tv American Artifacts U.S. Army Medical Department Museum Directors Favorite... CSPAN March 10, 2019 10:00pm-10:21pm EDT
a daylong, d.c. with abraham lincoln symposium. speakers include lincoln scholars, david blight and michael burling game. on lincoln's relationship with frederick douglass, and his actions as president-elect before his first inauguration. our live coverage begins at 9:00 a.m. eastern here on c-span3. announcer: each week american artifacts takes you to museums and historic places to learn about american history. up next u.s. army medical department museum director takes us behind the scenes to see some of his favorite items. he shows us models of a civil war era ambulance train, a doll made by pow nurses and a dummy used to train army medical professionals. george: i would like to with welcome you to the united states medical museum here at fort sam houston, texas. you're probably looking around saying it doesn't look like a museum. in fact this is a part of every museum, the part that the public
doesn't often get to see. i know that when i first came, i thought, museums, they are quiet. they are contemplative places. boy, was i wrong. i didn't know the inner workings until i started volunteering and later on working at museums to understand, first of all, they're a frenzy of activity al i didn't know the inner workings the time, artifacts coming on exhibit and off of exhibit. here, we have a very special -- really, a somewhat different mission. our mission here is to train medical professionals for the army. now, we also inform school kids and inform the public as to the history of the army medical department but our primary purpose is to take our mottoics -- our motto, experience in progress. that is what the medical department is all about, and to show how history can actually
propel us forward. that said, i can talk about medicine from now until the whole week from next tuesday, you'll get bored and turn off your television. what i want to show you is some of our favorite -- really, everybody's favorite -- artifacts. i want to show you a few things that very few people ever gtet -- get to see. we're going to pass through this working area. we're going to where we prepare the artifacts for storage and display and hopefully show you a few things you may not have thought we would have had. one thing about every museum, certainly true of this museum, there are so many artifacts that are collected, they can't always be put on display as -- at once. part of it is not to have them displayed for very long.
one of the great things i get to do as a museum professional is to come back here, we are in the area of the museum where we prepare artifacts for exhibit. this is our workspace. where we prepare artifacts ining on and off, and it is close proximity to our storage. what i wanted to do was give you some artifacts that are my the storyand tell behind them, why they are my favorites, and show you things you might not normally get to see. and certainly the two models we have here are incredible examples. the story behind them is more interesting even when you also understand what they represent. first of all, they are 19th-century models. these were produced after the american civil war shared both of them are railcars dedicated to the care of the wounded. the one in front of me is actually a car for the preparation of food and for the feeding of ambulatory patients and staff.
-- is anext to us rep representation of one of the railway cars, specifically developed for the evacuation of the wounded. the army had a number of these cars built during the civil war, unfortunately for the confederacy, supplies being short as they were, and the inability to keep up the railroads. it limited the amount of these they had of specialized parts, although certainly others were modified for the purpose. what is so interesting to me about those is they represent a to and an understanding of the law of armed conflict when it comes to humanitarian law. things like the red cross which the u.s. would not sign until 20 years after the war, these railway cars represent a first step toward recognizing in the united states
that there is a higher law when it comes to the wounded. when we are dealing with wartime, we are dealing with humanitarian issues that we have never really dealt with in any previous war. when these cars started to come in existence, both armies, the union and confederate, signed treaties that said basically, if a car -- if a train is used for the wounded or sick, that it will not carry and munitions. that it is properly identified. the engine is painted red. on clearly the word hospital at least one portion of that, that these cars were protected. that the wounded that were being transported would not be molested by the enemy. these are the only representations other van drawings that we really have of these models from the period. these were designed to show people how they work. they are marvels of technology to we have in here and office for the hospital steward.
