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tv   Wilson Center on U.S.- Mexico Migration  CSPAN  November 15, 2018 9:28pm-11:55pm EST

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fast could that rifle be fired? >> watch real america, saturday at 10:00 p.m. eastern on american history tv on c-span 3. sunday on q&a, california democratic congresswoman talks about her memoir. >> i was on an airstrip in the remote jungles having just concluded a congressional delegation and we were ambushed on that airstrip. we were shot, someone was shot 45 times and died on that airstrip. i was shot five times in the right side of my body. i had bones jutting out of my right arm, a wound in my leg the size of a football and it was, oh my god i am 28 years old, this is it.
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the wilson center and the institute discusses immigrants from mexico and migration flow. with mexico's ambassador to the united states and others. this is about 2 1/2 hours. good morning from the wilson center in washington dc, we have many in attendance as well as those participating via c-span. the wilson center and today's event, mexican migration flows from great wave to gentle stream could not be more topical. i would like to thank the
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migration policy institute for hosting this event and i would like to thank everyone for coming out on this soggy day in washington, d.c. it is not lost on us that we are holding this event on midterm election day. i think having this event, on this day, in some ways feels appropriate given that the topic of immigration migration has been at the forefront of america's midterm elections. the flows of migration from mexico have reflected and reduced from a great wave to a smaller stream. mexican migration to the u.s. is currently at zero with more mexicans leaving them coming to the u.s. many americans have an outdated perception of what a mexican migrant looks like today. there are two fuse -- two fuse stories about who is coming to the u.s. from mexico, how they bring meaningful contributions and what happens to their relationship with the u.s. if they choose to return.
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this event, which is sponsored by the wilson centers mexico institute and headed by duncan wood and the migration policy institute aims to present information of the flow of mexicans to and from the united states as well as to explore the diversity and contributions of a population that has already been deeply a part of the united states. thank you again for coming and i would like to present our distinguished opening speaker who is a friend of the wilson center. it is a pleasure to welcome him back. he served as mexico's ambassador since 2017 and previously served as managing director of the north american development bank headquartered in san antonio, texas focused on infrastructure, development and finance. he previously served in prominent positions in the areas of trade, finance,
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diplomacy and trade. he really covered a extraordinary breadth of experience. we are so delighted to welcome him back to the wilson center. [ applause ] >> thank you very much for that kind introduction. good morning to all of you. allow me to thank the woodrow wilson axa can institute and the migration policy institute for organizing the seminar and inviting me to be a part of it. these two institutions have consistently made a very valuable contribution to our shared understanding of the migration phenomenon between mexico and the united states and its implications. more importantly, both countries will always benefit from having a more thoughtful, open and fact based exchange of ideas about this topic.
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the seminar comes at a very fitting time. it provides a good opportunity to discuss the changes in aggravation patterns from mexico to the united states and the diversity of more recent mexican migrants into this country. also, the dynamics and challenges that take place on the return to mexico. all of these are very relevant topics to the ongoing cooperation agenda that mexico and the united states have and must continue to do so in respect to immigration. like i have said before, mexico and the united states have a clear, shared interest in working together to make sure that migration is safe, orderly and legal. in my view, the present status quo is clearly and simply unacceptable for everybody.
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until we achieve this objective, there will continue to be a huge gap in expectation and i daresay hopes that the government send the people, from both sides of the border, have the overall bilateral relationship. let me say this more bluntly, the current status quo affects the tone, substance and perspectives of the overall bilateral relationship. during this mornings first panel we will hear about the changes in migration platform. the panelists will give you a far more nuanced view. however, let me highlight, in my view this is the single most important change, this year --
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this year reduction of mexicans that migrate to the united states. several surveys as well as the united states government estimate -- mexican irregular migration into the united states, quite clearly peaked at the turn-of-the-century and, since then, has been in decline since. today, unfortunately, it is often overlooked that the year 2000 registered 1.6 million mexican nationals by the border patrol. 1.6 million -- last year, 2017, that figure was 130,000. these numbers naturally invite the question of what has happened? what explains the change from a
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great wave to a gentle stream? with respect to migration and other phenomenon, i have learned to look for multifactor explanations. without a doubt, increase the force -- of force. better opportunities in mexico and these numbers, at risk of sounding naove, this reduction, i believe, is also important. it makes it more likely that mexico and the united states could eventually find some form of agreed framework to manage whatever migration takes place
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between them. to put things in perspective, when the whole enchilada was being negotiated or discussed, 18 years ago, a regular migration from mexicans into the united states was a problem. i do believe that it is no longer the case. during the second panel, we will learn about the face of recent mexican migration into the united states. how mexican migration is becoming more diverse. the forces driving mexico and the united states together, there is a tsunami of mexican talent coming legally and enriching the united states as well as mexico.
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from farmworkers to engineers, restaurant owners to computer workers, mexican immigrants reflect more and more the diversity and richness of the mexican people. let's see this as an area of opportunity. as recent research suggests, we have a skill set that negatively affected our competitiveness and economic performance in understanding that of the north american region. with the economy growing, as it is, reports show labor shortages in the u.s. and sectors such as construction, accommodation and food services, health, care and social assistance among others.
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bring the demographics into the mix. the united states is precisely at the point where baby boomers are reaching their target. the median age in the u.s. is 38 years. the mexican median age is 28. ranked at about 133 in the world. yes, let's make it legal and let's make it safe. let's make it orderly and let's make it smart by jointly thinking about workforce development for the future. the last panel will reveal the challenges and opportunities that return migration presents. whether voluntarily or involuntarily, a significant number of mexican nationals return every year from the united states. it is important to understand
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what people return and what programs can be put together to make immigration better and how to take advantage of the skills and capital that migrants have. as a global migration group points out, return migrants are potential drivers of development for their countries of origin if successfully reintegrated back into the local society and into the labor market. let me conclude by saying, as i mentioned the seminar comes at a fitting time. you are all aware of the lively debate going on about regional migration? between mexico, central america and the united states -- clearly, there are no easy policy responses to regional migration trends that we are experiencing. in my view, we are facing
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nothing short of a serious humanitarian situation. it can only be addressed comprehensively and indefinitely if we continue to talk among the governments of the region and we continue to have cooperation despite the differences and difficulties. if we continue to address development in those countries that are less fortunate and till we clear -- we will only be as useful as those countries are willing to help themselves. there needs to be enforcement of immigration throughout the region. we must do so humanely and respectfully. it is only through the combination of those that we can address the present,
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regional platforms we are facing. i would like to thank you for the invitation to join you, this morning. again, i think the migration policy institute and the mexican institute for educating our debate and exchange of ideas about high lateral relationships overall. it has been a consistent and valuable contribution that i have served to appreciate over these many years. i think you and i wish that you have a productive seminar and i will be happy to take a few questions. if not, i will be happy to have my coffee. thank you very much. [ applause ]
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>> thank you for being here. i am the program associate for migration and i will be introducing our first panel. moderating our panel is a senior policy analyst at migration policy institute and works at the u.s. immigration policy program her work focuses on legal immigration system, demographic trends and implication on policy. we have the director of global migration, he leads planting suspect planning of the centers -- finally, we have the associate policy analyst at migration policy institute.'s
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research focuses on the impact of u.s. immigration policies and experiences of socioeconomic immigration across varying geographical and political contexts. >> good morning everybody. again, good morning and thank you for being here. this has been a wet start to a day. we appreciate that this is a topic and something we continually hopefully engage in. this panel is meant to provide background on trends and what is changing so we can have a further discussion for panels, i will be focusing on immigrants in the united states. let's start by looking into the numbers. we know that the united states is, by far, the largest
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destination for mexican immigrants. the phenomenon of migration is going through a significant change. after four decades of strong growth, the mexican population hit a turning point in 2010. the overall numbers of immigrants increased between 2010-2017, the number of mexicans flattened out and then started to go decline into 2014. between 2016-2017, the mexican population shrunk by about 300,000 from 11.6 million to 11.3 million. what you can see not only the recent trends where the mexican population was at its lowest point increase to 4.3 in 1990, slowly flattening out until it
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became 11.3 which is where we stand. i will come back to this. for a long time migration has largely been driven by low skilled, unauthorized workers. in recent years, migration patterns have changed due to some factors that were just mentioned. these include improving mexican economy, u.s. immigration enforcement and the long term drop. mexican immigrants have returned to the united states and have returned to the us- mexico border and it is now at eight 40 year low. mexicans continue to be the largest immigrant group in the united states.
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in 2017, this is compared to 20 -- you can also see that the key here is that the change has occurred for other countries, including china and india who have now increasingly taken shares of the u.s. immigration population. again, this is 25% of the 44.5 million immigrants for mexico. where are mexicans residing in the u.s.? mexican immigrants have been here a very long time which means they are predominantly located in traditional receiving states. california, texas and illinois.
