tv American History TV visits Alaska CSPAN July 22, 2018 2:00pm-4:20pm EDT
based on my understanding of it, i understand it was a way that all alaskans can have -- can get some of the can get some of the profits from our oil revenues. we are a very rich resourced state. as far as the way it has been handled lately, i think it has been a little unfortunate the way it has been vetoed. that effectively is a progressive tax because alaska has no sales tax, no income tax. however low tax state, the way the pfd was handled where they took away that people had to pay $1000 in taxes. that is inequitable if you ask me. >> voices from the state on c-span.
[bells] welcome to a special presentation of our c-span cities tour as we taking to alaska. known as the last frontier, it is the largest state in the u.s., and 60% of his over 663 square miles is land administered as part of the national parks system. it has a population of only 740,000. the united states purchased alaska from russia in 1867, and admitted it is the 49th state in 1959. with the help of our gci cable partners, in the next two hours
we will visit juneau, fairbanks and anchorage to learn about the history and culture of the state, beginning with the alaska native heritage center where he learned about alaska's various native cultures. ♪ >> welcome. we are the alaska native heritage center. here at the center we teach youth anywhere from preschool through high school about alaska native cultures and we also have guests that come from all over the world. we see some of our 11 indigenous alaskan native cultural groups. some are classified as eskimos,
some as indians and some as alutes, but none of these words come from our people. that people who are classified as eskimos are northwest in northern parts of alaska. my people would be siberian me.k, which is west of no people classified as eskimos. the people classified as alli ut are from the aleutian islands. and the people from alaska peninsula. people classified as indians are the 11 indigenous groups. have -- those of the people classified as indians. i will take you around the lake and take you to our six traditional homes of the native
people of alaska. i will be teaching you about the different items we have and about each of the cultures of each of the houses. this is the winter home. the people are located in this area, south-central alaska. this is the only house on site after contact, munich that top of build the log cabins like this. traditionally they had flat rooftops. the russians taught them how to do the a frame. consider the horizontal, they would be vertical about six feet from the ground. they had problems with the wood rotting. they talked of how to make the beams horizontal like you see here. therapy one window facing east because of the sunrise, in the window would not be large. the window would only be about the quarter size of what you see here. the reason is you don't want,
especially bears to crawl into your home. that is why they made the windows small. they would apply some kind of animal membrane over the window. the whole room with light of. it was like an alarm clock. entrance would be through the kitchen. this would be the only entrance. the entrance was only about three or four locks high. it served to different purposes. one is to trap heat inside a home, antecubital large animals out of the house. the bird spark is valuable to the people. they utilize it for many different things. as you can see we have many different styles of that are made out of bird spark and willowbrook was like there -- willow root is like their thread. you have to know how to gather the birchbark so you don't hurt the trees.
they are rituals he taught me to do and that was to meditate and pray before we gather because our people believe you have to do it with good intentions. moose is very valuable to the people. they utilize moves for many different things besides eating. you can tell the eighth by the number of points on its antlers. this post was about 16, maybe 17 years old. as you see here hanging against the wall is a curse made out of moose. the people have very beautiful e clothing,gns on thi purses, footwearir. each of the families have it on designs. over here hanging we have different animal hides. we have a piece of river are here. we have a beaver they refuse or part of their clothing. hid we have on tanned moose
e and a caribou hide. the caribou would be put over the beams with the first facing down. fur is follow on the inside so it would trap the heat inside the fur. that was one of the ways they stayed warm. the people speak 11 different line which is an they have 22 different dialects. they are related to the navajos, the apaches and the kiowas. a long time ago they never had borders so they expanded into canada and parts of the lower 48. this is the winter home. chupic house. the it would be found in the southwestern part of alaska. house, which is a single man's house. the smaller houses were for
family homes. size --ld be about the what a beauty to war five times larger depending on the size of the village. we're in the single man's house. a lot of people come to alaska with the idea of eskimos in igloos. we did not live in igloos made out of ice. this is our winter home. traditionally our winter home with the subterranean. beam,'s at the lower show you how far into the ground is house traditionally would have been. we came up with a very large entrance. you would have all kinds of problems with animals coming into this house. our entrances were small. we had to crawl on hands and knees to get in and out of the house. in the wintertime with close that off with driftwood and
animal hides. that is your winter entrance and underground tunnel. u.would be like a j or the reason we had underground tunnels for an entrance in the wintertime was because we use is as a cold air traffic. inks.air se we have a seal oil lamp. it would be made out of clay from earth. we also used law iraq's. -- lava rocks. one person's job all day long was to maintain the seal oil lamp so they don't burn out or cause a fire. this is a very small one of the ones we used traditionally for bigger than what you see here. we did put them in the corners of the house. to would burn the seal oil use for light and heat.
above our heads we have a fish trap that is last together -- latched together. ce.have two pieces of fense we would use this to catch blackfish. it would guide the fish into the trap. there is a small hole. if a bunch of fish were caught in the trap, it would expand. that is how they recast their fish. would catch their fish. we have a spotted skin user clothing. whether it be for pants, boots, hats, mittens, or for lots of other different things. backpacks.m in the a lot of people who don't understand our native cultures tend to question is about what and whales.seals
the human race did not choose the animals for themselves. they were chosen for us. the creator provided my future --h that people with s provided my people with seals, walruses, whales. the creator put the people in the first house. the hunter would use his body measurements to make the frame. the frame is latched together. when you travel in the rough ,here and see -- baring sea inc. is it room to not break. we would cover with the sealskin. this was used as a mode of transportation by the hunters. they cannot pronounce that word. in english they call it kayak.
they came from the people of the arctic region. they came from us. the hunter that the first human in the kayak. it washed up on the beach. the animals are curious. a folded in the sock creatures who was sleeping. but here we said, look at -- the caribou said he does not have for like us. the volunteer says he cannot hunt -- the polar bear says he cannot hunt like us. human. call him uke, we must sacrifice ourselves to the human because he will not be able to survive, as long has he does so with respect. house.approaching the this is a home of my people and tunnel we are a
going to enter on. this is close to a traditional entrance. this is a very large one. you would have problems with polar bears coming into this house. that is why we have to make our entrances small so large animals will not come into your house. we will go to the tunnel here. watch your step as you enter, please. we are now inside the home. so, this house is traditionally our winter home, just like the last house we came from. the lower beam represents ground-level. this house is subterranean.
the walls would not be playing. we use natural earth for insulation. in the state of alaska we have 11 whaling communities that are legally allowed to hunt. the ivc, international whaling commission has given us these rights. depending on the size of the quarter.they gave us a this year it was eight bowhead whales. we have the springtime hunting and also the fall whale hunting. we have snow goggles. i like to say these are the first shea. ades. it prevents snow blindness. they would be made out of driftwood or sometimes animal bones or ivory which comes from k of ask of all -- tus walrus. this was donated by one of my sons who has successfully hunted
10 whales in his lifetime. you have up to about 400 pieces of daily inside it whale's mouth. vary in sizes from a foot-long to about 14 feet in length. is used like a filter. traditionally it would be used for lots of different things, including snares or sleds. in the wintertime might better be falling the sled. if he successfully hunted a seal, they would be pulling the seal on this piece of baleen. this is a whale hunters knife. whale, youtcher a would use this handle right here.
you butcher it using this long handle knife. we are approaching another house. the word alaska came from these people. translates to where the sea breaks its back. once there was a land bridge when russia and alaska were connected. the sea came and broke it apart. that is where the word alaska came from. times, the people built their houses completely underground because we have the cold air from the bearing see -- baring sea. by cold air meet hot air it creates hurricane force winds. that is why the people built their homes completely underground. traditionally they use this to
get in and out of the house. you would have an entire village living in this house together. the biggest house they found was almost the size of a football field. it was 60 feet wide. each of the families would actually have these woven together using grass. that is what they use for privacy. at the end of the house would be the chief and his family. the kayaks -- they don't: kayaks in their language -- they don't call them kayaks in their language. just like that last one we saw, it is lashed together using sinew. ii, the peopler were evacuated to southeast alaska in 1941.
when the people were evacuated to southeast alaska, hundreds and hundreds of people died of famine, starvation and diseases justse the u.s. military dropped them off in southeast alaska. 1945-1946, the people were told they could go back to their villages on the aleutian islands. when i went back to their villages on the outer aleutian islands, their homes are ransacked, destroyed. some of their idols were stolen. the u.s. government told them they could not have homes. they had to relocate again. there is a lot of history does not taught about the native people of alaska that we teach here. now we are approaching the home of the people of southeast alaska.
the people originated from british columbia. 1887 withto alaska in a man named william duncan for religious freedom. they give the island is a gift. we have a total poll that was carved by world-renowned artist named nathan jackson. this totem pole is called the box of wisdom. at the top is the chief of the village. that she has three rings around his head, which means he has held three successful potlatch. that was for ceremonial purposes. in his right hand he is holding meetingg stick or staff nobody is allowed to speak except for him. when he is done speaking he passes the stick on to the next person. right under the uncle is his nephew.
