tv 50th Anniversary of Apollo 8 CSPAN December 29, 2018 10:50pm-12:01am EST
american history tv, ceremony commemorating the 50th anniversary of the mission. the event includes thoughts by religious leaders, a chorale, remarks by the nasa administrator and director of the national air and space museum. this is just over one hour. host: good evening. i am the dean of washington national cathedral. on behalf of the episcopal bishop of the diocese of washington and all of us who serve the cathedral, it is a yousure to welcome tonight. you are always welcome here. thatld love to point out we are blessed enough to be the
stewards of our very own piece of the moon at the cathedral, that is embedded in our space window on the south side of the keep the drum -- south side of the cathedral. final preparations were underway for an historic spaceflight that would change not only what we are capable of as a species, but a flight that changed the very way we see ourselves and our planet. this amazing mission that i ,ould call a pilgrimage revealed not only the dark side of the moon, but it gave us the most powerful images of our small and fragile world. in anprecious gift, awash unimaginably large universe. i think of it as a holy journey,
not only for what it but also what it revealed about our place in god's grand creation. we are proud to have you here to celebrate this profound event. and godu for coming bless you. it is my pleasure to introduce the director of the smithsonian national air and space museum. thank you. [applause] ellen: thank you. washington national cathedral is the site of some of our most important commemoration the american space program. we are honored to be here this evening to celebrate our first voyage to another world.
on december 21, 1968, 3 men, one of home with us tonight climbed atop the most powerful rocket belt and launched toward the moon. lovell, and, jim bill landers were the first people to ride in the giant saturn five and the first to travel beyond earth orbit, the spaceflight to that point had venture just 475 miles from earth. the crew of apollo 8 would fly a quarter of a million miles, farther from their homes and families than any explorers in history. was not supposed to reach the moon, it was going to be an earth orbit test flight, but satellite photos had shown our rivals in the space race readying their lunar rocket, tobled decision was made
take our first mode shot. it was a last-minute mission undertaken by a country shaken by division and civil unrest at home, and a long war abroad. the call was not made lightly or in haste. there was the culmination of eight years of concentrated faithal effort and faith, in the program and its people, faith in the hardware and the astronauts, and the faith that we could rise to meet the challenge of a young president who would not be there to complete the journey with us. and it would all play out live on television at christmas. nasa told commander frank borman wouldhe crew of apollo 8 have the largest audience than ever listened to a human voice. their only instruction was, do something appropriate. and so on christmas eve, our first envoys to another world
read the story of creation from the book of genesis. although the first flight to the moon was undertaken by americans in the year 1968, the crew understood they were speaking to and for all of the people of the and they do their words would echo far into the future. this was the start of something new. so they returned to the very beginning. an estimated one billion people watched the broadcast. i was seven years old moment parents -- i was seven years old but my paris let my sister and i stay up to watch. humans had never traveled so far from home but it was happening in our living room, three brave astronauts in white flight suits orbiting the moon, and i joined them in my pajamas in front of quintessential,
1960's christmas tree. it seemed like magic. but the magic wasn't circling the moon, that was technology, skill and gumption. the magic was happening on the ground, all over the world and a million living rooms just like mine. apollo 8 was full of surprises. we knew we were going to the moon, but hearing the story of creation beaming down to us on christmas eve, even the steely eyed directors in mission control wept. thewe know the positions of earth and moon in space, but no one was fully prepared for the majestic sight of our planet rising over the lunar horizon. was ouro of earthrise first look at our home in the
cosmos and greeted us all from every news stand in the closing hours of a very troubled ear. many people -- very troubled year. recovered seeing it for the first time with the one word caption, dawn. the message was clear, it has been a long night, but the light is coming. the voice of jim lovell, coming around the far side of the moon, houston, please be informed, there is a santa claus. the way the world experienced reminded us that there were real people like us up there, amid the towering rockets and gleaming spacecraft. all along on what
president kennedy had called our greatest adventure. of theipal architect soviet space program, the very people we work racing to the moon, said the mission went beyond the limits of a national achievement, it marked a stage in the development of a universal culture of earth. in the midst of a race between rival superpowers, we found a defining moment of unity. some of our bravest pilots and sailors, writing atop repurposed weapons of war, delivered a message of peace for all humankind. .hat was the spirit of apollo centuries after it began, we understand the ramifications of the age of discovery. marked the dawn of a new age of exploration, but 50 years later we can't say where this great adventure will lead
