >> thank you, chairman. chairman weber, chairman smith, ranking member vecsey and ranking member johnson ann distinguished members of the subcommittee. i appreciate the opportunity today. the department of energy is focused on ensuring that the
energy infrastructure is capable of securing our national security. therefore, the resilience and reliability of the nation's electric grid is of the utmost importance. o.e. and caesar collaborate with industry, academia, state and local governments, and other energy sector stakeholders on numerous research and development programs to achieve these objectives. using the definition set forth in the presidential policy directive 21, resilience is defined as "the ability to prepare for and adapt to changing conditions and withstand and recover rapidly from disruption." resilience includes the ability to withstand and recover from deliberate attacks, accidents, or naturally occurring threats or incidents. d.o.e., which is a national security agency, with a comprehensive intelligence community and informed view of resilience, recognizes that the energy sector has been the main focus of cyber and physical threat attacks.
i will seek to highlight the actions we at d.o.e. are taking to address the very real risks we face. first, the former office of electricity and reliability has been divided into two separate departments in order to significantly increase the focus commensurate with the known risk of cyber and physical threats. thereby creating the office of cybersecurity, energy security, and emergency response, as well as the office of electricity. my office's first priority is the creation of a northern american energy system resiliency model. this model capitalizes on previous national lab work and is being leveraged to fully understand the resiliency risks associated with a highly diversified grid that supplies electric energy for north america. most importantly, the model will include analysis regarding the significant interdependencies that have evolved over the last couple decades between the
various energy infrastructures. significantly, the model will highlight where there are strategic opportunities for specific capabilities offered by a certain type of infrastructure. for example, energy storage for frequency control. most importantly, from d.o.e.'s vantage point. another priority is to revolutionize sensing technology utilization. the goal is to use high fidelity technology to integrate near realtime data into the north american grid model. we'll also be able to use signature recognizing and machine to machine learning to significantly improve the performance of the grid. furthermore these efforts will enable strategic investments by highlighting vulnerabilities and enhance the resources and use of micro grids and energy storage.
storage, the holy grail of energy, has a huge role to play in national security. there are various initiatives within d.o.e. focused on pump storage to flow batteries. there's never been a time where the availability of megawatt scale storage has been more important. o.e. is pursuing storage technology capable of providing reactive and power control over bulk and distribution power systems, as well as frequency control. working with the national laboratories, o.e. is pursuing three high probability capabilities, flow batteries using organics, sodium-based batteries and rechargeable batteries. the potential contributions of storage to enhance national security across north america are astounding. o.e. and caesars are members of the grid modernization initiative. the gmi focuses on the development of new architectural concepts, tools, and technologies to analyze, predict, and protect the grid. originally consisting of oe and the office of energy efficiency
and renewable energy, it's expanded to include caesar, office of fossil energy, and office of nuclear energy to ensure a coordinated and comprehensive d.o.e. approach to r&d. the consortium established a strategic partnership. in conclusion, the energy sector continues to face challenges and threats every day. the department continues to pursue diverse, yet targeted r&d projects to further enhance the resilience of our grid and energy infrastructure necessary to ensure national security. the cutting edge technology developed at our national labs and ongoing research. reliability of the grid for years to come. thank you, and i look forward to your questions.
>> thank you, sir. dr. sarrao, you're recognized for five minutes. >> chairman weber, chairman smith, ranking member veasey, ranking members, thank you for the opportunity to address the grid and describe the many benefits and risks that would result from a more integrated, resilient, and modernized grid infrastructure. i'm the principle associate director at los alamos in new mexico. my personal research and technical leadership career has emphasized national security science through plutonium research, to advanced design and discover, to steering the high performance capabilities. energy security is a national security priority and los alamos national laboratory has contributed meaningfully to grid resilience research for many years. the challenges that today's grid faces includes the need for
enhanc enhanced resilience, and expanded tools for grid operators to detect anomalies including the effective utilization of machine learning methods. in responding to these challenges, los alamos brings expertise in physics, engineering, and computation. we have a proven track record of providing expertise in weapons physics and design, high fidelity and multiscale earths systems modeling and space science and space weather capabilities. deeply committed to workforce development, hosting a regular grid science winter school and conference to educate and expand the grid research and community. to further support these efforts, los alamos has launched the advanced network science initiative designed to facilitate research focused on modeling and understanding the nation's critical infrastructures, such as
electric power, water, petroleum, and natural gas. given our history in infrastructure analysis and grid research, los alamos was excited to participate in the grid modernization laboratory consortium beginning in fiscal year 2016. the initiative allowed a number of national laboratories to work together, bringing their complementary capabilities to bear on key challenges and delivering positive impacts for our electricity grid. as we look to the future of grid research, los alamos sees several important challenges that need to be addressed. first, complex threats to u.s. power systems. u.s. power systems are potentially vulnerable to large scale impacts from complex threats, including disturbances and pulses from a high altitude nuclear detonation. second, cyberphysical threat. combined cyber and physical attacks on infrastructure can have widespread and lasting impacts on critical infrastructure. developing a cyberphysical