we are taught and trained by hansen uncles. and uncles.aunts right before the box of wisdom we have the raven on the left and the eagle on the right-hand side. down below the ribbon are the children of the eagle and raven. we have a long house or clan house. the entrance you see, traditionally they were carved some kind of clan design of the entrance to let people know what clan it belongs to. longhouse, home of the people of southeast alaska. when you're smelling is actually cedar. the planks of the wall or red cedar. you will notice the points on the wall, there are spaces in between them. they serve two different purposes. it was used for ventilation and
because southeast alaska is part of the rain forest, of water is going to get absorbed by the word. -- wood. it needs room to expand. people among the native is a huge thing, a very big thing. this one was carved by two brothers. this one is called "respect for family." it is a hummingbird the represents the children. eagave the equal and ra -- raven touching tongues because in alaska they are lovebirds. this are my fave things my grandmother taught me. this is part of some of the alaskan cultures. i learned from one of my friends when you have a piece of jewelry
here, if you talk too much, your mouth gets sore. that piece of jewelry teaches you to think before you speak. this is respect for culture. when i think about respect for culture, i think about how anchorage is the most diversity in the whole nation. -- diverse city in the whole nation. i ask people why i should respect their culture and they should respect mine. the reason is because the human race lives together in such places as villages, towns and cities. it is important for us to respect each other because we live together for survival purposes. post.ere, the last this one is respect for environment. you will notice the eyebrows of the birds respect the sky. you will notice the drum is the
wolf, respect the land. at the bottom is the killer whale. respect the ocean. but we hope for the people to take away from the alaska native heritage center is they have a better understanding of our alaska native culture group and our traditions. does important to honor our tradition because knowledge has to be passed on to generations. if we don't pass on knowledge, it gets lost forever. we want to make sure our knowledge is being passed on, our traditions are being passed on. the next generation will come in and take over. we want to make sure is being passed down. ♪ [applause] mendenhall is a 13-mile-long
glacier located in juneau. it is one of 38 lasers in the juneau icefield. the glaciers discharge enough water to fill 40 million olympic sized swimming pools. we learned about the economics of the seafood industry in alaska. >> this has been a big part of alaska basically forever. alaska has always been known for salmon production. the world has been the most pristine waters basically in the world, the cleanest waters ever. the fish derived from these waters, i don't think it gets any better. industry is one of the cornerstones of the alaska economy. in employees nearly 60,000 people each year and accounts
for about $1.5 billion in wages and income. and along with the visitor industry, oil and gas, federal government spending and mining it is one of the key economic drivers of the state. -- at a seafood plant in juneau. this is a family thing. i was raised in a small town called petersburg south of juneau, very well known for its seafood industry. that is petersburg. my whole family is directly or indirectly involved in it. this is a family business. my sons and i own it. we started out with one skiff back in 1995, catching shrimp. now the company does over 13 million pounds a year in seafood. success story, the american dream.
it is very doable, very doable. secret that seafood industry in alaska is about a $5 billion industry. nationwide it is $12 billion or $13 billion. if you follow from the harvest to in-state processing to distribution through wholesalers and retailers, right to the kitchen counter or the restaurant, it is a $13 billion industry. it is a huge national footprint. here in alaska, is a $5 billion industry. with a value added all the way from when the fisherman pulls the salmon on board the boat where he earns income and pays his crew, purchases goods and services in support of his fishing operations and that creates a multiplier impact in small communities where the minority much more economic activity.
the processor buys the fisherman. he purchases goods and services and pays property taxes and other taxes the state government, adding another set of economic multipliers across the state. the tax is paid by the seafood industry and it's critically important to funding local governments across the state. in the absence of that funding that would have resources to provide basic resources and infrastructure to residents. we do not catch ourselves. we are a buyer and reseller. everything we do is caught basically by independent fisherman, independent businesses. it's cool because a lot of them are family operated. you might see a boat commended it. load of crab or how it might be the father, mother, two or three kids aboard. probably not too much unlike bars in the midwest. these are all independent
individuals. they catch and we buy. >> truly the seafood industry is seasonal, but less so than it has been as we have looked for ways as a state and industry to add value to the product. is less seasonal than it was. clearly salmon is seasonal. it is the heart of the industry across the state. as the fish return to insert waters from behind sees, that is when fishermen have the opportunity to cast them and processors process them. that is a busy time of year , june through august and september. july and august are the big months of the year. we have a large salmon return. starting out in january we will be doing some pacific cod. that will live in a crab season which is typically mid-february. we have a crab season that will
start february. they will go until the quarters are caught and i can range from a week or two up to months depending on the efforts and a catchphrase and that stuff. andash rates -- catch rates that stuff. halibut season starts in march and then the salmon start coming. the product we are doing right now is dungeness crab. they are coming in these toats. we have some ice on them to keep them cool and calm so they are not jumping around too much. they seem to like it a little bit. they go to the brushes. they are rubbing all the crab. is cleaning all the algae off to the come out bright and clean for the cooking bright and clean after the cooking process. crab. banding the
what we want those crabs to do is when they go through the to bes, we want the crab tucked in nice and neat so we don't have legs sticking out. they will be put into the cookers with those bands on and that is how they will come out of the cooker. sometimes we will do custom orders where the buyer would -- it doesn't make any difference, ocean run is what we call it. in some cases, we've have buyers who will order a specific size. we're weighing these grab out. you have different size brakes on them. the standard weight on dungeness crab is you will go from 1.5 to two pounds and 2.5 to 2.5. andtimes it will be one three quarters. then they are put in the proper baskets for cooking.
alaska is a little different than some of the west coast states that are big crab producers. our minimum shelf life is a little larger. among west coast, they have a six pointirement of 25 were we are 6.5. our average size is larger. go the larger shell which means a larger crab. we only process males. females, they are put back in the water. that is to ensure we will have crab for generation to come. what you are seeing is the basket of crab that was previously measured for size and weight was put into the cooker, they will be in there for 17 minutes before they are removed. from that point, they will go into what we call the chiller.
which is another tank over here. we have chilled water circulating throughout the tank. the idea here is to gradually drop the interior temperature of the crab so we do not continue cooking. we all know with fish, when you take them out of the oven, in this case the cooker, they will keep cooking for a wild. what we want to do is we want to control the time cooked. that has to do a lot with the quality of vick had -- of the crab. temperature of this crab, as he can stick, we will check to make sure we are at a certain -- what is important is when you go from fresh water, the crab needs to be at a certain temperature. that depends on what we refer to as salt. if it is really warm, it has a high salt uptake. not a desirable product.
it is important that we control the temperature of the crab going into the brine. we will send them there for 35 minutes. these are pretty good. we will go from there into the blast freezer to finish them off. tiff -- to put the final touch on the crab, we will put a sugar water glaze on them to prevent any freezer drying going on. this is going to totally encapsulate that crab with a coat of ice, is what it is. everybody has gotten into their freezer before when you get to the bottom, the kids drop popsicles and it stays there for years. that is the idea behind the sugar water. it does not evaporate fast. it keeps the crab encapsulated. so it doesn't go into freezer burn.
they go into bags. the bags get sealed. at that point, we have certain net weights that we are achieving. in this case, i believe it is 30 pounds. being that the crabs have a little bit of a different size to them, you can switch and swap a little bit to get that 30 pounds in your box. as you can see, there's yellow crates that have been pre-wade weighed, it- pre- will go off to the next station. most of our product is sold right in the u.s. we are really happy about that. the crab wee of sell in europe or do we sell a lot of caviar into europe, japan , china gets a lot of cucumbers, as well as some of the species
of salmon. weare -- as mullahs we are, are truly an international company in terms of sales. alaska seafood resources have played a critical role in the economy that has been in place and alaska for many, many generations, for hundreds and thousands of years. it's has a very long history in that regard and continues to play anymore important role in the lifestyle of people all across coastal alaska and interior alaska. the first real commercial industrial kinds of activity and alaska. they date back 150 years. what is most noteworthy about the history of the industry is effort to gain control of its fisheries management is a key driver for statehood, for seeking statehood in 1959. since then, the industry has grown steadily. diversify ourd to product base.
competitive -- and are competitive in the market. it is one of the key drivers in a healthy industry. alaska, they are the watchdog of the salmon industry in the state. of things int place in terms of once they have certain estimates of what they returns will be, one thing they do not want to do is overfished. very critical that we have enough fish released that will spawn and continue this year after year after year. in state has a lot of rules place closely monitored. if you were to go in the water today, you would see fishing game or enforcement of their making sure that the boats are standing in the places -- are staying in the places they are supposed to stay in. we have rules in place that allow for a certain amount of what they call a tack. that stands for total allowable catch.
we can catch 100,000 king salmon and be ok. they will manage that season so they do not exceed that. >> the alaska department of fish and game and other authorities have been very careful about establishing commercial fishing seasons that provide for that sustained yield. tools thatnagement have been employed over the last 30 years include limited entry commercial fisheries program which in the 1970's, controlled the participation in commercial fisheries and alaska instead of a wide-open derby type style. to had to have a permit commercial fish. that was a measure back 40 years ago. and then again in the 1990's, the ift system, the individual put aman quota system caps on participation in the fisheries and made the fisheries more sustainable, better manage, and savor for fishermen.
