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tv   Hoover Institution Library and Archives  CSPAN  May 5, 2019 5:42pm-6:01pm EDT

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senator and representative plus information about congressional committees, state governors, and the cabinet. the 2019 congressional directory is a handy, spiral-bound guide. order your copy from the c-span online store for $18.95. next, more from palo alto as we visit the hoover institute on the campus of stanford. >> american people and battle with famine and pestilence during an after all of these wars. here are the records of dictators, despots, and great statesmen. here are the records about bringing peace to the world. here are the records of the idealism on self-sacrifice for our great principles, some of which failed.
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here are the records of the suffering of man, their heroic deeds, and their supreme sacrifices. the purpose of this library is to promote peace and freedom among men. >> 100 years ago, herbert hoover was in paris in paris at the paris peace talks, and he communicated with stanford, offering 50,000 dollars, which is in today's terms almost like $1 million, saying the community should collect information on war. commission ofhe relief, and he followed that with the american relief administration, which fed millions and millions of europeans during world war i, and after world war i, some other first records to come to us were from those organizations theood relief as well as on war in europe, and that is the
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genesis of this institution, and we are still continuing mr. hoover's vision of directing the world towards peace, prosperity, freedom, and the safeguard of the american system. institute the hoover houses more than 100 volumes and more than 6000 collections on war and peace and public policy related items from the 21st and 20th centuries. their experts chose a cross-section to show us. have two items from our world war ii collections. "secret", which means in german, was the gestapo arrest manual prepared for the invasion of england, and there are the names of 2000 people that they wanted to arrest, their addresses, and what they did, with the exception of jews, which were listed simply as "jew." you can see there is someone here to be arrested, even though
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the time the book was published, he was already dead. so they had a systemic way of arresting people and those i thought were political enemies. -- those they thought were political enemies. item.s a skull hitler's. after the americans went through germany, looking to understand how this regime was formed and how it operated and what kind of person the sponsor was, with some of that came the x-rays of hitler's's skull. this was not after his death, but they were done by nazi doctors after the attempted assassination during which a bomb was placed under a table that hitler's was sitting at. unfortunately, the bomb was on the wrong side of the leg of the table when it went off. it did not kill him, but he complained of headaches and ringing in his ears for a long time, so his doctors x-rayed him to see if he had any cranial damage.
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he was, believe it or not, a vegetarian who ate in an enormous amount of cake, and you can see his teeth were rotted out. he took an enormous amount of drugs. here we have some slides from a russian and soviet collections. secret police force before the revolution that went around the world looking for communists, and the paris office of this police force, the secret police, produced a notebook, which agents could carry around in their pocket and look for various communists and revolutionaries in cafés. this collection is quite interesting, because it stayed in paris after the fall of the years, untily france recognized the soviet union. at that point, the ambassador packed up the collection and shipped it to hoover and said, "please keep it until i die." when he died, we opened it up, and it showed how the secret
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police force worked in the early 20th century, and the activities of that secret police force affected the way the kgb was formed. intelligence agents around the world. one of the most interesting collections. freeis man shows the radio europe target countries. bulgaria, romania, hungary, czechoslovakia. 80 million people who lost their freedom after world war ii. . and my colleagues there are over 500 czars working, actors, announcers, researchers, monitors. my job is news casting. reading the news in my native language, polish. [speaking foreign language]
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>> radio free europe and more and soviet bloc towards western ideas and culture, and so this collection has thousands of broadcasts in dozens of different languages, right? so a very large and rich collection. it is also, as you can see here -- it has a lot of records of radio free europe, which has wonderful examples of cold war rhetoric and propaganda. you can see here from the truth dollar campaign that is represented in these images. >> the same all over the world. a deepy do have appreciation for europe, i think , and taking about 20 people in.
