tv Wilson Center Discussion on U.S.- Canada Space Cooperation Part 1 CSPAN October 1, 2018 5:39pm-7:01pm EDT
and that's really striking. and indeed it certainly did look like a battle, and it's not that long before the civil war. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern on c hich span's q & a. nasa administrator joined the canadian space agency president in talking about the history of cooperation between the two country's space programs. as well as the current and future projects in which they're collaborating. this is a 1:20 discussion. part of the wilson center seminar on space cooperation.
>> ladies and gentlemen, good morning, and welcome. i'm the director of the canada institute, i'm delighted to see you all here. those whom i cannot see can see us. because we are web casting this aerngs we've also got the participation of the media partner, politico, they're beaming us out to parts unknown. i don't know if politico's reach is quite stratus feerick yet. if you are here today, it's because of the vision and hard work of lynn platte who has talked to everyone involved in u.s./canada space works. thank you to our tremendous team at the canada institute. and we would not be here at the wilson center, if not for the vision and the boundless energy of our president and ceo jane harmon, i'm going to turn the podium and the program over to jane so she can have a
conversation with jim, and i look forward to hearing what they're saying. thank you. >> i was just chatting with jim about life after congress. to my colleagues that are still there, it would be my wish that the place would become more productive on a bipartisan basis. space is one of the areas where there has been certainly over the years, at least the years that i know about, bipartisan cooperation. and that is welcome and important. so now let's brag about laura. the wilson center's canada institute, is the only place dedicated to studying the bilateral relationship between canada and the united states. directed by laura dawson, its excellence is one of the reasons
why our peers voted the wilson center the best regional studies think tank in the world, out of 6500 think tanks, we're not bragging. as a space chic. that would be me at heart, i'm thrilled to open a conference on a good news story in the u.s. canada relationship. as i always used to say, i represented the air yo space center of the universe in southern california, over nine terms in congress. yes the fantastic weather makes for good launches, it's where so many of our satellites and rockets are built, the close proximity to the jet proportion lab. and most of the companies you've heard of also helped. my first committee assignment was on the science space and technology committee which has jurisdiction over snas is a. i co chaired what was called the space caucus. it may still be there, with a guy named jon kyl.
ever heard of him? he went on to a dull career as a u.s. senator, and this week left the senate, retired with great accolades, left the senate, and this was made to fill the mccain vacan vacancy. i e-mailed him and said, want coffee? yes, soon. so i look forward to that. back to canada. did you know that our two countries have signed a bilateral framework agreement on space? most of you knew, because we have the smartest audiences at the wilson center, maybe somebody tuning in didn't know that. did you know that nasa and the canadian space agency have collaborated closely for decades? from the u.n. committee on peaceful uses of outer space to the international space station, like the canada-arm, that
supported numerous outer space missions, our two nations are doing great things together. you should also know that the canadian astronaut was -- are you ready? >> a wilson center scholar here in 2010 to 2011. that's why she has this big job. while we're talking about wilson scholars. jim didn't know this. chris davenport wrote space bearings, where? here at the wilson center. it's exciting that the trump administration has made space policy a priority. putting the national space council back in business with mike pence as chairman, and by creating a space force. as you will hear, no doubt. from the administrator, this
renewed government focus is already having spin-off effects for commercial activity in space. many of you are connected to commercial activity 37 the u.s. and canada are allies on land, in the ocean and in space. and surely in the intelligence base. something i know quite a bit about. >> i'm pleased to welcome the large canadian organization that is joining us here today especially the president of the canadian space agency. nasa administrator jim brydon stein, who was sworn in as the
agency's 13th administrator on april 23rd, 2018. that does seem long ago. a fellow recovering politician, he served as a member of congress from oklahoma's first congressional district for three terms. we didn't overlap sadly. where he was a member of the science space technology. please join me in welcoming nasa administrator jim brydonstein who will make some brief remarks and then we'll have a few questions from you. >> thank you for your leadership. it's absolutely true, i am an
escapee. i'm glad to be leaving nasa, and not in the house of representatives today. as much as i enjoyed my time there, i'm having more fun in the executive branch than the legislative branch. what an honor to be here, to talk about the cooperation between nasa and the canadian space agency. i want to start by saying thank you to sylvain, we had a great conversation yesterday. and we're looking forward to a long and very collaborative relationship as it relates to space. as we always have. we were cooperating with canada on a host of capabilities. and missions. a lot of people may not realize, canada has been interested in space going back to the 1800s, because of the aurora. canada was the nation that first started thinking about the fact that the aurora actually correlates with solar particles,
particles coming from the sung. we talk about solar flairs. how that affects ultimately the aurora that is so visible in canning de, and the confluence of those activities with the magnetic spectrum surrounding the globe. all of these things go back. the 1800s and canada has been leading the way on these kind of activities, to include understanding the eye on is fear, and the united states has been excited about partnering with canada on all these scientific discoveries going back all of these years. it's great to be here, and in fact one of the -- the first very satellite ever built that wasn't an american satellite or a russian satellite, was aa canadian satellite, which is impressive in itself. the outlet won. which was launched by the united states of america. that show is going back to 1962
when we collaborated on that particular project. today, and i've got a notes here, we have almost -- our history has almost 500 agreements in our history. and today we have agreements on 46 projects currently underway between the united states and canada. what a great relationship for such a long period of time. that had been important for science on -- for the entire planet. what nasa had done with the canadian space agency had been fantastic, one of the most important missions we have underway right now, is the mars curiosity rover. when i say it's one of the most important missions. since i've been the nasa administrator, some amazing discoveries have taken place. the idea that we have complex organic molecules on the surface of mars is now understood because of the mars curiosity rover. it's also understood that the
