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tv   Reel America Decade of NATO - 1959  CSPAN  April 7, 2019 3:59pm-4:31pm EDT

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announcer: you can watch archival films on public affairs in their entirety on our weekly series, reel america, saturday at 10:00 p.m. and sunday at 4:00 p.m. eastern here on american history tv. >> this week on the communicators, technology watcher tim wu talks about his book -- offacebook is the curse bigness. they got extremely large. they did not take their position responsibly. they hacked instagram which they controlled during the 2016 election. it has a terrible effect on what
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andes as news so the social political effect of facebook are enormous. monday at 8:00 eastern on c-span two. >> 70 years ago on april 4, 1940 nine, the north atlantic treaty was signed in washington by the 12 founding members of what came to be known nato. next on "reel america," a decade fromto, a half hour film 1959, hosted by edward r. murrow. nato produced the documentary, which was broadcast on the u.s. army's "big picture" weekly television series. [film begins] ♪
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narrator: the united states army presents "the big picture," for -- an unofficial report for the armed forces and the american people. here is sergeant stuart queen. >> in recent years on "the big picture" television series, we have been privileged to report on the progress of the nato, nato. today we turn to this same subject, only this time in a film originally produced by nato, narrated by edward r. murrow. it is a story about the nato and its accomplishments since its birth more than 10 years ago. in this organization we have developed a deterrent and
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retaliatory capability of great destructive power for the prevention of general war. we are partners and have an appropriate part to play in international security, today, tomorrow and for the indeterminate future. ♪ mr. murrow: december 16, 1957, date to remember. for the first time, 15 chiefs of government gather around one table, eisenhower, mcmillan, menderas, conrad adenauer. these men and their countries have sometimes been at war against one another. often they have been united against a common enemy, but it -- but here in nato for the first time they are united in peace and for peace. >> their inalienable right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
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[delegates murmuring] ♪ mr. murrow: peace is built of hope and faith, dreams and hard work, of paper as well as of steel, and of an infinite capacity for details and organization. and that is the job of the permanent secretariat of nato. ♪ high-ranking ministers meet only rarely, but nato's work for peace goes on daily and the -- in the permanent council. the leaders of nato are chosen for their own ability, and not
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for the size and power of their countries. belgium, one of the smallest nato nations, has provided the secretary-general. these men represent more than 400 million people. ♪ people as diverse in their background as in their way of life. ♪ brussels, the capital of belgium, has become the provisional capital of economic europe, an alliance within the alliance gradually, a series of interlocking community has developed, giving vigor to old economies. town hall of amsterdam. the dutch are a hearty people
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with a sense of history. from the treaty of utrecht to the north atlantic treaty they have fought against threats, both man-made and natural. ♪ old luxembourg, smallest nato partner with castles out of a fairytale. but there is nothing imaginary its fabulous steel industry. steel production per capita is the highest in the world. the peoples of the three small countries, netherlands, luxembourg, and belgium, have formed a customs union called benelux. ♪
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a wheat field, a cathedral, old france. there is a new france, alive with energy with the biggest hydroelectric stations in europe. ♪ and the fastest trains in the world. mass production in the land of the artisan, power and beauty in modern france. ♪ from the joy of life to the preservation of life, france, the country of pasteur. paris, open to students of all colors and all nations. ♪
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the oldest democracy in the world, the british commonwealth, handles nearly half of the free world's trade. britain is one of the world's leading atomic powers. ♪ ritons like- b nothing better than a hard-fought gain. a symbol of the unity of britain is the trinity of church, parliament and the crown. the queen opens the session of parliament in canada with the same authority as at home. the british commonwealth is the oldest, largest, voluntary association of free men in world history.
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britain and germany have fought two terrible wars, but today their peoples are united for peace. in the small town of bonn, is the new german capital. berlin is now a beacon for those who live in the gray silence of the eastern plain. 14 years after the war there are still tens of thousands of homeless refugees in europe, victims of old and new repression. the entire world has been astonished by the resurgence of germany, by the urge to live and build that has made germany one of the most prosperous and stable countries in europe in the atlantic decade. ♪ nowhere is the contrast between the old and the new more striking as in ancient rome.
