tv The Civil War Paroling Gen. Lees Army After Appomattox CSPAN March 30, 2019 6:00pm-6:45pm EDT
troops after their surrender. she also talks about the journey from confederate soldiers across the south. this talk was part of a daylong seminar cohosted by longwood university in farmville, virginia and appomattox courthouse national historical park. prof. coles: our first speaker is dr. caroline janney. is professor of american civil war and the au center for history at the university of virginia. she was a historian also at purdue university, an active lecturer, as you might imagine. she is coeditor at the north carolina lecture presses civil has published five
books, some of them listed on your program. civil war reunion and the limits of reconciliation. ,he edited "petersburg appomattox, the ending of the and anothernia," not on the list. her talk today is "we will not rolling lee'sling lee's army after appomattox." [applause] good afternoon. it is nice to see so many familiar faces in the audience, and i know this is the time after lunch, this is why i usually choose the morning, because i know what happens after lunch. i will try to keep you all away. thank you, to longwood university, for hosting us. thank you to appomattox, especially robin snyder, and i
cannot say how helpful patrick has been for the last couple of years as i have been working on this new project. he has been more than generous, both professionally and personally, just a trait of the national park service, so thank you, patrick. yes, he does deserve an applause. [applause] dr. janney: i also want to thank two other historians in the audience whose work has been so important to mind. that is chris clarkson and rob wilkins. i am so appreciative of the work they have done. let's get to appomattox. in the years since 1865, as many hasou well know, appomattox been become shorthand for the swift close to the civil war, probably by grant's you term, not to be
disturbed by u.s. forces unless the broke the law, but as major sharpe,george h assistant provost marshal, observed only one month after the surrender "a large number of lee's army were not the aroled at appomattox." let's talk about that. of the men evacuated after , only somewhere between 26000 and 28,000, or to use 28,231 soldiers officially paoled at mr. fleitz: between the ninth and 12th -- paroled at appomattox between the ninth and 12th. a conservative estimate would suggest at least 20,000 of the's paroled atere not
appomattox. 16,000compiled a list of soldiers from a database, who behindroled somewhere appomattox. appomattox therefore creates a great irony. it was and continues to be seen as the end of lee's army, and .herefore the war discovering to those who did not surrender is the story of my talk today. we have other stories of ships, buildings, but i want the rediscovery of these men, why they were not there, where they were ended up, and how the war ended. let's start with what eastman or not at appomattox. reasons were asked varied as anything else. they were unable to keep with the relentless pace of lee's
army. others had, "seen the writing on the wall," even before the surrender. a good example of this was benjamin sams from virginia. d enlisted in 1863 and .as since fled he wrote in his journal "we take to the woods. every man for himself." the river, hes and his comrades simply went home. like others, he felt there was little use in resisting anymore. others made it to the field at appomattox but then decided to forgo the humiliation of surrender. others refused to be conquered, david mcintoshve who serves as a great example. here he is writing in his journal a little bit later, "my
first inclination was to stay with my command and share their fate. my firsttion showed me and only duty was to my country, and as long as i could be of service to her, i should avoid surrender." what hee to witness described as "a spectacle of surrender," he and several others selected a ravine protected by woods further escape. they ripped off their badges, disguised uniforms as much as ,ossible, cut through a swamp leaving their horses for several miles before forcing a black man to guide them south. they would make their way south, hoping to meet up with johnson's army and continue the war. a fair amount of poverty men had escaped on april 9. recognizing a great mapped by the civil war trust, and they view the trust for all the work that they do, recognizing that his uncle was forced to
lee, troopersjor toward lynchburg. lee was right the farmville, surrender himself to mead on the 11th, and get himself parol ed. others never made it all the way to lynchburg. evening ofy, the april night, he noted that "the noble army of northern virginia will surrender today at 10:00, and the calgary order to buckingham court house there to be disbanded." after hearing the news, though, hardin abandoned. east, reaching his home on the chesapeake bay the
following sunday. these are some of the men who were not there. but what about the terms? what do the terms say about men like harding, mumford, and other calvary men who had escaped and surrendered? well come on april 10, the six commissioners that have been the metd by grant and to discuss the details, and here you have the three union giving the merit, and you have handled them, gordon, and long street. many different issues, but one is to to the included in the surrender. gordon is getting rather frustrating, the term bus far had been magnanimous, and afterward, all six generals agreed that the term should include all of lee's troops accept any calgary that have made its escape and any