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most immigrants from mexico lived in california, 37%, 22% in texas and 6% in illinois. the top five largest metric -- metropolitan areas are los angeles, chicago which is 650,000 and houston at 622,000 and dallas at 613,000 and riverside metropolitan area. combined, these five metropolitan areas make up about 36-37 percent of the population. you can see there are other regions that are not traditionally immigrant receiving states, there is washington state, oregon,
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florida and now georgia and alabama including louisiana seeing an increase in mexican populations. let's talk about the total democrat of -- demographic profile of mexican immigrants compared to other immigrants in the united states. the first thing is that mexicans are more likely to be male, 48% of mexican immigrants are female compared to 52% of all immigrants in the united states. mexicans tend to be younger than all immigrants and 45 for all immigrants. there is also english proficiency when they speak english better. mexicans are 69% identified as
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english percent -- 86% of mexicans are within the working age range >> of the native born population, so both mexicans and immigrants have higher rates of labor anticipation. household and mexican immigrants are about four people compared to three in total and median income is about $45,000 compared to 56,000, and the % of mexican families living in poverty is 21% compared to 14% for all immigrants. the uninsured rate for healthcare is the 37% of
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mexicans like insurance compared to 20% of all immigrants. we have known for a long time that the mexicans are an integral part of the labor force. but we don't always talk about what worked they do. about 29% of mexicans work in construction and other land, about 21% working transportation. another thing that i wanted to highlight is the difference between 32% of all immigrants and 12% of mexicans, who work in what we call professional service occupations. this number shows the mexicans are not necessarily in this occupation, but what it is going to show us if there is a substantially number of mexicans working in this sector.
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the mexican immigrant population is the second largest group after india in working in professional service occupations. this is something the ambassador referred to earlier in his remarks. the reason why this matters is because mexicans are now, even though their education has been lower in the past, they are now beginning to catch up with the other countries. what this shows is that on the left, he showed you the purple bar which talks about all immigrants, and on the right, it's the mexican population. with each group, i make a special case of looking into the mexican migrants who have been here, but specifically looking at them who we call recent migrants, who have entered the united states in the last five years. the reason that this is important is because you can see a trend on all immigrants
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that shows a trend that more of the recent migrants are having more college education than before. you can see in 2005, mexican population in total was 5% who had a college degree or more, and 7% of those who had come in the last five years. the number of mexican education said this that's i'm stay the same in 2010, -- stayed the same in 2010, and in 2016, 30% of the people who came in the last five years, had a college degree or more. this compared to 47% of course by all immigrants in the united states, but what the numbers don't really show is that the increase from 10% to 14% in the higher increase than from the 38% to 40% in all immigrant categories. this is a key to note because one of the key to mexican migration is not only
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decreasing in terms, but it is becoming more educated as something i'm sure we will bring up in other conversations. quickly to the other point of this is that something that we have already known for a while is that the mexican population is quite settled in the united states. about 89% of mexican immigrants have been in the united states since at least 2009. 89% of mexican immigrants in the united states have been in the united states since 2009. the population of mexicans who has come since then is only 11% compared to 21% for the other groups. you can see that right there. another key piece that i am sure we have received more attention in the media is the idea of how many mexican immigrants are undocumented or unauthorized in the united states. this is important to note that the ambassador was noting in 2007, 6.9 million mexicans was
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here legally, and this is now a different of 5.9 million in 2016. that is 6.9 million in 2007 compared to 5.9 million in 2016. the makeup it's important to know because not all in fact, the majority of mexican immigrants in the united states are legally present, and 23% of them are naturalized, and 32% are lawfully permanent residence in the united states or have another legal background. this is the idea that not all making immigrants are unlawfully here, and only 45% are here in that status. another thing that may not be surprising, but to note, is that most mexicans who obtain green cards do so through family channels. 87 -- 87% of the roughly
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170,000 mexicans who became lawful permanent residence, did so to their immediate relatives or other family members in the united states, a much higher share than the 66% from all other countries. mexican immigrants was must less likely to gain green cards to the permanent pathway, compared to the overall population of 12%. the last thing that i will mention in my presentation is that another big component of the trend that is affecting the mexican population is daca! doc and -- d.a.c.a. . this is different compared to 64% of el salvador and, at 59% of brazilians and so forth and so on. the key thing to do highlight
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here is that the daca program is predominately occupied or used by mexican immigrants, and mexicans represent about 80% of the 700,000 daca holders in the united states. it is 80% mexican. the modern research has documented the positive impact that daca has had . also, an increase in income and improving college access is specifically for many of them, mexican of course. i will leave that conversation there and that is it for now. [ applause ]
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>> thank you, and the data it's a really good space for our conversation moving forward and presents a -- edge inching profile and the product some way in the trend of the mexican population. we are going to get some contact with these trends by showing up some new survey data of mexicans both in the united states and in mexico, the presumption of life in the united states, opportunities, and how it shapes in thinking about migration. >> would you like for me to do it from up there? great. okay. good morning everybody. so, at the research center, we have been doing a lot of surveys in mexico and in the united states, of mexican adults in mexico, but of united states latinos in the united states, which mexicans and making immigrants make up a
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large share. i want to share with you some findings from the recent work that we have done, and much of this comes from 2018, so this is pretty recent data, but i want to give you a sense of what the mexicans think of the united states, in particular about life in the united states in their intent to migrate? also wanted to show you what do mexican immigrants in the united states think about life in the united states? would they do it again if they could? really think about opportunities for the kids and what about opportunity overall? have we seen a change in their opinion about the united states in recent years? this get started i want to start with mexico first. this is a chart that shows you over time, the views that mexicans have had of the u.s. the greenline is a share that has a favorable view of the united states. you can see that when president trump became president, the share of mexican of those who had a favorable view of the united states dropped about two thirds in the last year of
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obama, and we are still at around the same number for 2018. so this is a pattern that we have seen happen around the world, and you should know that mexico is not unique in this perspective. we can also see that mexicans have little confidence in the united states president. that particularly in regard to donald trump at just 6% of mexican adults in 2018, unchanged, said they have confidence in president trump. the years of obama are interesting because you could see some variability in both of these measures during the obama years, and president trump isn't the only president who has had a low level of confidence among mexicans. you can see in the last few years of bush, there was a relatively low level of confidence in president bush at the time. these numbers to change and they do move around and often times reflect various events happening in the united states. the decline for example around 2010 was right around the time that arizona had introduced sb
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1070. and if you look at the data from 2010, the four arizona, and this was a much more positive view of the united states. so some interesting findings about just what mexicans think about the united states. of course, we have also been asking mexicans since about whether or not life is better, or it is not that different from mexico or whether life is worse for those who move there? you can see that people, from the country that moved to the united states, have a better life, and that share has risen in the last year or so. this is only through 2017 and we don't have 2018 numbers available, but there is a growing share of mexicans to see life is better for those who have left mexico for the united states. this is in contrast to the client -- decline that we saw
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in the last few years of the obama administration. some have moved around some, but those who say things are worse is down to 10% in 2017. we will have some results for 2018, and that is coming. also want to give you a sense of how many mexicans would like to come to the united states if they could. there's been a decline in the people who say they would like to work and live in the united states. that share is now down to about 32%, and it was at a high of almost 35% in 2011. the share that say they would do so without authorization has dropped sharply. there is still many mexicans who say they would like to move if they had the means and opportunities to do so, and they would leave mexico for the united states. but the sheriff who say they would do so without authorization is lower today than it was just a few years ago. this speaks to the changing
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nature of mexican migration. who is deciding to potentially leave, and how might they choose to leave? there is a number of different trends that are going on that i think are reflected in this particular finding. of course the view from mexico is very interesting. they also want to know about mexican immigrants in the united states. a couple of additional facts about mexican immigrants. as it was pointed out, the number of new arrivals to the united states for years, for four decades, was dominated by new arrivals from mexico. but by about 2011, mexican migration have been dropping for some time, and india and china was then the largest single center of new migrants to the united states. i think it is important to know, but i want to stress as well that it is not that india and china has search, they have slowly been riding for a number of years. it is that mexican new arrivals dropped sharply, dropped since
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the great recession until today. to give you some sense of this, china and india might be sending about 150,000 new arrivals in a given year, but mexico is not far behind and around 110,000. there is still new mexican immigrants coming to the united states. when you take a look at the attitude of mexican immigrants, and we did a survey recently of the united states hispanic population, and here are some important findings, and i want to show you that mexican immigrants in particular have become more pessimistic about things of the united states and live in the united states, and i worried about a number of things. first, more than half say the situation of latinos in the united states has worsened in the last year. by comparison among all hispanics, only 49% say that. so mexican immigrants are more likely to say that things have gotten worse. 61% say they have serious concerns about their place in america after the election of
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donald trump. this is a number that is much higher than it is for the general hispanic public and only 52% of all hispanics say the same thing. so mexican, in particular mexican immigrants who are in the country without authorization or don't have citizenship, they are the ones most concerned about their place in america. 71% say they worry that they, a family member, or a friend, could potentially be deported. this number for all hispanics is about 85%. again, mexican immigrants are more concerned about deportation than other groups of hispanics. 54% say they are satisfied with the way things are going in the united states today. for all hispanics, it is about the same, and hispanics generally turn in the direction
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of the united states overall, and 75% of mexican immigrants say the trump administration policies have been harmful to hispanics. that is higher than it is for all hispanics, where two thirds say the same. as you can see, somewhat of a sense of pessimism, and the growing sense of pessimism concerned about the direction of the united states and concerned about their own place in america, there is a lot of pessimism in this particular survey. we also did ask mixing immigrants, and all immigrants in the survey, if you could do it again, would you? 82% in 2011 of the mexican immigrants and about 80% of all hispanics said yes, they would do it again. that number is down to 70% in 2018. the decline of mexicans who say they would do it again largely and most recent raw arrivals -- arrivals, are saying they wouldn't do it again.