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[latin being spoken] [churchgoers chanting] ♪ mr. murrow: faith in italy's future burns bright in the atlantic decade. italy has been building a strong, new industry, italian cars, from the most luxurious to the least expensive, in demand -- are in demand around the world. everyone is riding scooters. italian vehicles of all types speed down the highways of the
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world. from south to north, from cars to bicycles, from italy to denmark. copenhagen, the venice of the north, one of the most beautiful and hospitable of the nato capitals. ♪ cleanliness is not only a virtue, it is a way of life or -- it is a way of life for the danes. ♪ and no citizen need fear old age in denmark, or in norway. high timber and the midnight sun, northernmost of the nato allies, norway is a rugged country and its people are
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rugged, strong. ♪ norwegians are rugged but peaceful, tranquil and unhurried -- yet just beyond their homes, the soviet border and the barbed wires of a very different world. iceland does not have an army, but it is an invaluable base in the north atlantic, on the great circle route between the european and american partners in nato. ♪ icelanders feel strongly about their position and are willing
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to defend it against friend or foe. slave nations do not quarrel, they do as they are told. nato nations fly free. nowhere in the world this -- does freedom fly higher or wider than in canada, one of the youngest nato nations, a land of vast thick forestck -- and mineral wealth. canada is fertile and rich and generous. canadians have sent the fruit of their labor and their fields to europe. canadian defense provides a vital link in the defense of the alliance. the largest land mass in nato,
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canada combines a buried -- a varied terrain and varied traditions. ♪ british and french influences are roots of modern canada. and across their open frontier, the united states. in america, i sought more than america, wrote an early european commentator. i stopped the image of democracy itself with its prejudices and its passions. the image of democracy is often distorted. the world is fascinated by american power and rarely looks
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upon the other faces of america, the libraries of its great its richies, its arts, and diverse culture, the free expression of its citizens, their informality, religious heritage, and the tradition of sport -- a hard pick. ♪ and hard work. america's giant corporations are owned by millions of stockholders, not by a few individuals, nor the state. the tremendous output of these
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factories are a vital part of national life and of america's contribution to nato. their products, from factory, field, river and range, mean variety and easier life, friends and freedom, energy, movement, these are important to americans. from the new world to the old, a journey through the ages, portuguese fishermen have been pulling their boats down to the sea for centuries. from portugal sailed some of the great explorers of history, opening new routes to the west. ♪
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old traditions, but modern roles, modern homes, a modern capital for ancient portugal. the most ancient capital of europe, cradle of western civilization, athens, beloved, beautiful birthplace of the most glorious sculpture in the world has ever known. ♪ this ancient alliance of greek city states successfully resisted the threat of aggression from the east, but they quarreled among themselves over trade and fishing rights and islands, and the glory that was greece died. today modern athens is alive with new life and new vigor. and just across the border,
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turkey, southern and eastern most anchor of nato. facing directly on the soviet union, turkey is another nation -- turkey is another civilized nation threatened by old perils but alive with new vigor, and everywhere, one sees people busy, learning new ways. many years ago, turkey tore off the veil and liberated its women, who now work side-by-side with their men building a new nation, hoping someday to be free of ancient fears. fear may have been the cement of nato, but hope is its superstructure and freedom its trade. ♪
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men may argue and quarrel, and buy communist newspapers, which denounced nato. and they are free to buy it, for in the atlantic decade freedom has prevailed. since nato was formed, not one foot of free soil has been lost. [crowd cheering] the postwar world began with a hunger for peace and home. ♪
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but dissolution began to set in early after the war, for liberation brought slavery to some countries. [marching footsteps] but there were some brave men left in the east who attempted the impossible. after prague, a new target, berlin. 1948, a year of fear.
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the western peoples had not wanted this, but this time the west acted, this time foresighted men decided to join together in a new alliance, an alliance in which all were equal. and at stake? western civilization. nato was born. soldiers in a cold war reluctantly armed to guard a peace which was threatened and which they promised never to give up. at their head, the president of a great american university came to establish a top military headquarters outside paris, shaef, military nerve center for a new nato alliance. from here began the planning for a complex military headquarters to protect the countries of the alliance. ♪
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in oslo, norway, the northern command, and integrated national staff, danes and norwegians under a british general for the defense of northern europe and the baltic. leu, france, three commanders, for land, sea, and air. they guard the very heart of europe. naples, headquarters of nato's land, sea and air forces on the southern flank and base for the american sixth fleet. indomitable malta, historic british base, today headquarters for the naval forces of five nato countries.
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and in the united states, the saclant, supreme allied command atlantic, home of the u.s. navy, but also an international headquarters on u.s. soil, symbol of the new unity of the western world. and on the unconquerable island of britain, the channel command. the royal navy with its continental allies must keep open the vital supply ports of western europe. and at the nato headquarters at northwood, these naval forces are task by thetheir royal air force. here is the defense of western approaches to the british islands.
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in 1952, 2 new nations joined the alliance, turkey and greece, recent storm centers of communist russian threats. ♪ and in 1955, the federal republic of germany joined nato. eisenhower said farewell, and ridgeway succeeded him, and then grunther, and norstadt, each man by his presence and his uniform reasserting america's commitment for the defense of europe. to learn to act and plan together, colonels and captains went back to school. and to learn to work together, men and women of the alliance learned a common language.
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>> now, everybody opened the throttle slowly, to approximately 28 inches. right. [drumroll] mr. murrow: it was hard going for nato in the early days of the atlantic decade. men had to break ground to build airfields. they had to lay pipelines to feed the machinery of the alliance. ♪ a unique experiment in mutual defense in a time of peace.
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♪ and the result was powerful. ♪ [sounds of horns] [rocket engines] [jet engines] ♪
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this boy was born the same day as nato, april 4, 1949.
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if he is grown to be 10 years old, and if he and other children are strong, healthy, and free, it is at least in part because nato was born with him. ♪ ♪ narrator: "the big picture" is an official report for the armed forces and the american people, produced by the army pictorial
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center, presented by the department of the army in cooperation with this station. ♪ >> you can watch archival films on public affairs in their entirety on our weekly series "reel america." saturday at 10:00 p.m. and sunday at 4:00 p.m. eastern, here on american history tv. >> once, tv was just three giant networks and ape like -- cbs. let viewers decide all on their own what was important to them. doors toened the washington policymaking for all to see bringing you unfiltered content for all to see. this was true people powered. there is years since,
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no monolithic media broadcasting has given away to -- casting. c-span's big idea is more on television and online, c-span is your unfiltered view of government so you can make up your own mind. on october 12, 2000, two al qaeda suicide bombers attacked the navy guided missile destroyer, the uss cole in yemen's harbor, killing 17 tailors and injuring 39. the neville criminal investigative service and federal bureau of investigation led a joint investigation into the bombing. next, to former ntis special agents share their experience working on the investigation and how their findings

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