seafood industry is important to alaska. a lot of people are employed in the state. there is a lot of movement of product between alaska and countries around the world. it is that chain of events. grocery stores, all the transportation, there is a heck of a lot. it is a big thing. if seafood went away from here, the state would be a skeleton of what it is. it plays a huge role. announcer: the mount roberts tramway is the only aerial tram in southeastern alaska. it rises 1800 feet from a dock in downtown juneau to the top of mount roberts with abuse of the city. of the city. we learn about the colonization of alaska from the alaska state museum. steve: they didn't recognize
that alaskan natives, people who have lived here for thousands of years, had any title whatsoever to those lands. over the next two centuries, both the russians and the americans that follow them did everything they could to negate native ownership of the land, native culture, native place names and anything having to do with native peoples. their approach eventually was to make those people disappear entirely. welcome to the alaska state museum here in juneau, alaska. our museum was created in the year 1900 when alaska was not even a territory appeared it was a district. today we will focus on becoming of europeans and americans into alaska starting at about the 1770's and talk about their efforts to colonize alaska and the response of alaska's native people to that -- to those efforts. what we're looking at is the top totem pole.
the alaska natives who created this were commemorating a historical event and that is the sighting of the first non-native explorer to enter into alaska. their way of recording history is not in writing, it is an -- it is in carving and artwork and oral traditions. the particular clan saw traders andh fur explorers here. they carved a totem pole to commemorate that event. at my feet is an artifact of the first russian people that came to alaska. they were following a legal doctrine called the doctrine of discovery that gave europeans and any christian nation a primacy in claiming title to land and resources. they did not recognize any native claim to alaska. instead, this doctor and require -- this doctrine required them
to put proof, physical proof, of their presence on the land in the form of metal tablets or other artifacts like this one which was buried underground in secret locations. if another country challenge the russians claim to alaska, they could say, there is a plate here we placed here in 1841 that says this country is in our possession and that would be legal proof of their ownership . what drove a lot of the europeans and americans to alaska was the riches in fur that could be found, the sea otter furs. within a couple decades of the 1770's, five different countries were active in alaska, all going after sea otters. when the russians first came into alaska, in the 1700s, they enlisted to help them hunt sea andrs, many of the aleut
kodiak island people. the reason behind that is because they were proficient hunting sea mammals from kayaks. this is a model of a kayak with all the different hunting tools on the deck. there would be a paddler in the back and the person sitting near the bow would have a harpoon that was designed to be able to hunt sea creatures, sea mammals, and sea otters specifically. they were very shy animals. hunting by kayaks allowed the hunters to get close to them without scaring them away. the people were basically enslaved by the russians to be able to do this. it was not necessarily with their consent. but, the russians took them all over the pacific coast, transporting them from the aleutian islands and kodiak, all the way down to southeast alaska
and even 1000 miles south to the coast of california. that eventually caused the depletion of sea mammals to the brink of extinction. after the sea otter furs were heavily depleted, the russians turned to the pelts of land animals. this is a native made trap from siberia that was for hunting of mynx and other land animals that were of interest to the russian fur traders. the russians business model and -- in alaska required active assistance from alaska natives. which is hard to do when you are busy stealing their resources and lands from them. they put a lot of effort into diplomacy. in 1804, the russian navy came into southeast alaska and took over a site in now what is called sitka from the clink it -- from the tlingit people that work living there.
they quickly had to pivot 180 degrees and make peace with the same natives because they needed their help in harvesting the sea otter furs. and also doing things like hunting and cutting firewood, and other necessary jobs because there were not that many russians here. to help establish peace, they had a ceremony with the people on castle hill and presented the double headed eagle crest to one of their principal chiefs. this was given by a chief manager of the russian-american company to one of the clan leaders. this is very rare. it is the only one known to have survived into modern times. they consider this a payment for the land that was taken by the russians. metal was still fairly scarce among alaskan natives. they had plenty of iron that came in driftwood and wrecked
ships. something like this bronze crest was really rare and probably when it was new, it was shined up and really an impressive artifact. by the mid-1800s, the russians ability to make a profit from their colonies in alaska was undermined by the world economy. they started looking seriously at selling out the american -- selling out, the americans were interested in acquiring alaska as part of their manifest destiny that they considered it their god-given duty and right to acquire land from the atlantic all the way to the pacific. they saw a chance to acquire a russian america, as they called it, alaska, and get a huge increase of their shoreline on the pacific coast. they were very interested. william seward was the secretary of state at the time under abraham lincoln. he was a prime mover of america's effort to purchase alaska.
this painting depicts seward at his desk, debating with a russian minister, the final price at $7.2 million. the critics at the time really felt the united states was being taken advantage of because the russians had harvested all the furs and got the resources out there were the easiest to take it manage of their they felt that was too much money. the sculpture is one of william seward and alaskans celebrate every year, seward's day in honor of the negotiator who made alaska part of the united states. we are looking at a canon that was brought to alaska in 1867 by the first detachment of u.s. army troops, sent here following the ratification of the alaska treaty, with russia. the troops were sent to set up some forts and alaska and to
-- in alaska and start the process of americanizing russian america. that took several decades to accomplish. there was no civilian government in alaska until 1882. before that, starting with the u.s. army, it was under military rule pretty much. first the army, then the navy, then the revenue cutter service really served many of the basic functions of government. frankly, they were not designed for that purpose. they were not able to do it very effectively. alaska was pretty much not seriously governed for the first 30 years or so of its existence under the u.s. flag. the flag itself that we have on display is one of the first american flags to be flown in alaska around the time of the purchase in 1867. alaskan natives were really -- were relinquished of their
possession of land and resources by the americans after the americans became established. the management of native affairs by the united states was a difficult problem for them. some advocated just to exterminate them entirely. other people like alaska's district governor, john brady, advocated a less drastic means. they wanted, through education, to civilize the natives. they called it, kill the indian, save the man. it was the approach. they wanted to educate them in the ways of the american civilization. then they would be able to enter into society just like anybody else. and get a job and make money and support a family. that sort of thing. one of the impediments to that was traditional culture. and spiritual beliefs. one of the most important
isemonies among the tlingit referred to as the potlatch. this was the final step of the funeral for clan members. it was when the family of the clan paid back their neighbors for all of the help the neighbors provided during other parts of the funeral. it is a really critical part for them to pay their debts. the united states government and the missionaries viewed that as having something to do with native spiritualism which they thought competed against christianity. it also disrupted the ability of the native labor force to participate in the cannery work another wage work that require d them to show up every morning at 6:00. for those reasons and others, they tried to stamp out potlatch ing as much as possible. the native people were resistant because they said, we cannot just stop potlatching. this is how we pay our debts. if we don't have a potlatch, we
will go down in history as a major debtor. the government said, one last potlatch. the year was 1904. the house post behind me was one of the artifacts that was brought out by the clan to put up in their clan house. it has the actual date carved in, 1904. it is by rudolf walton, one of the professional carvers of that year. after the 1904 potlatch, that was not the end. the potlatch tradition continues to this day. it went underground for a while until the approach of the government changed to be more supportive of traditional culture. when the american government took control of alaska, starting in 1867, they developed a public-private partnership with the presbyterian church and other churches to manage the education of alaska natives, under contract with the u.s. government.
the presbyterians and others set up schools in alaska. they were in charge of native education for the entire -- what is now the state of alaska. the presbyterians were active with the boarding school called the sitka industrial school. that is where they would take young natives in and teach them various useful trades, as far as the u.s. is concerned. boatbuilding, sewing, cooking, other trades. it would allow their graduates to enter the workforce after they finished. some of the first graduates of the sitka industrial school founded the alaskan native brotherhood and sisterhood that is the oldest native civil rights organization in the united states. that was in 1912. it is really proof that the tlingit people and other tribes had a strategy toward dealing with colonization. their shamans saw the comings of
the non-natives into their lands. they advised clan leaders to send their best and brightest young people some to go to the schools and learn the ways of the americans once they -- of the americans. once they graduated, they used the mechanisms they learned about the government and how to petition the government. they turned it around on and used those techniques to fight for their rights. that fight culminated in 1971 in the alaskan native claimed settlement act which is when the u.s. government paid millions of dollars to native tribes for certain land that the government wanted to keep possession of. it recognized native ownership of millions of acres of land in alaska. it was at the time, the largest settlement with the native groups in north america.
the alaskan native brotherhood and sisterhood were one of their initial efforts was to gain citizenship for alaska natives. when the united states first gained possession of alaska, alaska natives were not even citizens of the land that they pioneered 10,000 years previous. discrimination and racism still exists in alaska and that is one of the reasons we decided to have this exhibit because after talking to alaska natives across the entire state, they felt it was time to start talking about these things. this museum is a collection of artifacts we have relating to the fight for native rights and resilience in general. this was the place to start doing it. announcer: juno is a capital city of alaska located in the states panhandle with a population of over 30,000.
