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tv   Lectures in History African Americans During Reconstruction  CSPAN  August 21, 2018 7:23pm-7:47pm EDT

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andrew jackson with arizona state university professor jonathan barth leading the conversation and answer any questions. watch lectures in history tonight at 9 pm eastern on c- span three -- c-span 3. tomorrow we focus on reconstruction after the civil war and one of the lectures and history is professor abigail put -- cooper. she talked about the reconstruction era and how they had to deal with stereotypes. >> charles hickok jones was a famous minister. he actually became a reason to continue slavery and make it a positive good because they would return enslaved people into christians and turn them
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into better christians. while he died and his wife watches their slaves one by one walk away from what is supposed to be the perfect christian paternal master. and she is heartbroken and better she says this there was providence in reference to the african race. they are truly wonderful. the skirt falls upon them with particular weight with their emancipation must come there extermination. all history from the first existence proves them incapable of self-government. they parish when brought into conflict with the intellectual superiority. it proves that in a state of slavery such as
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exists in the southern states the negro race increased and driven most. she thinks they will die out in the emancipation. only in slavery. in the christian slavery model she was supporting to continue and get better. we are working on it. that was the way that enslaved people and african descendent people were going to see intimidation in america. it turns out that her prophecy doesn't come true and there are networks of resilience and those networks even though they don't fix the perfect model they still show us what was possible. >> see the entire lecture by abigail cooper tomorrow night
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at 8:00 eastern here as we feature american history tv lectures in history. >> sunday night jeffrey rosen talks about his biography of william howard taft. >> he never learned politics. he told his aide to serve both roosevelt and taft. i will not play a part for popularity. if the people want to reject me that is their prerogative. he has this view has heroes are james madison and john marshall who he considers the greatest american ever. madison and hamilton believe that majority should role but only slowly and thoughtfully overtime. the reason rather than passion could prevail.
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taft believes that the entire system is set up to slow the direct expression of popular passion so that the people can be governed through the public interest rather than factions. >> the andrew jackson foundation president and ceo walked us through the andrew jackson exhibit. over the next 20 minutes he tells the story of president jackson's upbringing as a relative orphan to his rise to national fame after his rise and win against the british in new orleans. >> we are in the museum center. we are about to tour our exhibit about the life of andrew jackson colborne for a
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storm. it is the largest and most extensive exhibit we have done on his life and or 127 years as a museum. the title of the exhibit comes from a jackson quote. the full quote was i was born for a storm and a calm does not suit me which could not better encapsulate the life of him. we have entered into the exhibit and i am standing here next to the model of two log buildings here for a very specific purpose. the smaller of the buildings is reminiscent of the kind of house he may have been born in in south carolina in 1767. what is interesting about this is that the larger building next to it that has opened up to see the inside are two buildings that are here. the larger building is the one
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the andrea and rachel lived in for the first 17 years that they owned the hermitage. it was built in 1797. the smaller building they built after they moved here in 1804. half of it was the kitchen for the longhouse. the other half was a slave quarter where the cook lived. over here the large panel laid out jackson's early life. he was the first president who was the son of immigrants. his parents came to north america from northern ireland in 1765. he was born here in 1767. his father died just a couple of weeks before he was born. he never knew his father but was raised with his mother and two brothers and and aunts and uncles home and in many ways treated something like a servant. that contributed to his
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somewhat obstreperous nature. he was born on the frontier. the first president not from one of the virginia aristocratic families or for massachusetts. he was largely self-taught and his ability to communicate and to express his ideas grew over the course of his life. he was a very forceful writer and very direct not unlike his speaking voice as we were told. he was still not necessarily eloquent but a very forceful and writer with greater clarity. the two panels that you see here were talking about the origins of the war of 1812 and the war gave him the opportunity to put himself onto the national stage. before 1812 he had achieved a level of providence in tennessee. he actually helped to write the first state constitution and was the first congressman from tennessee.
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it was the war of 1812 that was really a springboard for him to national recognition. the war of 1812 was perhaps not the best conceived war in the nation's history and as the panel here very graphically shows it was sort of a grudge match between great britain and the united states. the panel you see here is from a political cartoon at the time. president monroe is punching out king george of england and king george has a black guy -- has a black eye and the bloody knows. it illustrates the intentions of the work. the purpose of this panel is to help remind americans today that new orleans was a vitally important city to the growing america. as the united states was
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developing, the allegheny mountains run kind of parallel to the east coast here. all of the people moving into the area between the allegheny mountains and the mississippi river new orleans became the exit point for all of the goods they produce. new orleans was the point of exit and entry. it was at great importance to the economic growth of the country. as thomas jefferson -- i am paraphrasing. whoever owns new orleans is not our enemy. america's interest and focus as well as british focus was on new orleans and waiting to see what was going to happen as the british were sailing across the gulf of mexico's new orleans. jackson was moving his trips to
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new orleans and assembling a ragtag army of american regulars volunteer militiamen from tennessee and kentucky, creoles and native nor linnean's were not sure which country they had an allegiance to yet. freed black men and slaves and pirates. on the early morning of january 8 the battle finally takes place. through some miscommunications by the british they are put into a very vulnerable position of having to attack fortifications in a battle that left -- lasted from 45 to 50 minutes. jackson's troops had a stunning victory. he had almost 5400 men altogether. the british had almost 8500 men at the battle.
