tv The Presidency Pat Nixon Betty Ford CSPAN November 22, 2018 7:05pm-8:01pm EST
>> next on the presidency, historian carl sferrazza anthony talks about the fashion choices of pat nixon and betty ford reflected the politics and culture of their time. mister anthony is an author of a book about first ladies and fashions. this talk is one of a series. [ applause ] >> ladies and gentlemen, my name is chris nordic -- chris nordyke, on the richard nixon director, and i'm honored to introduce a speaker today . the nixon library has presented first lady exhibits before and offered lectures on similar topics. but we haven't tackled the project of offering a first ladies exhibit and luncheon and lecture series all combine. when planning and correlating the concept, we analyzed the needs and quickly noted the need for a specialized guest curator.
carl anthony is one of the and nation's foremost experts on presidential wives and their families. he has wrote over one dozen books and had the privilege to interview the clintons, laura bush, as well as the nixons and affords. his accolades are vast and many. the staff has enjoyed a long friendship and professional relationship with carl, and in many ways, we can send you part of the family. will be called him back in april to propose the idea of the first lady exhibit lecture, luncheon series, his enthusiasm was contagious. in five months, the concept has become a reality. ladies and german, is joining -- join me in welcoming carl anthony. [ applause ] >> thank you. thank you for all of you who are here today.
a special thanks to chris, who we have thanks a lot of individual staff members and everyone has contributed and played a role. but certainly chris has been very calm and overseeing that all of these events have gone smoothly. a special thanks to him. [ applause ] >> from the director of the foundation to cheryl, the secretary, to jim, i am give you the first names, and maybe some of you know them all. but really, i gave 100% only because i saw that i was getting 100% back from everybody. it has been an amazing experience. it is the kind of professional
experience that is ideal. i wish everyone would be able to have. i am also especially happy to be giving the final lecture about two individuals that not only are important historically, and i think quite often overlooked, but these were two individuals that held a very special personal meaning to me, pat nixon and betty ford. as i was saying earlier today, people do forget about these women. we look at them and it is always so easy to look at historical figures, you know, in one dimension. but we forget that a woman who was born in nevada but really grew up and considered herself californian, pat nixon.
and another one from michigan, betty ford, they was two women who made their way, their own way in the world. they both worked as young women and in the case of mrs. nixon, getting an education. she knew it was going to be the answer for her chance to be part of a larger world beyond that of her community. both women understood, and coming to the white house at the time, they understood the real rational thinking behind the idea of equal pay for equal work. and they both was quiet, but yet in ford and progressive ways, was taking some of the more radical elements of what was then thought of as the woman's movement, or the feminist movement. they didn't integrated them into their remarks, into the way they responded to the press.
in this sort of gentle way, this notion of these two housewives, or certainly mothers, or as a public thought of them, traditional women, overlooking their lives before they were married, in this way, it helped move things forward. certainly not without controversy. but it was also as we was discussing today, i was mentioning, as part of a strong tradition that it was the republican party that had first come in the senate, and then put of the equal rights amendment. that was 1922. people forget that. is something people think of as the equal rights amendment, that it occurred in the 1970s. but it actually have been proposed by a republican
senator in 1922. the struggle for women's equality was a long one. certainly these two women played a part. when we look at patricia ryan nixon, and see she worked her whole life first on a family truck farm, not far from here, just what was then called artesia, and now known as cerritos. we know that apart from going to school and working at a bank, working on the family truck farm and selling the produce, she was also planting and with her two brothers, and her parents, picking the produce. you would think often as you would at the time be wearing overalls.
but this is a fascinating photograph because it actually shows her in a close-up with two other friends, and she is a young woman here, in southern california in orange county, mostly then, farm country, and they have claimed a top of a water tower, and there she is wearing pants. pants was actually something mrs. nixon, even as a young woman, always enjoyed wearing. in a letter she wrote to her aunt during her junior year at usc, she was working part-time at the bullocks wilshire in los angeles, she revealed that she always wore pants to work. and that many of her coworkers were disappointed because they said they wanted to see her beautiful figure. she can to more professional to
wear pants. that becomes a little bit of a metaphor for pat nixon. she went about her work, whether it was a young woman, whether it was as a wife and a mother, whether it was as first lady, quietly and effectively, without a need for publishing -- publicity, always with the intention of truly helping those she was intending to assist. richard nixon in 1952, when he gives his famous checkers speech, he mentions for the first time by a political figure, a vice presidential candidate, but enters for the first time into the popular imagination the idea of clothing in politics when he talks about
as he put it pat's respectable cloth coat. republican cloth coat. of course it was meant as a point to be made that they was not wealthy, and that his wife did not have a meet coat. -- means -- mink coat. but he formally introduce the idea of clothing carrying a political symbolism. before that it had been done, but without the subtext being revealed. here is mixed nixon -- mrs. nixon in her famous cloth coat in the campaign. pat nixon, as a vice presidents wait for eight years, traveled the globe and went without any personal assistant.