artillery more than 20 miles from appomattox courthouse at the point of surrender. now granted, too, had come to a similar conclusion, either on his own or perhaps he see's or hears about an early version of the afternoon of april, as he is riding towards brookville, he aceives a telegraph from secretary asking who is to be included in the virginia. isparticular, stanton worried about the trips in virginia, and more specifically, he is concerned about mosby. he writes to grant "were the troops operating in eastern virginia to be included in the surrender, or only those under lee's immediate personal command?" grant replies "the surrender was only of the men left with the pursuit army at the time of
surrender. those who have escaped and wore the patch at the time are not included." so first he says they are not included, but in the very same response, we see grant being flexible in his terms. says, that the same terms should be offered to "all of the army of northern virginia so that they might voluntarily surrender." generosity flowed naturally. and here is the commission agreement. grantuld be looking at here. from grant,lowed the leading commander. he is putting forth what lincoln had told him all along. he wanted it to be a lenient peace. but it is not merely generosity that motivates grant. instead, his willingness to make
the terms flexible reflect his desire to bring a swift and quick end to lee's army. he knows that lee's army is the centerpiece of confederate nationalism, and he wants this army to come to an end once and for all. both grant and stanton recognize that a significant number of lee 's men had not surrendered at appomattox. as such, on the evening of april 10, stanton, major general stanton sends him instructions to print and circulate the surrender terms all within his rights. stanton instructed hancock that, the attachments and stragglers from the army of northern virginia who turned themselves into union authorities would be paroled under the same conditions
extended to those at appomattox, and then they would be allowed to return home. those who did not surrender," stanton explained, "would be captured and held as prisoners of war." by the following afternoon, circulars like you see before you were posted throughout the shenandoah valley. so these are posted throughout the lower valley, and in the newspaper, and i know you cannot see this well, but this is the kind of thing that showed up in the newspaper the very next day, a stern message from hancock about these terms. he writes in part "every military restraint shall be removed that is not absolutely sons, yourand your husbands, and your brothers shall remain with you u nmolested. but those who failed to turn themselves in," he warned, using
stanton's language, "will be treated as prisoners." event goes on to say "every outrage committed by them will be followed by the severest infliction. it is up to you to determine the amount of freedom you are to enjoy," he declared. we are to cause here and consider the moment. people are celebrating while washington is celebrating the surrender of these army. valley, it is the still very uncertain what this means. does this mean the war is coming to an end? what about all of the men out of bear on attached to lee's main army? were goes out to washington, two other union commanders throughout the region. it is the same conditions, the same terms as appomattox needed to be offered everywhere here so
along the northern neck, officers aren charged with offering the same terms are often attached parties and stragglers, no differentiation is to be main, who comply with these surrender will be allowed to go home. and again, this morning follow some of those who did not will be captured and held as prisoners of war. underscoring all of this was grant's fear of continued guerrilla warfare. grant hoped that all the rebels would soon lay down their guns, including partisan rangers. and perhaps it was his conversation with lee on the morning of april 10 that had given him some pause or had swayed his thinking. grant recalled in his memoirs that lee is pointed out that the southwest and great country, and we may have some left over three or four times before the war entirely ended. grant was thinking about this.
if all those men did not lay down their arms, would they regroup? with favorite join with forces like mosby, other so-called guerrillas? even with the surrender of 28,000 men at appomattox, maybe this war would not be over. indeed, there were those confederates who believed this to be the case, who believed well after april 9 that there might be another chance, that there might be other opportunities. many of those who fled attachedx or word remained determined to carry on the fact. munford, kamomas chamberlain, david mcintosh, john mosby, and others, many of them who would make their way carolina, trying to join up with forces. that is a story for another time or i want to spend the rest of my talk today talking about those men who did you go on grant -- pick up on grant's
offer. wouldnds of lee's men complete the surrender that began at appomattox. to show us well we are. april 10, lieutenant thaddeus l barker began issuing paroles here. from his headquarters on main leas paroled at leastat 3084 men. who were those men? isof april 11, barker rolling these men. ed aty 600 of those parol farm bill had been patients at the hospital. some of them only admitted days earlier.