. our mission now extends far beyond the horizon, and the new world we seek to explore are more than metaphors. when i graduated from college there were nine known planets. now there are thousands of newly-found worlds, and solar systems across the galaxy. circle the moon, there were 3.5 billion people on earth, and only 6% of the americans had color televisions. 50 years later, the world population has doubled, and we are connected in ways walter cronkite could never have imagined in 1968. how will we experience the first steps on mars? if the world stopped in awe and self reflection when our astronauts took first steps on moreoon, whatthe legacy of apos
of the moment send peace and unity we celebrate tonight. it is a conversation about how and why we keep exploring and what we owe ourselves and each other in a world where the sky is no longer the limit. and how we treat a planet that hangs like a blue marble in space. last week the world gathered here in washington national cathedral to say goodbye to an american president who celebrated that legacy with his own challenge, 30 years ago resident george h.w. bush stood on the steps of the air and space museum and said you who are the children of a new century, raise your eyes to the heavens and join us in a great dream, and american dream, a dream without end. when you enter the cathedral, the moon was in the same waxing crescent that shines down on the
world on christmas eve 1968. i hope you looked up around 6:30 p.m. and saw the space station passing above this very cathedral. moon was the the finish line. the price of apollo was not the moon. it was a world in which we could reach into the celestial sphere and find a new connection with the firmament. after centuries of dreaming, the limit of our ambitions was no longer rounded by the distance from the earth to the moon. outside the museum, president bush concluded in the decades ahead we will travel to neighboring stars, new worlds, discover the unknown. it will not happen in my lifetime. a dream to be realized by future generations must begin with this generation.
we are here to celebrate the 50th anniversary of one of history's highest achievements and begin to answer the question of where we go next. if the moon is within our grasp, nothing is beyond our reach. we must decide together where to start. tonight we find yourselves like that christmas eve in the beginning. ♪
it looks like clouds. jim, what have you thought about? similar.ughts were it is on spidering. -- awe-inspiring. it makes you realize what you have on earth. the earth is a grand oasis. >> pill, what do you think? >> the lunar sunrise and sunset. it is very stark. the sky is pitch black. ae best way to describe it is vastness of black and white. no color. ♪
and the earth was without form and void and darkness was upon the face of the deep. and the spirit of god moved upon the face of the waters and god said let there be light. and there was light. and god saw the light, that it was good, and god divided the light from the darkness. white day in the the darkness he called night. in the morning was the first day. divide thet us waters. god made the firmament and divided the waters which were under the firmament, the waters which were above the firmament. and it was so. and god called the firmament heaven. that was the second day.
in the beginning, god created the heavens and the earth. the earth was without form and void and darkness was upon the face of the deep. was brooding god over the face of the waters and god said let there be light. and there was light. be, and we were, and are. later, on four different shores, another poet, a preacher, to be precise, a late preacher in america, 18th century, preached on that
first chapter of genesis that our astronauts read from. and that sermon and sermons like it handed down in fields of y put in a finally in i book, poetry from their preaching. thein one of those poems, creation. the old preacher interpreted what genesis was talking about and told the story of creation and said it this way, and god stepped out on space and looked around and said i'm lonely. i think i will make meal world. -- make me a world.
that old preacher, whoever that was, captured something deep in .he text of genesis this is god's world. we are here because the great andalmighty looked back said i'm lonely. i will make me a world. deep in the fabric of this creation we are a part of it. not the sum total of it. t'sput it another way, i not all about us. we are part of a greater whole, part of god's world. god stepped out on space and looked around on the vast nothingness and said i'm lonely. i'll make me a world.
he's got the whole world in his hands. you know that song? he's got the whole world in his hands. truth is, the truth is, we were made for a relationship with god who created us and relationships with each other as children of the one god who created us and relationships with this world. this creation that god has made. i'm going to tell you, i know you did not come here to go to church. god made this world. god actually loves and cares about it. if you don't believe me, ask jesus. him, youn't believe have a higher authority to answer to. john chapter three, verse 16, god so loved the world he gave his only son.