she packed all of her own clothing, and she ironed not only her husband's clothes, but her own, and arranged it so that she could wear clothing that was appropriate to each culture. that is, of each nation that she was visiting, and always careful not to repeat wearing the clothing in a way that timewise, that coverage of her in one country will not get to the next country so that it would not look like she was wearing anything of the same and kind of trying to show respect to each country she was visiting by appearing in something different. it was during the 1960 campaign that the issue of potential first ladies and their clothing was really thrust into national
headlines and made a political issue. the media had essentially created an article -- artificial race for the first lady, between pat nixon and jackie kennedy. it began with a story claiming that mrs. kennedy and her mother-in-law rose kennedy spent $30,000 a year on clothes in paris to which jackie very famously responded i cannot spend up -- that much money on clothing unless i wore stable underwear. she didn't made a remark talking about mister nixon, it was a backhanded compliment, but a political one. she said that mrs. nixon buses -- dresses very well and buys her clothes at elizabeth arden. those are not inexpensive. so you saw coverage of the two candidates wives from an image of newsweek magazine and it was
a composite put together. the cartoon at the far left, i hope dyck and jack finally realize what their destiny hangs on. as if the two candidate wives are walking down a fashion runway. in the center image at the top, is the inauguration day, the morning of the kennedy inaugural, january of 1961. you have lady bird johnson, the incoming vice president's wife, and then the outgoing first lady, jackie kennedy, the incoming, and pack nixon, -- pat nixon, the outgoing vice president's wife. jackie kennedy commented on how attracted mrs. nixon appeared
that day at the inauguration what she called california style. pat nixon became first lady in an era according to newspaper coverage and i did a lot of research on for my book, and there was a wild and radical variety of clothing. women in pants and women in the miniskirts, women in maxi skirts which reached the floor. solid colors but also patterns of all kinds, and so pat nixon generally refrained from wearing some of the more radical look of the period, although she did wear a kind of a wild pattern dress. that was actually for a halloween party at the far right. then, what was a popular
beachwear at the time, lilly pulitzer, as she is seen in the center in florida with president nixon. pat nixon was described as wearing cherry, california colors, and one does find that her wardrobe, there is a strong element of oranges, greens, and yellows. the cherry colors that she always ended up going to as her best default choices. she very rarely except for the most solemn of occasions, would wear black because president nixon, dislikes seeing women in black. he said it reminded him of some of the more severe aspects of his childhood and upbringing. she try to always were -- were
the clothes that reflected california. she was also, and perhaps certainly more than any first lady before her, she wore the shortest skirts ever seen on a first lady. well above the knee. this was something commented on in the press again, at a time when people were trying to figure out what was appropriate. also, and what was inappropriate. mrs. nixon as i said, tended to moderate if you will, what was some of the more extreme fashions of the day, but you could even see in the white dress at the far right, at that point in history, this is mostly from 1969-1970, the first few years of the nixon presidency, she is appearing in
dresses shorter than any first lady had ever worn before. she told reporters that women invited to the white house was encouraged to wear as she put it, whatever they choose to be the most appropriate and appealing on them. she in fact, made reference to some of the issues of the era, like roe versus wade, like the equal rights amendment, and like the idea of a woman on the supreme court. three issues that pat nixon supported as first lady, that it was the year of choice for women. you certainly did see that, not only with the women guest who came to the white house, some of whom wore long dresses, and some of whom wore trouser suits,
and to some of those who wore these very short dresses as you see here at an evening reception that the first lady held with two of her guests. you also saw that reflected in her daughters, who tended to were very short dresses in the beginning of the presidency although julie stuck to the minidress, tricia began to adopt the maxi dress and appropriately enough, mrs. nixon seemed to settle on what was called the mid i -- mid dress. the question of how short the dress-up pat nixon was, it become public regulation and kai of a point of cultural reference, and one magazine