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you have to bring them back safe. place though.g it was not a huge place like yankee stadium. >> another interesting fact about radio free europe is that it really featured jazz and lots of jazz musicians. there were tons of jazz artists that were broadcast through radio free europe, seen as modern and cutting edge and revolutionary really, so it is wonderful to come across these recordings, jazz artists in various stages of their career. radio free europe and radio liberty no longer exists in their cold war iteration, but they have changed into voice of america, which still sends broadcasts out to other nations. ♪
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>> well the core has relied almost exclusively on the 14th amendment for society in this entire field, and the 14th amendment specifies in congress to enforce provisions, so how to lose a lawyer, and is this a part of the spontaneity of the ministries in? >> you are talking about section five of the 14th amendment, which has had a history of exactly what was intended, and if you go back and read the -- maybe that was a rhetorical way of processing might answer, buying a little more time. [laughter] frequentlyf the most used audiovisual collections at the hoover is a collection of the television show "firing
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line," which was a public affairs show that ran from the late 1960's through the 1990's hosted by buckley, known to be large and to use a very vocabulary when talking with his guests, and his guest list or this television show is really a who's who of the latter 20th century. theosted everyone from dalai lama to ronald reagan too, as you can see here, margaret thatcher. there are over 100 episodes of the show, so we are in the process of digitizing all of these shows and making them available online so people can enjoy them, just to watch and enjoy, but also to use it for scholarship. so now, we are looking at a rare photograph from world war ii. williames from our
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philip collection. he was an interesting man who did a lot for the office of strategic services during world war ii, and then he worked with prosecutors at the trials of nuremberg. his work was to do profiles of high-ranking nazis. this is actually the personal the man wholbum of was hitler's's foreign minister, and the pictures show him signing the nazi soviet pact, and also in the pictures, you will find stalin. now, stalin looks very happy in this picture because he knows he is going to require half of poland, as we know, from this pact, and it is very rare to see these. about very superstitious having his picture taken because he has been hunted -- had been hunted by the czars secret
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police before coming to power. and these reflect the history of the cold war. this is a very interesting item from that period, this large, oversized scrapbook. it documents the life and exports -- exploits of marian miller, a los angeles housewife who was recruited by the fbi to infiltrate communist party activities in los angeles, and she was very successful. her husband happened to be a poster designer and commercial artist, and he put together followul scrapbooks that all of the media coverage that came when she revealed that she had been a spy, so it includes everything from clippings to photographs of her to a letter from j edgar hoover himself, thanking her for her activities. an interesting fact about her is
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that her story was actually turned into a film that starred ronald reagan. >> the hoover institution also has one of the most renowned poster collections of the 20th century with almost 150 thousand items in it from the liberation movements, solidarity posters, recruitment posters, and i want to draw your attention to this to joinbout irish men the forces about the sinking of the lusitania by german submarines in 1915. interestingly, this is one item that hoover almost came to own. the shipwreck of the lusitania is owned by a graduate of stanford. it sits 300 feet underwater off the coast of ireland. we have not been able to accept it yet for various reasons. nonetheless, it is an amazing story about the sinking of the ship, and we have the boats on the lusitania that washed up on shore on the irish coast four
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days after the ship was sunk with the body of a poor civilian victim on the ship, and it was donated to us. someday, we will actually have the wreck of the lusitania, which will stay in the irish sea as part of our collection. these are two items from our collections on modern china and taiwan. on this side, we have some photographs of a young males a mao zedon there wasg. -- mao zedong. helen took these pictures when she stayed and interviewed him. most of them do not see young mao zedong, but these are pictures that she took in that
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donated to hoover. as a quite interesting item. generalthe diary of a who worked in burma and in china on the burma road and worked with shane kai-shek. kai-shek, called " in what their ulterior motives were. >> this is one of my favorite documents that we have in the archives here. this document is from the collection of raymond, a renowned speechwriter for fdr, so he was part -- part of franklin delano roosevelt's
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brain trust. if you look at this document closely, you can see that it was actually the first draft of the speech in which he coins the term "the new deal." it is a bit ironic that this ends up in the collection of herbert hoover. fdr and herbert hoover were political -- well, they were not allies. that's put it that way. in 1932, fdr, by a landslide, beat herbert hoover. so how does this get here? once the new deal went into play, raymond changed his mind about it completely, so he resigned his position with fdr and became friends with herbert hever, so he decided that would, ironically, donate his collection to the hoover library and archives, so not only did he do that, he decided that he would annotate it, as well. when you see the new deal in the
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margin, he signed and dated it, so in some ways, it is in the archives, nonetheless an incredibly valuable historical document. hooverarchives here at have a wealth about the history of nuclear energy. one of the well-known documents related to that is this, which is the original strike order for the bombing of hiroshima. see, this is on paper. if you look closely, you can see stable marks in the top corners of this. this was actually hanging in the mess hall on the morning of the attack, so this is how the pilots knew that today was the day the attack was going to be taken, carried out, and they did not, of course, want everyone to know, so the bomb here is listed as special, but this document comes the collection of a
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gentleman, agnew, who was an assistant who worked on the manhattan project and was instrumental in planning the attack in japan, and he was also very diligent about keeping the evidence of this event, because he knew how important it was going to be. he insisted, for example, that cameras be placed on the planes, which is why we have the footage of the attack, which is actually held in the archives here at hoover, so as you can see here, there is a picture of the plane and also his dog tags. one thing that makes this library very special is that we provide access to all. we have students, professors, historians, journalists, filmmakers, everyone coming in using these materials to promote a better understanding of history.
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announcer: our cities tour staff recently traveled to palo alto, california, to learn about its rich history. to watch more video from palo alto and other stops on our tour, visit c-span.org/citiestour. you are watching american history tv every weekend all weekend on c-span3. announcer: each week, american artefacts takes you to museums and historic places to learn about american history. nationaltour the museum of pacific lower in fredericksburg, texas, to learn about admiral nimitz, commander of the u.s. pacific fleet during world war ii. we also see a japanese submarine used during the pearl harbor attack, and american torpedo a u.s. flag's own by prisoners of war. often asked w a

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