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the mexican immigrant population is largely settled. so many of these folks are not recent arrivals will not change their minds, but people who have been here for 10-20 years. this is not just a new arrivals story. what about in terms of how they see the united states? so this is also from our 2008 survey, and 85% of immigrants, mexican immigrants, say that the opportunity is better in the united states than in mexico. this is little changed since 2011. see in the united states in the place of opportunity was just about where was back in 2011. what about conditions for raising children? the fourth of mexican immigrants say the united states a better place in mexico, and this is little changed also from the past. while the intent to migrate might be changing, the view of the united states as a place to live for opportunity and for raising children, it is little changed. this is true of all hispanic immigrants, not just the mexican immigrants.
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finally, i want to talk a little bit about some of the patterns of migration because i have been talking about net zero. while i would say that yes mexican migration is close to the mexican immigrants, and if you look at data sources from the united states and mexico, this chart, and you can see the orange bar is the u.s. to mexico flow. you can see that more mexicans left then came to the united states. from 2009 two 2014 -- from 2009- 2014. the story of mexican has started them deciding to return home. the biggest reason they gave us was to be with family. about two thirds of mexican immigrants return say to be with her family, and about 18% say they was deported, but the biggest reason is to return
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home. many are returning home late in life so they have decided to go home after being the united states for many years and decided to retire by moving back home and to be with family. this is also an interesting part of the story in regard to mexicans because when we talk about mexicans and u.s. citizenship, mexicans have the lowest naturalization rate in the united states of any immigrant group. by our estimate in 2015, about 42% and immigrants who are eligible to naturalize had done so. but for all other groups of immigrants, the number was about 74%. the other interesting story about mexican immigrants is that many who can become a u.s. citizen actually haven't done so, and have been in the united states for 20 or so years, and still haven't quite become a u.s. citizen. is an interesting question because as it was pointed out
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earlier showing you the legal status of the mexican population, there was a large chunk of people who was lpr. while many do become a u.s. citizen, frankly, there are millions who haven't done so yet. we have asked in some of our surveys why that has happened? why haven't they decided to become a u.s. citizen yet? about 90% of them said they want to become a u.s. citizen, but that is interesting because it is also true that not everybody comes to the united states as an immigrant necessarily wants to be a u.s. citizens as people come here for various reasons and some choose to go home after a for years and never achieve u.s. citizenship. but why do mexican immigrants tell us they haven't applied it? the first thing is a language barrier as one of the gets barriers. they are worried about taking a test in english. some of them say they haven't tried yet or actually told us they are just not interested,
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which i think is also quite interesting. financial barriers and it is expensive to apply and about a % of the time we use the survey, they say they were currently applying for citizenship. as you can see there is a multitude of reasons why people might not have done this just yet. if you follow the world of the latino vote, in 2016, there was lots of efforts to get people naturalize so they can vote, and there is no surprise there is a focus on the group because it is such a large population of people who are eligible to do it now and many have not done so. there is a lot more to talk about boot regards to mexican immigration, and i look forward to our conversation in terms of questions, but i am going to stop there and look forward to having this conversation. thank you.[ applause ] >> thank you so much smart. i'm going to start up a
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conversation with a few questions, and then turn it to the audience. i wanted to ask you first, you both showed the immigration from mexico and the population has declined, and you mentioned some of the reasons people may be returning from the united states back to mexico. could you both say a bit more by some of the inflows are down as the ambassador mentioned immigration enforcement, but what are some of the other factors? >> i think one of the big factors that the ambassador mentioned, two of the big ones, is u.s. enforcement, the border, and mexico has changed and is a different country today in terms of opportunities. but, it is also a country who has had their demographic change. we talk about the potential migration from a place, how many young people are there and how many young people who don't have a job and might be looking for opportunities? as mexico has change in the economy improved, some people have opportunities within the country. you talk to the young people
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and they said they want to become an engineer and decide to stay in mexico rather than going to the united states. to me, it is interesting that the demographics of the country are changing and mexico by the way is aging just like the rest of the world, and at some point in the coming decade, they will have a higher median age than the united states. that is an important part of the story. >> if i can add just one thing, i think in terms of the influx, one of the things that often does not get mentioned is there is also different changes in how mexican migrants have decided to come to the united states. the question you had about legally come in or not come in illegally is very important. the way to come has become more expensive and dangerous not only of here, but in mexico and in some cases, violence is high in certain border states and
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towns, which is made more difficult for the migrants to make a decision on their own, and also more expensive. that is one thing to include an in terms of the other factors, i think education has been a key. i focused on primary education and mexico has been doing better, and it has given more opportunities to younger people to see if they can stay in the country of origin. this is by no means perfect and we must understand although there is an increase in economic opportunity in mexico, the labor market often does not provide a good wage and in the longer term, is not a better option compared to the united states. i think you have a mix of factors, and in one hand, you want to say economic factors and mexico that is made things better, as well as the economic factors have made it more difficult to come to the united states. >> mark, your data showed that people see the united states as a place of less opportunity and
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more worried about immigration enforcement, and they think the situation for latinos and immigrants have worsened over time. at the same time, they say the u.s. has a lot of opportunities and a better place and more economic opportunities here. we know that our economy is booming and we have strong job growth. i am curious if you have faults about how this is going to play out? they also see the opportunity for job, and what will that affect our future? >> a survey that we did the u.s. and latino population, we did get this interesting pattern of response. on one hand, many latinos say things have gotten worse and they say the trump administration policies are hurting latinos. they are telling us in many ways and tying it to the current administration. but in the future, you do see latinos say they believe the united states or they see
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opportunities here in the united states still, but i would caution that the optimism that we used to see among latinos is somewhat diminished in the most recent survey, and mexicans are no different in this particular survey. for example, we would asti think it should we be assessment will be better off than you are in the future? in this current survey, only about half of them say they will. it is true of mexicans and cubans and true that every group has had this decline of about 25 percentage points. i want to follow up to see whether or not this feeling continues. one other additional peace, when it comes to their own finances, many latinos say things have gotten worse in the lecture and don't expect it to improve. that is counter to the low employment rate that we are seeing for latino workers, it is at a record low, and when it comes to household income, it
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has risen faster than any other group in the last year or so according to the census bureau. this sense of the environment of what is happening, and the connection to the trump administration, it is something that is reflected in some of these responses in our survey. the pessimism reflects a general pessimism about the united states. >> i have time for questions, but i want to open up to all you and see if anyone in the audience of the question. >> mark, i was really interested in your results from the mexican survey over the years, and i was wondering if you have done additional analysis on the respondents from traditional sending regions of mexico to know if those regions in particular have any trend that would be of interest to us? >> that is a great question. the surveys about the sample size of 1000 per year. it is hard to do a more detailed regional analysis.
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we don't have that in this particular set of surveys. however, we do have a lot of surveys now, and we have this large sample, and it would be interesting to take a look at this, and it is something that i hope we can do soon. i would say there is a difference in attitudes about the united states and how close you are to within the united states border. if you are in or within about 400 miles of the border, you have a much more favorable view that if you are further away. americans who live closer to the board have a less favorable view of mexico, but further away, they have all more favorable view of mexico. >> other questions? >> thank you. great talk. the 31% that have applied for citizenship, did you speak a little bit more about the major
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reasons in that category? >> in the survey, we asked immigrants who was in the country legally and have a green card, a series of questions and you saw the open ended question, and it was an open ended question. there are so many responses that it is hard to remember, so many people said they just was not interested. the other component was also a lot of the responses, but i don't remember all of the details specifically and i would have to get back to you and send it to you. >> any other questions.
