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tv   Martin Luther King Jr. I Have a Dream Speech  CSPAN  February 24, 2019 1:43pm-2:54pm EST

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understand the decision of who he was, it's very, very powerful, to take him out of just being a black college president, and making him, really understanding his role as a racial uplifter, from really about 1890 to 1947. steve: thank you for telling the story. >> on august 20 8, 1963, an estimated 250,000 people gathered at the lincoln memorial to demand civil rights legislation in the march on washington for jobs and freedom. , columnists commemorate junior's 90thking birthday by discussing the 1963 march and is i have a dream speech.
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the cleveland park library and washington, d.c. hosted this event. it is about 65 minutes. about 65 minutes. >> good evening and welcome. thank you for joining us at the d.c. public library in celebration of martin luther king jr. week. please visit our websites for more information about our, and a week -- mlk week programming and resources. tonight we present a discussion on the wash -- the march in washington. this is being recorded and televised by c-span, all questions will be on camera. we are privileged to have as our jamie, clarence page and tiehm. groep in ohio. he is quickly called upon as a television commentator. jamie is a columnist covering
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history. she also lives in washington. jamie will begin. jamie: thank you to everyone who came out tonight. up with someo warm memories of the march on washington. we do have a living witness here in the room. let's focus on the march 1 in honoring dr. king's 90th birthday, which was yesterday. on augustwas there 28, 1953. the march on washington for jobs and freedom was a new day. everybody there knew it, felt it, enjoys moments by the pool,ting paul -- listening to speeches from the lincoln memorial. theas a hundred years since
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emancipation proclamation. the set 4 million slaves free. -- this set 4 million slaves free. things were going bad in the south, especially birmingham. something had to give. attacks on demonstrators with fire hoses was a sickening spectacle, a national spectacle. unity,eeded to be a new cohesion, and uplift for people of color. as you know, martin luther king for socialched peace change. he wanted everyone to return home empowered by that. time in the job reflects this philosophy. nonviolence is not for the faint of heart.
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times.arrested around 30 make no mistake, this was a peaceful uprising, magnificent in scale, the greatest gathering of americans in 20th century history. those who missed it wish they had been there. million came on buses, trains, bicycles, rollerskates from as far as california to chicago to the new york islands. d'sharlem vanguard in the -- deep south showed up in force . they bore the brunt of oppression and segregation in the south, south of the mason-dixon line, which is here. -- many white people were there.
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when you look at the black and white film, you see folk singers like bob dylan and joan by as -- aez. harry belafonte was there. so was paul newman, james norton, andnor sidney poitier. watchedt kennedy closely from the white house. jack and bobby, his brother, the attorney general, feared violence. in fact, the whole city was closed that wednesday. the police, fbi, military, out.nal guard were all they canceled a senator's game. it was a record breaker with the march in much of the same as the
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suffrage parade against woodrow wilson in 1913. that was 50 years earlier exactly. that is who was a declaration of that was, throwing down a gauntlet for social change, human rights and a nonbiased quaker named alice paul. let me give you the cast of characters at the march. to set the stage, clarence will cover this in a more personal way and discuss martin luther king's legacy. was the elderlph of the civil rights movement. he led the brotherhood of porters.quarters --
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he proposed the march back in 1941 to pry president roosevelt to enact fair employment practices. when fdr did act under pressure, randolph called the whole thing off. he represents a betrayed unit component of the march for economic justice. his statute is in union station today. there was an architect of the march and he organized all of to the centers. black eccentric, a gay, quaker. as you may know, quakers were andt to practice pessimism nonviolent -- pacifism and nonviolence. lewis was ahn
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radical revolutionary, set to give a fiery speech critical of president kennedy's week civil rights act -- weak civil rights act. too little, too late, lewis planned to say according to a committee. he was going to say the movement should march through dixie, just the way sherman did. this was a problem for the .rganizers also, the civil rights act was causing kennedy to lose ground in the old democratic south, which he needed to win reelection in 1964. that is why he would to dallas. rabbi yoakam prince spoke in
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berlin under their. as a nation of silent onlookers. the great labor leader was there as well. everybody was there. there were no women's voices podium. the women were deliberately excluded from speaking and even marching on the front line. that caused grief and conflict, as you can imagine. rosa parks was there. she was exquisite. come on. [laughter] height -- heit, always with a hat, never for vote -- forgot the sting of being excluded. john lewis was only 23. he became a congressman.