looking at some of the dresses she was seen in, and trying to examine exactly what the length of her him was. -- dress was. while her daughters was shopping in new york for a wardrobe, that mrs. nixon complimented her daughter julie when she tried on a green miniskirt, and it was in the showroom of a designer in new york at the time, and the nixons at the time lived in new york, and julie told her mom, why don't you try it on because they were the exact same size. from the best that we could find, that is how it is that mrs. nixon came to the minidress. she also adapted another style
has started, or was believed to have started, in southern california, in the glendale area. soma clown's -- some accounts claim it started in london. what mrs. nixon did was work with the designers and taking different motives -- motives from those granny dresses which evoke more of a rustic feel, and adapted it to her own style. of course she was first lady, so she could not appear at receptions in one of those gunnysack dresses. but she did adapted, and it looked quite flattering on her. she was also a first lady unusual from all of her predecessors and that she literally touched people when
pat nixon went along the --. when pat nixon went along the rope line, she hugged and touched people. what this led to words or asking designers to begin making dresses with large pockets because many people gave her letters or notes for her or for the president, and she did not want to be an intermediary editing them out, or not giving them to her. what i think is a guiding principle of pat nixon as first lady is this idea of serving the people. in every way, and it was subtle, but you begin to see
the five years she served as first lady, and it was about making the white house as accessible to the public and the common man and woman as much that was possible, and as much security would permit. so, you really dizzy, especially when she traveled alone and with the security detail was not as intense, as it actually is whenever you travel with the president. you really see her genuinely and warmly interacting with people. of course perhaps her most iconic piece of clothing was the red overcoat that she wore to china while accompanying the president on his his story 1972 visit. this took place at the very same year that american
households at that point had more color tvs than black and white in 1972. it also came in the time when the technology of film was giving way to video. so, there was a more immediate ability to transmit footage, light footage, and it was not just americans, but people all over the world who was watching the footage in the video that was coming back each day from china with pat nixon in her bright red coat. you have to remember, not only was it of course an eye-popping color, but at the time, all
chinese citizens, male and female, they were expected to dress uniformly, in either drab green or dark blue. and with all of the men who were traveling with her husband's official entourage, being in black or dark navy or other dark colors, pat nixon really was the bright spot of the visit to china. many questions -- many questioned that somehow this was a nod to communism because as some reporters who went on the trip noted, as they was leaving the airport of beijing, the only sign of color was the massive propaganda posters that
surrounded the perimeter of the airport, and those was all in the bright red of communist china. if that, mrs. dixon later suggested that she wore that red as a sign of peace, and good luck. the good luck, the symbolism of red as a goodbye good luck, in the chinese culture, is far ancient proceeded by hundreds of years. in the fall of 1971, pat nixon breaks another cultural taboo. she is the first lady who is seen wearing pants. with the nixon presidency started, there was
articles about whether or not women who worked at the white house would be allowed to wear pants. the word came down that the president did not want any one wearing pants in the white house. mrs. nixon did not wear pants in the white house itself. but she gave a and granted a very extensive interview for abc, virginia share would was a reporter who did an hour-long special on the first lady, and with the portions that were filled at the nixon home in san clemente, overlooking the pacific ocean, mrs. dixon was their own film and that national tv special wearing pants. you see the picture of her in the upper left-hand corner there, from that interview.
