tv Harley Davidson in Milwaukee CSPAN May 19, 2019 2:00pm-4:01pm EDT
is your unfiltered view of government, so you can make up your own mind. >> the harley davidson story is a really unique one. it is one that really only happened in milwaukee. german immigration remember the lockerbie years from their homeland and wanted to re-create that on their homeland. the great lakes, that was the opportunity to get goods and things across to the rest of the country. >> welcome to milwaukee, once up thes the machine shop world. located on the shores of lake
michigan, the city has one of the highest concentrations of german ancestry in the country. the european influence helped shape the country as a manufacturing hub and a ruler of beer. industry's impact on the city's history and politics. we begin our special city tour of milwaukee with a visit to the harley-davidson museum. ♪ the harley davidson story is actually a really unique one in that it is a wonderful microcosm of american industry. the company was born at the dawn of the 21st-century when so many things were happening, and the country has been -- company has cycle, makinguous
motorcycles for 100 years now. for me as a curator, it is wonderful, because the story is great, the ups and downs of depression, world war ii. you will see as we walk through the museum, they had them up for whatever reason, these young guys starting this company from almost nothing, began saving stuff, the first years of their operation, generation of employees that continue back through the company, and they have just given us so much stuff to help tell all of these stories. we're here in front of serial number one, the beginnings of the harley davidson motor company story. this is the oldest harley davidson in existence. it was restored during the 1990's, which means it was repainted and replayed. mostantastic thing about of our motorcycles as they are all original plates.
this one, we are not sure exactly when our founders got it back. it is a fantastic artifact of the beginning of the company, and it is sort of enshrined here. it does look basically like a heavyweight bicycle with the frame modifying to embrace that engine. often puzzled by a chain on the other side, brakes, pedals.e's what is up with that? with these early things, you and when you got enough momentum, you would move that lever, it would tighten and kickstart the engine. you did not have the electric start for harley, it did not happen until the 1960's. we had a more traditional stuff butter early in the teens, for the first 10 years, that is how you started these things. if yould just pedal it
felt like it, but it was a little heavier than a normal bicycle. this is trying, the original drawing from 1901, is kind of the beginnings of the company. arthur davidson and bill harley decided they wanted to motorize a bicycle. and bill harley, being an accomplished draftsman, he actually drew the drawings of the early engine. you can see the date, july of 1901. we only have one, and it is miraculous that we have one. they were working with a local machine shop in local foundries, made this engine, put it in a bicycle. that is really fun, we think, and decided to make a full-fledged motorcycle. but that is sort of the foundation of the
harley-davidson motor company right there. this story really could have only happened in milwaukee. if you think back to the beginnings of the 20th century, milwaukee was known as the world --hop out of the machine shop of the world. this was the mantra manufacturing center. -- this would be manufacturing center. it is one of the things that made milwaukee famous. they have the leather industry here, tanneries, foundries, the machine shops. kids growing up, this was part of their environment, and for both arthur and bill harley, they grew up, we are in a city where people make things, they decided we are going to make this thing, and the davidson father built a
little shed behind the house for thisto work in the and in little shed, they were actually able to start a business making motorcycles. because of all of the different facilities they had around, they could use the machine shop down the road and have the parts cast in the foundries in the valley. this was happening at a time when there was incredible excitement about all of this new technology, and these guys just sort of rode that wave. you are looking at a picture of the expanded shed. sold motorcycles from 1903 and then doubling the sales in 1904, they needed a little space and needed one, in contemporary parlance what investor, so i somewhat eccentric oracle in madison, who had been saving us any xanax enzymes, lump them
pennies and -- his themls and dimes, loaned $170 in 1904. nice to know six, than 150, that largeutgrew shed. this was the first factory they built in 1906. in 1907.o was taken they celebrated by having the entire workforce, including three of the founders, bill harley at that point was pursuing his engineering degree in madison and working nights and weekends. that is the entire workforce, the original factory, the day that they incorporated in 1907. we have this incredible collection, so we use it on both floors of the museum as a kind of a timeline. so we begin here in the gallery
adjacent, telling the history of the company, and here you see the progression of bikes. single sentence of this was a later single from 1911, the thing that is incredible above this collection is that these things were saved in their original condition. this thing looks like it has a little bit, but it hasn't original leather belt, its original c, all of the original paint. the tires really wrought out. 1909, the company started building is the twin-engine. the bike was introduced, we believe they built 27 of these, not perform quite the way that the founders expected, so they were brought back here to milwaukee, and they went back to the drawing board and redesigned that engine.