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>> i am with the u.s. hispanic chamber of commerce and i had to at this question may be because it is voting day. i was wondering if anyone the panel had information about the political affiliation of the immigrants in the united states that have been naturalized? which policy is motivating to that community of immigrants? >> in some of our work that we have done, we have looked at the political affiliation of mexicans and make immigrants. very strongly, they identify with the lean toward the democratic party. one of the big drivers of the general statistic for the hispanic population overall, and they are one of the more strongly leaning democratic party groups. when it comes to policy issues, the issues tend -- 10 2.2 it's economics, healthcare, and education. immigration also is an issue,
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but again because mexicans and make immigrants are such a large part of the population, they are driving the results generally for the hispanic population. this year, i will say that the one change that we did see is that immigration is now seen as one of the top issues facing the country, just equal to the economy, and that is something that is reflective of the general u.s. public as well, so it is not unique to hispanics, but something that we saw in the survey. thank you. >> any others? >>
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>> i don't know if i have a number either and i'm not sure that i understood everything.
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>> we have an answer. can we speak english and my name is alexandra, and i want to translate because i think it is really important in relation to the conditions of the total
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family. the children who are citizens here abroad here at a young age and doing better educationally, and don't have necessarily a support system they need at home because their parents may have undocumented spouses or a different thing that forces him to work three jobs and living in a precarious condition and they cannot support the children and away that other families can't support them. i think this affect significantly their aspirations as well as the financial support , and the other resources they need in order to be able to complete high school and college. they also ended up working as well while they are studying, and then puts him in a very difficult condition in terms of completing their studies with the same kind of support system that other groups might have. and --
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>> we have 20 -- we have two to more great panels come in, so we unfortunately have to in the conversation.[ applause ] >> i would like to invite a second panel to please come up.
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>> first on the panel, we have the president and ceo of the u.s. hispanic chamber of commerce and previously served as the san antonio chamber of commerce for 10 years, and was focusing on economic development and certainty director among aspect served -- served as the director, and we have fey berman, who is a megan american writer and his story to publish in a mexican publication.
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>> excellent. good morning. again, my name is mario hernandez, and i worked for western union, and one of the things that i like a lot about my job is the opportunity to meet a lot of immigrants across the united states, in traditional receiving cities like los angeles, chicago, houston, but also americans who have receiving communities like nashville, tennessee, and
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places in north carolina, south carolina, and etc. for me, this issue is very important. i take it a little bit personal because i was born in mexico, and thanks to education here, i became a u.s. citizen just recently, so i am very proud and a new american. i like the opportunities that this country offers to immigrants. right now, there is an opportunity to precisely talk about the congratulation of mexican immigrants, and i really like the presentation that provides us the context for this, but now we are going to talk about other people.
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the real immigrants, and that is why we have these families here, and we will start with fey berman. >> many years ago, more than a decade ago, i was writing about music and dance in new york, and i was seeing the enormous change in new york, and i could not lose that opportunity, and what i was seeing portrayed in the media, and what i was seeing with my eyes was a very different situation. new york like many other metropolitan areas in this country, has two mexico's. the elite economic and intellectual elite, and also the very poor ones.
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in new york, it is very dramatic because most of the population is very poor. you also have, superstars that arrive to this country because they want to have a universal direction. it turns out this is now the biggest empire in the universe for the time being. i started writing about that reality, and what i called mix america, and it talks about a multifaceted animated effervescent identity that i believe destroys the prejudice and the stereotypes that were made about immigration. i talk in the book about the contributions of mexicans, of mexican immigrants, and sometimes although that is a
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small part of my book, of the following generation of people of mexican origin and in technology and in business, and in diplomacy and politics. that is one of the themes in the book. i also speak about language, and i realize that a great percentage of the mexican origin population doesn't speak spanish in the longer. i have come up with this. but the main idea was to show that we are much more, and we are very appreciated for our tequila and cinco de mayo, and our mariachi, but there is so much more. before i share the
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contributions of this remarkable people that i put in the book, and a slim example of who we are, i want to underline that the mixed american culture is invisible and doesn't exist in mexico and the united states. why? one thing is that although the contributions of mexican americans are recognized, we don't see them as representative of our community. number 2, is justifiably the attention is on the undocumented , however, the narrative and the undocumented, how many are undocumented of the mexican population?
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that would be like a, okay, that is a small part, but still significant, but not the most important part. when you open a newspaper, what do you see? the border, drugs, the undocumented, and it is never about the 36.5 million people who are here for decades and decades, and who contribute to the society. another thing is the illusion that mexicans or mexican- american origin americans, are mexicans. nothing happen to them on the journey and nothing happened to them by emigrating, and nothing happened to them by being 10-30 years in chicago, and they
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speak spanish and are identical to their cousin. there is no merging of the mexican and american culture. the population of mexican origin lives isolated to european americans, and asian americans and african americans. so those are the main reasons, but let me go to this people, and i only know a few people book of i live in new york and i am a freelancer, and i think their sample is probably very small compared to the reality. i start with the arts because i think the impact of mexicans in the u.s. has been enormous. people must like talking about it as soft power, and i don't
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think it is a soft power. i think it's one of the most powerful sources of who we are, that mexican is very strong. i did not know anything about the character when i came to this country, and he came, and he immigrated to the united states, and became a well- respected artist, but one of the main things that he did, it is that he brought the work of picasso to the united states, which meant and was the beginning of modern art in this country.
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the modern art change from paris to new york. before he was very important in all of the arts of mexico, and before he was an important, and before his research, he came for about 10-12 years to you! new york, and he made illustrations that portrayed the elite and the celebrities of this country in a very peculiar way in the covers of vanity fair in the new yorker. he was fascinated by african- american harlem, and they had no clue about it.
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he was betrayed in illustrations and in fact, his illustrations was copied throughout the world, and it showed what harlem was supposed to light. another important contribution was that he organized one of the most important exhibits. another important thing is set he brought together all kinds of artist and they created, and. it was an important, and we had
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the murals that was left all over this country. not like that, they were teachers of some of the most important things of the united states. for example, george will was a student, and this is where the people that made the murals in this country. then, we have those in the present who converted the neighborhood museum, and was one of the most important institutions dedicated to the promotion of latin-american art
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and hispanic american art, but underline the importance of all of this that i have told you so far, and i learned it from him. the importance of this is that it came from latino american on the birth of modern art in the united states. probably a lot of people don't know, and dance is a forgotten art, but it was one of the pioneers of modern dance in this country, and he came because of the revolution, and the role of a male in dance they owe a lot to him. he was quite important in portraying narratives to dance, and using the body as an
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expressive force, but sounds like the natural thing, but is not really the case. what is interesting is that usually dealt with universal things, but also and often, with chapters in mexican history or tradition, and for example, we have a lot of choreographers of mexico in the united states, especially new york, and one that comes to mind to me is this man whose real name is hard to pronounce, and he is originally from the town, and he is able to transform himself into an animal physically or
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spiritually but basically he puts on stage the story or the transformation of being a my end ! man -- man into a citizen of new york. it is quite fascinating as an immigrant or an artist to see, and then we have our musicians, and this musician is the most original in new york and a very good friend, and they spoke about classical music of the americas and to transform to create a modern and not national music, but something that contained something that was specific to the new world.
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we have tons of components -- composers today. there is four brothers, and one of them this year, but they was introduced in the world from contemporary latin american music. you have to read the book to find out why all of this happened, and we have of course the three amigos in film of course, and and we have jorge ramos, and we have people in other areas. for example in medicine, we have a bunch of doctors and an and is that's make an
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interesting story is a movie being produced about this man's life, >> we can continue it later, >> thank you. >> i am very honored that our investor whose home is in san antonio has served both nations. i work in washington and my home is in san antonio, and i sleep on planes. [ laughter ]>> i just wanted to
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say that i will do my best to give you a sense of the mexican experience in two parts. the first is my own personal story, my family, in texas, and then the second part will be more the historical perspective of what mexicans have experienced in the united states, even though they was here before it became the united states. when we use the word immigrant, or migrant, although it is usually attributed to mexicans, it is really not accurate. the japanese have a saying that when you drink the water, you need to remember who does the well. for me, perspective is so important. the first part, and i will do this within 10 minutes, and then open it up to questions. my story, i can trace my personal story, my family, to
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1628. this is not the grapes of wrath story, and my father, he is a six generation texan and was born in hidalgo county. it is 10 miles from the mexican border. it is a small ranching community, and that was a descendent of a man who came from spain and settled in monterey in northern mexico in what is now south texas and northern mexico. he came to serve castille and spain as an young adult, and he entered in 1628, and it became the state of nuevo leon where monterey is today. we love ancestry in my family we wanted to figure out where
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we came from and we got to figure it out. for more than a century after the spanish came in, they do not go north of the rio grande, and there was many native americans and the spanish did not move north or the mexicans of the river because of these fierce warriors at that time who do not want to give up their land. i will give you a perspective if later of why it was important, and these was invaders coming from the south. they decided to divide the land into large land grants, and there was no risk to the spanish crown, but a hazardous risk to the people living there. in 1781, my ancestor and my father's grandfather, receives 600,000 acres, it was the spanish land grant with 900 head of cattle. it is in what is today kingsville, the king ranch. it was a vast acreage. during
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those years, the family as most families in those days, they was prolific and they had 10-14 kids. over the years, they lived under the the crown of the nati of spain, mexico, the republic of texas, the u.s., the confederacy, the south and again the united states. jose received the largest grant in that area and it is now known in kennedy county. over the years, at the grant was divided by the family and we still have a little bit of property over years, they sold it or it was lost, or traded off as other parts were given a. my grandfather, he was born in 1890. he helped cofound a small town. my dad's first cousin was the first cabinet level appointee, appointed by ronald reagan in
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19 1988 as secretary of education, the first latino in history of u.s.. the u.s. president of texas tech university, and my dad's was a four-star general, the highest ranking general of mexican descent. pedro drafted a piece, mexicans and immigrate to america, we have all always been here. imagine if that person -- quite frankly, we are not going away. the chatter of building a wall
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is very disappointing, more than anything, it is insulting. and these accusations that mac is in mexicans are criminals or rapists is unfair. mexican sentiment, has really affected the questions that kino is asking, the ascendancy and achievement, especially if people over time keep pushing you down. but we will persevere. i am an optimist. i know we are going as they mentioned, this is a very proud group of people. in the early 1800s, extension in this country was fueled by the phrase, manifest destiny. and as you all know by now, i love history. the u.s. wanted to go to the pacific ocean and it is a. guest who was in the way? mexico. they were incrementally in the way. u.s. invaded and they ended a two-year mexican-american war in 1848.