the greek word to translate world in that text is cosmos. cosmos, thatthe christmas happened. truth is, we were made for god, each other, and this creation. world in hiswhole hands. you and me, sisters, brothers, in his hand. he's got the little baby in his hands. comegot generations yet to in his hands. in 1968, three human beings summoned incredible courage,
mounted on great wisdom and knowledge, and flew to the moon. a quarter million miles away readhome, they almost, i about it, i think almost by eheld something no other human being had seen before. fromsaw the earth rising the lunar landscape. they saw it. around, i guess. i don't know. they had to find a camera. they took a picture. film.ad to find the color they put it in and they got it in and they thought the earth had disappeared. they got a picture, the first time we have seen mother earth rising. i wonder if when they
look at his beauty. look at its wonder. behold. your world. some have said that was a moment that changed human cottages and is forever -- human consciousness forever. an article in "the guardian" said that up to the time when we first saw that picture of earthrise, we humans thought the earth was just the thing beneath our feet. in that picture, we beheld a w orld of which we are a part. not the whole. photograph said that was one of the most 100 most
impactful photographs in all of human history. said theve environmental movement to save our planet had its key photograph from that , that reading of genesis. the spirit of apollo 8. every few years the archbishop of canterbury summons the bishops of the anglican to come to canterbury ofhedral for a period prayer and consultation. we gathered the last time in 2008. some 800 of us from every
continent on this blessed planet . we gathered at canterbury cathedral and we prayed and we studied and we debated and discussed. with each day set aside for a particular topic of faith and life. devoted to the church and environment. we were invited because we were bishops from every country on the face of the earth. changeider the impact of of climate on our lives and cultures and world. from thehe bishops southern hemisphere had a much more to say than we from the north and west.
i remember bishops from tanzania, once spoke of looking andt mount kilimanjaro seeing the snowcapped peaks. and now looking up the snowcapped peaks are not what they once were. bishops from zimbabwe, once the bread basket of africa, now the drought and the growing seasons are diminishing. something is changing around them. struck me in particular from the pacific, from the south pacific, he was the bishop of the solomon islands. he stood up in our small group of 40 bishops and introduced himself as the bishop of the solomon islands.
rememberedd that, i president kennedy who inspired the apollo missions. i remembered as a little boy going with my daddy to see pt 1009 and i remembered when their boat was shipwrecked in battle that they went to the solomon islands and found dryland. the bishop of the solomon islands stood up and said to us, you who are american, you have the power. please help us. our islands are sinking. ur governments are in consultation with new zealand and australia to figure out how to save the people of the
islands when the ocean rises and the islands sink. please. we need your help. we need your knowledge. we need your strength. we need your help. we have beenaid, your friends before. saved your president, john kennedy, in the second world war. you to save us. sisters, we are part of one world. ago, whatg said long affects one directly affects us all indirectly.
in inescapable networks, bound together in a single garment of destiny. you will hear later in this program the words of sir richard "if theough who said greatest legacy of that first flight to the moon was the discovery of the earth, then maybe our responsibility to that legacy is to protect this earth, stars."s among the my brothers, my sisters, my siblings, made this commemoration be a moment of the
consecration -- re consecration and dedication to mount on s to explore new worlds. to seek out knowledge. the greato mobilize knowledge of science and technology and the wisdom of humanity to mobilize it now. this oasis, our island home. so from this 50th commemoration night, good good christmas, and may god bless us all on this good earth.
he's got the whole world in his hands he's got the whole world in his hands he's got the whole world in his hands whole world in his hands. world in hiswhole hands he's got the whole world in his hands he's got the whole world in his hands world in hiswhole hands ♪ god love you. god bless you. may god hold us all in those
almighty hands of love. >> hello. bridenstine and i want to thank ellen stofan. you and your team have done a magnificent job and i have enjoyed is so far. if we could get a round of applause for ellen stofan and the national air and space museum. [applause] how about the most reverend michael curry? was you are speaking, i thinking, i've got to come after this guy. you havemazing job
done representing how important this mission was to all of us. not just the united states of america, but the entire world. it is true that god does hold the whole world in his hands. thank you for reminding us of that important message. i want to share with you a little history before apollo 8. 1967,back to apollo 1, which resulted in a fire during a test and that killed three of our best astronauts. that was 1967. 668 we had the apollo d.ssion, which was uncrewe it was also a failure. parts of the first stage of the apollo 6 mission fell off the rocket. the second stage only three of the five engines ignited and module,al stage, the
the single engine that would need to be reignited over and over again on a trip to the moon failed to reignite even once. the spacecraft barely made it to orbit and it did not achieve the velocity necessary to test the heat shield as though it were coming back from the moon. by the way, that single engine that had to be reignited on , it had to ignite to get to the moon, reignite to slow down in the lunar orbit, and reignite to change orbit, reignite to leave lunar orbit and correct that orbit, the trajectory, to come home. august, 1968, that failed to reignite even once.