it is the most remote capital city in the country. there are no roads connecting juno to the rest of the state. is a popular it destination for cruise ships and tourists coming to ride the thet robert tram and visit glacier. coming up, we continue our special look at alaska with a visit to alaska's capital building built in 1931. welcome to the alaska state capitol in juneau, alaska. this is a building that started construction in 1920 nine and was completed in 1931. the federal and territorial building in a transition to the alaska capital and statehood in 1959. you know was doubled -- was designated the capital in 1900 by congress. as the capital of the district then. the primary industry at alaska
in the time -- at the time was gold-mining to gold was discovered in juneau in 1880. it was the biggest town in the area. certainly, the center of industry in the area. citys the most important at the time. the traditional capital from russia was in kodiak. it moved to sitka. it stayed in sitka for a wild. -- while. congress designated juneau as a capital and it was moved from sitka to juneau. this building was originally constructed for $712,000. foot.dollars square the total cost including all the furnishings was about $1 million. this is a very modest rendition of architecture. it is a masonry building primarily. it is composed of brick, stone, and terra-cotta. it is a very modest building. it is probably because it was
originally intended to be a federal building with a territorial component. about three fourths of the building was dedicated to federal offices and federal agencies. the other fourths or one third was dedicated to territorial government. a federal and territorial building which was the title of the building when in 19.9, 1930. there was one distinctive characteristic of the building portico supported by four large marble columns. are fromble columns marble that comes from a mine in southeast alaska. they are about 3.5 feet in diameter and 24, 25 feet high. there is no mistaking the front entry of the building. it is very distinctive. the site was selected -- it was an entire block. which sounds like a lot. --ce the building takes on takes up almost the entire block, there is very little grounds. interestingme
associations with the capital. one is across the street. a plaza. in the plaza is a statue of william henry seward. william henry seward with the secretary of state for president abraham lincoln. in 1867, he negotiated a treaty with the russian minister to the that resulted in transferring russian america, at the time, to the united states which was later renamed alaska. it commemorate -- we commemorated the 150th anniversary of the treaty. one of the events was constructing of the statue of william henry stewart -- seward. it is very prominent in many of the photographs of the capital today. right now, we are standing in the lobby of the ground floor. it is a very low ceiling space. it is not as dynamic as some of the other capitals where you enter and it is a big rotunda. it is a welcoming place. the lobby is surrounded by tim
keen marble which is the same marble that is used in the columns outside. it is used here on the floor and on the walls. it is another representation of using alaska resources in the construction of the building. we have moved to the chambers for the house of representatives on the east wing. this is the same location that the original house of housed.tatives was however, at that point in time, their worldly 16 members of the house of representatives. today, we have 40. you will notice in one place there are large columns in the building. those are original construction columns, original building columns, the room has expanded beyond that because it takes more renowned for the greater number of legislators. the interesting thing too is in 1931 when they first opened,
they did not have offices. all the legislators worked at their desk. the historical photos we have of them during session shows papers all over their desks. that is not the case today. every legislator has their own office. it was a very plain room. it had a plastered ceiling, plastered walls, and a small wooden coat. today, it has been remodeled and there is a larger wainscot. the ceiling has been raised. much better lighting. the desks are much more important. before, they were almost like small tables. there has been significant improvement. the house and senate chambers are almost alike. the house chamber being larger than the senate chamber. there is a large dicey at the front where the speaker of the house presides over the sessions. in thete ceo was adopted
district era. includes representation of the different industries and alaska, logging, fishing, mining, agriculture, and also the different populations, human resources, the indigenous population which is a very considerable population and alaska. i think it represents about 25% of the total population. the indigenous people are active in the legislature as well. we moved into the senate chambers. the senate has room for 20 senators. museum to be territorial on the second floor. the senate chambers originally were in the southeast corner of the second floor. moved theehood, they senate chambers because there was more senators and they were not all fit in this small senate chamber. they created a new room in the west wing of the second floor. it is decorated exactly the same
as the house chambers. it is just smaller. and only houses 20 senators as opposed to the house which has 40. it's piece of legislation that alaska has and was set up was the alaska permanent fund. discovered and when oil started to be produced from pluto bay, alaska had a real windfall in revenue. of the issues that was discussed was how we deal with , knowingux of cash that this is a resource that will run out or will be depleted. it permanent fund was set up to handle some of the revenue from the oil industry. the corpus cannot be spent without certain amount of approval from the constituents. the revenue that spun off of that is available for revenue. right now, i think there is something like $70 billion in
that fund. which a unique feature has a permanent fund dividend that every year, residents of the state would be given a dividend check, just like you are a stockholder, and it was based on the revenue produced by the corpus of the permanent fund. it very from a few hundred dollars up to a couple thousand dollars. consideredt is being -- some of that will be used for state operations because it was always set up as a "rainy day fund." revenue isl decreasing, the cost of state -- state government has not disgraced -- decreased significantly. one of the issues is to use some of the revenue from the permanent fund to help finance the state government. we have moved into the
governor's office. on the third floor, the southeast corner of the building. the governor's office has always been located in this portion of the building. however, it has been totally remodeled from the earlier days. during the recent reconstruction all of thelding, exterior walls were removed. from this building, you can see directly to the outside. everything has been restored. and restored to the way it was prior to the renovation. one of the interesting things is and during the district alaska being a territory, the governors were appointed by the president of the united states. prior to statehood, they were elected by the constituents in the state. alaska has been fortunate to have very distinguished governors. was the first governor of the state of alaska. he served two different terms. he was from valdez. he was instrumental in helping to draft of the state's
constitution and was very -- a very important governor. greaney was another important governor. alaska's current governor is governor bill walker. he will be seeking a second term this fall. the team of walker and biro democrat, a lieutenant governor, bill walker is an independent. to two of them were elected the first term a little while ago. they will be running again. this building is a good representation of alaska. i think first of all, it is very welcoming. very collegial atmosphere where legislators have an opportunity to meet routinely with members of the other body and with the executive branch. it is a very modest representation. i think that fits with alaska values. that they want to get the best for their buck. goodnk it is a
representation of the history of that era, the 1920's, 1930's. a good fit for alaska capital. announcer: the united states purchased alaska from russia in 1867 for two cents an acre. in 1950 eight, president dwight d. eisenhower d eisenhower signed the alaska statehood act allowing the former territory to become the 49th state. coming up, we visit the ted stevens foundation to learn about one of the longest-serving members of congress. >> mr. president, alaska was not seward's folly. an impoverished territory. alaska is a great state. toessential contributor security and national defense. i am proud to have had a road in this transformation -- a role in this transformation working to help alaska achieve its
potential, has been, and will continue to be my life's work. ted stevens was alaska's senior senator for over 40 years. senator stevens was involved in some of the seminal legislative initiatives that helped shape the state of alaska starting with alaska statehood. through the alaska native claims settlement act, the magnuson conservation and management act, the trans-alaska pipeline act and numerous others. the foundation was created in 2001 as a way to honor and recognize a senator's career in public service and to apply his legacy through outreach and education. the foundation is primarily working on archiving and curating the senator papers which show over four -- 40 years of his career in public service. our archivists are hard at work. senator stevens collection of over 48 touch had over 4800 boxes. it is one of the largest
collections. senator stevens was born november 18, 1923 in indiana. he was raised in the early years by his grandparents. in his later teenage years, moved to california and was raised by his aunt and uncle. california, he developed a love for surfing. his surfboard was figured prominently in his senate office throughout his career. after graduation, senator stevens attended college in oregon for a semester. his dream was to be a member of the armed services. wanted to be a pilot. when he went to take the eye exam, he failed. he always tells the story about how he went back, did research, it a bunch of eye exercises, took the exam, and passed. as a pilot in the army air corps, he flew support missions for the flying tigers in the china india burma theater. during world war ii. journey to alaska
took some twists and turns after his military service, he attended harvard law school on the g.i. bill. after graduating from law school, he moved to d.c. and began working at a law firm where he represented in alaska-based client. it was his first tied to alaska. shortly thereafter, the senator received a job offer to be a u.s. attorney in fairbanks and moved his young family to alaska and got the job. from there, he was appointed to serve as an assistant to secretary fred stevens at the department of interior in the eisenhower administration. once there, the big goal is to get a lesser statehood. one of the things i wanted to talk about today, you can see this letter that was signed by the special counsel to the president. this was the original pen used to sign the alaska statehood act. in this letter, it says dear, ted, i'm happy to send you one of the pens used by the were third, jenny
1959, in signing the particle nation which affected the omission of alaska to the union as the 49th state. this pen is sent to you and recognition of the important part you played in this historic achievement. issue statehood was an that helped define his career. he began -- became known as mr. alaska for his advocacy for alaska statehood. during that time, he gleaned -- he gained a diverse group in order to effectuate a change that they wanted to make. in this case, it was trying to convince members of congress, states that were part of the union, that alaska statehood was beneficial to the united states. in doing so, he brought together journalists and people from outside the normal realm to help sell that message to the american people into congress. serving in the alaska
state legislature as a representative, governor wally hickle appointed senator stevens to the u.s. senate seat upon the death of senator bob bartlett. at the time, he was appointed, was pressing in congress was soderling the aboriginal land claims of alaskan natives in the state. prior to that, oil had been discovered on the north slope. the question established under statehood of owned land in alaska had never been settled. the discovery of the oil was threatened because we could not access it. timeenator called his working on what became the alaska native claims settlement act, his trial by fire. it was another instance of how senator stevens used innovation and bipartisanship, which is a theme you can see throughout his career. he worked to bring together alaskan natives and others to
finally resolve these claims. senator stevens realized what a failure the reservation system in the lower 48 was. he wanted to create something where the natives had control of their destiny. both to preserve their cultural traditions, but also to have an economic base from which they could perpetuate those cultural traditions. one of the things that i wanted to show you today is that act herely passed in 1971, and is the note the senator received. dear, ted, the president asked i deliver the enclosed pen which was the pen used to sign the alaska native claims act. warmest best wishes for the holiday season. the act established 13 regional corporations, gave them 40 million acres of land, and almost $1 billion, from which it gave the alaskan natives control over their land and resources.