we have stoves to keep the patient's warm in cool weather we have shades that come down over the windows to block out the light. in such are suspended way, they were actually hung on heavy rubber bands, really, that had a gift. there was a one inch square rubber band that could allow a little bit of give to take the shock out of the ride. they could provide food. water was provided rate in here along with a toilet and all of these. at the time, they were the best that there could possibly be. these models are so well-built can each individual piece perfectly made, to show the public after the war what was provided for the wounded. and today, this is the only real three-dimensional insight we have. so, i can't show you the train
models without showing you my other favorite. this is just one of several we have in the collection. is a horse-drawn ambulance. think we think about how different an ambulance really was. when we look at the scum a would be easy to say, it's a wagon. that's true. and yet, it is a little bit different than most. most army wagons would not have had these elaborate system of springs that you see underneath which were used to first of all, keep the wagon fairly light. second of all, give comfort to the people who are riding by absorbing that shock. in dredge wagons would have put them through a hellish ride, not that these were by any means a cushy ride. the other thing i have to say about these, is they are so
marvelous because for someone who only saw photographs of the war, even during the period, these were built about the time of the 1870's when we think there was some indication these may have been shown at the centennial expedition -- exposition, excuse me, in philadelphia in 1876. this would have given people an idea in three dimensions what this looked like. ofbe able to see the details all of the metal work. these are marvelously done. the other thing i marvel at what i look at these is the handle work that went into every piece of brass, every metal fitting, to exactly replicate what was there. are absolutely spectacular when it comes to being correct in every minute detail of the construction. theway the break is set,
way the springs are made and how they are attached. all the little nuts and bolts and pieces are perfect. the amount of time that went into this i can't even fathom. so from just the standpoint of art they're incredible. from the standpoint of mechanics they're incredible. and to know that people used these in the 19th century to see for the first time this aspect of the american civil war that i can share that experience of seeing these for the first time was just incredible. it's one of the reasons that these are so important to me is that it leads toward completely different avenue of construction. if you look at it the handwork and technology come together. now i would like you to see something that's mostly handwork that may surprise you. again, the level of detail is going to amaze you.
it -- at the outbreak of world war ii we had an unusual circumstance for the medical department and that was a large number of personnel that were captured when the philippineses felled to the japanese. we don't think of a large number of female nurses in world war ii. or doctors in the prison -- four prisoner of war camps. the items you see here the uniform in those days it with was not believed that it was seemly for women, especially nurses, to have pockets in the front of their pants. so military uniforms for women did not have pockets. this nurse understood the absolute need for them so believe it or not this is a man's shirt and a man's pair of trousers turned backwards with ewed up and the pockets remaining in the front. so that she could do her job effectively. this type of handiwork is
representative of a lot of handiwork that we see and especially in one of my favorite artifacts and that's a small doll in a nursing uniform that was made by the women who were prisoners of war while they were being held in the philippineses. -- philippines. in 1941, we remember the attack on pearl harbor, those horrific images of the photos. what many americans over the years have kind of forgotten about is very much at the same time other places were attacked by the japanese. the philippines, wake island and others. and when the philippines were captured, we had a fairly large contingent of men and women there. we had hospitals, we had artillery, infantry. when the japanese captured them for the first time we had a large number of women who were now prisoners of the enemy and for the first time a large number of medical professionals, doctors, and others, who would become pows and life in the pow camps really was certainly a
very difficult one. with the females, they were kept separate and the nurses were actually used to nurse within the camps that were located in the philippineses. -- philippines. and we have an artifact from here that again is one of my all-time favorites. edith corns lloyd was given this by a lieutenant pickard, and ms. pickford made this for her in the camp. so they're prisoners of war while this is actually being made. the detail is pretty incredible when you think about it. we have her skirt and the uniform that they wore while they were prisoners of the japanese and includes around her neck the gas mask bag, her identification dog tags, even the patch that is the nurses -- that the nurses made for themselves as prisoners. the shoes, the hair, even the embroidered face. on her back she actually has on
her belt, a canteen. but even more detailed, we have her soap and a towel, a rag, toilet paper, a brush, her blue bag and her blue sweater interesting, because we don't think at the time of the capture in the philippines that the blue sweater, which was authorized for use and the blue bag, we don't think they had actually been issued these yet. they would have known about them. they knew they were coming down the line. but we're not actually sure that they had them. the other ones i love are the sox. -- socks. the reason i love the socks so much is we actually have examples of socks that look just like these, full-sized, that were knitted by the women in the very same internment camp in the philippines. so we have the miniature version and we have the full-sized version. we think this was all made probably in late 1942-1943.