we were in this massive contest of ideas. political ideas. we were in a contest of technology and economics between the united states and soviet union. the next dayst after apollo 6, word came the soviet union was going to be around the moon before the end of the year. in four months, we needed to be around the moon in 1968 after failure and apollo was note, although it declared so at the time. i want to talk about how unready we were to go to the moon. ready. control was not the trajectories had not been calculated. the crew had not been trained to go to the moon. flight controllers had not been trained.
we did not have the communication networks ready. and yet by the end of the year, nasa was determined we were going to get there before the end of the year. even more worrisome than all of mission, ifpollo 8 we were to achieve this objective, would be in orbit around the moon on christmas eve and on christmas day. in other words, if there was a failure here, it would wreck christmas for everybody in the united states and everybody in the world. and yet nasa rose to the occasion and took the risk. another important element we've heard about tonight, that lunar lander was not ready. we dropped it from the mission. itn i say we dropped it,
wasn't just we were not going to land on the moon, we did not have a lifeboat if that single engine failed to reignite. our astronauts would be on their way to their moon for the rest of their lives. given the life-support capabilities of that module, the rest of their lives would have been four days, maybe. we were willing to take the risk. the of what was at stake. nasa did take the risk. what is so amazing as we have eve,tonight, on christmas one out of every four people on listenearth tuned in to ande frank bormanr, and jim level as they reads, genesis. in the beginning, god created the heaven and the earth. their broadcast reached not just
tenst all of america, but of millions of people behind the iron curtain where christmas was illegal. and they reached them with a christmas message. and amazing tool of national power. soft power. we can change the perception of people all around the world with space exploration and discovery and science. in the what nasa did christmas of 1968. in a few minutes, i'm going to introduce one of my heroes, captain jim level. so, i want to talk about why tonight is important. we are remembering the apollo era of the 1960's and 1970's. at tonightlooking and thinking about the future.
what are we doing next? policy says we are going back to the moon. i want to be clear, we are going forward to the moon. we are doing it in a way that has never been done before. this time when we go, we are going to stay. this is not about leaving flags. we are going to go with a sustainable architecture where we can get back and forth to the moon over and over and over again and we are going to do it with commercial partners. international partners. there going to utilize resources of the moon. today we heard some of our astronauts three from genesis. they talked about in that was a firmament and god separated the waters from the waters. below the firm in it, that is --
firmament, empty space. from the waters above the firmament. from 1969, the first time we landed on the moon, a lot of people believed the moon was bone dry. we know there are hundreds of atlions of tons of water ice the polls. that represents water to drink, air to breathe, life-support, and hydrogen and oxygen, which is rocket fuel. in hundreds of billions of tons on the surface of the moon. that is an astonishing discovery. we now know we can utilize that as a resource so humanity can go further than ever before. in this architecture, we are familiar with happens when we reuse rockets. the cost goes down. we want to reuse the entire architecture from earth orbit to
lunar orbit. commanda reasonable module. permanently in orbit around the moon. we want to reasonable -- reusable landers that go back and forth over and over again. it landers, rovers, robots, and work inside this framework of a reusable architecture. it is also true this architecture is going to be open . the last time we did this, it was a contest of ideas. a contest between nations. this time it's going to be open in a way that any country on the planet can go on a website and see how we do communications, .ata, docking this will enable all the nations of the earth to participate in our return to the lunar surface. not just all the nations of the private individuals,
commercial companies that want to plug into that architecture in a commercial way. the idea being we are going to retire the risk and prove that technology, prove the capability , we are to prove the human physiology. is we are going to replicate as much of this as mars.le in our journey to that is what we're doing tonight. were talking about the apollo era with the night toward the future. just a few minutes ago we talked about the firmament in the water below and above, we now know when our astronauts on apollo 8 read the scripture, we did not know there was water anywhere other than her. there is a moon of jupiter and a europa.saturn and these moons are water worlds, available for us to go make new
discoveries and maybe even find out there's life on other worlds. we don't know. mars has a methane cycle that is commensurate with the seasons. it does not guarantee life, but increases the probability. mars has complex compounds on its surface. these discoveries were made in the last eight months. we are living in exciting times. but does not guarantee there is life on mars. we also know there is liquid water 10 kilometers below the surface of mars protected from the radiation. these are exciting times. , captain jimriend lovell talks about the waters above and below the firmament, we did not know it, but those words had very real meaning.