upon passage of the native claims settlement act, the senator then turned his attention on how we actually get the energy resources from the north slope of alaska to the rest of the united states. item on the legislative agenda was authorizing the trans-alaska pipeline. the actuale president richard nixon signing the act which established the trans-alaska pipeline system. there is an interesting story .ehind this senator stevens and senator gravelle introduced an amendment on the house which would block any kind of legal challenge to the pipeline system. vote.ere losing the senator stevens on the floor gave a very impassioned statement which actually changed the mind of a fellow senator, which led to a tie in the vote which vice president sphere agnew had to break the tie.
once the trans-alaska pipeline authorization act was passed, permitting and construction began on the pipeline. that pipeline system actually transformed the state of alaska. at the time, it was the largest privately financed energy project. and is still a marvel of innovation today. would allow foreign fishing only after it had been determined that american fishermen cannot harvest a maximum yield which will not deplete the species. even then, they would have to register, the foreigners would have to register to fish and would be closely monitored. on the high seas, they tour termination of economic dislocation would be made by those nations now fishing for species such as our salmon. issue that senator stevens tackled was the problem of overfishing in u.s. waters. in the 1970's, there were four in fleets that were fishing
right off the coast of alaska and decimating our fisheries population. at the time, senator stevens served on a committee with senator magnuson from the state of washington. warren magnuson was a democrat and a republican. senator magnuson saw something in senator stevens and they decided to work together to try to resolve the issues. they had gone on the international stage to try and create an international convention to deal with that. that was taken quite a long time. they developed an innovative aogram which then became magnuson-stevens conservation management act. here, we have the pen signing by president jerry ford, acknowledging the passage of the fishery conservation management act. it was later renamed the magnuson-stevens act. what it did is it extended u.s. jurisdiction to 200 miles off the coast of the united states.
that way we could regulate fisheries. it also created fisheries, management councils, which help manage the population to make sure that our fisheries remained healthy for future generations of americans. the senator was a lifelong advocate of healthy living. when he was in high school, he was actually a lifeguard in manhattan beach. that kind of physical activity translated later on in life. the senator's desire to ensure that everyone had access to the opportunities that sports provide lead him not only to be a cosponsor of title ix, but also be a lead sponsor on amateur sports act. the penan example of signed by president jimmy carter, which established the amateur sports act of 1978. what that did is it modernized the u.s. olympic committee and
gave both the olympic committee and athletes a financial basis for which to succeed and excel. sports actmateur passed, senator stevens recognized there was a need to ensure people of all abilities were able to participate in sports and have that support. he sponsored an amendment to that amateur sports act which included para lesbians and special olympians. as part of the u.s. olympics. here is a photo that we have in our archive of the special olympian of the year in 2000. senator stevens grew up with a cousin who experienced a disability. he carried that throughout his life. he wanted to make sure that people like his cousin had the opportunities to succeed like everyone else does. the archives are incredibly important because they tell a story of senator stevens approach to public service and how he solved issues. one of the things that senator
stevens was known for was his ability to reach across party lines to effectuate change. his most famous quote is "to hell with politics, do what is right for alaska and the nation." that is reflected here in the archives are we have pulled some representations of different letters. here is one when they were working on the alaska national interest conservation act which was designated wilderness areas, parks, and refuges in alaska. he was working with his counterpart, representative udall in the house. i will read the letter to you. a good man. you are iou an apology to not responding to your note a couple weeks ago. i meant to call. i wanted to sit down and work out a compromise. it got into a channel where i must work with soderling and go through the whole market process. i suspect we will be working it out in conference stage together
like banks that at all. let's keep in touch. mo." example of bipartisanship is senator stevens love to bring people to alaska. i think alaska is such a vast state. it is 2.5 times the size of texas. communities are only accessible by air or boat. because of that, they don't have running water. tothought it was important bring senators and representatives to alaska. here is a photo of senator stevens in 1969 of senator ted kennedy. they are in pilot station, alaska. given that it was 1969, there was no email, phone service was spotty as for telegrams. our photo archivist was able to track down the daughter of the postmaster who is in the photo and ask her the story behind this photograph. thedaughter related that at time, they had no idea that
someone was coming to pilot station. they saw two big military craft approaching. everyone in the town thought the soviets were attacking them. until the planes landed and obviously senator stevens and senator kennedy got off the planes. that is another thing we do. to try to track down the stories behind the photographs, to give them a more complete view of alaska's hitter -- history. is,ome is where the heart mr. president. if that is so, i have to homes. one is right here in this chamber. and the other is my beloved state of alaska. i must leave one to return to the other. theenator stevens left senate in january of 2009. we unfortunately lost him in a plane crash on august 9, 2010. the reaction at the time was disbelief. senator stevens had kind of been a larger-than-life figure.
he was the alaskan of the century. people referred to him as uncle ted, because he was so approachable from the smallest person with an issue with their social security to corporations and alaska. they could always speak to senator stevens directly about their issues. his loss was deeply felt throughout the state. looking around the state of alaska, you can see the tangible evidence of the things he worked on. there is a fisheries, oil and gas, there are hospitals, and clinics. there is aviation and the airports. but i think senator stevens lasting legacy is in the people whose lives he touched. one thing here at the foundation we are doing is we really see this people as legacy in action. they are continuing the work the senator began to improve not but theiriduals communities and the state in our
country. is in peopleegacy who are continuing the good work of the senator. announcer: anchorage, alaska, is the state's largest city. located in the south-central portion of the state, it is known as the air across roads of the world. with nearly 300 thousand residents, the city contains more than 40% of alaska's total population. up next, we continue our special look at alaska with a visit to the smithsonian are extremities -- study center to learn about the culture. i am a born-again native. being in an -- and alaskan sative for my generation, i
embracing your heritage by choice. our dancers are creating new dances and creating new songs. we are still carrying on the go-betweens. we can get people together. talk things out. in progress.rk if we lost it all before, we're starting to get it back more -- now. i think we can. i often tell visitors that if you went from the south end of the gallery to the north, you a 1000e embarking on mile hike across the cultural landscape of alaska. along the way, you would be meeting the people in all the different regions. and seeing many of their masterworks of art and design that have been created over the life in ther arctic. this is living our coulters, sharing our heritage, the first people of alaska. it is a very broad exploration
of culture, language, and art, of the 20 different alaska native cultures. there are over 600 works on display here in this gallery. i thought to what we would do is take a walk through and look at some highlighted items. i would really like to talk about aspects of indigenous knowledge. i think that is what the exhibition celebrates. we are in southeastern alaska. very southeastern part of the state in the cultural region. i wanted to talk a little bit about this shaman's radel. ttel is a wonderful piece of sculpture, one of my favorite pieces. you will see there are frogs that are carved into the face of the wind figure. they are emerging in the warm wind of spring. back is a story from way
about how the frogs mocked raven who was the creator, trickster spirit of ancient times. raven was angry and froze the frogs into the mud. this mask is about spring, are thence of the frogs frogs are helping spirits to the shaman. so, we can imagine that this rattle was probably used in a curing ceremony. it was invoking the frog spirits and the spirits of the spring wind. i wanted to look at this beautiful headdress. this is a ceremonial headdress. it is from the community down in the queen charlotte islands. erminea long train of furs, it has a carved front left, which is a small mask that would go above the forehead. on the top, there is a basket of
sea lion whiskers that would have been filled up with swan or eagle down. this is one for dancing. when the dancer with dance, she would shake her head and the feathers would float up and then come down around the celebrants like snow falling. headdress has a wonderful story. it is actually a portrait of a 12 euro girl named sue doddle -- old girl.ryear their house was the house of contentment located in their village. reflects her high rank, her royal rank within high society. people parts of alaska, inherit their clan membership from their mothers. it is maternal. passes down through the mother. they belong to her claim.
that plan will be among the will be among the larger groups of eagle or swan. if you are a raven, your opposite of a member of an eagle clan. thosetwo sides, intermarry with each other, they honor each other, they help each other out in times of crisis. they host ceremonies for the other side. there is as great exchange, this balance, this reciprocity. this piece is from the clink it --tlingit region. it is a woven tunic. style that refers to is a of art that is woven mountain goat hair and woven over strands of cedar park. the specific design style, which has these wonderful bold designs oft portray the emblems
particular claims. in this case, this abstract design represents the diving killer whale. anyone from that community, seeing this would be instantly aware of the persons clan affiliation. this is an emblem of that plan. to explain the design, this is a diving killer whale. the large eyes down at the bottom are the whale's eyes. it is diving. it's faces at the bottom. the body rises above. faces. two spirit these are particular separate the whale. one at the blowhole, and one that represents the body of the whale. and the tale of the whale has also -- also has eyes built into it. a tunic like this would be worn often at a potlatch ceremony.