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but, guess what mexico lost? texas, mexico, arizona, california, nevada, utah, colorado and wyoming to the u.s. the u.s. inherited hundreds of thousands of native americans and millions of mexicans who had long-lived on the land the u.s. army responded by dealing with the native americans by walking them 450 miles to eastern new mexico and many of them died before they were sent back to what were internment camps or reservations as they are called today and with beautiful casinos. dealing with a much larger group of mexicans, many of our ancestors were landowners, officeholders, entrepreneurs, lawyers, bankers and members of the clergy, with more complex. it relates to my story earlier, of achievement. the government could not confine them to reservations. our customs are language, art tradition, our values, our food, communities have all become part of who america is today. we are a nation that is already
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very mexican, whether the u.s. government had liked it over the years are not. still, the u.s. government has done its best to make these citizens, foreigners in their own land and made them feel unwelcome and in their own country over the years. congress passed in 1862, the homestead act, allowing americans, once they had passage to the guest -- to the west, to apply for western land in exchange for farming. guess who they took the land from? they took it from the mexicans, who had already lived there. but, even the way the laws were interpreted, if they were written in spanish and folks in control said, only genuine contracts can be in english, then the contract is no longer legal. during the great depression, many of you know that the u.s. deported 2 million mexicans,
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more than half of those were u.s. citizens. they were deported to a country that they did not know. so, the history of bigotry, discrimination and exclusion, it doesn't mean anything. we are still here. they are seeking to close the stable door a century and a half later after the horses bolted, as we say in texas and so, we are a part of american fabric and society, latinos today contribute $1.5 trillion in purchasing power, 10th largest economy in the world. latinos, this relates to the u.s., hispanic chamber of commerce, my day-to-day work, this is why i am an optimist because, we control the future workforce of this country. we control the future vendors and people who do business in this country. and we also, obviously are the largest and fastest growing consumer base for this country.
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latino businesses, 86% of small- business growth between 2007 and 2012 was contributed by latinos. many of those of course, mexicans. there are a whole lot of jobs that latinos have created for non-latinos and latinos. and there is no wall, as you well know, higher or long enough to exclude us from the country in the future by 2061, -- 2060, one in four americans will be hispanic. we will -- in the great southwest, the fastest growing communities today in north dakota, alabama, georgia, pennsylvania, louisiana, south dakota and utah. there is a reason why montana is named montana, because mexicans lived there too. it is really montana. mexicans are here in our homestead and homeland to say 33 million latinos had been born in the u.s., offense will only keep us in.
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it won't keep us out. so, i just wanted to conclude by sharing with you, as we look to the future and open it up to questions, 80% of dhaka recipients are mexican. two out of every three hispanic in the u.s. is mexican. and of the three richest people in the world, two of them are latino. carlos and jeff. the last thing i want to point out, economic development relates to our future. mexicans that live abroad both in u.s. and elsewhere, spend more than $30 billion back to mexico. it is about economic development, immigration from mexico has actually gone in reverse. more people, americans are moving to mexico that are moving from mexico here. so, with that, i just want to thank everyone for your faith and your optimism. today is election day. we need to go out and vote. thank you very much. >> i had some questions for
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you. fey berman and ramiro cavazos, however we are kind of short on time. i will go straight to the questions from the audience. if there are any questions, please raise your hand. and, there is a microphone there. >> thanks, i guess i started the questioning round. i was just curious to hear the panels impression, i am also from texas. i think there is -- there are few non-mexican latinos there have not been resulted death insulted by being called mexican. not because it's insulting, but it is not pleasant to be called something that you are not and not be treated like an individual. however, i think it goes the other way as well. so, mexicans in the united states, the impression of other latino groups, particularly countries of the northern triangle and immigrants from that country, those countries, they do affect how people are
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perceiving all latinos in the united states and of course mexicans being the bulk of them, so i wonder if you have any thoughts to share. as the first panel went into you know, how mexican immigrants in the united states or you know becoming more diversified, and there are many accompaniments of mexican immigrants and mexican americans, but do you have any thoughts to share on how to how the community can sort of distance itself from these other groups, if that is even beneficial to anyone? thanks.>> i think you know, in places like new york or la, especially new york, where mexicans are a minority within hispanics. not for long, but it has been very convenient, the label of latino. i think we use it whenever is convenient. and whatever it's not convenient, no. sometimes, it is harmful you
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know, when -- for example, speaking about the latino voice . people say, that is not the main concern, why is the main concern immigration? for some people it's not. cuban-americans have other concerns. puerto rican americans have other concerns. so, i think you know, when you are in texas, i was in texas last week, and also i think, it is i guess if i went three kilometers out of austin, it would be a different world. because, everybody has their t- shirts. if you did not have one, it's because you had a sweater on. it is very mexican-american. it is very close to the border. and the presence has been there for a long time. but you go to other places, you
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go to miami or you go to new york, and the reality of this, latinos is different. also, for example, the label chicano, you think to somebody of mexican origin, in new york, basically mexican because we are immigrants, your chicano label, i don't recognize that in myself. because i don't belong to that history, that time period but, in texas, sometimes it is unanimous with mixed americans. with latino, so, that is my answer. >> the only thing i would add to that, is that -- remember a gentleman, he used to be the ceo of uniface young in the late 80s. he said something that stayed with me forever. being hispanic is a state of mind. when you think about it, latinos are not a race. we could be cameron diaz and be
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part cuban and blonde hair, blue-eyed. you can be brazilian. you can be latino, if you are filipino and speak to gallic. -- to gallic. morgan rodriguez, they may have lost their spanish, but they are part of that diversity, in being american now. and i can come at a certain point as we move forward, we won't have as many labels as we have today. because i think labels tend to be counterproductive. so, if anybody wants to be
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latino, you are welcome to be. >> we have a question, laura, please. >> as a non-mexican latina, i think the good thing is that -- and we have to be very careful on how we divide ourselves. because at the end when we are here, we are more similar than not. we are all immigrants, we are all the others to put it somehow. and i think there is a lot more in common and that experience then even where you come from sometimes. so yeah, i think you have to be careful about you know, dividing more, instead of bringing together. because, there are a lot of fights we might agree on a bunch of things, but there are a lot that we have to face together.>> good. >> i have a question for you, ramiro. you are a seventh generation texan. your personal history is really
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fascinating. i think that, precisely fey berman also, providing all of this information -- >> refugees. >> oh, yeah. very interesting. we need to know more because, especially it is pretty hostile for immigrants to have precisely recognition and knowledge. how we can do to promote for example, you say in your book that the mexican americanos -- the contents -- mexamerica in their community, and for you, how can we have communication with seventh generations and recent arrivals? >> the only thing i would say that as -- whether you are a
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first or seventh generation, thinking like an immigrant is the mindset that my family has maintained. even after having been here so long, they still are very passionate about being latino. they feel as i said earlier, that we are all together in this. whether we are cuban, puerto rican, colombian, venezuelan, or seventh generation or first generation mexican. it really does not matter. i think that we should not allow anyone to divide us we need to be united. that is why i am very excited to be the ceo of the united states hispanic chamber of commerce. the worst kind of discrimination i think is financial, or economic discrimination, the color green. it is the companies that i represent that don't get contract with the u.s. department of defense. that is the largest buying service in the world. so, for me, if we are going to
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be successful, it is through education, it is through financial strength, and it is through agreements that give us , as a north american continent, the ability to compete in a global economy, using mexico, canada, and the u.s. as a fantastic economic bridge for our jobs. so, that is why i mentioned jeff and of the 4.7 million small businesses that we represent. that is really our focus. that is where our focus should be common on whether we are cuban or mexican or texan or coloradans, it is, mi creating jobs? am i creating wealth for my family? and we are ready to -- my dad had a saying, we just want to be where the action is not. we don't want any limitations.