methane cycles on mars are perfectly in lining with the seasons of mars. and these discoveries have been made really just since the last four months since i've been with nasa. i take full but the reason these discoveries have been made is because on the mars curiosity rover, one of those instruments is what is called the alpha particle x-ray spectrometer. so it is a device created by the canadian space agency that helps us understand the materials on the surface of mars. so when you think of an alpha particle from, you know, a helium nucleus if you will, so two protons and two neutrons. that is an alpha particle. and then you take a radioactive element carry on and it creates x-rays and then these x-rays is really just electromagnetic radiation working with these
alpha particles and many taken elements from the surface of mars and put it in the mix and it interacts in a way that ultimately discharges electrons come it creates other x-rays then measured by this device created by the committee and space agency and you can make determinations from this particular capability, can make determinations on the element on the surface of mars and it is a piece of our understanding that we now know their complex organic molecules. what does that mean? it doesn't mean life existed on mars are today. it doesn't guarantee it. but it increases the probability that life may have existed at one time and may even exist today. and now we know because of a discovery even a month ago, we know that in fact there is liquid water, 1.5 kilometers below the surface of mars. so you take all these things and start adding it up and it
starts looking like not that there's life. i'm not saying there is life. because they know there's media in the room. probability of life is going up because of the discoveries made of course by nasa with our counterparts there at the canadian-based agency. the osiris rex mission. right now we've got a pro going out to an asteroid called ben neill and we will try to learn as much as we can about this particular asteroid. the osiris rex has a laser on board so in december when we approach, which is going to happen this year in deep space, an asteroid will use that created by the canadian space agency to make determinations on the shape and map the surface of this particular asteroid so we can understand this characterization even more. on earth science, historically
we've been very cooperative unengaging and how clouds affect how the climate is changing and the temperature changes on the surface of the planet. and of course, the surface water ocean topography mission coming up in the year 2021 which is a great collaboration between nasa and the canadian space agency. then of course there are the most salient aspects of what canada does with the united states. mark darnell is canada's first astronaut and the current minister of transfer in the government of canada. and he is one of so many astronauts. there's been a total of eight astronauts have come from canada so far there's more to come. it was already mentioned julie piatt i'm a former canadian astronaut and of the governor general of canada operated the canada arm from inside the space station to perform the
first mineral.doing a space shuttle discovery on the international space station. another monumental achievement. and of course, we are looking forward to the next canadian astronaut, david saint jake's. the future. we've got this long history in collaboration and cooperation that goes back decades. in fact, the very beginning of nasa. we look forward to continuing to there's so much more we can do and there's so much more together than we could ever do a part. a great conversation about the gateway. the president says we're going to the moon. we will go differently than we've ever gone before. which means we have reusability, launch vehicles. we now understand when their understand when they're reused cost goes down, access goes out. when did every aspect of the architecture between the earth and the moon to be reusable they go from earth orbit and will think of a reusable
service module in orbit around the moon from a reusable command module we call it the gateway. we need to be there for a long period of time. it needs to be capable of hosting human, but also needs to work without a crew. to take advantage of the capabilities canada has developed that people are familiar on the space station and the space shuttle. we can hopefully one day have an agreement no kidding on gateway. not only on the out side but on the inside and have it more robust than ever before so that it can in fact help manage the space station when it is without a crew. theseare all kinds of things we are thinking about in the future to make our access to the moon sustainable for the long time. we don't want footprints on the moon and then come home and
never go back. we want to establish an opportunity to go back and forth, utilize the resources and do it in a way that is sustainable. with canada by our side we will be able to achieve those very impressive capabilities. and ilook forward to a very robust future. so with that, i will open it up to you to ask questions. thank you. >> okay, thank you. [applause] >> now i was sitting here thinking, jim, that one of the wonderful things about space or the conversations around spaces that they are hopeful and so little in the news cycle these days is hopeful. >> andbipartisan. >> absolutely. that is right. you didn't describe if there's life on mars you didn't give it a party label. if there is life on mars. so i was recalling a couple things. first of all remember or i
remember president kennedy's challenge that we needed to go to the moon not because it was easy but because it was hard. isn't it exciting to think about tackling heart problems and so i just mentioned not. the other thing i remembered when i was on the science committee, a guy named george brown was a congressman from california, very progressive democrat was the chairman and he was extremely interested in science and he used to say, you know, in my next life i want to be the fat old guy floating around the orbit. around in earth's orbit. it was bizarre, but the point was -- and certainly you are in love with the space mission. >> absolutely. >> i mentioned to you some initiatives under the trump administration included the revival of the space council which mike pence chaired in which you were >> and the recommendation for
a space force. >>sure. the national space council, a lot of people when they think about space they think about nasa or the department of defense. but now, space consumed so much more if not on the government, the commercial enterprise that it's not just nasa and it's not just the department of defense. the department of transportation is involved in licensing, launches and reentry for commercial capabilities. the department of commerce ultimately licenses remote sensing capability through noaa. and of course noaa itself has a robust capability in space. i chaired the subcommittee on environment and in that role i oversaw noaa. 40% of the budget is activities that help us understand whether. pretty important.