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jackson ended up with a total number of casualties of 71 men. 13 of them have died. the british casualties were in excess of 2000. the disparity in casualties stunned the nation. it reaffirmed america's belief that this country existed because of the hand of divine providence yet again reaching and and ensuring that the country would survive and also gave the europeans a newfound respect for this what they had up to than considered kind of a fly- by-night experiment in self- government. when we designed the exhibit we wanted to give young people in particular a sense of just how popular jackson was. we use the term rock star because there was no other word we can come up with. that better characterized him
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in the modern mind. as soon as the war was over he was given a tremendous number of honors. metals are struck in his honor, people want pieces of his hair. he is given a number of ceremonial swords that would be the highest type of recognition a military man at the time could receive. you can see here one of the ceremonial stories -- swords. there were pamphlets and songs and poems written about jackson in the battle of new orleans. we are looking at a panel that picks the first presidential campaign which was in 1824. there were four principal candidates in the campaign. andrew jackson, john quincy adams, william crawford, and henry clay. i would say it is fair to say that they hated each other.
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through the remainder of each other's lives. in the election jackson won the most number of popular vote. about 48% but he did not when the majority of votes. the remainder of them were divided between john quincy adams who was number two and henry clay was number three and crawford as number four. there was not a majority opinion from the electoral college. the decision went to the house of representatives they did some horse trading. it was called the corrupt bargain. clay supposedly approached and said i will give you my vote if you promise to make me secretary of state and you get elected president.
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he felt that the will of the people the people's will have been circumvented by the aristocratic interests of washington. between jackson's loss in the 1824 campaign and the next campaign in 1828 jackson and his supporters determined that he was not going to lose a second time. he spent four years building friendships and support from the state legislatures and from the average citizens across the country. by 1828 jackson was prepared to go to combat with
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john quincy adams for the presidency. this part of the exhibit is called the political circus and its intention is to give people a sense of the cacophony of voices and opinions and perspectives that were going on in 1828. what you hear in the background are songs that were written about jackson. things that were said in the press and spoken about him both pro and con and about john quincy adams pro and con. and help people understand that these elections were not reserved and quiet. they were as raucous as in the 21st century. there was concern about jackson being an outsider having been a military achievement he had several of his military men
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shot for what he considered treason. he had a complicated background as well as not being a political insider from the east coast. by the same token the average american saw this man as somebody who was fulfilling america's promise. he came from a very humble background and had made himself quite wealthy through determination and will through perseverance and through his faith. in the election of 1828 he has a landslide victory. however the casualty of his victory is his wife, rachel. she marries jackson and he discovered that her first husband. that beginning
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affected the rest of their lives. during the campaign jackson understood that it would become an issue. she stayed at the hermitage for a great deal of the campaign knowing a little bit of what was going on. there were pamphlets written about her and newspaper articles written about her. she was the topic of conversation when women of social status were not talked about the same way and her reputation was questioned and how could you elect a man married to this woman. the result was that jackson won. about two weeks after he was declared the victor rachel suffered either a stroke or a heart attack and died five days later. what you see here in the display case is avail that was being made for her by a group
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of her friends that were put in a wardrobe together for her to take to washington and coaching her. technically she was never first lady. one of the things i am particularly proud about is that we pride ourselves on telling the whole story. there is nothing that we shy away from. we have a policy that says we embrace controversies. jackson have nothing but controversies if you will. the one that i think most people are aware of is jackson and native american removal. the relationship between native americans and european
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americans had always been a touchy one starting from the founding of the country. jackson ended up being the guy who pushed native american removal as part of his program as president. the majority of the country and congress approved indian removal. there were very strong voices against it especially coming from new england and new york but the majority of american saw this as a positive thing at the time to open up more land for cotton growth in particular but for white european settlements. one of the other well-known topics of his presidency is today called the bank war. the bank was created to hold federal funds that have been collected through taxes. it also was the major source of
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credit. the country at that time often business operated on credit. jackson believed and there is strong evidence to support that the bank was using its influence to purchase votes in congress. jackson's homeless as a corporation aska -- jackson saw this as a corporation disadvantaging the average citizen and that government was complicit in prejudicing the average citizen against the wealthy and well-connected. the bank war came a clash of wills between andrew jackson and nicholas biddle who was president of the bank. a highly intelligent man that had great power and influence. these men were unwilling to back down. the medusa heads here is jackson basically battling the bank and the many heads of the
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board of trustees at the bank. jackson, through the course of a second administration basically destroyed the bank. today he is often criticized about his attitude toward paper currency. what we don't remember today is that in his time the federal government didn't issue paper currency. paper currency was issued by banks or in some case state senate did not have the backing of the federal government and oftentimes had little value. his attitude about paper currency was really from his experience of having lost money but the fact that he believed gold coin or silver coin represented value.
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what you see to my left is jackson's carriage. he purchased this for himself when he was president. this is what he used to right around washington, d.c.. at the end of his presidency he had it shipped back here and used it here at the hermitage and going to and from nashville. there is nothing that we have in our collection apart from the mansion he had achieved this orphan from south carolina to having a carriage of this type in the last years of his life. after the presidency he was one of the most popular men in the united states. probably two thirds of the country adored him and one third hated him. nobody was ever ambivalent about jackson. he maintained that level of popularity. he was seen as the next george washington. we contend that he should not be forgotten because he played a major role in inspiring the
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common man and keeping the government held together and help in the country see the possibility of everybody having a voice in this democratic government. tonight we have coverage as arizona state university professor talks about andrew jackson's presidency. he will also answer viewer questions. the life call in program begins at nine eastern here on c-span 3. tomorrow we will focus on reconstruction after the civil war. one of the lectures is abigail to -- cooper. she talked about african- americans during the reconstruction era and how they had to deal with stereotypes. this is from her lecture. >>

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