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one day he turned to me in the capital and said, "i'm the only one left." of all of the speakers at the lincoln a mortal, as he told it, the aging randolph was near pleaded lewis to tone down his speech. life forited all my this opportunity, please don't ruin it. lewis agreed and trimmed his sales of violent rhetoric, anger, and took out the offending passages. let's stay together was the mantra. randolph promised the march would be peaceful because he said people carry more than mere science, they carried it scars from the discipline of struggle. the discipline of struggle.
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the civil rights movement was on the verge of a tremendous turning point in the eyes and ears of the nation. julian bond observed before that day, any white americans had never heard of false speech delivered by any black person. he later became chairman of the naacp. indied not so long ago, august 2015. the reverend martin luther king jr. had prepared his speech down to the last word. , so itlost on the day literally he had the last word. as the august sun started to wane, then the throng would disperse to go back to the south , to mississippi, alabama, the red hills of it georgia, up to
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harlem, to take the word home. king was up until 4:00 in the morning polishing his speech, knowing the power of place and the urgency of race in america. the nikole killion, as he would grow, as henee egro, as he- the n would say, was on the stage. he was made for this moment in time. , dannya preacher son --gs son, and daddy king daddy king's son, and daddy king was a preacher's son. king raised the unspeakable
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horrors of police brutality. also, travelers were being barred along the highways, a very personal snub and a way to say second-class citizens. he did not speak abraham lincoln's name, but abraham lincoln was right behind him. emancipator was present, but the march on washington was about now going forward. not looking back. still, the symbolism of where things stood could not have been more powerful. -- weighted with power. out, tellinger yelled
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them about the dream. many heard her call, so they came. the singers launched the seats into the bend with lyricism and a flow just like jazz. flow just like jazz. , which is an african american art form. that meandering into the dream made the speech one of the greatest ever given, but it was not part of the prepared text. king had delivered a version earlier in detroit and invited there by the reverend franklin was aretha franklin's other. rooted inream deeply the american dream king stated.
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even mississippi would be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. i have a dream that one day down racistama with a vicious , little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls. here is the reverend, the man of the cloth speaking. everya dream that one day valley should be exalted and every hill and mountain shall be made low. the rough laces will be made plain and the crooked places will be made straight. from the bible, with the state hear out ofble to the mountain of despair a stone of hope.
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that quote underlies lee memorial to king. the memorial to king. the universe is long but bends toward justice. the author of that is the reverend theodore parker, a bostonian abolitionist who died just before the civil war. king admired that quote and renewed it for his great civil rights movement. i have a dream was in the moment and a vision for the ages. it was a direct challenge to the nation's leaders to live up to our own ideals, especially freedom. over, march leaders were invited to the white house.
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president kennedy was near giddy with relief. as he heard king's voice ring and a secular sermon, he said [laughter] so, the first time jfk had hurt in -- had heard of the reverend martin luther king speak. he had less than three months to live. he died in dallas on november 22, 1963. was it the end of american innocence? shattering end to his life and to the thousand days. having torly regret
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tell you that in september, a rage of violence happened once again, in birmingham. the 15th baptist street church bombing killed for girls. where you -- weeks after the exhilarating, empowering march on washington. the march to the dream is not over yet. clarence will continue the conversation. clarence: thank you, jamie. that is quite an act to follow, but i will try my best. nothing makes an old scrivener happier than to have someone say, tell us stories about the old days. important event. dr. king was very important to me and my upbringing for the most self-centered of reasons. i was a child who wanted to have
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a good time. i had a life and i recall very well the first time i learned the value of skin color in america. i was four years old and watching a tv program -- i was born and raised in middletown, ohio, by the way. anyone from up in the hills? known as the home of the mcguire sisters. one of whom just passed this week out here, in fact, as well as the hometown of jerry lewis, er.miss ball or -- ball america 1976 came from middletown. her a name escapes me at the moment. one of the chicago bears was from middletown.