>> more important than ever given the changes in climate. >> so but we have to do is understand that it's a lot bigger than nasa and the department of defense. it's international, commercial and of course all these new capabilities we want to enable. but the national space council doesn't cut the intelligence community, department of defense, transportation, commerce and homeland security, but all these heads of agencies on the national space council. we come together when we think about space not his nasa or dod or homeland security. we think about the american space enterprise and if we wanted to maximize the utility of space for the united states, how would we do that. it's a collaborative interagency capabilities that is chaired by the vice president. >> with his chairing, he is
very interested in space. >> he has been great for nasa. >> i am on thedefense policy board and clearly if you really want to understand the defense mission come you have to understand the role of space place, especially in the way the u.s. manages its whole defense mission. i think -- what about the space force >> we don't do national security or defense and that has been the design since its inception in 1958. it was intentionally it design so we can partner with the international community in the way that dod might not be able to partner because we don't do
national security or defense. that is an important thing we need to maintain. it is also important to note that i was in the house of representatives and we actually voted on the space force. i was on the strategic forces and armed services committee. we voted on space force and annie's case it pat -- and in each case it passed by bipartisan support. and on the full floor of the house it was in the national defense authorization act and past with 344 votes. so it showed strong bipartisan support. they did not pass in the senate and does not exist as of yet, but i will share you with you what we were thinking at the time and you were on the intel committee, so back in 2011 i think is when you retired, and things were active then as they are now. when you think about what space is to the united states of america. the way we communicate. some people are probably watching this on television, maybe they have directtv maybe they have dish. the way we have
-- the way we communicate has been transformed by speed activity -- space activity. the way we produce food. i was out swimming with my kids the other day. they are in elementary school, but the grandfather of one of the kids was a farmer from nebraska. and he asked me, what do you do? then i said i work for nasa, and he says, what do you do for nasa? and i said i am the administrator. and he says what does the administrator do? and i said i am kind of in charge of it. it was one of those movement -- moments where it soon as he realized that, he wanted to tell me all the ways in nebraska their increasing crop deals based on technology developedby nasa. he wanted to make sure i was
aware. and of course i was aware on a surface level but when he went to death in target chairing the consortium that a nebraska where they share information with other farmers to make sure, you know, the eco-stress kind of capabilities nasa developed are getting out of all the farmers to increase and feed more of the world than ever before. i kind of got off on a tangent to the way we communicate coming navigate, produce food, the way we produce energy, the way we do national security and defense, the way we do disaster relief, the way we predict whether, in way we understand climate. a lot of people don't realize you get up in the morning, turn on the tv, see the green blob, whatever channel you're watching coming you know what time the weather is going to be over your neck of the woods. that green blob, 80% of that data comes from space and goes into numerical weather models. >> all of that is the good news. the bad news story is our space assets also are vulnerable. and if they go down, let's just imagine an attack from some bad guy someplace. then what? >> that's the point.
all the good news stories, where it gets even more concerning is gps. the timing signals from gps is required for every banking transaction. it's required for flows on cell phones. it isrequired for the flows of electricity on the power grid. so if we lose those capabilities, it is an existential threat to the united states of america. the enemies of the united states without going into details about what they're doing. >> not including canada. >> let me just say not the enemies. i want to rephrase that. potential adversaries of the united date, space and declared it the american achilles' heel because they know if it is destroyed it will wreck the united dates of america. all of that being said, what we
have to do as a country in the wilson center is a great institution to help us get out this message, we have to make it such that the potential adversaries of the united states look at space and they see that there's no possible way they're going to get an advantage by destroying it. and if we can do that, we can preserve space for generations to come and improve the human condition for everybody on the globe. but if we neglect our responsibility to make sure spaces secure, then it will be a vulnerability and that in itself is provocative. that's my thought on that. >> one last question and maybe we can take two together. one question from the audience. laura, please come and get me do that? two questions combined. my last question is about what are we doing? do we have enough money on the case? are we hardening the right stuff? them with respects toto commercial assets in space, which i know something about and the redundancy they create,
which is a good thing, is now -- is a nasa embracing because some aren't, sharing space with commercial space assets. >> 100%. so when we think about the future and the cost of the things happening in space. we are very interested in making sure space is secure because we have astronauts on board theinternational space station. hundreds of billions of dollars worth of assets in space. we needed to be secure. the department of defense is building resiliency into their architectures. part of that resiliency includes distributing architectures so we have a lot of small satellites complicating targeting solution for the enemies and not building massive battle star galactica satellites where you put every sensor onto one, but there's a whole host of distribution that not only includes space, but terrestrial
and airborne distribution to the architecture to make sure it is secure. for nasa's perspective again we don't do national security defense, but we are glad that people do and make it such that theunited states is not vulnerable. >> but you just explain gps is a crucial part of both the defense space in the nondefense space. >> are adversaries are building their own const relations at the same time they launch anti- satellite must those. the question is by what they do that when the gps signal is available to everybody in the world for free. >> so i have permission to combine two short questions into one question. please identify yourself and ask one short question right in the middle here. i'm sure there is a microphone. running. she is running. run, run. okay. >> michael byers, university of
british columbia. one thing youdidn't mention with space debris? donald kessler, nasa scientists who identified this risk in 1978, how does the issue of the securitization of space really to the risk of runaway space debris and how concerned is nasa in the u.s. military about this problem? >> great question. one more question. back. laura recognize somebody. who did you recognize? right there. >> john newman, nih retired. given the importance of asteroids in the history of our planet, where do we stand currently in terms of asteroid detection? >> okay, space junk and asteroids. >> and these are not to similar questions. theykind of relate to each
other. nasa is one of 13 agencies the department would call the interagency space debris coordination committee and as one of 13 agencies involved in this around the globe, it has been determined that every five to nine years on average we will have a collision in space in low earth orbit specifically similar to the radio andand cosmos that happened back in 2009. so that being said, each one of those collisions result in thousands of pieces of orbital debris that is trackable and thousands of pieces that are not trackable. too small to be tracked. of course come each one of those collisions begets more collisions. the study said based on current launch cadence that is going to be a risk every five to nine years and you could get to a runaway -- he talked about the kessler syndrome. we are not there yet. we will do everything we can to make sure we don't get there. but that is a concern we need to prepare for today to make sure we don't ever get there.