several months later in january 1972, ladies home journal feature the first lady in a fashion spread in there, she was posed in two of the five fashion spreads, also wearing pants. as if to signal that this was not just a mere coincidence, but a conscious thing that the first lady was doing. are the two images here that you see that match below on the far left, that is a rather famous image of the president and mrs. nixon walking along the pacific right outside of san clemente. there is the first lady in a windbreaker, a pair of black slacks, and a kerchief. that image was chosen to be used
on president nixon's reelection campaign, the poster that was talking about his environmental protection. really is sure to environmental protection laws that came in under president nixon, and that is the one from the poster, you can perhaps tell on the far left. this is something going out to the supporters of the president. at that time, in 1972, running against george mcgovern, richard nixon had the base of more conservative voters. it was really a little bit of a gentle push to depict the first lady of the united states publicly, on a campaign poster, wearing pants. then, that september 1972, pat nixon went to a national park
celebrating its centennial, and she was there to mark the centennial of the national park system, and there she is wearing a pair of pants at a public ceremony. do got four times in a year, it makes it rather clear that she is not only more comfortable wearing what she wants to wear, but sending a cultural and somewhat of a political statement. it is gentle, but it is firm. she still liked to try and get out to shop, mrs. dixon said in her interview, because she liked to keep current and to see what the stores was selling and what prices they was going
for. because she was first lady of course, and always travel with a security entourage, it was not always something that she was able to do easily. in november 1973, president nixon addressed the nation from the oval office about the oncoming winter and the shorter national supply of home heating oil. also, how everyone in the country would have to, on a volunteer basis, put together and reduce the temperatures in the home to save on oil, and this was a message that he reaffirmed in his 1974 state of the union address. it was then perhaps no accident that mrs. nixon appeared at the
state of the union address wearing a warm sweater suit for the first time in the public. in the spring of 1974, pat nixon made a trip to several south american countries, and she began wearing some of the new blends, as she liked to call them, the non-crushable's of synthetic fabric, that allowed her to travel more easily without concern for wrinkles in the closing. again, that was also a reflection of a popular trend at the time, polyester blends, cotton blends. but those was most evidence on that trip in the series of appearances she made. in june, june 1974, she had
accompanied president nixon on a multi-nation trip to the middle east. for the very first time, an american first lady, this was in saudi arabia, and pat nixon chose as was her prerogative, to not wear a head covering. while there was a little bit of criticism in saudi arabia, it was certainly something uncommon to the american press, and what had the effect of doing was setting a precedent. so that any subsequent first lady who went to saudi arabia chose not to wear a head covering. pat nixon and betty ford was friends of long-standing as a
result of their husbands both being in congress together. there was something called marching and charter club. it was kind of a social club for congressional and senate families. this is how the two women became friends. betty ford later said in an interview with me the day that her husband assumed the presidency was one of the saddest for her. certainly she said she was not thinking of herself and the sun responsibilities that was upon her shoulders, but she was really sadden shot and the departure of her friend, pat nixon. betty ford was truly not prepared to be first lady. in many of her appearances, her
apparel, and what was her initial weeks and months as first lady, what we really saw was what she really was, a suburban mother. she wore rather simple design clothing, but also made a point and was not embarrassed whatsoever, to mention the fact that she and her husband did not have much discretionary income. so betty ford remarked that she bought everything up until that time off of the rack. she did have a special friend in alexandria, virginia, not far from the ford home, who had a dress shop.
he designed some dresses for mrs. ford, and popularize the scarf. so the next scarf actually became one of those trademark icons of this particular first lady, and in many photographs of betty ford, you will see that she is wearing a scarf. she also had a preference for the low-cut mandarin color chinese dress and there was an -- an important reason for this. a month after she became first lady, she discovered that she had breast cancer. it required surgery and the removal of one of her breast. she told the american cancer society that once a person has had breast cancer, is elated of course to discover that their life has been saved, and there
is a second part to dealing with breast cancer, and the sense of a stigma of some kind of disfigurement. so she pointed out that she liked to wear low-cut dresses as a way of evidencing that it did not mean a woman was unable to wear whatever she wanted. she discussed it publicly, and continued to wear this particular style. because there was not a ford inauguration, it was that green mandarin color dress at the far right that represented mrs. ford in the smithsonian collection. mrs. ford also tended to wear a lot of capes and drapery and i
think the one there on the far left, it definitely marks the arrow well. -- era well. but it was something, another little trademark during her time in the white house. she also sported some of the other changes that was going on culturally with women's clothing. this sweater or shirt or blouse that you see on the right, and the sort of open collar, which was more of a unisex style on the left. of course, the bicentennial. betty ford said that she tried to reframe from getting too corny about wearing bicentennial
apparel in 1976, but there was some notable exceptions. a dress that had a motive of an american eagle which is now in the gerald ford library. mrs. ford unlike many of her predecessors, broke away from the kind of first lady tradition of wearing a solid monochromatic color. she loved all kinds of different patterns from plaids to florals, zigzags, geometric designs, and even some sort of piping as you see in the yellow dress above and the blue one below, or the red piping that she wore on the actual bicentennial day of july 4,
1976. that is a little bit of an overview of these two women and what they wore, and why they were it. i would say in concluding, not just two days later, but the series, that i start where i began own this stage, and it was on this stage in 1990, that i had a chance, not only chat as it turned out, to interact as i put it with pat nixon. it was the night before the richard nixon presidential library museum was dedicated, and there was a reception for the former nixon white house staff. at that point, i had written my two books and mrs. nixon, although very frail and not doing interviews, agreed to answer questions that i submitted in writing to her through her daughter julie.