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a former secretary of congress, charles verity, and me. around, jd pute us on the bestseller list, all-american city, great industrial town. now, thanks to jd, middletown's iconic as a home of supporters. is only amill fraction of what it used to be. the paper mills are all gone. i can run down the list of jobs that have been lost to overseas competition. i came out of college in 1965 and a time when my tuition to ohio university was $760. my -- that was my gateway to the middle class. jd came around in 2000 and had
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to join the marines to get a marines scholarship. at that time, to wish and was $12,000. anybody who goes through that knows the gateway to the middle the workingosing class americans already and we can get more into those political and social economic topics if you would like. when i was four years old, the only social economy i cared about was going to the lincoln amusement park, which i had seen televised out of cincinnati. i love to this idea of going to the amusement park. i turned to my parents and said, can we go? they, not smiling turned to me and broke the news that little colored kids cannot go to schwartz the lake. about what was contained
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in that sentence. one thing, we were colored in those days, which tells you how i am. i would later see us become me grow -- negro. "20 negros were arrested trying to vote in midsummer, alabama." i was in college. the black power movement come along and we were no longer negro. we were black. that was important time. , black wasgrowing up an epithet, but all of a sudden it had become an identity. 1988, jesse jackson was doing a news conference in chicago. i was working for "the tribune," and he was asked, reverend jackson, what you think of the label african-american? he was caught off guard, but
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quickly regained his composure and said, yeah, yeah, that sounds much better, much more relevant and descriptive than negro or black. after all, we are not all black and white. i mean, look at us. betterrownies might be a label. that was the first time i have heard african-american as a title except for malcolm x., a few years later -- a few years made a similar remark about afro-americans. some of us recall those moments. and today i hear us refer to mostly i has -- mostly as people of color. that's lovely. i have seen us go from colored people to people of color. who says we have not made progress? [laughter] dr. king and the civil rights movement were pivotal in my life. i was at home in ohio waiting
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.or the big march he was an all day event. in those days, there was a black and white tv. was absolutely right -- of fear of some kind of violence, most obviously, from the klan. but you think about the montgomery, the birmingham bombing, but also a few months after that in late spring 1964. schwerner, and cheney were killed there in mississippi and found several months later. the freedom-- summer volunteers trained near my house. and right across the street was western college for women, which was a sister to antioch actually, a small, independent school, very progressive and a real landmark of the civil
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rights movement. the western college for women met its demise some years later and miami absorbed it. it's now the western campus of miami university. i just point that down -- point that out. you may wonder why is the western campus on the east side of the campus? that's why. , when the freedom summer training was going on, the head of the local naacp asked my mother if we could put up some folks coming in from out of town. we have four bedrooms. i'm an only child. my mother is a great cook. she said, sure. i had my brush with greatness in junior high. i'm sorry, i was in high school at that time. -- it's like the story
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you were talking about. i went to visit them down south and my dad said, no way, and laterere rather relieved on when the violence took goodman, schwimmer, and cheney. this was nothing to mess around with. writers -- the freedom riders. it was one hell of a. . when dr. king was going to speak was one of those watching it and that was one of the events that made me decide i wanted to be a journalist beause my parents would not able to keep me away from it then, and they were greatly regretting it because my mother, like all black mothers, wanted me to be a doctor. instead i became a reporter, and
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had some least i attention a few years later when she saw me on television for the first time. it's amazing, the magic of tv. "you were so good and you remembered all your lines, not like that used her speech and church." high-end church." we have a variety of memories, but when i was reading dr. king's "letter from a birmingham the first time and the elders of birmingham had written a big editorial, an open letter, urging king and the movement to go slow. don't push. like this with outside people and all because it's going to just -- we don't do things that way around here. wrote this wonderful letter which is just a classic mentions the, he
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anecdote about his little to ther wanting to go length, and advertised amusement park, there where they lived and the parents, dr. king, as he -- you reallys must read the letter -- he says, tell your daughter she can go to farmland because she's not the right color and you will see why we can't wait. it really struck me. dr. king and i connected. i was immediately jealous that that little girl had parents that went out and protested. my folks said, don't cause any trouble now. you just a nice. we don't want you to get killed. my family remembered emmett till and that tragedy. in till and i were about these same age. that kind of sense in the black
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community, i feel this, just to give you some background, some context for dr. king's speech. we have marches on washington every other week no. this was not just one more photo op. this was an extraordinary event in the lives of many of us, and example,uck -- for talking about white people hearing dr. king. that was not all white people didn't hear. i was lucky enough to go to an integrated public school system. i say lucky because we had some diversity. you had every type of white or black person you could imagine at the school. diversease, it's more now. classmatese of my
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said he had been to the lake and had a terrific time the senate. he was talking about what a great time. he was white. , and he saidme have you ever been there? and i said, well, my parents told me little colored kids can go. he said, that's not true. i said, what? he said, that's not true. i was very excited. i said, have you seen colored kids? and he stopped for a moment and he realized he hadn't. what struck me about that does she was speaking from his own experience. he had no idea about that because he had never experienced it. why would he know? his parents are not going to bring it up. quite the opposite. who viewedice people
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themselves as being free of racism themselves. they had colored friends and white friends, etc., etc. that told me something. you've got to tell people sometimes about experiences they have not had. hereincame a journalist and that's what i do, i tell people about experiences i and other people have had. that has given me some remarkable experiences just with the people i have been ,ble to meet over the years including the folks super dissipated in the march leadership, like john lewis said, who of all past. it's not true there were not any watch --ressing the the march. there were women who sang. mahalia jackson.