okay, that being the case, it is also important to note that right now the way it works is all of the data we use for doing conjunction analysis and warning comes from the operations center at vandenberg air force base which is a mission of strategic a joint command. at the end command which isthat it's all it's all coming from the department of defense. in 2007, china launched a direct anti-satellite missile. they have one of their own whether light satellites and have thousands of pieces of our orbital debris. the joint space operations center is responsible for tracking all that debris. now, used to be they would send information to china about where that debris is and now
china is actually reaching back to the united states to help us because they want more information on the orbital debris. here's the issue. rightnow the united states tax fire is doing management for the entire world for free. as you mentioned, you talked about the future, i don't know how you framed it, but the idea that we will have a future where there's going to be a lot more launches upcoming. the study said if launches stay the same time and this a future were going to have to deal with. the reality is because of i think you said the collateralization of space. because of that. we seeprivate capital come into space activities in ways we've never seen before and we are seeing, and you know, low earth orbit communication constellations that are going to be launched that have thousands of small satellites in low earth orbit, which, our
calculations have not calculated for this type of activity. not just one company with thousands of satellites, think of basically having thousands of cell towers in low earth orbit. >> and think of decommissioning old satellites. what to do with them and how to get them out of orbit. >> absolutely. so we have to solve this issue. space policy director three which came for the national space council does focus on space situation awareness and space traffic management specifically. it put it at the department of commerce and so we are moving out in those activities right now. nasa will be involved in helping create the technologies and capabilities and turning it over to commerce. nasa does not want to get involved in being a traffic cop for space activity because were not a regulator. where science and exploration kind of agency. commerce can and should do that activity and we support that. >> okay, so asteroids. >> this is another big concern.
we have had a mandate for a number of years that could be damaging to planet earth and categorize them and catalog them. and we've been doing that. at this point, i can't remember what the specific numbers, but all of the asteroids that could be damaging to earth, we believe, we assess we have catalogued over 90% of any asteroid that could be in orbit comet heliocentric orbit around the sun that could cross the earth's orbit. we believe we are in good shape there. it doesn't mean we are not going to have asteroids run into earth. but we have that everynight if you just look up at the night sky, you'll see coming in upcoming meteorites hitting the atmosphere. all of that being said, the ones that could be damaging to earth slickly we've got catalogued and we are in good shape for a long time.
in that welcome the challenge is to come, but i must say having a well-informed bipartisan voice as the head of nasa is a very good thing. especially someone very friendly to canada. >> thank you, jane. appreciate it so much. [applause] >> thank you, jane. i was excellent. >> wasn't that great? >> i could listen to them all morning. it turns out we have a jampacked program and it's an excellent program. my directions say with a bit about the canada institute while we invite back -- mack evans and sylvain report totake the stage with us. first of all, thank you. i'm so grateful we are not talking about nasa this morning. that's my usual domain and it's a delight to be talking about something else entirely. i'm also really pleased that jim was talking -- and jane was
talking about -- i'm a canadian. a good friend of mine is an american. and he uses it as a means for that think canadians do. if there's americans here come you know what i mean. if you're watching some in, listening to something on the radio or tv in a canadian says, you know what, "saturday night live," are you listening to the radio. american women. that's a canadian. my friend uses canada arm for the meme for all things important uniquely canadian that our american friends don't know about. i think it is also a good analogy for what we are talking about here today in that, you know, canada comes to the table. we don't bring a lot of flash, but we bring things that are uniquely important. we bring things that require a lot of technology and we work very, very well with our american partners.
so, while we are waiting for our panel to make their way down the hallway, i will continue racing. there is a vip board back there when our speakers come in, henry kissinger, presidents, members of congress, and better, and on the vip board we have signatures and so at the top of -- as we were coming in this morning, we gave mr. bridenstine a marker to send a vip board and we directed him, henry kissinger, members of congress, canadian minister, you know, down around the logo. but the nasa administrator signed right up on top. so here we go. i had a chance to thank -- it's gone now but let me thank them again. master technology to they are our event sponsored today and we are very, very pleased to have them on board. can i say that again? thank you, maxtor technologies.
