tv Presidential Legacies CSPAN September 17, 2018 1:05am-1:49am EDT
. good afternoon. good afternoon. my name is bob mcgee. i serve on the board of directors of the white house's historical association. as you continue to enjoy your lunch, i want to introduce our program for today. you may have heard that we were planning on having the, our wonderful friend of the white house historical association, the renowned white house historian, dr. william seal with us for this lunch session, but he has been unable to join us. we, however, have a terrific plan "b" for you. and that is a conversation with anita mcbride, mark uptogrove and stewart mcclairin on presidential legacies and commemorations. and i know that if time allows, anita and mark and stewart will
take questions at the end. so now to our panel. anita mcbride's career relating to the white house and the president spans more than 30 years as a white house adviser, chief of staff, and diplomatic adviser. currently, she is executive in residence at the center for congressional and presidential studies and in the school of public affairs where she directs programming on the first ladies and their historical flubs on politic -- influence on politics, policy, and global diplomacy. anita served as an assistant to president george w. bush as well as chief of staff to first lady laura bush. she directed the first lady's travel to 67 countries in four years, to support foreign policy objectives in human rights, women's empowerment, global
health, and education. she's a member of the u.s. afghan women's council, the international republican institute's women's diplomacy network, the national italian american foundation, and most importantly, a board member of the white house historical association and chair of the committee that organized the presidential site's summit. mark is a president and ceo of the lbj foundation in austin, texas. until recently, he served as the director of the lyndon johnson library and museum for eight years. he has authored four books on presidential history, including his newest book, "the last republicans: inside the extraordinary relationship between george h.w. bush and george w. bush." mark is a commentator for abc
news, good morning america, and "this week." and finally, our third panelist is stewart mclaurin. his 30-plus career in washington has been in senior roles at georgetown university, the american red cross, and the motion picture association. he also worked with the ronald reagan presidential foundation to conceptualize, plan, and execute the ronald reagan centennial celebration in 2011. please join in welcoming me -- please join me in welcoming today's panel, anita mcbride, mark updegrove, and stewart mclaurin. [ applause ] >> thank you, bob, very much. and i would also lake to recognize gael west on our board
of directors and teresa barrett, the wife of our other board member, john barrett, who couldn't be with us today. wonderful board members and anita is on our board. and these men and women give extraordinary leadership, guidance, and governance to our organization. it was founded by mrs. kennedy in 1961 as a nonprofit, non-partisan partner to the white house, and we're honored to be the convener of this presidential site summit this week. well, today we're going to talk a little bit about presidential legacy and commemoration. and let's start by diving into lbj. mark, your leadership with the lbj foundation. monday would have been the 110th birthday of president johnson. and so there was a commemoration of sorts, or at least a noting of that occasion. and johnson was larger than life as president. larger than life post-presidency, and what would he think of his legacy as we see him today? >> well, first of all, stewart, to you and anita, congratulations on this conference. [ applause ]
i know how much work they have put into this, and it has clearly paid off. because it's been a rousing success. so congratulations to both of you. >> thanks. >> and thanks to all of you for what you do. i mentioned it yesterday to the group that convened around lunch, but, i'm not only an historian, i'm a patron of your establishments. and i appreciate so much, not only what you do, but the passion that you put into what you do. so, so thanks so much for preserving and perpetuating the history of this great country. stewart, to answer your question, i told a story yesterday that i'll repeat, but lbj, when he was a senator, was campaigning for re-election and he convened his speechwriters around a stump speech that he wanted to take around the state. and they brought him a speech, a draft, and he starts reading it
and he comes upon a passage from plato. and he says, plato? plato? let me get this straight. i'm going back home to texas to talk to just plain folks and you have me quoting plato? he said, keep the quote, but start it with, "my daddy always used to say." [ laughter ] i mention it because my daddy said certain things about lyndon johnson, and what he said contemporaneously when lyndon johnson was president is very different from what we're saying today. presidential legacies evolve. and i think it takes us at least a generation, and even more than two in some cases, to get a clear perspective on how basically a president will be remembered in perpetuity. for lyndon johnson, it took much longer, because vietnam so divided this nation. and it took at least two
generations for passions to recede around vietnam. but when they did, and we got clearer perspective, one that dark cloud of vietnam dissipated, we saw what lyndon johnson did prodigiously in the legislative arena. and in particular, what he did in civil rights. and there is no president, save, perhaps, abraham lincoln, who's done as much in the cause of civil rights, which in so many ways defines us as a nation, as lyndon johnson. and finally, he's getting due credit for those accomplishments. so i think in answer to your question, stewart, he'd be pleased. >> well, we can't talk about presidents without talking about first ladies. and anita, you've done a terrific job in your role at american university, focusing on the role of first ladies. and you, yourself, were chief of staff to one of america's favorite, laura bush. let's talk about mrs. johnson, as we keep the johnson thing going here. and mrs. johnson took over being first lady very suddenly, in the passing of a president kennedy.