unfortunately by 1944 life in that camp had become very difficult. so one of these very personal kinds of stories just incredible workmanship. and by the way, i love it, too. the army never would have approved. she has pockets on the front of her skirt. they added them because the uniform they wore they were smart enough to know they needed pockets. just like the uniform we have outside which was made from men's trousers, they put the pockets on despite what the war department thought, as prisoners of war, who was going to stop them? so just this fabulous collection of very personal items from a female pow. you have to be asking yourself after the beautiful train cars and the marvelous model of the ambulance and that beautiful doll, how we get to this? well, first i have to tell you we have a very affectionate name for this. him. he's dead ed. we don't know what they probably
called him at the time but the fact is this is an incredible part of the history of the training of our medical professionals here at fort sam houston. this unbelieveably sophisticated machine from 1960 was used to train medical professionals and how it worked interestingly enough, we have two heads and a couple hands and some extra wounds here. is he has inside of him pumps. we can regulate heartbeat, we can regulate the flow of blood, where the blood is coming out of the body. we can simulate burns, bullet wounds here in the chest, facial injuries, and all kinds of other things you can even see we have a pact of the original blood that came with with him. it's now quite solidified. the point of this whole
contraption, which in 1960 cost a rather princely sum of $18,000, what is it worth to train a medical professional for the battlefield? this expense was put to the test right here. he looks a little rough for wear. you can imagine how many students have put their hands on him, how many times he was bathed in his own fake blood, and certainly it's showing the wear. but the important part of this again goes back to the very mission that we have, this experience and progress learning from the past. we learn from the learning tools of the past. today, we have something like dead ed. he doesn't have to have mechanical pumps and he doesn't have to have some of the things that we have here because thanks to computer technology we have
manikins like this that can be used where you enter a room and you actually talk to the patient, the computer hears your voice and the patient talks back. but it is a manikin. we can control heart rhythms, we can hook digenostic equipment to the manikin and it will respond much the same way it does with the body. we can simulate all the things here, but it started here. it started with dead ed. and by -- with dead and. -- ed. and by remembering this, by showing this to the students -- and i have to say dead ed has his own fan club, they come every year to visit him from fort hood. this device gives us an insight into where we have been in training. what worked and what didn't work in training. so even this collection of body parts and pumps and hoses teaches us something. what it teaches us is what extent did our forebearers go through in expense and time and trouble to train.
just like the railway cars, just like the ambulance, this is also something that quite frankly much of it had to be handmade. it is the hand craft work melded to the technology of the time. the last thing it tells us really is the story of the people who touched it. the very hands that were on dead ed at one time many of them wound up in vietnam. many of them wound up serving their country, some of them who touched this probably lost their lives serving their country. we want to remember their training because we want to train better. we want to remember their sacrifice because they made the ultimate sacrifice. we want to remember all who touched this and everything else in this collection because it helps us move to the future. it helps us prevent ever losing touch with our past. so, yeah, even dead ed, one of our favorites, he has a great story to tell.
announcer: you can watch this and other american artifacts programs by visiting our website, c-span.org/history. monday night on the communicators, former fcc chair tom wheeler talks about his new book "from gutenberg to google." >> it is never the primary network that is transformative. but it is the secondary effects of that network. it is how, for instance, the printing press not only an neighborhood that, but -- enabled that, but allowed the renaissance to come out of northern italy. it is how the first high-speed created the railroad, industrial revolution. the first electronic
network, the telegraph, allowed for the creation of national news media and the national financial system. announcer: watch the communicators monday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span two. announcer: next on american point historyst instruction major david lambert discusses how gunpowder was outsourced and manufactured in the mid-19th century. affairsyork military symposium hosted this event. it is about one hour and 40 minutes. >> thank you so much for the introduction. and thank you all for being here tonight to learn a bit about civil war gun powder and logistics. as always, although i am a major in the united states army, nothing i say tonight is the opinion or policy of the d.o.d. all views are entirely my own. so that gives me a bit of free reign to