so we've done the american administrator presentation and now we are moving on to the canadian administrator presentation. so, what we have got today for the canadian contribution is we have of course sylvain laporte, president of the canadian space agency introduced by matt evans, who if you know anything about space and canada, you know mack evans. i will givethe introduction and then -- is that correct, lynn? i can't do anything without her. so, mac evans. you say mac evans has a long experience in kenya say -- canada us-based issues is a vast understatement. he wasinstrumental in getting established in 1989. the vice president that year and was responsible for canada's participation in the
international space station, the radar sat program in the canadian astronaut program in the 1994 became the third president serving until 2001. he is among his numerous honors a member of the order of canada connected for his accomplishments in the canada's space program. on the side of the border, he is a lifetime director of the space foundation of the united states and received nasa's distinguished public service medal. very cool. he currently provides consulting services to the canadian space industry. he's chair of the defense advisory board and members this advisory board and he seems to be right here right now. that's excellent. please join me in welcoming -- you can applaud, but before i say that, let me give you a little order procedures. i've introduced mac who will introduce mr. laporte. mr. evans will speak for 10 minutes in mr. laporte will
speak for 15 or 20 minutes we'll have some questions afterwards. please join me in welcoming mac evans. [applause] >> thank you very much for that introduction. it's really a pleasure here to be able to talk a bit. i've been asked to give some history of canada i -- i want to thank the wilson center for holding this conference because they think it is quite timely. i also note that in the title for the conference, there is a question mark at the end of it. i don't know if it shows up here. so, it is obviously, this is not a statement that there is a new era. the question, is there a new era? before we talk about the new
era and all the panels that are going to follow, i would like to give just a bit of background on how to get where we are here. so, as you've heard, canada has had a long cooperative relationship with the united states in space. in fact come to perceive the sputnik era. there is something that occurred back in 1957 called the international geophysical year. canada and the united states work together to create the churchill rocket research range. which is at the northern manitoba. and through that cooperation with the united states. that's what starts as a when it starts at the relationship between a -- between the
united states. in 1958nasa was formed in response to the sputnik launch and as a matter of specific policy, international cooperation is one of the major objectives of nasa. and they invitedinternational participation in their science programs. that is what led to what was mentioned. canada took up that offer because of our interest in the arms race as noted and created four satellite series in that series. each one of these relationships had aspecific mode of operation under different and it's suited
to particular program in question. so canada built the satellite. the united states launched the satellite and we share the data. so that is how that one worked. and then canada became more and more interestedin communications for the northern parts of canada. it was a difficult thing except for the only way of doing that, but with the advent of the space air we have the ability to do it by space. canada and the united states embarked on a cooperative satellite, and this time the united states provided a particularly important part of the satellite. the united states launched it and we shared the use of the satellite 50% and that pioneered the 14 gigahertz band. that was a commoninterests.
in 1974, canada issued its first policy on space and the key element of that was international cooperation. canada is a small nation and so we recognized back in the early days thatinternational cooperation was really the only way which we could proceed. practically everything we've done since has been done with international cooperation. that policy led totwo significant things. by two canada speaking and being given membership in the european space agency and is the foundational policy document that allowed the canada arm program to receive. the rationale there was we need to participate in the programs of launching programs to ensure access to space.
fallen the -- following the success, the united states generously astronauts in marker and that offered canada to fly two astronauts and we have had more since. then we moved along to the space stationprogram and it's important for everyone to understand the space station program was a major foreign policy initiative for the united states. at that time the russians were launching foreign astronauts on their system and ronald reagan was looking for a way to show the world that the western nations could cooperate openly and demonstrate the value of our way of life. so if you look at the things ronald reagan did, and we are in the ronald reagan center, he
took the idea of a space station to the g-7 summit. he nominated the administrator of nasa to be an ambassador at- large to go around at the diplomatic level and talk to nations about cooperation in space. and if you listen to his speeches, the reason the united states wanted to do space station was to strengthen peace, and build prosperity and expand freedom. so then i spent the next two years of my life coming back and forth between washington and ottawa, negotiating the canadian participation and the national space station. this particular cooperation reached the level of an international treaty.