and mrs. kennedy had done so much in our space, historic preservation of the white house, but mrs. johnson continued that in her own way. these are 45 men and women who have been very unique in their presidents and in their personalities, and also in their legacies, as we see evidenced in these wonderful presidential sites, but tell us about mrs. johnson and her role as first lady and that transition, in a very painful way, and what she did in the white house in our space. >> well, first, i think -- so let me put my microphone on. that would help. thank you, stewart, for that question. and first, i want to acknowledge that a couple of really terrific first lady historians are in the audience with us, too. katie sibley from st. joseph's university. and then nancy smith is in the back of the room, who did oral histories with ladybird johnson and got to know her quite well and has been at the archives for many, many years.
i'm always struck by -- and i happen to live in the neighborhood in washington, d.c., where just around the corner from where the johnsons lived, at the elms, where he lived as vice president and then they lived for even several weeks, if not almost a month after he had become president, and she had become first lady after that, the tramg of the assassination. so i'm always sort of walking by that house and feel the presence of the johnsons still sort of looms in the spring valley neighborhood of washington, d.c. but i'm really struck by the, quote, from mrs. johnson herself about how she felt about becoming first lady after the assassination of john f. kennedy. and how people look at the living and they wish for the dead. you just can't imagine, really, the personal pain, of course, that that exhibited, that the
whole country was feeling, this grief. and now, here were the johnsons front and center. to take over leadership of the country, such a traumatic time and feeling that awesome burden of responsibility and challenge to help comfort the nation, and to help mrs. kennedy through it all, which of course they were incredibly gracious as you know, and told her, she can stay in the white house for as long as she needs to get her children packed up and moved out and to move on with her life. but mrs. johnson, for -- again, having a front row seat of working with laura bush for so many years, and she would say very honestly, in addition to her mother-in-law, of course, ladybird johnson was her favorite first lady. and she learned so much from watching her and being a texas
woman herself, and sort of the graciousness of mrs. kennedy, how she -- -- also, mrs. kennedy, of course, but mrs. johnson, how she presided over the white house and mrs. bush, who loves the outdoors and loves flowers and plants and natural landscape and the national parks, always looked to mrs. johnson as an example of, you know, someone who so appreciated our natural beauty. and mrs. bush would say, would look at mrs. johnson and say, oh, she loved flowers. but really what she was was our nation's first conservationist first lady. so i think that her presence and one of the personal recollections i have of mrs. johnson, which is seared in my memory for the rest of my life is linda johnson rob, who we all heard from last night, of course, on the descendants panel, but linda had called me
when i was chief of staff to mrs. bush and said, i'm bringing my mother back to washington for what i know will be her last time. to see some of her friends, of course, she had a stroke, she wasn't speaking, she was in a wheelchair, but she was still very vibrant. and she said, do you think we can come to the white house? so i knew instinctively, laura bush's reaction would be, of course. and i never answer for anything on mrs. bush's schedule wouitho talking to her first. but i knew the answer would be yes. i said, i'll call you back, you know, dates and times that could work. and mrs. bush was so thrilled to have mrs. johnson come to the white house that she is now the sitting first lady can take the former first lady through the white house. and so mrs. bush had made sure that any of the resident's staff that were still working in the white house that had been there in the johnson time were there
to greet mrs. johnson at the diplomatic reception room door when she stepped in. and in addition, one of the butlers that had worked for the johnsons, mr. german, was now a part-time elevator operator, operated the president's elevator in the white house, just a few days a week, mrs. bush made sure that he was there and that he was the one that greeted mrs. johnson when the door was opened of the car for her to get out. and the way that mrs. johnson reached up in recognition to embrace mr. german and how he embraced her, is really would just make you weep. but would also, the two last things that i'll just say about mrs. johnson's visit, her last visit to the white house, is, mrs. bush wheeled her into the vermeil room on the ground floor, which had just been repainted under one of the
restoration projects that mrs. bush did, thanks to the white house historical association, and mrs. bush had had the walls of the vermeil room painted a perfect yellow compliment to the dress that mrs. johnson wears in her official portrait. and she moved the portrait to be right above the fireplace in that room, so it's very striking. there are two -- there are three very striking portraits in that room. jackie kennedy, right in front of you when you walk in the room. that beautiful painting of her. mrs. kennedy's -- mrs. john's over the fireplace, and then eleanor roosevelt's. and so mrs. bush said to her, ladybird, i want you to see -- >> and namy eisenhower is in there too. i'm sorry, i'm sorry for the eisenhower descendants that are in the room, i apologize. i'm talking about mrs. johnson's visit, i'm sorry.