both with the help of helen smith, who i knew in washington was mrs. dixon's press secretary, and julie, they let mrs. nixon know that i would be in the audience, and i was single to her, and she was signaled to me, and i was seated in about the third or fourth row, when she came out, and i nodded and she gave me a big wink and a way. i really got to know betty ford well, and i must say perhaps breaking the boundary of professionals and it really came to love as a friend, that i visited her many times at her home in the desert before president ford became very frail, and of course he died in 2006, but mrs. ford had a great love of history and a love of the history of first lady's.
she spoke often about her affection for pat nixon. although between the two of them, they only represent about eight years in the white house and in recent times, from bill clinton to george w. bush to barack obama, we have had this unusual historical occurrences, and three consecutive presidencies of eight years. so it is easy to forget the nixon and ford years, which like the johnson and kennedy years, but i think that pat nixon and betty ford served in the white house at a time of enormous change and they was agents of a gentle turn toward the future. thank you very much.[ applause ]
>> well done. thank you carl. call is going to take a couple of question, so we will do that now. just raise your hand and i do want to ask the first one. call is the author of more than a dozen books, and his latest one, why they were the -- why they wore it? i think i will be excited if you buy it. but this was done in four months. can you tell us a little bit about that experience doing this book in four months? >> i don't know if i should. [ laughter ] >> it was insane. [ laughter ] >> it really was. yet, everybody was doing their part, and i would send images
and photographs and they would say we have to try and find one that is public domain, and so there was various staff members here who is very diligent in tracking down that event and finding an image, and there was a lot of back and forth, and now favorite moment of the whole thing was a few days after 4 july when my sister and her husband and my knees was going down to disneyland and visiting from the east coast, and i said you need to go down to anaheim to get these photographs to our book producers. diana, who is here today, i think it was one of those days, and it was 110 degrees. the only place that the air- conditioning was was at the
motel 6 in anaheim. we all went to disneyland and diane and i was trying to coordinate were, and i remembered and i was on the phone i think with jim, and i was seated in a section of like the california experience there for kids, and it was a little plastic kids chair, and i was taking notes, and it was a meeting in cheryl's office, and there was crayons and coloring books, and it was 110 degrees, lathered in sun block, and i was taking notes, and it with crazy. i now know what clinical exhaustion is. at the end of the day, we all knew that we wanted to get the best product
and there was only so much room for information on the panel which would be on the wall with the exhibit. there was only so much information that could be conveyed in the lecture. so really the book is a summary of a really compact history of this particular topic. >> thank you carl. our first question. >> i would like to thank you for a very important lecture. secondly, i was coming to the exhibition, to see why the recent first ladies, it is not in the lobby? >> except for the it was really rare and extraordinary, and we have some intermediaries to
thank for that because it was a really amazing gesture. i did an exhibit here in the 1990s olivia's not here today. i said what if we -- this was in the 1990s. hillary clinton was in the white house. i said what if we went to hillary clinton and asked us to loan us her wedding dress. it was such a crazy idea. we did it and sure enough she said yes and they had to find it in some storage unit in arkansas. but that really was wonderful because it kind of set a precedent for this. so it was so generous of mrs. trump to loan that dress. but the others are reproductions of course and -- of the smithsonian collection.
and the collection we borrowed it from only has the collection going up to barbara bush. so there's nothing of hillary clinton's, laura bush's, or michelle obama's. >> next question. >> this is very good. thank you very much. i wondered because jackie o nas is was famous for her pill box hat and then there were no more hats worn by -- at least in the display here, by pat nixon or betty ford. is that the time period of no more hats? >> you are very observant and very spot-on correct. lady bird johnson wore a hat famously to her husband's 1965 inauguration, swearing in ceremony when she was the first to hold a bible. pat nixon decided against it. she did not want to wear a hat.