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>> joan by as. clearance: thank you. ez. forget joan baw mary travers. and here is one of those deals where with mixed emotion, i is bittersweet because it was the night after the day after dr. king died. they almost did not perform. the performance, the harvard on the hocking, the berkeley of backwoods. they thought they would cancel, but they didn't. they came out and they performed beautifully. a journalist on the school newspaper.
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i took pictures. one of them was of me backstage. still brings me thrills, not only to see the faces of the people, but to notice how we were dressed. this is right on the cusp of the dawning of the age of aquarius. on this friday night concert, all the guys were in a coat and tie. which was a great honor that we did that. you see the cultural revolution really take hold across the country. central to alls of this and he is still someone that we turn to when we are aboutg for great quotes humanity, peace, love, and glory. but it's important to me to remember dr. king in later years
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became frustrated with everybody else and this is mostly around when the movement moved from racial justice to economic justice -- it has expanded. it never left original justice. but right after this march, the passedvil rights act was as well as the makings of the five voting rights act. and then there was the national fair housing act in 1967. by that time, dr. king had moved a tenement on the west side thehicago to dramatize economic situation of america's urban poor. and historians righting about this report this as the campaign in which mayor daley beat dr. king. as we call him in chicago,
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richard the first. at first tried to discourage king from coming to chicago and gathered his minions of agreeable black clergy to have a news conference. it's very much like the birmingham letter situation, only this time it was black clergy in chicago. but it was the same argument. once again, dr. king could not wait. the whole moving into the apartment tenement on the west side was a dramatic event and its captured the nation's imagination. mayor daley finally relented and signed a covenant with dr. king to open up opportunities for housing and jobs. as soon as dr. king left, mayor
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daley immediately forgot about the covenant. ironically, and appropriately that was the same neighborhood where the black panthers would later,rted about a year including a fellow named bobby , as, who i covered vice-chairman of the illinois black panther party. then he was the vice-chairman of the illinois democratic party. only in america. he had the heart of a superhero on capitol hill and congress and i was proud to see him yesterday when they were passing the movement to lift steve king's commander -- committee memberships. bobby rush was the only boat that held up to read he is the one vote you will see dissenting. even steve king voted to have steve king punished. but bobby rush was holding out
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for censure or expulsion. either one he would take. still fighting the good fight. at that time, dr. king was getting rather frustrated with the youngsters in the movement like that johnny lewis fellow. you can control him at all. ambitious folks. and hs like carmichael rap brown -- you may call him one of the founders of the pop. -- hip-hop. i still give the credit to bob dylan, by the way. basement in the lookout, kid look what you did go down the manhole light use of a candle ♪
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stop me. that's cap is one you get old. and memories are perfect. i can remember what i heard this morning. some words to live on. when the movement expanded into , this is whatce my mother said about the southern baptist preacher whose preaching the 10 commandments and said, thou shalt not kill. they'll shut not steal. not steal.lt preach on, preach on. thou shalt not commit adultery. the deacon walks out. when he gets to the door, he learns around and says, "now you done stopped preaching and meddling."