but laura bush said to her, now, ladybird, i want you to know, i had this room repainted in a color that would match your beautiful dress. and then she took her upstairs in the elevator and brought her by her husband's portrait on the state floor in the grand foyer and mrs. johnson, i'll never forget it, just in her wheelchair, you know, leapt up, as if to embrace her husband. and it's just one of those things that, you know, as a staffer in the white house, you realize you're staff, you're not a principle, you don't live there, you work there, but it's one of those incredible privileges and opportunities that you get to see firsthand that really reminds you, you know, what a blessing it is to have an opportunity to be there and to witness history. >> you mentioned a quote yesterday. we were talking about stewart -- the way in which the johnsons took office, which was through tragedy. and you mentioned a quote, which i had forgotten, until you
recited it yesterday. mrs. johnson described that period after president kennedy's assassination as americans looking at the living and wishing for the dead. >> yeah. >> boy, that real estate puts in perspective the difficult situation that she walked into as first lady and her husband as president. >> talk about death and grieving, and these are important times in our nation's history, when a president passes. tomorrow, most of our group will be going up to washington national cathedral, which has been the stage and setting for a number of presidential funerals. this saturday, senator mccain's funeral will be in that cathedral. to think of our presidents, eight of those have died in office. that's a significant number. and there have been elements of their state funerals that take place in the white house itself. tonight will be in the east room, where kennedy and others laid in state and others. but there have also been the post-presidency funerals. we remember reagan and ford and
recently mrs. reagan and mrs. bush. what is it about these moments of death and focus on a former president or a living president, one of probably my earliest memory of a living president was 4 areas old, sitting indian leg in front of a black and white television of the kennedy funeral and being transfixed of this and scared a about this, really. what is it about death and presidential funerals or first lady funerals that brings home to us who they are to us and what we remember them to be? >> we're naturally divided a as a nation, right? this will answer your question, but we're naturally divided. we were divided from the very beginning when our founding fathers came to philadelphia to forge the nation. they were divided by sectional, cultural, ideological differences. and they found common ground into which they planted the seeds of democracy, right? that's the story of our country. we are naturally divided as a nation. but there are moments in our
nation's life when we all come together as americans. and one of them is when we have the death of a president. we don't lose a republican president or a democratic preside president, we lose our president. and we become united as americans. and there aren't many opportunities for us to have these moments of unity which are so needed in our nation. and that's why i was disappointed that not more was made of senator mccain's death. senator mccain is up with of those few americans that we all revere, we all cherish him as an example of what it is to be american. and we can celebrate in his legacy the things that we all hold dear as american values. and we've talked about the passing of george h.w. bush when he's come very perilously close
to death in the past several years, and this man is a beacon of character at a time we need humanity and civility and the notion of service over selself. so it's what these people represent and what we aspire to be as americans that we celebrate around the passing of these people. >> yeah, absolutely. >> well, mrs. bush's funeral, i think, we were talking yesterday about, it was like america's mom had passed. and reminiscing about who she was. tell us your thoughts, anita. you were at that funeral. you were both at that funeral. tell us your thoughts and impressions on a first lady's funeral like that and how that differs from a president. what does a first lady mean to us at a time like that? >> i think you described it very well there, stewart. she was like a mother and a grandmother to the nation and really left an imprint through her example, as someone who loved her husband, loved her family, and loved her country. and really lived her life so
openly and with such great joy to be each of those things. a mother, wife, and first lady of our nation. i think she was also, too, a very gracious second lady. and you know, in the shadows of mrs. reagan, which of course, couldn't have been very easy, but she presided over the white house with such joy and really one of the things that she said to her staff, and people knew this about her when she became first lady, she gathered her staff together and said, i want to do something that helps an american every single day. and that was quite a charge to give to the staff and that's what they said about doing. and you know, had she had another four years or he had had another four years, who knows what that could have been. but tii think their