that set a precedent. i'm glad you mentioned it. there's only so much -- you know, you can mention, but there's a lot of little things that mrs. nixon did in terms of her choices of what she wore that indicated this really frankly independent streak that she was going to do things her way. and actually, the hats started back again with hillary clinton, but it was as a sun protector. so it's funny. hillary-- so -- associated with being involved in policy and rather than clothing and fashion, brings back the hat for first ladies, but as a form of sun protection. >> we will take one last question and then afterwards, i ask that you follow our docents down to the east room where we're going to be having lunch. with that, our last question. >> who would you consider the
best dressed first lady of all time in dress and, second, who would you consider the one with the most influence on dress? >> i think there's no question that jaqueline kennedy had the most influence because it was a global influence. you'll sigh in the book two images that speak to that. one shows that even in the midst of the cold wear, behind the iron curtain, there were soviet women's magazines showing off the jackie look, which is so extraordinary. and secondly, when she appeared in a leopard coat, there was such a instant global demand near leopard coats that the leopard was placed on the endangered species list. so, i mean, it was -- it was -- and, you know, it was big
business. and-- and -- and it was just -- and i could go on about that. you'll see more about that in the book. as far as the best dressed, you know, each era really does speak to that. i'm also -- as i said at the beginning of this project, i don't know a lot about fashion per se. and i'm not even all that interested -- i say that with all great respect -- for what is a craft and business and an important industry, but but the politics and popular culture that it reflects or as a statement about, that is what i know about. i'm not necessarily the best judge, as you can tell by my own clothing, of what looks good on people, men or women. but i do think that each era -- for example, mrs. haring really, you know, captured the spirit of the roaring 20s and the new woman as they recall,
just given the right to vote. and grace coolidge also wearing the short skirts of the flapperrer a kind of what mrs. nixon did, modulating what were some of the more exaggerated things. bess truman is kind of fun because she wore gray, she wore navy blue and wore clothes to make a statement to say don't pay any attention to me. thank you very much. >> carl, thank you. we'll see you all in the east room. i hope you enjoy your lunch. [cheers & applause]. every weekend, american history tv brings you 48 hours of unique programming exploring
our nation's past. to view our schedule and an archive of all our programs, visit cspan.org/history. c span, where history unfolds daily. in 1979, c span was created as a public service by america's cable television company and today we continue to bring you unfiltered coverage of congress, the white house, the supreme court and public policy events in washington, d.c. and around the country. c span is brought to you by your cable or satellite provider. each week, american artifacts takes you to museums and historic places to learn about american history. here's a brief look at one of our recent trips. >> we found out about this -- well, in 1931, dr. tyler who is
the president of the college of william and mary and the son of john tyler came across papers at the new york public library. they chronicled the journey across the atlantic and once they landed. dr.tyler was excited to find this as he lived on the james river and close to the berkeley plantation. he wrote an article in 1931 about his find and i think this is the first time people really realized the first thanksgiving had happened in virginia and not in massachusetts, as many people believed. so he wrote his article. and then he told his neighbor, who was mack jameson at the time who owned berkeley plantation about his discovery. years later, the jameson family invited the woodly family to the plantation to celebrate the
historic event that happened on their land. the woodly family started meeting in 1958 and three years later opened it to the public. today as we celebrating this, we celebrate it with the virginia thanksgiving festival that has been held for the last 57 years. it recreates the first thanksgiving. also other colonial games and things take purpose. we have been reenacting that thanksgiving ever since 1958, as they wered in the initial papers. once captain woodly left england, they had given him instructions to do 10 things. the very first thing was when he landed to say thanks for their safe journal and he to do that perpetually and annually. that's why -- we think that is the reason they did that and it's the official first thanksgiving is because it was
ordered by england. other thanksgivings in the new world were spontaneous, not any specific orders from anyone. although the pilgrims had orders from their colony governor, william bradford. the one in berkeley was to be done perpetually and annually, which it was. that makes the difference between thing this at berkeley and how it differs from the pilgrims in massachusetts and other thanksgivings at the time. plus it was two years earlier. >> travel with us to historic sites, museums and archives. each sunday at 6:00 p.m. and 10:00 p.m. eastern. on our weekly series american artifacts. this is american history tv, all weekend on c span 3. according to cbs news, a 1967 gallop poll found that more than 6 in 10 americans believe there was more than one gunman involved in the
assassination of president kennedy on november 22nd, 1963. in an effort to document lingering controversies and investigate unanswered questions, cbs news broadcast 4 one-hour specials between june 25th and june 28th 1967. next on real america, part one of a cbs news inquiry, the warren report, anchored by walter cronkite, the first program sets out to answer the question: did lee harvey oswald shoot president kennedy. this is about 50 minutes. this is what a rifle man would see from a 6th floor window if he tracked an automobile down elm street and dealey plaza, dallas, texas. this is a marksman firing three shots from a rifle at a target below him and