so we have another example of how international cooperation takes place. on this particular program each ofthe participating programs owns and operates and maintains their contribution to the space station. it's an entirely new and different web. it is my view that the real value of the international space station is that it has shown the nations of the world have learned how to live and work in space together. when we think about the gateway and missions to mars, international cooperation has to be a fundamental tenets of those activities and space station has pioneered the way. another form of cooperation occurred in 1994. this is a period when united states congress was thinking it was trying from the space station at a time when canada was having second thoughts about space station and there
is a document signed that was comprehensive in scope. it wasan attempt to codify and agree on international cooperation between canada and the united states commended canadian space agency and nasa covers space science, communications, earth observation and astronauts and it became the fundamental document that allowed canada to have its long-term space plan to go to astronaut flights. and of course our participation onspace station. we had then gone on to other things you've heard about from the administrator. we are a key player in not in terms of providing the guidance system. the thing i want to make is that these are all government to government cooperative
arrangements and they were done in an era where they were expanding budgets in canada and expanding budgets in the united states. we are now in a different era. we have the commercialization of space is taken off as we all know. we have new clients for space systems every day, which are not governmental. governments are moving from the business of owning and operating their own space systems to buying services from the commercial sector. we have the so-called new space environment where companies are raising substantial capital in the open market to build systems to provide services to their customers. in my view, and this new environment for space means that we have to think carefully
about the types of cooperation we are going to have in the future. my challenge for the conference really is hopefully with the people that are here. will be able to start to identify an areas for future cooperation that bear in mind that we have to operate not only at the government level. we have to operate at the commercial level and we have to operate at the industry to industry level. so that is the challenge i toss out to you. i think we need to start identifying ways of cooperation that captured the enthusiasm in the financial resources that the new space environment. we have to look at ways and means of ensuring that our procurement systems and regulatory systems foster the cooperation we all see as a
benefit. so in conclusion, there is a strong base of history. you heard it today. there is a whole new space environment, which is with us now and is only going to become more and more important. i think this conference is important because it brings together in one day, people, leaders from academia, industry and end government to talk about how we can expand and create this new era for international cooperation between canada and united states in space. it's a very timely conference and i'm looking forward to listening to the debate and the discussion that are to follow. now it is my pleasant task to introduce the -- the current president of the canadian space agency, sylvain laporte. she has a bachelors of science
degree in computing science, masters in computer engineering. he's had i think three careers i'll put it this way. he spent his first career 20 years in the canadian armed forces as an aerospace engineer. when he retired from there he moved into -- so career number two is he joined our department of industry in canada where he was executive director of industrial technologies and eventually the ceo of the canadian intellectual property office. so he has got quite a bit of a technical background there. his third career now is as president of the csa which is held since march of 2015. your post becoming the second longest reigning. so bringing technical skills to
the job. he is a key leader of the space activities in canada and his enthusiasm and his interest you're about to see. so sylvain, thank you very much. [applause] >> thank you. well, good morning, everyone. really glad to be here this morning. i stand in awe of the previous presenters. i thoughtjane and jim did a fantastic job of talking about very, very complex subjects. and in fact, admittedly and i say this with all humility, i've had a number of people try to explain to me of the ap
access. and i couldn't get it. so i asked the university folks to come and explain the instrument to me as well. you know that feeling -- if you have seen a puppy making noise for the first time, i think that is how i was reacting when people were explaining this to me. and when jim mentioned it this morning, i got it. clearly a very good talent there with respect toexplaining very complex things so people can understand. i stand also in awe when i follow mac. i'm a fan of history, history buff and particularly when it comes to space. i'm always amazed to learn about all of the history that mac has gotten in his head and i would highly, highly recommend you find a way to make that paper and publishes them time. that would be great.
here i am today talking to with respect to the canada u.s. relationship. there's been quite a number of statements made so far this morning and i am going to tackle a number of them already. in the u.s. as well as in canada, you know, we consider this relationship to be a very, very good illustration of how two companies can collaborate successfully together. so despite any kind of anxieties that may have traversed over time over the past few decades, we can always look at to space so you know what, despite some of our differences, either between us or with other nations, we've always found a way to cooperate and work properly in space. thank you, not for the great introduction. laura, congratulations. the best think tank out of 6500. in a day where we figure out which restaurants we are going to eat at on trip advisor and
look at the ratings or you look at your hotels in the ratings, somehow you've got to invent some kind of think tank trip advisor equivalent and then we would be humbled to find we are sitting here with number one. >> yeah, leave us a good yelp review. [laughter] well then, distinguished guests, we do have in the audience as well some canadian members of the space advisory board. so set the foundation of the country's space policy a division. in the case of the u.s., it really is a very ambitious vision. once again, our american colleagues are treading a clear and robust vision for the future of space exploration that will inspire others to rise to the challenge. for decades, canada has been a partner to the u.s. in all manners of space activities.
i would like to thank the center for creating this timely event focused on u.s. cooperation in the sector. timely because speech is changing is not alluded to. changes are dramatic and accelerating for the good. when it comes to global space sector, economy, technology and science are coming together as never before. this is aresult of a strategic move by government, the u.s. been very influential in leading the way, and also because of an organic move where other companies and countries have understood the value of investing in space. just over adecade ago in 2006, 47 countries are investing in the space sector. today there is over 70 countries and we should reach the level of 80 countries investing in space. canada and u.s. have leadership positions and many of these new
countries are looking to us to support and lessons learned. privileged positions we both have experienced these three nations allow us to shape the future of international space station's and continuous international collaboration as a centerpiece for success. governments are not the only major players anymore. 80% of global space revenues are generated by the private sector. the cost of launches falling at an increasing ability to use off the shelf technologies is rapidly changing space business models in shaping private sector enterprises. commercial space is pushing the limit, making space more accessible for emerging opportunities, new applications, innovations and entrepreneurship. in canada, the space manufacturing industry is eight
times more r&d intensive than the average manufacturing sector. that is quite an achievement. following the large investments of the telecommunication industry we are now seeing rapid growth in new investments and legal. industry is reshaping the way space is the next board and utilized. and part canada's vision for space is founded on this. the private sector taking the lead, boldly innovating where no one has innovated before. space is a catalyst for invention. it attracts bold, creative and resourceful minds, rising to the challenge of space pushes the limits of what is possible. look at what is happening on the international space station right now. on this coming monday, september 10, japan will launch
a capsule to the space station and the canada arm will be grabbing and landing it to the iss. but the canada arm was never designed to do that. so it serves as a good example of how human ingenuity and strong technical capabilities can come together and help us create things that were never meant to be. canada arm being a really great example of how we can push the limits of our technology and human creativity. the u.s. is now leading the way to the moon as a steppingstone to deeper exploration. for current and future generations, these future missions will redefine what is possible and inspire in a way that has not been seen since the end of the apollo program. canada is preparing for potential roles in the lunar gateway. we are advancing technologies
that are needed by the partnerships in areas of strength for canada like robotics. canada has been investing in research and artificial intelligence for over a decade, and we have created world-class centers of excellence in ai. for space applications, csa is already working on bringing the degree of autonomy to canada arm two on the iss. operations on the iss in the near future, the new robotic system for deep space will be ai based. the gateway in lunar orbit will be without a crew for long periods of time and there will be communication delays with earth. the next generation of space robots will have to work autonomously using artificial intelligence to perform operations in deep space. we are also exploring less traditional areas such as medicine and telemedicine.