-- the most important ones weren't memorials to people who had died. to ceremony would reflect the person's ancestry. the ravens or eagles would host the ceremonies for the other side. the culture ofom the lower yukon river. it portrays the wild man. also, some people collect the crybaby mask. philip arrow, was one of our advisors, elders who came to washington to look at uses in the collection, said the only thing it was missing was a dangling wooden carving that represented this not of -- of the snot see the circles around ours that look like goggles. they represent the spirit vision
of the world man these masks were part of hunting ceremonies at the end of the hunting season and in the wintertime when there would have the ceremonies one aspect of that was releasing carved sticks that represented souls, pressing them into the river and returning them to see. that represents the returning of the animals to the environment and next spring, they would come back. because they have been treated with respect by the people. we are looking at an eating bull and a ladle from southwest alaska in the yupic region. this is a personal eating bull but on the inside, is an emblem showing a caribou links to its inner spirit. represents the conception that animals have an inner life,
and animals and humans can transform, one into the other. next to that, is a ladle. the printing their shows the seals, the inner organs, the to knowwaters important is that the people would welcome a seal that they had killed, any animal that would've killed whether it was from the water or land. they would give it a drink of freshwater is a way of welcoming it. that animals that live in the --ty er german of sweetwater salty sea are dreaming of sweetwater. this is made from seal intestines, that bearded seals. intestines make wonderful reindeer.
in this case, the intestines have been cleaned, blown up, split and then sewn entities strips that you see. this beautiful color comes from hanging them out to freeze in the winter and it gives them this color. collar.een -- this is a ceremonial parka worn by people, when they are hale that has been killed, into the community. they would go down to the shore to give the whale a junk of water. a parka like this could easily last a lifetime, they were very flexible.d this one looks at rather drive because it has been in a museum for over 100 years, but if you sprayed it with water, i would its flexibility -- it would regain his flexibility.
they are light, flexible, waterproof garments that are warm.ly quite i think of them as a great example of indigenous technology and design using resources from the natural environment to create something that enables people to live in the arctic. the yupil is from k region. , theves you the white furs ranger chest, and the brown fire is from the legs, and it is fur around by wolf the hood. caribou and read your clothing is very warm, it keeps the terrible warm and if you make clothing from it, it is very warm. this is from a woman's parker,
it has a feminine style around the bottom, a beautiful piece of sewing, and it would most likely be worn at a winter ceremony displaying the skills of the seamstress or the woman who sowed it. there are many continuities in alaskan life from the past to ling,resent,, including wha and the people of seven northern lusk and communities go out, hunt whales from the ocean, often times in skin both that are covered in split walrus skins. books, the traditional would be this year he reeled it would go in the back, where the captain was also steering the boat would sit. you are looking at the bottom of the seat, this would be hidden bottom.
it was a ways that the hunters in the boat communicated their whale. to the you could call that a hunting charm or a sign of respect that the art conveyed. one of the elders told us that when the whales are down under the water, they are looking up at the skin boats above them -- the skin boats of the hunters. they would look to see, which boats are clean, which is our white, which runs have hunters wearing new clothing thus showing their respect? it would go up to the boat. they would take which hunters and wanted to give themselves to. i would like for visitors of this exhibition to come away with a sense of the great depth and breadth of indigenous knowledge. imagine if you are in an arctic or subarctic landscape and people have come up with -- created these things, this
the knowledge of the sea, using their technology, their spiritual oncology of the landscape, the animals, using all of that, they have created all the culture that you experience in this gallery. >> the 2018 summer solstice marked the 113th annual midnight sun game in fairbanks, alaska. the amateur baseball game held at the home of the gold banners starts around 10:30 p.m. and because the sun is out for nearly 24 hours, there was no need for additional lighting. up next, we continue our special look at alaska with a visit to the trans-alaska pipe line which runs past fairbanks. the trans-alaska pipeline
system i think, back in the 70's, was quite a bit of crude oil that was domestic. it was under the control of a out-of-state. it is an 800 mile pipeline, an engineering marvel that runs from pluto bay, the northernmost part of the state of alaska, down to the sea. ands subsequently loaded taken to the west coast for refining. the discovery was in the late 1960's, 1968. the discovery on the north slope was significant, it was a reservoir that was very large, on the north slope. the refining is on the west coast of the state of california and washington, so how do you get it to market? the whole economic of that development had to include a transportation piece. at the end of the day, the transportation authority pipeline and the marine segment,
was a deemed the best option. what's it was determined that transportation was best buy pipes, land ownership came up come landest by pipe up.rship issues came it actually went all the way to the course and congress under give up with the trans-alaskan pipeline act and resolved all those issues, to actually say yes, build. the real start of the construction and ernest was probably 1974 and it took three years. the people who made it possible for the trade groups within the state of alaska. think about the pipe welders, equipment operators, laborers, carpenters, people within the state of alaska, the alaskan native folks who live in this state, everybody came forward, because it was an immense effort and it included folks from down in the lower 48 as oil, who came
forward. they would come from places like oklahoma if they were a welder, -- fly intochorage anchorage, 2.5 hours north, look around them, and there was snow, andt tundra or they would work there for long shifts. everything in a 12 hour day was just go out there, work very, very hard. the camps -- where do you house people? they had to build camps, which held hundreds of people, so there was every job imaginable, from the cooks in the camps, to the folks who were cleaning, to .he operators on the roads two during the pipeline, the road passes through rolling tundra, but then there are three major passes, stream crossings
-- like 800. one of the major team crossings , is theream crossings yukon river. you have to build a bridge. so, these were all the engineering complex problems. there7, the first oil in was a lot of great excitement in the state of alaska and elsewhere, when it actually went into the system. in the heyday, which was in the late 1980's, there were 2 million barrels going through the system per day. today, we run about 500,000 barrels. one we went to the marine segment, we did have enough oil spill, of some significance. it was a very tragic and sad event, but in the industry, we always learn from those events. what we learned as a company was
that oil spill preparedness is almost equally as important as operating the pipeline. what does our future look like? you know, development on the north slope, the initial big find, it is probably in its mature days, but the exploration on the other northern sections of the state of alaska are still continuing. we see that operation of the pipeline will extend -- boy, who stage?t this but i can tell you that the people of alaska will do everything to make sure that it is good, for as long as there is oil in the north slope. alaska is located 40 miles southeast of fairbanks. here, the population of about 2000 people celebrate christmas year-round with the largest attraction being a house where santa claus lives. , we visit vlad air force base to learn about its role in world
war ii. probably had as much to do as any facility in the army with winning world war ii. not a single shot was ever fired from here. the village -- the military valley of alaska was noted when , an aviator of some fame will grow up to become the command of of the air force, came to alaska to put in a telephone line from chicken to valdez. that was the first noted u.s. military interest in alaska. ,s a result of that stationing billy mitchell later on in his career, testified in congress that the strategic value of alaska was an enormous. in fact, he said, and he is still quoted to this day,
whoever controls alaska, controls the world. because of its strategic location. a you look at the world on flat projection, it looks like the shortest distance from the west coast of california to japan, it is a straight line, but it is not. if you look at it on a globe, you will see that a straight line between say san francisco, and tokyo, actually comes very elusiano the illusio islands, which is where the japanese were interested in controlling them and world war ii. today, it still has the strategic value. forces stationed here can get to europe or the far east, at least a day faster than forces from any were also the world. armyruction of ladd theyeld began in 1939 when
arrived in fairbanks with 13 s the actually began building the first hanger to my 1939.n october of they powered the first 5000 feet of what is now an 8500 foot runway. the purpose of the original facility was to house a cold whoser test detachment, sole mission was to test airplanes in the quote environment of the subarctic in fairbanks, in order to learn how to operate them in the fold environment. we have all seen pictures of waist gunners in b-17s during world war ii, shooting out of both sides of the airplane through an open window. they were heavily dressed. what a lot of people don't know, is that the uniform was electrically heated. that heating system was developed right here at ladd
army airfield. it is an attractive place to do cold-weather testing because it gets cold here. we are sitting in seve 70 degree temperatures on the 21st of june, solstice, by the way. but six months from now, we would not be sitting here. there would be two feet of snow all over the installation. the daily temperature would be 10 or 20 degrees fahrenheit the to 50ro, but it does get and even sometimes 60 degrees underzero, and it i those temperatures, rubber stops being pliable and fluid steps being fluid. so it takes special materials and special operating procedures in order to work and an environment like this. the bombay of pearl harbor
actually began the u.s. participation in world war ii -- the bombing of pearl harbor actually began the participation of the u.s. and world war ii. september of 1943 to september of 1945, this was the transfer base from most 8000 airplanes -- from almost 8000 airplanes to the russian air force. russian pilots took the airplanes from here to the russian east front. airplanes --and 29 7929 airplanes. they were flown to the eastern front the russian pilots and and detachment of russian soldiers behind me who did everything they could to prepare those planes for shipment to the eastern front. primarily, they took off the u.s. insignia and painted the
it would stop, so being an american airplane, and become a russian airplane. the people who brought the airplanes here were all part of air transport command. when they got here, they got on a transport plane and were taken right back to montana to pick up more airplanes. because, at 250-300 airplanes per month, they had to keep the flow going. so when they got here, they were turned over to the russians. the russian servicemen with cold oil and hydraulic fluids tested them to make sure that they were air-worthy and then they left. ii, aat helped world war most a thousand airplanes were used by the russians to put eastern air pressure on the nazi forces and relieve some of the pressure of the u.s. and its allies approaching from the west. the program was called --.