post-presidency and her life with him after, that was a great example that continued to endear her to the country. i think there's something, too, regardless of what you feel about president george w. bush, the fact that this father and son lived through each other's presidencies and those two first ladies had the opportunity to help each other. laura bush said, i learned a lot about being first lady from my mother-in-law. what a great example. no other first lady has had that, because, obviously, as katherine al gore back there knows about the adams, lucille adams did not have her mother-in-law to ask questions about being first lady. and it was just so different but barbara bush left an imprint by the sheer force of her personality and her character. and of course, i wish jon meach meacham, and so you know, spoke earlier today on the presidents and the press panel, of course, is the only person in america
other than barbara bush who has read her full diaries. because she kept incredible diaries. and mrs. johnson kept incredible diaries. and of course, as we know, john was a eulogist at her funeral and captured her beautifully. her whit, her humor. very self-deprecating, but she could slice and dice pretty good, too. and i think people kind of liked that about her personality. >> we had george w. bush at the library around a civil rights summit we did four years ago, around the passage of the -- 50th anniversary of the passage of the civil rights act. and we were in the great hall of the lbj libraries. majestic space with the presidential seal etched in marble. and around the perimeter of the hall are portraits of all of our presidents and first ladies. and barbara bush was infamously known around her family ranks as the enforcer. and george w. bush looked at her portrait, he leaned over and he
said, if you look carefully, you can see her eyes move. may i relate one more? >> yeah. >> i was relieved at the funeral that it was so short. that's what she would -- >> she planned it. >> she absolutely planned it, meticulously that way. >> everything, yes. >> and i'll never forget, it was a couple of years before her death, i was -- the bushes asked me to do a fund-raiser in kenny bunkport for the kenny bunkport public library, and the evening before, my wife and i had dinner with the bushes and i walked her to her car. the bushes came in separate cars, and she -- as she was getting into the car, she said, george and i are coming tomorrow. and i said, yeah, yeah, i'm honored. she said, tell me about the format, wlhat are you doing? i said, i'll speak for about 40 minutes and take about 10 minutes worth of questions. and as she was going to the car, she said, make it about a half hour, no questions. >> well, we talked about
presidents and their legacies and the first ladies and their roles. but we have 45 presidential descendants that have been with us this week, going back to the -- to james monroe, descendants of james ron moe that are here this week. let's talk about presidential families and descendants and what role they play in keeping or evolving or changing that legacy of a president and a first lady. >> i'll let mark do most of this, of course, because he runs a library where you depend on the family to be involved. but it's, it's a huge factor to be able to -- and i think we heard that through a lot of the panels at our summit this week. i heard it even at the flo philanthropy panel, being able to engage the community where a presidential site is for people to have that buy in and feel connected. the more they can feel connected to the human side of the person who's been honored with their name on the building is important.
and passing these stories along is so important. i was really struck this week, too, that, you know, susan ford is here. she was on our panel. she's always terrific and about representing her parents' legacy. she brought her daughter with her this time. because she wants her daughter to now sort of take up this mantle of secession planning, who have had this incredible role in our history of leading our country. i think it's hugely, hugely important. >> and i think that's right. i think it's important, though, not to direct history. i talked to george h.w. bush about this. and he said, we're not trying to build the legacy. i'm going to let historians decide what the legacy should be. and i think it's advisable for family members, too. and i had the great good fsh of
working with linda johnson rob, whom you all saw last night and lucy johnson, the johnson daughters on projects relating to the lbj presidential lay barrier and l school of affairs. and they're not heavy-handed. they'll trust that historians will get it right. and it must have been very painful for them to see their father so defined so long. both of the johnson daughters were living under the white house roof with their parents. and both of their presidents were in vietnam. so their husbands were putting their lives on the line in vietnam, because of the decisions of their commander in chief, their father-in-law, and they're hearing protesters outside the white house gate chanting, hey, hey, lbj, how many kids did you kill today? and they could see him striving for peace and knew how painful this was for him.