but many were able-bodied men whose units had been at appomattox at the morning of april 9. they came from nearly every confederate state in the army. virginia, north carolina, south carolina, georgia, maryland, tennessee, and they arrived here in farmville where they were given the same condition that remain at prof. coles:. .t appomattox you can see the red circle on my map. in lynchburg where thousands, somewhere around 2000 calvary men had fled, many of them were still there, many of them had this verse, but there was still a significant number that were in lynchburg, and they, too, offer themselves up to the federal calgary once town.soldiers came to april 12 and april 13, u.s. authorities issued approximately
lynchburg.s in where soldierse, had shown up pretty much as individuals, those who surrendered in lynchburg did so as units, a fact not lost on union major general mackenzie. he wrote,mber, surrendered intercompany organizations. a few examples of this. of both the louisiana-based washington artillery had surrendered at appomattox, 30 members. on april 13, at least for the battalion in lynchburg. 60 members of lynchburg's own battery. 21 men from baltimore light. the 11th virginia, all units to have been present on the morning of april 9 at appomattox. a key junctionh,
on the richman and denver railroads, the marshall reported 1614 names in a three-day period stretching from april 14 through april 17. burkeville proved to be a favorite site, because if you showed up there, not only will it be possible, not guaranteed, but possible that you can catch a ride to petersburg, but you might also get some rations. some men who showed up here are doing so because they realize that is their opportunity to get home faster and to get some rations. eville theyk also come in as units. to the keyheir way railroad junction in order to get the papers that they would need in order to get them home. 14, that on april
evening, lincoln, as you all know, was assassinated. contrary to what we might think or even expect, rather than process,g the paroling lincoln's assassination made it all the more pressing that the remnants of lee's army who had not surrendered willingly do so. the dispersal of lee's army had inflamed roving bands and marauders, even the reversal they evenned after asked what does it mean to send tens of thousands of men across the countryside. they were worried about marauders, about partisan warfare continuing. in the wake of lincoln's assassination, these fears were only-. lots and lots o
examples of soldiers fear, because you have extended these terms, now look what has not changed the union's high command, though. instead of ending paroling, they ramp up paroling, across the shenandoah valley, counties across richmond, the u.s. calvary is sent out, looking for stragglers, looking for men who had not been paroled. back in the valley, in winchester, hancock recognized that hundreds, if not thousands, of lee's men had taken to the hills and the hamlets of shenandoah valley without paroles. his announcement on april 10, offering the same terms as those given on appomattox, had already convinced at least 35 meant by april 14 to come turn themselves
at winchester. they were go into the town of winchester where they went seek out the marshall and find their individual parole. but the possibility of assassins heightened the sense of urgency. back ands riding forth, and hallock says do not let anyone into your lines, and wait, we have to parole all of these men. we have to encourage them to come in, and he had reports that soe of them would come in, are these men are going to continue to seek out paroles? what and cut does as he is waiting for a response from although i am not sure he cares what hallock had to say, now instead of just reporting the names of the individuals, the company, and
the regiment, and i wish you could see this better. here is a and version, slightly darker, we look at the paroles that take place in the valley. he constructs his cohost thehals to contain not only name but a physical description, first complexion, hair and eye color. this is wonderful information for people doing genealogical research. most of these are in the house records. this is how the provost marshals would have kept their record, and we can fight out so much about what these men looked alike. this type ofed why information would show up. and i do not know this for sure, be inrhaps this would confirming paroles or perhaps more ominously identifying those who had been perhaps involved in the assassination. if some men willingly sought out paroles, others found themselves
hunted down. waiting foran people to come to winchester, and cap sent them up and down looking for units and the make their way into jackson on the morning of april 18. paroled 20 troopers members of the jefferson calvary. the next day, 24 men from the first calvary were paroled in new market. in the wake of the assassination, word continues to spread among confederates that hancock's men would be willing to parole any man who gave himself up. from his home in stanton, the mapmakerparoled
hotchkiss says many men are going to be parol ed. he holds out. the reason why is unclear. within a week, at least 1793 had been paroled in the valley, including the vast majority of mosby's 34 battalion. the vast majority turn themselves in at winchester april 22, the day after mosby had abandoned his command. he does not. he takes off south. a great many of his men do. while remnants of lee's army streamed into federal posts in small towns and throughout the countryside, they gushed into richmond. men crossingtch of one of the pontoon bridges. here is the customs house, where
hatchet establishes base. even before april 14, lee's men are coming into richmond, seeking paroles. most of these men are virginians. this chart, i am not sure if you can read this, it breaks out men from the regiment. 76 from the third virginia infantry, 52 from the third --ginia calgary, 51 from the these are units, not one or two men coming in at a time. they are wearing the ninth calvary. i would like to thank the family who sent me this picture. they had him in the database. is, he turned himself in, and we can now put a face with his name.
but it is not just virginians who are turning themselves in enrichment. froments of regiments north carolina, georgia, louisiana, florida, south carolina, mississippi,, and elsewhere. surrenders were going on throughout virginia in the rest of april. on april 21 and 22nd, more than 500 men surrendered themselves at the headquarters in virginia. most of these men belonged to the fifth and 13 virginia calvary. units organized in the surrounding princess and, norfolkox, as well as city. these are probably men who make their way home, and when they on news, make their way and april 21 and april 22. , 17mber benjamin simms
virginia, skin addled at five forex? at five forks? he goes to ashland, just north of richmond, where he would get his parole. another story for another time, the paroling of lee's army extended beyond the commonwealth. in west virginia, more than 600 ed atere parol charleston appeared overwhelmingly, i should point out, these were calvary, and a lot of these were detached units. not all of these men were men who should have been at appomattox. in north carolina, more than 2000 men would be paroled. the vast majority of these, a little more than 1000, would be greensboro, some in goldsboro, and 350 in charlotte between may 1 and june.