there were a lot of millions and millions of tons of rolling stock and other kinds of materials, as well as airplanes given by the u.s. to its allies in europe, and its allies in russia. i personally think it was a misnomer. none of that equipment ever came back, and nobody ever paid as for it. the value of that equipment would be, even in $1940, billions and billions. the outcome was victory in world war ii. during the 50's, when the cold war heated up, the air force went on alert with b-52 and be airplanes --6 36 airplanes, and
on alert. in january of 1961, the air force left ladd and went to the 26 mile whether alternate base, ileson, extended the runway to 15,000 feet and started sitting on nuclear alert. in this interview, i never refer to the russians as our friends. they were our allies. . 1945it is ironic that in and lessans left here, than five years later, we were sitting on nuclear alert against our primary soviet threat. 1961, led armyf ladd army airfield became wainwright army airfield and it remained that way from
1961 to september 2006. in 2006, the airfield for manager hired me and the first jeff ps to do, was to get the d armyase renamed "lad airfield." this was the only army garrison in the army where the airfield had the same name as the garrison. number two, there was already an erro wainwright airfield in alaska, almost to the arctic ocean, and there was confusion by aviators about which wainwright airfield to land on. another reason was that the people of fairbanks never stops calling it ladd field. >> denali national park is a 6
million acre preserve located in interior alaska also known as mount mckinley, which has 20,310 feet, north america's highest peak. up next, we continue our special look at alaska with a visit to the anchorage museum to learn about an information only found in the arctic. formation only found in the arctic. >> this is an installation by a seattle-based artist called "murmur." it is a representation of the a formation of frozen ice which creates these mounds along the tundra which rise up and can be as much as 150 feet tall, and sometimes as far as a mile wide. they are found throughout the
arctic whether it be siberia or the alaskan and canadian arctic. there are well over 3000 of them, that are documented. some of them are quite small and some of them quite large, and they are always in the process of building up or eventually deflating and puck marking the marking- tal pork the ground. they're usually the remnants of a shallow lake and then as the water starts to freeze and bubble up, it starts to expand as ice expands, which creates an ice core center and a further mount on top of it. on top of it.nd as i said, it starts with a shallow lake and the water seeps into the ground and starts to freeze part of the permafrost. so, these occur on permafrost which is where year-round
subterranean ice exists. grow,row and precipitation and other factors continue to add water to them as it gets to the ground water, which eventually becomes part of the permafrost. the region and point whether there is no land to cover the top, and they split open and you can see into the ice core of them. or because they are in a space of changing climate, whether it be the end of an ice age or a modern reason for climate changing, the ice then melts and the structural collapse. what happened -- the structure will collapse. we are seeing around the that permafrost is melting, due to climate.ing where it normally would not melt in the course of the summer, it is now starting to melt. there are new forms of pingos we
are seeing here that are actually not constructed of ice but from methane gas bubbles coming up, creating smaller versions that are similar, and eventually, if they gather enough gas, they will actually pop or explode. so it is a little bit tricky or dangerous. something we are seeing more and more of, and are learning more and more about. this installation is the work of grande, and artist out of washington. three years ago, he did a residency in the north end experienced his first pingo, becoming fascinated by them. he created this installation here which is essentially the o, modeledsmall ping specifically after one of them that he researched. it was built and his workshopwa and it usess repurposed in his-year low --
workshop. it uses repurposed alaskan cedar. coupled with that is an augmented reality peace, to give people an experience of what the terrain looks like in the area , the wetlands, the marshes, the mosquitoes. internationally can actually walk into it when wearing the virtual reality glasses and take a look into the core, pr into the center of it. and gives visitors the opportunity to really kind of get an idea of what the geological formation is like. here, we are using augmented reality, the indifferent from virtual reality in that you will see what is actually inside the room, and see things flare on top of it. so as you put in the goggles and look around, you see the pingo,
but then you see puddles, swarms of insects, some of the tundra,g flora of the this part of the world, there are no large trees, so you get to walk along in a different environment, which is inlaid and you can see the museum is part of it. that thatk contextualizes what the arctic is like, and what the tundra is like, for people who may not be able to get all the way up north. who want tos visit the arctic, it is exciting for us to be able to use an amazing technology like augmented reality to augment the experience. it is interesting for us. ingos are sort of a barometer of our climate change that we are experiencing here.
as the climate here in arctic which is warming at twice the range of climates around the world, if it continues to grow, pingo starting to see the s melting and collapsing at a rate that we have never seen before. for some people, it is a really what our changing climate is starting to look like. we have other climate issues here in alaska. we have more coastline and the rest of the u.s. put together, and we are starting to see coastal i erosion throughout much of alaska. many of the coastlines are made of fro permafrost itself. the polar bears coming on those lands are having to find more prominent rock formations to hunt from, and live on. the birds that use those islands for millennia for nesting, are having to find alternate locations. all the forces that are part of the suite of things you can
expect from a warming planet, you are starting to see how interconnected all of these elements are. so we like to use this as a part of the conversation so that people can start to understand ways globalanced warming is affecting the environment. locatedr: fairbanks is in alaska's interior and is two hours north of must mckinley with a population of nearly 33,000. it is the state second-most popular metropolitan area it is a military have with fort wainwright located within city limits. it is also known for its rich gold deposits which led to a gold rush at the turn of the 20th century. next, we continue our special look at alaska with a visit there to learn about the gold mining history and fairbanks. >> hunting for gold is very
simple. the very first bit of gravel grinding on the bottom, if it is not grinding, you are not finding gold. rinse and remove. it keeps the gold down. the rocks need to be picked off because the same amount of water that moves one of the bigger stones might just push your gold out. we do have a different twist right at the end, you will not see this trick on the outdoor up in then old timer circle district taught me this. concentrated on the same side, similar water, you simply roll the water around the base. each time it comes around, it picks up a little dirt. in a gold will be under the puddle of dirt. it is like divide and conquer. you are not through panning until all that is left in the pan is nice, clean, gold. >> there were gold rushes
throughout the u.s. before, the california gold rush, the yukon gold rush and then the alaska gold rush. as soon as word got out that the yellow rock was found in fairbanks, people were coming up to interior here to mine. >> we are a gold rich state, we have a tour operation here where we are basically entertaining people, guest who come up to our state, trying to share the history of gold-mining in the fairbanks district. back in the early 1900s, in 1906, felix hydro was up here -- was up here, approximate the a few miles from here. gold-mining put fairbanks on the map. when felix found the gold, it created fairbanks on the river. gold-mining is huge in this area still to this day. what we do here is we want to show the people how it used to be done, give them history, and right up to modern day, modern
as you can. to 1902, and italian prospector hit on gold 20 miles upstream. he had to walk 130 miles back to circle city, the nearest reporting district, to validate that claim. as soon as word of the news got out, that johnny-come-lately's in the circle district began to stampede into the family -- the fairbanks district. transportation corridors of the day, not only the easiest places to walk but also the gravel contained clues of glass or gold they were seeking. grub, youou had some pitched their tents, went down to the gravel and shovel up some of the gravel from the streambed into your gold pan. see if there is any money in it.
if it shows promise, you want to maybe have a bit of a production, you construct a food box. it is simple concentrating device that allows the prospector to take 100 or more shovels of gravel and reduce that to where he can work with one pan. enough gold was found by these crude method and more experienced men knew they had today deeper. the best gold is where the gravel meets the bedrock. here they were in for a big surprise. in fairbanks there is 80 to over 100 feet of permafrost. not only is it permanently frozen year around, that shifted the operation to the wintertime and a bigger crew of men. you can see we brought in a steam boiler. we got a crew of 10, 12 ties working. this is called a drift operation. the explanation of a drift, we
will turn over to george. >> ok, so felix pedro and the other men that came in would stake a 20 acre claim on a greek, register and record that, then set up their equipment. behind me is what a typical goldmine would have looked like between 1907 and 1915. they would pick what they hoped was going to be a lucky spot on the 20 acre piece of ground and would dig an eight by eight foot shaft straight down. they would dig down through the frozen overburden, the top layer of material, down through the frozen gravel and all the way to bedrock, 300 feet straight down. if they were lucky, and the hit gold at the bottom of the shaft, they would then start to excavate a side tunnel off that shaft that was called it drift. for that reason these mines were called drift mines and the men that worked them were called drifters.