although our focus is on the areas of the economy with commercial benefit, like ai and robotics, we must also balance the private interest of business with the public interest of canada. we are a vast country with remote communities scattered across harsh lands. the advances we make in telemedicine in supporting the space program will have a concrete benefit here on earth. over 200,000 households located in remote areas of canada are connected to the internet via satellite. 77 indigenous communities in northern canada rely slowly which is critical. the use of telemedicine in northern canada is 15 times higher than in dense urban areas. so you can see the importance of making great progress in telemedicine. partnership is critical.
our future in space engages humanity in very large and complex endeavors that will require the talent and resources of the international community. international collaboration provides opportunities for countries like canada to participate in these awe- inspiring programs. in return, the partnership benefits from our respective critical expertise. i would be remiss if i did not mention a few examples. canada has studied the atmosphere by contributing the moped instrument to the terra satellite. the instrument has been making long-term global measurements of carbon monoxide concentrations since its launch in 1999. our meteorological instruments detected snow falling on mars with the nasa phoenix mission.
as part of another nasa mission, canada contributed an instrument to map. were also part of the james webb space telescope. we provided the critical guidance sensor to help.the telescope to the farthest realms of the universe. considering the small scope of our space program, canada would have never been able to be part of these large-scale discoveries if not for our partnership with nasa. we take pride in knowing that we are one of the few international partners entrusted with mission-critical contributions to national missions. u.s. companies know they can rely upon canadian suppliers and their flight heritage. indeed, our partnership exists beyond space exploration. we take great pride in contributing crucial data to share priorities such as north american and global security.
since 1995, our radars continuously capture images of the earth surface that show potential threats and contribute to maritime surveillance, disaster management and echo system monitoring. in the fall of 2018, in a few months, the falcon 9 rocket will launch canada's radar constellation mission, in the next series of canadian radar satellites that will improve further the data collection of the earth surface, particularly of the arctic. for the past five years, the canadian sapphire satellite has helped improve the u.s. space surveillance network tracking of space track of it -- traffic and debris. since 1979, canada has contributed to the search and rescue satellite aided tracking system by providing near real- time signal detection of emergency distress begins to search and rescue personnel,
improving their ability to locate people and save lives. given the rapidly changing space environment, canada recognizes the significant need for increased international cooperation and norms of responsible behavior in space. this is essential to maintaining the sustainability, safety and security of outer space activities and ensuring continued access to space benefits to our society. to this end, we have been working closely with the u.s. as an active member of the u.n. committee on peaceful uses of outer space to develop a compendium of voluntary best practices, best practice guidelines for the long-term sustainability of outer space activities in addition to guidelines adopted in 2007. we are very pleased to say that they work on long-term sustainability guidelines was a great success. with the committee agreeing to 21 guidelines this year alone. having passed the chairmanship
to mexico, we are now looking forward to working with the u.s. and other international partners to begin their voluntary implementation. canada has the position of having a very long collaborating relationship with the u.s. in space. of fact, our partnership began almost 56 years ago when the u.s. launched canada's first sino light -- first satellite. the launch in exchange for data it made canada the third nation in space, marking the birth of the canadian space program. the relationship stemming from that launch flourished into a flurries of science collaboration followed by the canada arm on the space shuttle and an invitation to fly astronauts as part of the shuttle program in 1985. president reagan invited canada to join the international space station.
to date, canadians have flown on 16 missions, including the country general who worked as a scholar at the wilson center. today we prepare for the next canadian to fly in december, canada was used on almost every assembly mission and along with dexter, still maintains the iss. these robots serve as the hands and eyes of teams of engineers on the ground at both the johnson space center in houston and the remote robotics mission control in canada. two teams that work seamlessly together to operate a robotic system orbiting 370 kilometers overhead. on november 20, we will mark the 20th anniversary of the international space station. 20 years of peaceful international collaboration and the largest
and arguably most complex engineering project in the history of humanity. 20 years of breakthrough science in service of life on earth. and 20 years of using robots in service of the human crew on board. reducing the need for risky spacewalks, reducing the risk for human explorers. with these first two decades behind us, we know we need to think about our future steps beyond the international space station. we consider the iss as a key steppingstone for future exploration destinations, helping us to learn how to live and work in space. our countries have and will achieve great things that change history. but on a personal note, i am also particularly proud of the opportunities we provide to young people. from supporting students with space projects to sending astronauts to school. the international space education board was established
in 2005. spiriting in a new era of global collaboration in space education. the canadian space agency and nasa were among the four founding members, along with -- the objective is to share best practices and unite efforts to foster interest in space, science and technology among the student community worldwide. 13 years later, the leadership in this area shown by canada, the u.s. and others continues to make a difference in inspiring the next generation of space scientists and entrepreneurs. it is one thing to shape the charisma given them the skills they need for the job market in the future, you also have to inspire them to follow their dreams. that is perhaps one of the most powerful underlying social benefits of space exploration.