5. most of the men from that group and charlotte were from every state, but as you might expect some of i'm may 11 through june 5 among of these men were north who finally decided to get parole. throughout april, continuing into may and even into june, lee's soldiers tripled and, sometimes as individuals but theiras groups to secure parole. the final number of men that i have in my database, which is certainly not complete, is 15,739. again, this includes places beyond virginia, maryland, north carolina, west virginia. but all throughout virginia, along the northern neck, the eastern shore, or on the peninsula in richmond, and farmville, in lynchburg, throughout the shenandoah valley, the process begun here at appomattox about disbanding
and paroling lee's army continues. some decided it was in their best interest to turn themselves into provost marshals in the region. the stewart railroad junction in burkeville in order to receive rations for transportation. others were hunted down by the cavalry and decided there was no choice but to turn themselves in. regardless of the reasons in seeking or accepting parole, it reflected the flexibility and generosity of grant's term, but more importantly, this overlooked story is crucial to understand how the war ended. it does not fit neatly into our aory of appomattox as definitive role of peace, but we often see this. appomattox really is in each popular book at the work,
appomattox is a stand-in for the end of the war. but the fact that at least 3 of lee's army was paroled at somewhere other than appomattox should tell us three things. first, -- is messier and often less precise than we would like to imagine. and finally, that we still have a great deal to discover about the civil war. thank you. [applause] prof. coles: great talk. any questions? mic and ask a question. we have got one coming here. state your name, if you would,
please. i am a native new yorker, now transplanted to virginia. some of the prisoners in cap's in new york, how do they deal with that. were they given paroles? not immediately. not until mid-summer. men who had been captured and were sent to camp lookout or elsewhere would remain in prison camps through summer. that is part of the going home process that happened a little bit later in the story. oaths ofto take allegiance at that point. prof. coles: the ones that are in prison camps are not getting paroled like the citizens in the field. they are taking the oath of allegiance, or swallowing the old dog, to be let out of the prison camps, palmyra, point ankout, so they are taking
oath to get out of the prison camps, but some of them stay at least through august, maybe longer. any more questions? we have got another gentleman here. two confess i have never understood this whole parole process. this is an era where there were no databases on the internet. if someone surrenders in burkeville, and they got , parole with a piece of paper and they had to surrender their weapons, and they were challenged by a union calvary patrol on their way home, and they say i have been paroled, i have got this piece of paper, how did the union not know it was a forgery? -- i just do not understand how the whole thing functionally worked.
dr. janney: you are right to point out that there is no overarching system. the parole lists created at appomattox, and i will defer some of these questions to ron and patrick as well, but those lists at the company level, at the regimental level, officers are compiling lists, unlike men going in individually, where individually they will be giving their names, but then there is the parole pass, and those printed here at appomattox, there actually are parole passes that you can find at winchester and other places. they are mass-produced. and as the calvary are going up and down the valley at one point, hancock said i have used all of my parole passes, i will have to come back and finish -- and replenish before i can finish the parole process.
i have come across at least a handful of cases where people talk about forging a pass, or they come across people that they have recognized, men that they recognize as the army and say hey, i was not there, can you help me out him again he a pass? -- out, give me a pass? back-and-forth, but throughout the former confederacy, east, west, south, that is the question. an interesting thing happens in west virginia, and this is getting well beyond the story that i am telling today, but on april 22, attorney general sneed issues a statement, and grant before, this a few days saying confederates from loyal states no longer had homes, and unless they took the oath of loyalty, they could not go back home. so if they are from maryland, all of the first maryland guys? they cannot go home. but he says it does not apply to
west virginia, because west virginia was part of virginia when virginia seceded. it is part of a long story. but there is one man who had been with lee, he is at appomattox, the houses parole s, he goes back to north west central virginia, and he stops, and they say you cannot come back here, he pulls out a path, , that does not mean anything to us, so people's out a gun, and they let him -- gun, andls out a they let him pass. he liked to tell that story. there are all sorts of other examples. we have other questions, but obviously we did not have the technology to
confirm that this is legitimate, but number two, at the time of the civil war, when somebody gave their word or took an oth, they tended to stick by it or live by it, whereas today we might not do that, so people really -- you know, if they gave their word, they were expected to do what they said. jim: hi. my name is jim morgan. i may haver this, missed it. i am curious about macintosh and some of the other guys. units, didur list of you think the most hard-core guys would have been the south carolinians? how did you approach that? dr. janney: to your second question first, i have not parsed regiments in that way yet, to think about who leaves and who doesn't -- [inaudible] dr. janney: do you know that?