so i really admire their not being heavy-handed in trying to direct that legacy and letting history sort things out, and it has. >> how special was it last night at our event at the kennedy center to have john tyler there, the grandson -- or lion tyler, the grandson of -- his spanning over 200 years of american history in three generations. >> that's incredible. >> and you just feel like you're seeing through them a window into american history. >> that's the role they play. >> a big part of what we do at the white house historical association is education-related. teaching and telling the stories of white house history, going back to 1792 when george washington selected this piece of land just two blocks from where we are right now and the young irish architect that
designed the white house. and so we have these institutions and presidential sites, libraries that develop education programs that unpack and tell the story. let's talk a little bit about the importance of the education process, connecting with the generation, who did not know these men and women as a living president. how do you put those programs together and how do you do your outreach to take legacy and take education to students of all ages? >> well, i just think, here's, you know, one thing i would lake to add to this. and of course i know this afternoon, our next panel at the archives is on civic education and the whole role presidential sites play in this, ands this so important. i think, personally, we've been chipping away at our civic education in our country for two many years. and i think our kids in middle school, i still have school-aged kids, you know, middle school and high school kids, aren't
getting the same sort of lessons that we were getting on the black board. it is a little different. but i think that there are so many opportunities that our sites have. and when we brought the three actors from the play "hamilton" to the stage, not to sing and dance for us, but to really say, how do you feel about this role that you have to bring history to life in a way that is so engaging and really what responsibility they have to educate our young people and i was really pleased to hear them say the partnership that they have with the guilder lairman institute in new york on middle school and high school education around these founding father figures. and to really, you know, explore the courage, but also the
sacrifice that it took to found the nation. so i was very encouraged by that. and i think we've tried to really tell that message throughout our summit this week. but the libraries with the rich material that they have, the papers, the artifacts. one of the earlier panels said, it's one thing, i think alan debier, the philanthropy panel said, it's one thing to have the artifacts there. it's the stories that you have to tell. and how do you tell them, and keep telling them, to keep people engage eengaged? and i work at a university and other people are here at universities. every time you have a new class of students that comes in as, you know, freshman, you sort of realize, okay, this is sort of the next group that you have to teach about 9/11 or whatever it might be, because now they were two years old when 9/11
happened, so what do they know about it? what's their frame of reference? they don't. you know, how the president had to deal with those decisions. how the country changed forever. but you feel this obligation, when you're around young people, of constantly educating them about our history. >> you know, and it's -- i know this is the very definition of preaching to the choir, but that's why you -- what you do is so vitally important. because there is an education gap in this country. kids don't care about civics. but if you can get them engaged in the stories of your presidents, they'll start to get interested. we've seen that with "hamilton" on a huge, just a monumental scale. i'm looking at joe and donna, you get them engaged, kids in michigan, in the story of that michiganer, gerald ford, typical michigan kid, who becomes president of the united states, they will start to get
interested in civics and history. and that can only make us a stronger country. >> i think we have time for three questions. there's a microphone right here, if you would lake to come to the microphone. but i would to begin by inviting steven raustine from the kennedy foundation to the microphone. one of the great privileges of my professional career was to work with the ronald reagan centennial celebration in 2011. not because i thought he was a great president or not necessarily because of what he meant to me, but it was an opportunity to take the life, the leadership, and the legacy of the 40th president of the united states and to share that with the next generation that did not know him as a living president and to have partnerships and collaborations with eureka college, this wonderful school in illinois, which formed him in so many ways. and with other sports teams and high schools and to teach these stories about this man. but that was in 2011.