impact simulation capability will enable stakeholders to assess the possible consequences of different types of cyberattacks on critical infrastructure and prioritize additional investments. third, gas grid coupled systems. natural gas pipelines are a key energy infrastructure for the united states and only becoming more so with the addition of supply from unconventional gas resources. the natural gas fired electric generation and transmission systems and the expansion of distribution further expand that. and, fourth, grid water network coupling and control. potable and waste water systems are major electric loads that can be controlled to the benefit of the water and electrical systems. potable water networks are an infrastructure that can pay a key role in advanced control and optimization of systems, however, these water resources must also maintain their own reliability and resilience. i appreciate the opportunity in
these brief remarks to describe some of the future challenges and research opportunities that we see at los alamos. success in these endeavors would result in a more integrated, resilient, and modernized grid infrastructure. the consortium has been a positive step forward in addressing these issues and los alamos has been proud to play a role. as we look to the future, we see additional challenges in responding to complex threats, including cyber physical challenges to our grid infrastructure and considering the integrations of systems represented by gas and electrical infrastructure at both the transmission and distribution scales. in closing i'd like to thank you for the opportunity to appear before the subcommittee. i look forward to answering any questions you might have. >> thank you, doctor. mr. gramlich, you're represented for five minutes. >> thank you, chairman weber, ranking member and members of the subcommittee for inviting me to testify on the electric grid of the future. since modern society requires a affordable, clean, and reliable
electricity for most commercial and personal pursuits, there is no infrastructure more important than the interstate electric network. while reliability is very high and growing, as reported just today over at ferc across town, the grid is evolving rapidly and threats are changing. we need to expand grid capacity, implement protections against severe weather and cyber and physical attack, and make more efficient use of the existing grid. d.o.e.'s office of electricity can play a key role in each of these areas. oe can contribute by continuing research and development and demonstration for new technologies for the grid, promoting grid expansion through permitting and studies, developing and bringing grid operations technologies to market, developing customer-end reliability and resilience options for critical uses, such as military facilities and hospitals, and supporting studies of bulk power system reliability to address the
evolving resource mix and evolving threats. the national academies of sciences recently had a resilience report that had 12 recommendations, eight of those were for d.o.e. given the importance of a reliable electric grid to modern society and the critical role it plays in integrating new centralized and distributed resources and managing various threats, oe should have far greater resources than it has. at the same time, oe resources and attention should not be diverted to support the recently announced and evolving
specifically. thank you. >> good morning, chairman weber. chairman smith and members of the subcommittee. i'm vice president for research and professor of chemistry -- serve the educational needs of west texans, but its ambitions have always been to make a mark in education, scholarship, and innovation for the nation and the world. today texas tech university system or tech, as it's often referred to, ranks among the major public research universities in the united states. as many of you know from working with research universities in your states and districts, these institutions play a critical, innovative role in defining the future of energy grid research.
both natural hazards and actions by our adversaries pose threats to our grid. the 2017 hurricane season was a harrowing reminder that national events can put on the grid. based on modern scientific models of future weather events, the world can expect more frequent and intense disruptions of this nature. at the same time, there's a growing consensus future conflicts among military and economic adversaries may involve political skirmishes in cyberspace with grid infrastructure as a prime target. indeed, some recent cases provide indications state and nonstate actors have already targeted and demonstrated an ability to threaten our grid. on top of this, any grid of tomorrow must be developed with the assumption the market for renewable energy generation will only continue to grow and in
turn provide a more decentralized and, therefore, resilient system. in light of these challenges and with generous support of the state of texas, department of energy, and partners in industry and at the national laboratories, texas tech has been working hard to address a central question, how to make the grid more secure, reliant, robust, and most importantly resilient when under threat? through the pioneering work of faculty at texas tech, we're providing answers. whittaker college of engineering allows an array of diverse power sources to interface with the grid. her research has overcome a major hurdle to enabling reliable, resilient, and affordable grid integration of renewables with the real world applicability with rebuilding puerto rico's infrastructure post hurricane maria. dr. steven bain, senior faculty member in the department of
electrical engineering continues to develop techniques that enable grid integration and have placed a number of instruments across texas to monitor grids in near real time. this research when coupled with integrated models to determine performance of systems relying on distributed generation on wind is critical to a resilient and reliable grid. in 2013 the state of texas provided $13 million for tech and several partners to discuss glean. when fully operational later this year, they'll provide a world class distributed generation micro grid and unique platform for field testing certification and optimization of renewables and grid systems, new hardware and software solutions for managing grid function, and cybersecurity of grid systems. this work would not be possible without the support of secretary perry. his vision as governor of texas,
of the state of texas, was critical to making this facility possible. the innovative team of researchers is committed to a vision that enables the electric grid of the future. we intend to invest a minimum of $8 million in research into cybersecurity and we're confident this investment will help the nation attain its goals in energy security, traditional and alternative energy utilization and a 21st century energy grid. i'm proud to have the opportunity to share texas tech's opportunities capabilities, our expansive vision for the future, and serve as a resource for this subcommittee. i look forward to answering your questions. thank you for this inn vitation and go tech. >> i'll leave that alone. they've called votes, so we're going to recess and reconvene immediate