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that is how folks felt when dr. king went into economics, the class divide. it was one thing. they were supportive of the movement of himself, but when it moved into the barriers of class an opportunity, that's another matter. on the whole, this was inconsequential as to what it achieved toward dr. king's gold -- goal. this is something we have all been dealing with ever since. with doctors me king as a rider as i look back and see his speech, the "i have not just forch,
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the wonderful sentiments expressed, but its historic role. look at how dr. king approached change impaired to some others. while others who are more extreme were calling for radical change in the system, dr. king was very insistent upon his speech being grounded in american principles that everybody that calls themselves a good american believes them. he went back to the founders and look for the words, the phrases, the principles put together. that is why the speech begins -- somebodyence says to the nature of having -- i don't have the exact phrase here, but something along the a, -- eight score years ago, an obvious reference to the gettysburg address.
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while jamie is looking that up -- [laughter] the principles expressed in his speech really breathe new life into the words we learned. that's it. that's it. ok. five score years ago, a great whose symbolic shadow we stand, signed the mess patient acclamation. -- the emancipation proclamation. was written as a statement to fulfill the gospel. theham lincoln took a placeeld and made it
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to reconfirm the basic founding principles of the country. we confirmed that all men -- persons, art created equal. with my inevitable, spirited arguments -- anyway, the list is long, ladies and gentlemen. be a aeone who wanted to writer, the arrangement of it, the engineering of the speech, in some ways it is to make a point, but also the dramatic effect of building to a great climax. first of all, expressing the setbacks that we all have as also how we have
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moved ahead. lincoln's proclamation was a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity. when hundred years later, dr. king said, we are not free. there sadly crippled by chains of segregation. then he adopts a more hopeful the pink ofng, justice is not bankrupt. this is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off. what the preachers in birmingham were calling for. change. incremental seasons as a metaphor, the discontent of african-americans as a sweltering summer. freedom and equality will be an invigorating autumn. "the whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the
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foundations all of this nation until a bright day of justice emerges." he tells people not to commit wrongful deeds. let us not satisfy freedom by ranking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. that was very important. king's leadership was defined by civil disobedience, not violence and it was important that people understand the principles of that and where it could lead because right beneath that -- the time said, he is your dream. i am your nightmare. what the sense was in the mid-1960's, no one knew exactly where america was going to go. this was, again, something i have seen. dubois atof -- w.e.b. the dawn of the industrial age,
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just as frederick douglas was passing from the same, although our president has reassured me that he is getting bigger every day. the man is just unstoppable. we saw it in randolph versus marcus garvey a little later in the industrial period, if you will. we have seen this time and again. and african-americans are not the only ones who have experienced this debate with their community. you are hard to beat for making noise. hopefully a joyful noise and on key. anyways, dr. king said his dream is "deeply rooted in the american dream." it isonally feel like opportunity -- for me, that's the word. that's the american dream. that is what brings more people turn to get into this country then trying to get out of it. that is what brought the civil
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rights movement, the labor movement, the education movement , all of these things, opening up opportunity. and what did james brown say? i don't what nobody to bring me -- i will get it myself. that was the subtext of these movements of liberation. king said, sons of former slaves and sons of former slave owners will sit down at the table of brotherhood. the central message, they will live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but the content of their character. he talks about the importance of faith, how all colors well see the glory of the lord together. he uses a line from the familiar --g "my country'tis of the "my country 'tis of thee."
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my fathers died, land over everyrim pride, mountainside, let freedom ring. he closes it up and says, "let so that jews and gentiles, protestants and catholics will be able to join hands and sing in the old crew --old negropulled sprit, free at last, free at last, thank god all mighty we are free at last." at that time the speech was a most prophetically called, "where do we go from here?"