prof. coles: yeah. i think ron enlightened me to this early on. what soldiers deserted most from the army of northern virginia during the retreat to appomattox ? not north carolina, virginia. because they are marching by their homes, they are having calls from their family to come protect their homes, they are going by roads that will lead to their homes, so virginians are the ones who will lead the army more than anyone else. most of the troops rolled from appomattox are from -- ron? georgia. georgia. i do not know number wise what ratio of a work with the army, but obviously they could not thattake off on this road goes to gordonsville, when you have got to go to georgia, it would be a long rss to go down there, so i cannot tell you what
you and it's the south carolinians, texans, but it is definitely those troops who have farther to travel home. dr. janney: it depends on what you mean by holdouts. if you mean men who were stragglers and went home like benjamin simms, or if you mean macintosh, the second part, that number is far fewer. it is not that many. but i would say overwhelmingly, , buthis is anecdotal anecdotally, they are virginians , and they are young virginians, college-aged men, many of whom have known each other, some who had been up at reddit church, and they avoided surrender but david mcintosh had
down to johnson, johnson said they cannot accept their goes home totosh south carolina, and they will hold out for quite a period of time. it is actually a lot of guys from richmond who are bound and determined to come in and fight. one of the other parts of this, as another chapter to this story , is what is going on in north carolina and what johnson and sherman's response is. sherman's feeding grant's fear about guerillas. he is constantly feeding grant about guerrilla warfare, the young, hotheaded men, and he was kind of right, those who are bound and determined to continue to fight, at least those who leave records. you can, comef
up. one more. yeah, i just had a question on the confederate hospital system. was that just -- i mean, once they were captured, how do they parole?urrender, the dr. janney: the men in the hospitals were paroled as well. for richmond, for farmv ille, for lynchburg. some continue to convalesce, and others go home. prof. coles: and most likely, those enrichment had people go over the -- in richmond had people go over there. thank you very much. which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2019] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org]
>> learn more about the civil war and reconstruction each weekend on american history tv. >> each week, c-span takes it to historic places. here is a look at what is airing monday night. >> during the times of the patients were beginning to be evacuated, dr. solomon noted japanese soldiers coming under the flaps of the tent. couple, up clubbing a stabbing one with a bayonet, and even shooting a couple that we know what he for the half the being immediately evacuated, and then he went outside and he disappeared. he took a position with a 30 caliber machine gun some distance towards the enemy that was coming to the hospital in order to stop the attack, or at least slow it down, long enough for the patients to be evacuated. during the course of the night, he was wounded three times. and we know three times, his
gun, the 30 caliber, was flat in a new position. he was found still manning the unfortunately, deceased in the morning, and 90 japanese soldiers in front of him. he was immediately put up for the medal of honor, and it was just as immediately denied. theory at the time was under the geneva convention, doctors, nurses, people acting in a medical role or noncombatants, and it was decided that they did the medal ofward honor to a noncombatants for a combat role. it was not until 2002 that his efforts at saving his stations, tients, albeit by the use of a machine gun, was recognized as a legitimate act of defending the patient from an assault, not as an offensive move but as a defensive one.
the metal lock on her is one presented post to mostly to the chief of the dental work, general patrick scully, in 2002, and now given to the museum as of that date. southern california dental school actually have his purple heart at this time, a remarkable individual who knew what had to be done to save the patients, and in doing so, although he caused controversy, did in fact save the patients, but in a most unusual way. us to historic sites, museums, and archives each sunday at 6:00 p.m. and 10:00 m eastern on our weekly ."ries "american artifacts this is america history tv all weekend long on c-span3.
>> during world war ii, the u.s. marine corps recruited navajo indians to create a code based on their unwritten navajo language to help the military communicate their operational plan. next, in a series of interviews, former navajo code talker keith little talks about his early life and former world war ii service. conducted between 2004 and 2006, the interviews took place at mr. little's home on the navajo nation land and only pacific islands, where he served during the war. mr. little reflects on the impact of the war 60 years later and the legacy of the navajo code talkers. steve: george colburn, thank you for joining us in american history tv. you produced a documentary on the "navajo code talkers." why? colburn: well, the navajo code talkers, once you learn about