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because we are going to compete, and when. >> actually, i have a story to tell you. i hope that you know, this dream of being integrated happens, however, mexican has always been -- mexicans have always been second to last in this country. mexicans themselves don't help, i was speaking months ago with an important person of human rights in chicago. he was telling me, one of the reasons why things did not advance was that, everybody wants to take the credit of advancing human rights. so, they don't want to speak with casa puebla, that is problematic. is owning who you are. i was in the panel with writers last week, both of them were dreamers. i am blown. i look very different than
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them. we come from a completely different social education and background. their parents never went to school. one of them said she really suffered but she was not considered a mexican writer. i said, precisely you are not. and she was not happy but she is not, she is a mexamerica . she has nothing to do with the experience of mexico. she has the experience of being a child of an immigrant in this country. perhaps in the universe, that is -- it has been a discriminated, since the beginning, especially in texas. so, i think it is not like dividing yourself, but i think to underline the great successes, which i think many groups are doing, especially now, is very important because,
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i think there is a lot of stereotypes in this country. we are all undocumented workers, we are all 5'1", we all have a six grade education. we are all like speedy gonzalez image. i really think we have to fight that that's not the case. because it's not just meeting one person who defies a stereotype. there are so many more. so i think there really has to be a movement. and i think there are many groups, new groups that are really trying to encourage that. >> yes, thank you fey. you mentioned there are initiatives. there are many national organizations that are trying to increase his understanding. one of them is the american mexican association that is an initiative that is emerging.
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we will be hearing more from this organization, part of this committee. and what they would like to do is precisely to have the voice of the mexican-american community here. i think there are probably more questions. however, we reach our time limit. so, i would like to think that mike think the wilson center and -- i would like to think the wilson center. this is an important discussion, how about a round of applause for the panelists? >> thank you so much again for your wonderful contributions. we will go ahead and get started now with the third panel , if you would come up.
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>> i will be moderating this panel. again, i am rachel, i am the program associate for migration here at the mexico institute or the woodrow wilson center. i want to thank everyone again for being here today, and bearing with the rain and the elections and everything. i think that this panel is quite important, given that the data we saw in the first panel of more mexicans returning to mexico now, that are actually coming. with that, i really want to introduce our two panelists here. we have alexandra alonso, she
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is the associate professor and chair of global studies at the new school. and the current holder of the eugene professorship for excellence in teaching and mentoring. and second, we have maggie. she was born in san luis, focusing mexico. she migrated undocumented to the united states with her family at the age of two. she has been living in mexico for the last decade. in 2014, she contributed her experience to about all the dreamers. this formed into an organization, she is the cofounder. with that, we will start with the presentation. >>
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i think it is important to now focus our direction to what happens in the aftermath of deportation and return. i want to share a little bit, i work in an organization, grassroots organization by and for the community. for those that lived in the u.s. and have been back to mexico, because of deportation, the deportation of our family members or forced to return, at the end of the day is also a systemic way of having to leave the country. i wanted to talk a little bit about our community. and the increasing numbers of deportations that have been occurring through many countries but, in this case, mexico. of people that get deported or people that have to sign voluntary departures. at the end of the day, basically the same thing of being deported. but also, it is important to think about all of the people
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that are returning with the people that get reported. we don't have a number -- we don't have numbers about all of the people that get deported with their families. the policies that we are living now, it is the policy of separating families. also, they diversity. i think it's very important to talk about the diversity and the people that are returning and being deported. it is important to not categorize only one sort of faith of deportation and return. i think it is very important to having consideration, the experiences, the places where people are returning within mexico. i think that is very important. it is not the same thing as returning to mexico city, then returning to guerrero where people are having to migrate again because of the violence and the situation. it is important to think in consideration of gender, needs, and also the age is very important. many people are returning who are now in their 35, 40, mexico
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discredits a lot in terms of labor and ages. it makes it hard for people to get inserted in the labor market again in mexico. the language is also very important. the level of education, and the health conditions. as well, what does it mean to return to mexico? sort of a welcome back to mexico by the government. it is funny but, many of us are undocumented, once we arrive in mexico. because, it is very difficult to get access to an identity document and that is something that we have been seeing and we have been talking a lot about. mexico makes it really complicated to have access to an identity document. that is terrible because, the rest of the rights get violated because you don't have an identity. it is markup located to get access to health, get access to a job, get access to an -- to even renting a room or house, it is very hard. in the terms of mexico city, there are no shelters for people who get deported. people, when they get deported
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after living 20, 30 years in the u.s., they arrive and they have to go to the shelters that are for homeless people. that is not the same profile and many of the times it makes it a lot worse for people. the low wages and poor working conditions is something also that is affecting the families that are returning. in terms of revalidation of u.s. degrees, it is also very hard in the last years, and other organizations, they were part of the changes to norm, 286 norms, which now makes it easier to be able to revalidate u.s. studies in mexico. but, now the biggest challenge is actually implementing, mexico has a lot of -- but the challenge is implementing at the local, state level. and, programs in mexico, they really don't have many programs that are specifically for the needs of the community. that has been very challenging because they try to insert
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deportees, returnees to programs that are already existing. but is very different the needs again on the profile, it makes it challenging to get into the programs currently. someone who is mexican, the strategy that was implemented by the mexican government, we have seen in the day by day that is not very efficient. there is no follow-up on cases. they give you pamphlets or flyers or something, but there is not a real follow-up in the process of a person when they get deported or returned. and also, there needs to be evaluations of the programs, if they are efficient or not. there is not. so it is very important to also have that in consideration. there needs to be interinstitutional communication, which there is not among the institutions in mexico. that also makes it very challenging. and i think there needs to be political will overall, i think that's the most important thing.
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it has to be seen as the experience of deportation and return, not as just something immediate or something that is urgent, we need to receive them yes, that is important but it needs to be seen as a process. it is a long-term process for families and it is not seen that way right now. i think we need to start changing that narrative. in oda, we do have -- we have been able to trace different routes to support people to get access to the different identity documents that there are. and to have access to healthcare, and even if they need a place to stay, we are -- we work in collaboration with other organizations who we are trying to support people for at least a few nights until they get their documents and they start to get a job. but, it is important that we do see that's a big part of our work. family reunification, it is important as well. and, it is not really talked about. and many of the families, when
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they get deported, they also don't talk a lot about it. because, it is the most important thing but, it is the thing that is harder to attain, to be able to go back to be with your families i think, that is the most difficult thing. currently, mexico is not talking about it either. the u.s. is not talking about it either. about what happened with those families that are separated from their children, from their spouses, from their siblings. it is very important. we are working on a program internally to do funding to support people. at the same time, to advocate. so that there can be policies to talk about this topic. in terms of mobility as well, the community as was mentioned, a lot of people don't want to come back undocumented to the u.s. i think, in our community, most of us are fighting and will continue to fight for mobility. i would say, to gain mobility three years ago after filing for a b1 b2 visa. in the same way, we want to support more and more people
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who have established in mexico, but are separated from their families, but they also want to have this mobility to go back between their country, their community, their -- i think it is more important because everyone that i have talked to and met in the last four or five years, they all say they want to have their mobility. not everyone says they want to come live in the u.s. again, others may, others may not. it is very important to have the mobility and the sort of feeling of not feeling, a reality of being exiled in one place. we recently had ocho house, a space for our community in mexico city, we are in the heart of the downtown of mexico city. it is a place of -- if you think about a sanctuary place, i think this could be one. it is a safe place where people can speak english, english, any language that they speak, i think it's a space -- space for that. is a space to be able to talk and advocate. just the existence of the place
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as an action of resistance, this community we have been living in mexico for many years. by deportation or force, we returned. also, transnational organizing. i think it's very important more and more, every time i come to the u.s., after i was able to get my visa, it is surprising how when i talk to grassroots organizations, activists or allies, anybody, they get surprised about, there are deportees in mexico? there have been deportees in mexico. writing we need to start talking more about it here. i can understand the fear of getting deported and, we don't want to talk about it. but i think it is very crucial to start working together and not be divided or let the border divide us. but instead, working together, people on this side but all is well, we get to support and receive all the people that get deported or return to mexico and support them come in so they don't go through the same
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experiences as we did. so, i think it's very important to start organizing transnational he and collaborate in favor of family reunification and mobility. thank you very much. >> thank you maggie. now, professor. >> thank you very much for hosting this event. i agree with the ambassador, this morning who pointed out, the importance and -- of this conversation and how the time is needed. but i want to emphasize, it is not just because of the political context in the u.s. and how much it has mattered right now and the elections we are holding today. the general debate around this, since the trouble action. but also, because there has been a change in government in mexico, with the elections that took place in july. and that has also opened up a
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new kind of conversation around the need for a change in mexico's migration policies as well in approaching this issue. i want to start by addressing the topic of the panel, the idea of a change in mexican migration flows. it does not just mean that we are talking about a decrease in emigration to the u.s., for all the reasons we are explaining. but also, more and more -- is a country of asylum and immigration. that has to do with the context of violence in mexico, it has coincided with some of the changes on as mentioned in the morning, which i created movements that are taking place
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in much more precarious and met -- conditions. and asylum or even returning. looking at all of the movement as a whole, rather than unidirectional movement where a program is supporting a migrant in the u.s. to a consulate has to have a match with a program in mexico, in order to continue the processes of support and access to write, and equally for asylum seekers in mexico. i think that is one of the main challenges and that is what civil society in mexico had been pushing for. because we have had a development in mexico of a vision and policies and laws that reflect this reality, and the discourse. we talk, very much about the comprehensive or holistic policy to approach migration. and important legislation and programs have been developed from this perspective. that the implementation of that vision is where there has been