when they had the shaft open, they would send lines down from the boiler attached to steam points. men working underground called the point men would hammer those points into the frozen face of the drift and use steam from the boiler to thaw out the gold bearing gravel. they would excavate with picks and shovels and philip wheelbarrows. $5 plusds per load, board, those men moved that gold bearing gravel from the face of the drift right across bedrest -- bedrock and to the shaft. they filled the bucket. when it was up, they would signal the engineer on the surface. the engineer would engage the winch. he would lift the bucket out of the shaft. the bucket would travel up the , andmight you see it here it would drop its contents into a pile of material like this
called paydirt. goldrt is the pastry of excavated from bedrock. it is gold mixed with sand and gravel. these piles of paydirt followed winter dumps because in the mining district all excavation work was done underground in the wintertime. they excavated all winter, holding up his dumps on the surface. onbuilding up these dumps the surface. they were looking for plaster gold. they would divert water from the creeks into the sluices, and they would spend all summer long when the water was running in the creek shoveling paydirt by hand into the sluice to catch a flash of gold. mining, 10 or 12 guys together. the next step was to find a hobbyist. -- owners of these mines they were labor-intensive, they
were ready to sell by 1920. a couple boys in fairbanks had seen this happen before. they formed their own company called fairbanks exploration. they began to consolidate this place. i got the east coast investors involved. the timing was everything. in mid july 1923 with president drive thee came to golden spike in the alaska railroad, the company was in business. they enacted the open water port of seward to the tiny town of fairbanks. use --company began to move immediately. the all-terrain heavy-duty keystone trails with the ability to deliver a profile, cross-section of the permafrost, frozen soil down through the gravel, determining the dollar value of the gold at bedrock. then the mining engineers used
these drill logs to determine the best methods of mining. the overburden of permafrost was used the hydraulic method. the gravel will be brought through heavy dredges, already at work successfully in nome. both of these require lots of water, so they hired the engineers to solve the problem in nome. his name was davidson. he built what is known as the davidson ditch, and all natural flow waterway, 90 miles long, start northeast of year where rivers meet, bringing 180,000 gallons of water to the fairbanks district every summer day up until 1967. that water arrived at elevation. as we come through the clearing pass of power lines, we can see
a knob of white, about 150 feet down was the determinant of the davidson ditch. pipe that brought down water to the valley floor. almost 400 feet above the valley floor. the floor is quite higher. you look out to the right, past that gravel pile to the near , that third row of trees, their roots are in the original valley floor. we come to way. , you can see for yourself before the mining began in the overy there was 80, 90, 100 feet of permafrost. george is going to explain how that permafrost was taken care of. --rge: once the fair blanks fairbanks expiration company had that power plant and water supply, they could begin ground
preparation work. ground preparation was a two-step process that went along with the layers and material present in the ground. the top layer, the overburden, was frozen silt and mud. no gold, so all the overburden had to be removed. they removed overburden with water cannons called hydraulic giants. sb company was taking water off the davidson ditch into a holding pond. they were pumping water through pipes and forcing it out the giant at high pressure. workers called pipers would hold onto the giant they were operating, point it straight ahead and use that high-pressure over.to wash away the layer by layer they would blast away into the creeks and let the creeks carry the overburden away. fb company pipers, working these giants, stripped 34,000 acres of ground right down to the bare
gravel i am standing on. if i were standing on this spot next to engineer creek before the fb company stripped this ground, i would have been standing 100 feet straight up in the air. that is where the engineer creek in a julie -- creek originally grand. it was created by washing away the overburden. exposed,gravels were they were still frozen and needed to be thought out -- needed to be thawed out. they use cold water points like this. this is a cold water thaw fuel set up. the point are three-quarter inch piping, 10 foot sections, easily strewn together as they were driven down. your starting point like this, a beveled edge and a little hole in it for water grabbing. the company set of points up on a base, hold it in the ground and adjustable driving clamp at
waist height and a 24 pound sliding hammer. workers called point drivers would pick up the hammer and drop it on the clamp and take it up and drop it. pick it up. 12 hours a day, rain or shine, mosquitoes or not. they were paid 33.5 cents an hour in the late 20's and 30's. at the same time the point drivers were doing the hard labor, sb company was taking company was taking water off the ditch. when the water came off the point and hit the frozen ground, it would bounce back, percolate to the service and thaw an eight foot cylinder around each point. they set these points up in equilateral triangles that were spaced so the cylinders of ground would meet. they would have a thawed piece of ground from surface to bedrock. an extreme amount of work
involved in ground preparation, took an average of seven years to go from an untouched piece of ground to a ground that was stripped of overburden, thought to ready -- thawed and ready be dredged. 200 days was the target for each dredge every year. strippedt was how they the ground. now we are going to roll up the dredge itself. the most important thing about all the dredges, the power plant. all the dredges fb company brought in were electrically powered so they built one power plant, downtown fairbanks, coal powered, ran the distribution lines to each of the dredge camps. a substation would break out the power for the camps and another line that would run out to the always floating dredges. all the buildings you will see today in the dredging complex were originallyfb company buildings.
none of them were in front of the dredge. land in front of the dredge was barely had, cleared, stripped and thawed, ready for mining. i will turn now over to a well-respected man who did his thesis on this monster gold. george: so i am now standing on the main deck of the gold dredge number eight. this is one of eight owned and operated by the fairbanks 8xploration company between 194 and 1964. this machine in operation until 1959 when she stopped on this pond. she has been here since the last day of week -- work. they had a starting point based on their test drilling. at that point the excavated a big pit all the way down to bedrock. when it was completely assembled, they opened the gates , filled a hole with water, the
dredge floated to the surface, they log into the power supply in fairbanks and august 20, 1928, this machine was ready. the gold ridge is really a simple machine that did three things. it chewed up gold bearing gravel, swallowed gold, and it spit out rock. step one, chewing up gravel, that was done by the bucket line here beside us. the frame down here is the latter. -- the ladder. this machine could cut 35 feet low water level to reach bedrock. around that letter in operation was a continuous chain of 64, six cubic foot buckets. continuousn, that chain was like a big chainsaw blade cutting in reverse. the chain of buckets would move around that digging ladder, each individual bucket would come up
from underneath, dig into the pond. get a load of load bearing gravel, carry that of the latter, drop it into the hopper on the third deck, and the bucket would come down to get another. number eight could move 22 ,uckets per minute at top speed 17,000 cubic yards of gold bearing gravel in 24 hours. all of that elevated, dropped in the hopper, and the hopper said down into the trouble screen. ae trouble -- tramel has large diameter, certified, slopes down to the back of the dredge. it is perforated with holes along the entire leg, a quarter inch diameter at the top, bigger as you go back to 5/8 of an inch. they are banging that around, adding water out of the pond at high pressure at 9000 gallons per minute. you take the gold bearing
gravel, add water and shake it up in the screen. the gold would separate, sink, fall down and onto the sluice boxes on the middle deck. anything bigger than the biggest hole in the trouble -- the tramel screen would hit a conveyor belt, elevated up behind the machine inside the stacker and it would be spit out behind into big ponds. the last tailing is left new the train tracks. anything smaller than the holes on a tremble would fall through onto the sluices. there are 16 sluice boxes on this dredge, eight on each side. they start high and sloped down to the outside wall. those fall into four long lateral sluices that go downhill and hook up into the table sluices and back down into the pond. those are the three steps in
gold dredging, big bucket line: chewing up gravel, travel screen, and the big stacker in the back spitting out rocks. 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 26 years of operation for dredge number eight. it had to be shut down every 10 to 15 days to pull a cleanup. that meant recovering gold from the dredge. a special crew would get into the dredge, go into the second deck, disassemble the sluices completely and gather the material they had built up in those sluices over two weeks. those are called the concentrates. they would scoop up the concentrates, load them into lockboxes like this one. when the box was full, they would close the lid, latch it, put a lock on it. to move this men to the truck waiting outside. all these boxes of concentrate
traveled to the gold room at the company. when the material got to the gold room, the guys working in there would open the door of the furnace and pack the concentrate inside. they would feel the door and apply heat up to 2300 degrees ehrenreich. that was hot enough to burn off in purity's and melt the gold down into liquid form. when the gold was molten, they would open the door, tip it forward and pour the liquid gold into brick mold like this. brick, 58 pounds. when the brakes were cooled, they would put it on the table and do cleanup. almost unbelievably to us today, the fb company would take each individual 58 pound brick of alaskan gold, rapid in brown paper, put a stamp on it and mail it to the mint in san francisco.
>> thanks, george, for a wonderful explanation. i want to point out in the spring to get an early jump on the season, they had their own ice saw. it cut the pond ice into big chunks, haul it out, send another crew up on the davidson ditch, dynamite the waterway to bring the spring melt into get an early jump on the season. extending the mining season, a , toal season from 100 days well over 200 days, the company became the principal employer in the fairbanks district. by doing this, for over 40 years, the dredge company established a reputation. they were shut down briefly for world war ii because of shortages. they came back after the war with every intention of picking up where they left off. the company was facing significant challenges. a lot of the more experienced
workers for one reason or another did not come back from the war. goods and services had caught up in price. 1958, eight shut down in at the pond where you see her. -- 1964.of the dredges >> fairbanks expiration company, there were eight of them in the area. number eight happens to be the one we have behind me. it collected thousands of thousands of pounds of gold and that ran from 1928 to 1959 and stopped behind me when it dug its last bucket in 1959. gold-mining has been revitalized. there is hard rock mining. we have four knox gold mine, whose life has been extended 10 years. there is hope minding -- pob