we have invested of canadian strength to our partners in the international community. this model has led to visible contributions that create a great return for everyone involved. we are looking forward to continuing our journey of discovering our planet and continuing to push the boundaries of exploration with our strongest partner, the united states of america. thank you very much. come on up, let's have a chat. that u.s. administrator managed to wiggle out of this but he
was a former politician, not an engineer, so i am going to ask you. is there life on mars? >> that is unfair. what kind of a question is that?>> okay. i want to ask you though about the rule of government in space exploration. being the devils advocate here we have all sorts of private sector or organizations lining up in the space field, why are governments and government leadership important?>> there are a few ways to respond to that and i guess from a first principle perspective, we are not in competition. in fact, throughout the history of space discovery and space innovation, governments have
always collaborated with universities within the industry. what we have now is of course the dialing up of that and the law of new business models and other ways the injury -- industry is going autonomously. from my perspective and it is probably a personal perspective that i don't think many people share, i see it as a great opportunity. it is up to us and government to make sure that as we go further, because we all share a mandate of developing national economies that we leverage every possible opportunity that we can have to adapt our business models to innovate in the way that we push the envelope of cooperation further so that we get better success. there is still a monopoly of creative minds anywhere, so the more we can leverage from each other, i think the better we have and the better chance we
have of success. i am actually looking very forward to trying out new novel ways to develop and innovate going forward. >> i'm going to throw that over to you also because he watched this over a long period of time when governments were essential. i am saying why don't we throw them off as it were? what do you think, why is government still important in these endeavors? >> well, government plays a critical role in deciding what it is we want to do in deciding where we want to go and how we want to do these things. the canadian space program has always said we will do space activities to meet the needs of the nation, however you define those, but we will do it in a way where we contribute to the
development of an international competitive space industry. this corporation talks about the fundamental space program operation in the past so the government takes a lead in canada in deciding what it is we want to do in space. the function of the canadian space station and other organizations in canada is to ensure the way in which we follow that direction, brings the economic and social benefits that the governments expect to see. >> i won't ask you any really hard questions, but what we do all day every day is talk about the importance of a real relationship. you gave great examples in your presentation, can you underscore for us the importance of u.s. leadership in space and why canada works well with the united states?
>> well, when you look at the relative sizes of each one of our country, clearly we have the united states up here and canada down here, the same goes for retrospective space. economies are quite different and our national priorities can also be slightly different as well. what the relationship allows us to do is lower status on terms of budget, the cooperation with the u.s. allows us to get commissions we never would have been able to participate in before and the way that the models have evolved over time, typically we have a barter, and arrangement for these collaborations so canada would have a particular use of expertise and we would provide that in a particular mission in exchange for data that scientists would then have
access to in a privileged fashion. that kind of protocol is clearly a win-win proposition, but also from a canadian perspective it allows us to get access to data in times we would never get access to it before. it provides a privileged access benefit as we look at that moving forward. that model has been used extensively over time and as we face new ways of doing business, we will have to look at new ways of collaborating and looking at different types of business models going forward as well.>> why is u.s. leadership important in these new endeavors? >> mostly the key things, i will mention, one thing that strikes me and what i have seen over the decades is, not only
do we have a very solid ethical background and common background between canada and the united states, there is a very strong political overlay in terms of this cooperation and it is very clear to me that canada became part of the international space station program for political reasons. with the major trust of major international foreign policy statements by ronald reagan and ambassador bakes coming around and talking to us was very key to this. what i see between canada and the united states is a very common understanding of government and its relationship to the private sector and we have common value in the two countries in terms of how we want to use space and how we
see space for peaceful purposes. one side of the story i will tell you is in the negotiations of agreements with the international space station, one of the original sticking points was whether or not the space station would be used for peaceful purposes. this became a stumbling block for quite a while and it was eventually resolved and it was resolved in a fashion that allows all the other international partners to enjoy and hear we are seeing how the united states is capable and if they have an objective of mind with international cooperation, if they were able to find a way through this model peacefully with the international space station so that the other countries to try and so, if it is about leadership, it is not
only money, it is approach, it is technology, it is a common history, and it is evaluations. >> excellent, that is perfectly summarize with where he wanted to go with this panel. from mr. brighton, this is our major governmental presentation and we are going to move on to hearing from our first panel, which is civilian space communications, earth observations, scientific research. if there is something to carry with us, it is the importance in this relationship on common values, our privileged access and understanding of each other, and our shared commitment to cooperation and excellent results. these join me in thanking mr. evans, thank you.