nasa is now following the water so we can make new discoveries and possibly discover life on a world not our own. the me tell you about jim lovell for a second. he is a navy pilot by trade. go navy. is a retired captain of the united states navy. he's also a veteran astronaut of and what we and 12 are celebrating tonight, apollo 8. he's even more famous for that movie called apollo 13. ladies and gentlemen, my good friend, captain jim lovell. [applause]
beginning with angry women threatening to burn their bras the street were on corners. i finished my second spaceflight 1960 six.r, i was looking forward to being involved in the apollo program. i did not pay any attention to what was happening outside nasa's gate. januaryrous fire in 1967 on the apollo 1 complex killed three friends and delayed apollo for 10 months. commitment to land on the moon by the end of the decade was in jeopardy. my next assignment was apollo 8. 1968, twofor december
check out the newly developed lunar module. my companions were frank borman and bill anders. rookie in this mission would give him an experience with the lunar module and later lunar flight. occurred in the summer of 1968. and thenged our mission history of apollo. moduleer of the lunar inform to nasa the lunar module would not be ready for delivery before 1969. suddenly apollo 8 did not have a mission. next we received intelligence from the russians planning to launch a manned lunar flight in
december 1968. they were serious. the spacecraft around the moon in september followed by another one in november. they were preparing for a manned flight in december. the manager of the apollo program had the idea, if apollo flightday earth orbit could certify the service module, if it is successful, launch on apollo 8 to the moon. not just to circumnavigate, but to go into lunar orbit. testing the navigation and communication systems, check the
effects of the moon's mass concentration on a spacecraft. for suitable future landing areas, provide photography and finally give america the uplifted needed. we had four months to prepare for the flight. nasa management had to be convinced the boosters still had problems. the navigation and communication systems needed upgrading. apollo 7 had to be successful. he had no interest in exploration. anders was disappointed not to test the lunar module, a step toward a lunar landing. delighted.
to me, this would be a lewis and clark expedition, exploring new territory on the moon's far side. it all came together on the early morning of december 21, 1968. crossing the bridge to the launch tower to the spacecraft, the lightfeet below of the press vehicles. i realized i'm actually going to the moon. all that navigational training was for real. 7:21, apollo 8 started its journey. there had been no sign of a wrench and lunch -- of a russian launch. on a longr put us orbit, intercepting the moon in three days.
orbit on thenar dark side. the moon nowhere to be seen. orbit, shards to of sunlight started to illuminate the craters 60 miles below. side was bathed in sunlight and we stared in silence as the ancient far side creators -- craters slowly passed underneath. that part of the moon that had been hidden from man for millions of years. it.ing up, i saw the earth. a blue and white ball just above 240,000 milesizon, away. my world is only as
far as the eye can see. trees can hills, restrict my world. in cities, tall buildings define my world. and in this cathedral, my world walls.within these seeing the earth at 240,000 miles, my world expanded to infinity. i put my thumb to the window and completely hid the earth. think, over 3 billion oceans,mountains, deserts, everything i ever knew was behind my thumb. as i observed the earth, i
realized my home was a small planet. one of nine in a solar system. it is just a speck in our milky and lost to oblivion in the universe. i began to question my own existence. how do i fit in to what i see? i remembered a saying i had often heard, i hope to go to heaven when i die. heaven when went to i was born. i arrived on a planet with the proper mass to contain water and atmosphere. the essentials for life. i arrived on a planet orbiting a star at just the right distance to exhort that energy, energy
that caused life to you golf -- evolve in the beginning. in my mind the answer was clear, god gave mankind a stage upon which to perform. how the play ends is up to us. , landmarks came into view. walls, the see of ,ertility, the mountain range the sea of tranquility. smalld mount maryland, a triangular mountain that would soon be the steppingstone for the first lunar landing.
means, the flight of apollo eight was a complete success. all spacecraft functioned as planned. navigation and communication operations proved their worth. the timing of the flight, orbiting the moon at christmas, provided a spiritual environment to read the first 10 verses of genesis to an audience on earth. thean got his wish to beat russians to the moon. a celebrity for his famous photo, providing evidence that many nations are but one world. as for me, the flight prepared me for my next mission, apollo 13. that's another story. [laughter] thats the american public received the greatest gift.