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at the time he ended his speech as he got to the crescendo, he said, "we all have a task. let us go out and find dissatisfaction. until be dissatisfied america has a high blood pressure of crete and an anemia of deeds. cities -- the intercity of poverty and despair shall be crushed by the battering rams and forces of justice. let us be dissatisfied for those who live in the outskirts of , let us be dissatisfied until slums are history and every family will live in a decent, sanitary home. let us be this satisfied until the dark days of desegregated
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schools --a cyber get his goals will be transformed and -- of segregated schools will be transformed into the quality and bright future of education. let us be dissatisfied. women, the matter who they may be, will be judged i the basis of a character and not the content of their skin. let us be dissatisfied until every capital bank -- every capitol -- let us be dissatisfied at every city hall. dissatisfied until that day when the lion and the lamb shall lie down together. every man shall sit by his own figtree.fig street --
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let us be dissatisfied and men will recognize that out of one blood, god made all to dwell on the face of the earth. let us be dissatisfied until that day when nobody will shout shout power." nobody will "black power." when i think of those words, i can't help but think about a more modern profit, woody allen, who said the lion shall lie down with lamb, the lamb won't get much sleep. that's where we are today ladies and gentlemen. lamb lies restlessly, and the lion sleeps with one eye open as well. before wet rest
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sleep. mind can conceive and the heart can believe, your body can achieve you keep your eyes on the prize. hold on. that is dr. king's legacy. thank you very much. [applause] >> thank you for that profound message. martin luther king lives on and on and we still aspire to his dreams. questions, you can go right to where marissa is
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standing. keep your questions concise. we do have a living witness to the march. it's free-for-all, please go ahead. that's terrific, two living witnesses. [laughter] i was 16 years old, and i came down with my 17-year-old sister from baltimore, i came from a very progressive family. there was a concern about violence. the concern was the kkk would show up and there would be conflict. friend of hisa that he knew during the war,
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and theyor the fbi, were sure the kkk wasn't going to come and if they would it would be contained. a lot of the kids in the neighborhood wanted to go, but were afraid of that fear. we were blessed data was able to make that call. was able to make that call. --, -- >>ou were indeed you are. for a lifetime. >> i had heard about the civil rights movement, but it didn't affect me. i made the decision to go down with my landlord, who was african-american, with his daughter. we took an overnight train from new haven. a lot of yell students were --ing down with a reverend
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with reverend william sloane coffin. theere just gratified by signs and the number of people and just the wonderful atmosphere. it reminds me very much of that waswhen barack obama inaugurated. it was kind of a similar feeling. there had been talk about there were going to be egg destructions and violence and don't go there. washington, most african-americans in washington in go to the march on washington -- in washington didn't go to
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the march on washington. it started a young life of activism. >> thank you for sharing that memory. largegton has a very flourishing african-american community. i'm sure that many of them went to the march. horton was informed by that, she organized it. it was a tremendous coming together of a beloved community. that's a phrase john lewis uses often. a beloved community. the two people in this room who ,ere lucky enough to be there thank you for passing on that spark. are there any questions for clarence or me?
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>> we got there a little late and we came over the washington monument. we decided we wanted to get up close. just like when you are in the hallway and school, she was a pretty good athlete. the way up to the front and people would sort of get out of the way. realized it until i was because we were children. no, because we were white. >> as this picture shows. there was a feeling of euphoria. i don't think anybody can away having the time of their life.
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i'm inviting anyone else to share something or ask plans or questions. >> that picture was taken early in the day. you've seen the pictures taken from the throngs and you can tell those left early on. >> that was the prelude, and it went on until about sunset when martin luther king preached his secular sermon, as i like to call it. it was for the fact that improvised and inspired and in the moment makes it all the more majestic. some people say his greatest speech was given the night before he died. that was called the mountaintop speech. raining, thunder,
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lightning in memphis that night. the rain pounded down on the roof. counts -- almost canceled but spoke in this way thet the promised land and mountaintop, and we as the people will be able to get to the promise land. i may not get there with you. he foresaw his own death the very next day in memphis. that speech is a mighty speech. hard to choose between them. poetic politics. why don't you join me appear?
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>> come on. cliques i'm wondering if you could comment a little bit more. not wanting to give into this slowing down, then we have a who in somehn lewis ways was told to slow down a little bit. continued,nversation that was a continued theme going on. >> i was talking to john a little bit about this. i had the honor of introducing a speech at the library of congress. at the time sncc was a
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movement, wing of the and it was becoming a militant malcolm -- militant. malcolm x was becoming popular among black age youth. among college-age youth. our member seeing him on late in the 60's. he had a late-night talkshow and had cool people like bob dylan folks onta and other the right and the left. when he had malcolm x on -- he said, "after this commercial break, we will have malcolm x your call -- malcolm x."