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a huge gap. and part of that has to do with some of the issues that maggie already mentioned, for example the lack of institutional collaboration and political will. differently from the u.s., are institutions that deal with mexico, are very much separated between the foreign ministry, the secretary of labor, the secretary of development, and is very difficult to have an intersection of a holistic approach being practice. the implementation of them. there is a significant loss -- lack of infrastructure in the program spirit as i said, they have a very progressive vision and are founded on ideas around access to rights, rather than regional security. in practice, they are becoming security focused programs, because of the resources available, they
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are mostly focused in that area which support from the u.s., rather than the vision that they supposedly represent. there is a huge need for infrastructure and resources on issues like return asylum and immigration. and also support for populations in transit. another aspect of this is, the fact that there are limited panels for migrants of civil society to fully participate in the process of design, implementation and evaluation. there has been an opening in mexico, the civil society has become much stronger in addressing the issues and having a voice. that has led to changes in policies and a different discourse around my jason in mexico, focusing -- migration in mexico. able to participate in the evaluations, it is very limited and there are very few channels for that. there is a significant need for more spaces to open up. finally,
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the issue of stigmatization and discrimination. so many of the exclusions and the discrimination that migrants face in this country, that we have talked about earlier, in terms of their perceptions of their lives here, and the kinds of challenges that they have faced, the barriers they have faced in the u.s., they are very much present in mexico. maggie talked about the experience of return and how returning is very much excluded . not just institutionally, but from the society itself, from mexican citizens who see them as not mexican enough or discriminate them because of the accent or the way that they dress or the fact that they just look different. it is a very similar discourse the one that is used against central american migrants and migrants from the caribbean and other places that are seen as criminals and as not deserving an opportunity to be in the country because they you know, take our jobs and all replicating very much the discourse that takes place in
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the united states. there is a fundamental need for societal change in mexico as well, in terms of how they view migrants coming to the country but also, those that are abroad and that are returning. what did i do? so, i want to just sort of support and look at opportunities for change. i want to talk about some of the examples that have been developed in the context of immigration here in the u.s. the network of consulates, that is an example of the type of holistic and collaborative approaches. so, to be clear, we are not starting from nothing, and that we have created programs that demonstrate the ability for shared collaboration, across the two countries and across a different set of actors that include civil society, public and private institutions in the u.s. and mexico. these are programs that are focused on access of social rights within the consulate, that are mostly addressing the population with carious status. that also talks about the other groups that fey was talking
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about earlier. they address both the professional and entrepreneurial and other groups that have legal status or have been here for second or third generation. but also, the migrants that are arriving, and that need to understand how institutions work in the united states, and how to access educational programs, health programs, how to get insurance, even if you are undocumented, what options are available to you for healthcare at a low cost. how to fight for labor rights, and organize and join a union. how to be able to join a bank and have credit, be able to save in order to send your child to college. or, naturalization programs, where the consulate supports you in filing your application, or even gaining access to courses for learning english or learning how to take the citizenship test. so, all of these programs that
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i can discuss further in the q and a, they are programs or are available through the consulate, but that was developed by migrant organizations and partnerships between various institutions that share resources. and the consulate here becomes a really important bridge and a space that provides this cultural of linguistics and sensitivity were migrants feel more comfortable and at ease in reaching out to different organizations that are present there and participating in programs that are government- sponsored from the u.s., for example from the osha or department of labor. or the terms of access to naturalization, where normally perhaps it is very fearful concerned that they don't speak english well enough. or that that might compromise the status of the family member, but the consulate provides the space where, this interaction is possible. and address not just the immediate urgent program problems that are migrant.mckay migrant might face, but a broader sense of political and
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economic rights in the country. and i just want to give a quick example of a quote from our former mexican ambassador, he is basically talking about this idea of how consulates have become integration centers. so they are focusing more on this access to opportunity, within the u.s. for migrants, regardless of their status. and also, joining mexicans and latinos in building on what has been discussed before. not just the mexican issue, but a shared issue among other publications -- populations. getting all of these different rights and not just protection and immediate, urgent concerns. some of the opportunities and of course, this is great, and it can be an example of something positive and a move in a different direction, how we normally talk about these issues and how they play out in bilateral relationships. but they also present challenges and contradictions. on the one hand, it is an
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example of what shared responsibility in government actually looks like beyond sort of the micro -- macro level of the whole enchilada agreement. more of the day-to-day collaboration that can help support the actual needs of migrants in the country and also prepare them, if and up returning or at least have the option of returning, but they will already have stronger tools in terms of health and education, they then bring back to the countries of origin. and also, it is a collaboration that is not just mexico u.s., but regional. because it includes central american migrants and other latin american countries that participate in the health fairs and shared resources for these purposes. or the mexican consulate provides access for immigrants of any nationality to be able to come to a daca workshop to fill out application or to participate in getting vaccines or testing for hiv or other issues. so, it becomes an issue of -- a regional collaboration rather than just a bilateral program. it is clear that is where the
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reality is today. if we are just thinking very immediately about the caravan from honduras and what that tells us about the context in the whole region. at the same time, this has left behind other issues, there have been very much a focus on the migrants that are abroad, and how great they are, and how they can be a contribution to the u.s. and a contribution to mexico through their schools, through their skills, but when that same person that has been lauded as a hero and observing all of all of the services and support, when they cross the border, back to mexico, whether voluntarily or as a result of deportation, there is none of that. none of that discourse, none of that support, none of that infrastructure, this is a historical issue. even though there is a discourse supporting migrants returning to their mother, -- motherland, the reality that there is no support system, history of return that has failed and had also had an
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underlying goal, it is better if they remain in the u.s., rather than coming back because, that is a potential political and economic gain for the country but also, it is a liability, if they are back in mexico because of the stream they can put on the economy. -- strain they can put on the economy. lack of institutional development in mexico. the same conditions they left are still there or worse. and, it creates many other forms of exclusion. at the same time, the services and programs i just talked about are not really well- known. neither in the u.s. nor in mexico. so, the public discussion and debate around, what are the
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possible ways to address this issue? it is very much still limited within the framework of security control and bilateral collaboration at a high level, rather than looking at this more local example of day-to- day collaborations are more about the daily realities of access rights that migrants face. another aspect of opportunity i think is very manifested in the works that maggie and other organizations of migrants use, that they have developed in recent years. very much, i think by their activism here in the u.s., to know what transfers back and forth is not just economic skills but also political and social skills. and the fact that they have been mobilized as a high level here in the u.s., and really developed new vocabularies and strategies to participate politically, have also informed their work in mexico and their ability to organize and begin forming new kinds of correlations and work to address the realities that they are facing in mexico, also with a vision of addressing it from
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a transnational perspective saying we are not just fighting for our right here, we are also fighting for our right there and for our communities here and there. that slogan, from here and there. and addressing these broader challenges, structural challenges of not just the reality of the migrant that is arriving in this particular moment, but the whole process of what return means, that includes mental health, x -- access to education, not just about the migrant, but about the communities they are embedded in, that are also facing similar challenges and barriers to access to education and political participation. but of course, one of the huge challenges and i think we are just experiencing you know, this reality, a gradual process of political participation, and influence in mexican political discourse. and i think there has been a lot of learning because, it is not just adapting their skills you know, from the dreamers
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movement here in the u.s. back to mexico, is learning about a whole new institutional structure and political system, how -- and society, how to participate in them, how to learn how they work and ways they are effective and are not as a strategy for change. i think that's what's happening now but has huge potential not just in mexico, but to transfer between the two countries. so, i want to end on this note of hope. thank you very much. >> i want to thank you both. i will ask just one question and open it to the audience. you both spoke about the challenges that attorneys face when coming back to mexico. and some of the strategies that are underway. so i am wondering, if all of the strategies were implanted correctly, what kind of opportunities and contributions do you think this population could give to mexico, given their unique bicultural, bilingual, binational perspective. --? >> i am just trying to imagine
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what would it be if they were all implemented. i think, i mean as i said, acknowledging it as a process and not only may be restart -- reintegration or acknowledging the process and the experience we have, it could definitely create not only implementing in mexico, everything we learned, but also working with the communities already in mexico, who have been struggling but also have been part of social movements, and have been part of a lot of things in mexico. i think we would be able to be better with -- i mean, in a job, be able to contribute more and maybe businesses and maybe also the education. there is a lot that we can contribute. but i think it's not just if it needs to be everyone in this case in mexico, as part of something greater than just as. and not -- may be switching the
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narrative of what we are going to contribute to mexico, or maybe all of this talent and save the economy of mexico. instead, we need to look at it as being part of something more that is already existing. >> i see a lot of potential i think, i agree with maggie, we need to shift it from just the economic contributions part, which sort of creates a dichotomous between the deserving migrant and the undeserving, the one that contributes on the one that does not. but more into a broader sense of, their social and political contributions in terms of researching the social fabric, this whole practice of accompaniment and mutuality. a different way of thinking about our communities. and breaking up the divide between us and them, really saying the work that we are doing for a deeper tea, the work we are doing for an asylum seeker is not just about getting assistance or protection, it's about all of us working together to either a
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different form of society, a different form of solidarity. i think that there is a lot of potential in thinking about it. and not just locally, but tranced locally. their ability to translate the discourse between the two countries, that is power that they have, as binational, bilingual, bicultural members of two societies. i think it is really important strengths that we can build on, thinking towards a different condition for our society and even beyond mexico and the u.s., regionally as i said before, there are a lot of connections with deportees and attorneys. -- and returnees. that has the opportunity of reshaping our societies in the region. >> thank you we will open it up for questions. >> thank you. my name is claudia, i work at the public charter school.