after a year of controversy, apollo 8 gave them a reason to be american. the flight of apollo 8 can be expressed by a telegram received by the crew. , you savedd thanks 1968. the following july, i was asked to escort charles bloomberg to watch the launch of apollo 11. as we listened to the countdown, i said take a look at that rocket. the spacecraft on top will try to land on the moon. i could tell he was in deep thought. his mind elsewhere. i suspect he was thinking of his flightage, that perilous from new york to paris. apollo 11e asked,
will be quite an accomplishment. your flight, apollo 8, that initial 240,000 mile voyage from the earth to the moon, that is the flight i will remember. [applause] >> i remember the first time i saw earth, our brilliant planet suspended in cold space. i realized how isolated and lonely we are here on earth. despite the vast distance that made the photograph possible, we had not lost our connection with the natural world. we had rediscovered it. we saw for the first time our
one home together in the cosmos. the apollo program overcame immense odds to accomplish something extraordinary. one of history's greatest competitions, the race between powerful nations resulted in a grand voyage of discovery made in peace for all humankind. the journey of apollo 8 marked a dawn of awareness. 50 years later we are at high noon and the hour for decision and action is at hand. if the greatest legacy of the first flight to the moon was the discovery of earth, our responsibility to that legacy is to protect our oasis among the stars, the one home to all known life. reflectst of apollo
some of the best parts of human nature. our curiosity and creativity. and our unwillingness to accept impossibility. usas that seem to defy instead unite and inspire us. once united, any feasible goal is within our grasp. our ambition far takes us, through unknown challenges and opportunities, let us remember the moment we left earth for the first time discoverook back and what was truly precious. however far we may travel, what will always matter most is home. and all of us together, all of us here, on the good earth. ♪
>> thank you for coming tonight. god bless and keep you always and may we always be reaching for the stars. thank you. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2018] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> you are watching american history tv on c-span3. this weekend on american artifacts, we visit the u.s. holocaust memorial museum in washington, d.c. to see the americans and the holocaust exhibit which focuses on the 1930's and the lead up to world
war ii. here's a preview. about theaks out aftermath of the attack. this is his handwritten sp eech.he has written on the bottom hand, i can scarcely believe such things could occur in the 20th century. in many other ways, our government response is limited. he is asked in a press 1938,ence a week after, whether he would recommend a relaxation of immigration restrictions. fdr says we have the quota system. he recalls thet, ambassador at the urging of his secretary of labor, he extends visitor visas for about
12,000. there is no political will to try to liberalize immigration system, the quota system in ristallnacht. billt wagner introduces a to let in 10,000 jewish children a year, outside of the immigration quota. what use the is the american this ins told about 1939, should we let in refugee children? and you see two thirds of inricans are against letting refugee children. eleanor roosevelt is a champion of this bill. she says other countries are taking their share of the children and we should too. fdrwrites this telegram to
asking him if he's going to ifak out about the bill or she should speak about it. fdr responds, all right for you to support eight, best for me to say nothing. speak out on behalf of the bill. the opponents of the bill are led by robert reynolds from north carolina. democratic white southerners are deeply anti-immigration. they don't want to let in immigrants. he argues american children have their own problems. we need to take care of american children before foreign children. finish the tour and learn more about americans and the holocaust. this sunday at 6:00 p.m. on american artifacts. you are watching american history tv, only on c-span3. q&a --ay on
>> we are on the floor of the united states senate. no one else has an opportunity to do this. it is for a documentary on the senate, on the floor before they begin. afterward we will come back down on the floor. truly special. the c-span executive producer talks about his work on the original production "the senate: conflict and compromise." >> if mitch mcconnell suggested this, how much control did he have? >> >> zero. when we first met, we had a couple conditions. we want access to democrats and one of complete control over
this. they said that was fine with they did not want us to focus on the acrimony. cannot ask us to do that, because we are going to focus on it, we cannot shy away from it. we need to make a product that we feel people can say and say ok they didn't give a big wet kiss, we've also got to be able to watch it and so you didn't do a hatchet job on -- either. , on c-span'ss original production, sunday night on -- at eight eastern. next, on lectures in history, university of nevada las vegas professor michael green teaches a class on abraham lincoln and the 1816 -- 1860 political election.