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i nearly dropped my cocoa. , and he was very reasonable, very engaging. folkswere a lot of black who are seeing malcolm and saying, "this guy something else ." he was pointing out all of the ironies we were experiencing. one drop of black ludden makes you black, right? says you putlcolm one drop of ink into a glass of milk, and you don't want to drink the milk. blood, folks.rful he reached us. we were young students voluntary
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in the movement. they wanted to go out and kicks ass.ed -- kick some they were beat up. got the within an inch of his life. inch ofeaten within an his life. he wanted a no holds barred speech. the organizers knew if john lewis spoke before king with the speech he had in mind, that was going to be the headline. they were all going to be talking about this angry speech. by the wing, -- by the way, dr. king spoke later. it was important that he has some patients. dr. king was getting mad. there were a couple of good books about this. at the same time we all know about malcolm x becoming more
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withate after his break elijah mohammed. speeches, theter ones we talk about maybe exceptional. he spoke about how what's going , if we have some progress. it's one of the great ironies of the movement. enough. died young remember james dean is forever young. jamesn't imagine an old dean, you can't imagine a grumpy old dr. king. at the same time, malcolm was going the other way.
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irony, without , whatg too far off topic would have happened if jfk hadn't been assassinated? would we have the civil rights act next year? jk, lbj had about as much trouble getting the civil rights through as barack obama had getting the aca past. before jfk died, he tried to gets times repeatedly the act introduced and passed. emails get letters or from a conservative, saying, don't knock the republicans, lincoln was a republican. republicans passed the civil rights act. true. likead some great figures
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everett dirksen and bill scranton and nelson rockefeller and various others. there was a -- i guess these emails. somewhat of a standard response. what has the gop done for us lately? a great song. i could say and dance to that one. >> we have time for one more question. >> it just occurred to me, i an't know the root -- it was march. did they march down pennsylvania avenue? converge?y one said he came from the washington monument. >> i don't know if it was a formal march in the sense --
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>> [indiscernible] >> that's as good a description as any. what happenedand is as the people were waiting to march and the crowds were gathering and were becoming either restless, or the were saying, we better get ourselves to the washington monument, so other started -- others started moving toward the washington monument -- sorry, the lincoln monument. a lot of people started the march down pennsylvania avenue, if i'm not mistaken. it might have been constitution, actually. it on tv, and it was hard to tell. leaders -- thee leaders said, "dr. king, the
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people are marching, we better go catch up to them." note to closeeat on, leadership should catch up. thank you all for being here tonight. this has been a wonderful -- you shared so many insights with us that we will carry with us home. [applause] announcer: interested in american history tv? visit our website, c-span.org/history. you can view our tv schedule, preview our upcoming programs and watch college let jurors, using tors, archival films and more.
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american history tv, on c-span.org/history. >> i admire him because he's fallible, and he often, not always, but often in the memoirs will open up -- will own up to that. samet, on her annotated edition of grant's memoirs. privilege of reading the manuscript of alongside his notes. the you see there is dissolution of his physical body, and clinging to all the reserves of energy he had left, and an iron determination to give every last ounce of strength to the memoirs, to the completing of this book. he doesn't want to write his memoirs initially, but is compelled to buy calamitous circumstances, the last three years of his life, including
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bankruptcy and misdiagnosis of his fatal cancer. announcer: tonight at eight eastern on c-span's q&a. announcer: monday night, on the theunicators, president of commute occasions workers of america talks about their opposition to the proposed t-mobile-sprint merger. he's joined by the executive senior editor of communications daily. >> we think that's a very bad idea. we think it will destroy about 30,000 jobs in the united states , or a german government owned company and a japanese billionaire owned company, and we don't see why the german government or japanese billionaire's seek to make money off of american jobs, but that's what that merger will do. announcer: watch "the communicators," monday night at
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eight eastern on c-span 2. , history professor talks about her book, "feminism's forgotten fight." they discuss their involvement in the women's rights movement. feminist majority foundation, the national woman's party, and east city bookshop hosted this event. just over an hour. >> good evening everyone, i'm going to go ahead and get us started. i'm the event scored nader here at east city bookshop. it's my leisure to welcome you here this evening. of we get a show of hands people who have never been here before. let's give a round of applause who's here for the rs

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