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i want to think maggie because, that is a great idea. and, my experience as a school for adult immigrants, with the majority of hispanic immigrants, is that the consulate are overwhelmed. it is an effort, what maggie wants is an effort that has to start here. so, whether i am documented or not, i have to start by registering my kids as mexicans or as hondurans or salvadorans. first and foremost, because that way if i ever get deported, or i have to get my kids with me, they will be also mexicans and salvadorans, hondurans, that is one thing. the other thing that i really wanted to stress upon is, the mental health component. there is a mental health component both here and there, because the problem is that what happens is, you don't
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belong here because you were not born here. and you don't belong there either. so, the mental health component is the bridge that will build, i think maggie, i don't know what you think. but, i think that is your experience and the groups experience, that is the bridge that builds your ability to accept whatever situation is the one you are in. so, thank you.>> i agree, i think the community building is a really significant part of this and mental health is a huge barrier. to feeling the sense of belonging, just in the sense of a community. that you are a part of, you can participate in, just to give an example of that, the program that was listed there, we were talking about it earlier.
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how, the barriers to education for kids born here of immigrant parents, or brought here at a young age, they are -- have to do with the fact that their parents have lower levels of education and lack of opportunities for jobs, that can give them sort of more time with their children and support systems. so, it gives them access to literacy programs and the opportunity to complete their studies in mexico, in spanish and that gives them a stronger sense of identity on the one hand. it is the most important part that they respond to, when they say what did you gain, participating? it is a community. i felt supported, i felt that i learned about people's experiences that are similar to my own, and we were all building something together. that is something that we don't have in mexico. and it is a place that is built around you know, a government support system that offers the program, but then you have the
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schools and community, organizations participating in it. a bill the space that is not just up down, but bottom up. and i think those are the spaces where you can build something also for mental health support and other health systems. and what all of that is doing, i think also by -- for example, giving returnees the opportunity to teach english to people in the communities, that's another example of the beautiful processes where education meets community building. and it gives people a stronger sense of belonging and makes a very concrete contribution in terms of skills and growth, improving lives. >> i would just -- yeah, i think that's a great example. but also -- when the experiences we have had -- not only as accepting, we
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will never accept that we are in mexico, and yeah, i think just that. just the fact that you meet someone else, it should be acknowledged that way you meet somebody else, that you can relate to, it can be also a way of continuing, whether you are -- your situation and your process, i think it's good to acknowledge it that way. it's something we have in common with people on this site as well who also cannot have the mobility, we are supporting each other. >> we have time for one more question. >>
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as a commissioner, my question is, for example, people in this country, they don't have legal documents. how do you support the central american in mexico, because they have the same situation? we fight a lot with the united states, what about my people, i am saul dorian -- salvatori in. they have the same problem. they look at this country from opportunity, more jobs, i just want to know, what do mexican people -- how do you support the central american people? or other people that came from other countries than america? thank you. >> i think that is very
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important that we have been talking a lot about, within our community in mexico, especially because we have a lot of things in common. one of the things is that, we were undocumented in another country. our parents had to flee countries, had to flee mexico and go to the u.s. i think that is something that we are thinking about everyday. now that we have this other position in mexico as being sort of citizen with documents in mexico, what does that mean? and i think that means that we are there to keep an eye on what's happening, and we are there to tell the mexican government that we are paying attention, and that we are not going to let or allow our rights to be violated of the people that are going through mexico, that are fleeing and they are fleeing because of poverty. because of violence, because of structural things that are occurring in the countries of origin. but, as being in opposition of
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demanding, i think that something that we are doing and participating in, in mexico city right now, we are working with the human rights commission in mexico city. in the response, we are going every day to support in our community right now, they are in active mode, just working with the caravan and the migrants. in collaboration of all of the other organizations, the human rights commission, and i think, we don't have an option, we need to be there and we need to support in every way possible. there are many people that grew up the lives here in the u.s. and got deported to central america. they joined the caravan. so a lot of people are in this because of family separation. they are wanting to be with their families in the u.s. i think there is no difference between us and them, we don't want to have labels. we know that we are human, and we actually want to be together. so that's my answer.>> i think it is clear that most of the support of the day-to-day
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challenges has come from community organizations and from a very strong network of shelters, that has developed in the late 1990s across the whole migration route. so, they are the ones that are providing immediate assistance but also doing a lot of the advocacy work, so that policies can change and resources can be provided. we do have a strong legal framework, that supports our migration law and our refugee and asylum law, that was reformed or created in 2011 and subsequent reforms to our legal system. the problem, as i said earlier, is implementation. they had very limited resources for the commission. there is asylum applications and therefore, a lot of people give up. are, they return to their countries or leave the shelters in the places where they are at, which are not really adequate, that's where
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resources need to be put in, to really make these available as well as other kinds of mechanisms that have been created like temporary visa programs, so they can stay in the country temporarily and work temporarily under conditions, and then make a decision about whether to continue their journey or return to their countries. all of this already exists. but we are in a context where there is corruption and impunity, large presence of criminal organizations, it includes the police and immigration authorities and therefore, there are a lot of barriers to really respond with a humanitarian way to the issue. the new government has proposed an alternative, which focuses largely on development. development in mexico, but also in the region. people have jobs that will be created for both mexicans and central americans, the challenge is, when will -- when
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will we see the effect of the policies? and we will still need immediate responses, that really reflect this, the more human rights focused framework, while we wait for development and economic programs to address the structural conditions that are making -- creating these additions for movement from central america, from within mexico.>> reporter: okay, i think with that, we will conclude the panel. i want to thank everyone for coming out today. it has been an illuminating conversation. for those of you voting, best of luck and thank you again.
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the history of memphis, tennessee, april 4, 1968, there was post april 4, 1968. >> memphis was the place of a lot of racial tension, but it was also the place of a lot of racial harmony. >> had there been the economy, there might not have been a need for transportation hub. so it is quite possible, without cotton, memphis would not exist in the 21st century.
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>> this weekend, thief and city tour takes you to memphis, tennessee, with the help of the contest cable partners. beginning saturday at 7 pm eastern. author aaron talks about his book, down to the crossroad. civil rights, black power, and the narrative marched against fear. and author charles hughes, on the view -- on the roles, countries all, making music and the american race. sunday at 2 pm eastern, on american history tv, the history of klein in memphis during the mid 19th century, and then a visit to the national civil rights museum. watched c-span city tour of memphis, saturday at 7 pm eastern and sunday at 2 pm on american history tv on c-span three as we explore america. the midterm election of 2018 change the balance of power in congress. with democrats taking control of the house, and republicans
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holding the majority in the senate. members now prepare for the new congress in january. new congress, new leaders, watch the process unfold on c- span. next, government officials outlined the interagency efforts to enhance cyber security. after that, discussion about mexican immigration and migration patterns. officials from the pentagon and homeland security department testified on coordinating the fight against -- cyber threat. their testimony before two house subcommittees ran an hour and a half. >> >> the subcommittee will come to order. welcome to the joint hearing of the subcommittee on emerging threats and capabilities. with the homeland security su


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