and in 2017, i believe, was the kennedy centennial. and they did also an extraordinary job of reaching across the country, and i would love for you to talk a little bit about that, steven, in terms of the legacy of a president, and taking a commemoration like a centennial and sharing that president in new and fresh ways with the country. >> right. thank you so much. i think it is that tame, just like you were talking about the passing, be it of a president or a first lady, that we come together and think about it. you know, today, 80% of the people in the united states were born after the kennedy mirp administration. 80%. so it's those folks who are trying to connect with them. so when i started, the first thing i did, to be honest with you, is read the report you put out where i learned all the great ideas and it's really thinking about partnerships. we had over 200 partnership arrangements with museums and organizations. there are 896 places in the world named after john kennedy. and we reached out to literally hundreds of them, from the kennedy center to new york
airport and things like that. and it's really not just telling the history, but why is it relevant today? and we use this expression of vision nair aries never go out style. you think about world peace, the peace corps is just as relevant today. talking about commemorations, next year, we as a country will be celebrating the 50th anniversary of randing on the moon. and today we think about big ideas, when we think about a big idea, whether it's in your company or organization, you call ate moon shot. it literally was the first moon shot. i think the way to think about it in a way that brings us together. not that he did everything right, but looking at those key points, just as a commemoration like a centennial or next year's celebration of landing on the moon is. thanks again for all of your leadership. >> great example. >> anybody else have a question to raise with the group? well, whilewe we're waiting, if anybody else doesn't have a question, i'll put these guys on the spot really quickly.
other than the presidents you've worked or represent today, give me your two first presidents and first ladies, or if you would lake to have dinner with them tonight, who would you like to have dinner with? >> well, i'm going to steal this from mark, but i think almost everybody in the room would say abraham lincoln. i would absolutely love that opportunity. and also, i would love to talk to martha washington. i would love to know what it was like to be the first person to have to do this job and really bear the responsibility of setting the precedent to be the first first lady of the nation, even though it wasn't called that at the time, of course. and i would really, i would love to meet the trumans. i really would. i'm just so fascinated by this cross-country trip that they did in their car in the post-presidency, just like that, lake mom, pa kettle. like, here i was, living in the white house, and now drooici'm g
and going to every motel 6 that exists. i think that's so quintessentially american. we're just really, coo cool peo that go to drive-ins. >> i'm going to borrow from john f. kennedy who said, when he had a number of nobel laureates, i believe, in the white house, you know, there have been so many great minds here since thomas jefferson dined alone. and i would forego all of the other, just to have, you know, abraham lincoln alone. but i would certainly want dolly madison to host it. going back to the trumans. just what anita said, there's this great story about harry truman who goes bounding with his driver/bodyguard, mike westwood, down from independence to jefferson city for a meeting. skpr
and truman is in the front seat and spies this woman whose pigs have gotten loose and they're running all around. and truman demands that westwood stop the car and he hops -- truman hops out and helps her to coral these pigs. a reporter gets wind of this when truman, you know, arrives at his destination in jefferson city. and they ask him if it's true. he said, yeah, of course it's true, but remember, i was a farmer before i was president. >> see. >> so down to earth. >> i think we have a question. >> yeah, trying to tie into your comments, and i appreciate that gerald r. ford story. one of the things we did a year ago was to come up with the idea to take president ford's story of standing up for diversity in his senior year at university of michigan, where his traveling roommate, because of the color of his skin, couldn't play on that football team.
now, an historical group had kind of put this our pbs thing together and students would fall asleep and there have been some stabs at it. and we said, let's turn it into a play. let's turn it into a 40-minute play. well, half my board is ready to lyn lynch me, and what am i doing with that, but we did 10 productions of the play. we have a waiting list of schools that want us to go in and do this play. but it's a 40-minute play talking about president ford in a locker room with his traveling roommate, willis ward, talking about why he can't go on that football team. so i think, i just wanted to share that, is we need to make our stories relevant to our audience. and i think that was discussed. and that's the way to do it, is to take a story that's aconic and make it in a format that we want to do. so i appreciate you highlighting that, mark. >> it's really creative, joe.
>> one thing that brings to mind is a new tool that we have at the white house historical association in partnership with amazon web services and it is a white house tour app. you can download it on the -- from the app store or from google play, wh experience or just search white house experience. and right now, it takes you on a virtual tour through the public rooms, the estate rooms of the white house, as well as the non-public historic rooms. but eventually, we want to perhaps have it teach the stories of what the white house was like at different times, different presidencies, like you represent. and tell other stories and teach other aspects of white house history. and in the meantime, we would love for those watching by c-span and those of you here to download that app and explore the white house with us. we are really grateful for all of you and you're on the tip of the point of the spear out here in american strae and presidential history and white
house history. and it's been inspirational to us this week to have you here and we look forward to working with you collaboratively, moving forward. we don't want this to be an every four-year or two-year experience. we want us to be arm in arm, telling us these great stories of these 45 great men and women who have led our country and prepare the next generation who will be leading it in the fau future. thank you all very much. have a great afternoon. [ applause ]