v11 was the first production twin, which was really successful. this tells the progression of overarley davidson v-twin the course of our history. what we're talking about is the by the cylinders, so you have a 45-degree angle. inside the cylinders, you have the system going up and down. you have the air cooled, with the fins on the cylinders, 45 degree angle, and it was a big flywheel down there. the pistons are connected to a , so they kind of go like this through the engine rather than the way an automobile would work, and that is part of the distinctive sound.
that if the progression of a getting larger, more powerful, more technically complicated. when this was introduced, the knucklehead, that is our first engine that has the recirculating oil, just like a automobile todayn. you have an oil take, and the oil recirculate around the engine. the demands that are placed on these engines, both from the power and speed requirements but also regulatory requirements and noise regulations, the engines become actually really, really complicated. by the time we get to our most recent engine here, the milwaukee ace, that is pretty much a marvel of modern engineering, and actually the task is made a little more difficult by the fact that we are maintaining that same architecture, but it is such a part of the harley dna that we have got to do it.
in discussing harley davidson history, we talk about the four founders, the three davidson brothers and bill harley, the each played different roles. arthur davidson was really critical to the company's growth and success. he was the person who took on the sales go and started traveling around the country and signing of viewers and setting up our initial viewer network. the real task for harley davidson was to convince people that this thing, this new thing that we are making, it's really good, economical, reliable, transportation. at the turn of the 20th century, if you were moving in anything other than a train, you were out of the element. you were a horse and buggy, an automobile, an airplane, everything was open cockpit, and it was all new, and it was not
obvious that the automobile was going to become kind of the favored form of family transportation until you got roof.and windows and a so the first 15 years of the harley-davidson motor company, they were really focusing on theseg people to accept vehicles as the way that families are going to get around. you had site cars you can put a couple kids in. foras kind of a challenging a little while, but it was exciting for a while that the motorcycle was really embraced. harley davidson was one of dozens of motorcycle companies of the 20th years century. by 1920, harley davidson was hugely successful, the largest motorcycle company in the world. they actually, you know, we talk a lot about the great depression of the 1930's, particularly in 1929, there was a pretty
significant recession early in the 1920's, and that hit the company pretty hard. by the mid-1920's, the company was having to pretty significantly rethink their whole business proposition, outuse ford kept putting that same kind of reliable automobile, and the prices were going down while we were redesigning our motorcycle, our aices went up, and we hit point in the mid-1920's where the top-of-the-line harley davidson cost more than the model t. so clearly if your whole sales proposition was good, economical family transportation, your starting family would probably buy a vehicle with doors and windows. so there was kind of a big change happening. andthen the depression hit, the company was -- struggled.
you know, we have not established how many motorcycle companies there were between 1900 and 1930. there were at least 60. by the time you got into the early depression, we were down to just a handful, and only two made it out of the great depression, harley davidson and indian, which stayed in production through world war ii. by the time the u.s. entered world war ii, harley davidson was beginning to recover. ♪ world war ii, everyone was involved in the war effort, and a manufacturing center like milwaukee, if you had manufacturing facilities, they were going to be turned to wartime production of some sort, and harley davidson got the contract to build the military motorcycles, so we ramped up motorcycle production. this was such a turning point for the company and for the world. harley davidson was fortunate to
get a contract to build motorcycles for the military, so this is kind of the primary workforce of world war ii. wla, butsexy name, the we made these motorcycles not only for the u.s. military but also all of our allies. there were once sent to canada, russia. primary vehicles, the word is fast, communication, so they will be running back and forth at the front, carrying messages and doing a variety of kind of support operations, but you had to be ready for everything, so it has a black outline and a machine gun. -- blackout lights and a machine gun. we trained the riders. we trained the mechanics. after the war, a lot of the g.i.'s came back and decided they wanted to keep riding.
and the ones who were stuck in a trench looking at the dispatch riders going by probably thought chance."e is my they have vehicles, and when we go downstairs, you will see what they did with them once they tore all of that military gear off. so the harley davidson story, withezzanine level ends world war ii, and this is really the beginnings of what became chopper culture. we are proud of your, but the bike -- we are proud of here, above the bike, to display rino willie's club uniform. these guys are part of the famous hollister incident. when people think about these kind of outlaw clubs, it is often like the hells angels, one of these clubs that actually did engage in a lot of criminal booth fighterse were not a club like that, however, that is the reputation.
it was really kind of spondylitis is event in -- o spawned by this event in california, a sanctioned motorcycle race, and they were not sanctioned, because they were not members. they rode up and down main street drinking beer and raising and is incident was sensationalized in the press, particularly life magazine, which was essentially in every household at the time, they posed this photo and claimed it was representative of the ruffians in town, so middle america became terrified of these motorcycle clubs, and this actually was the basis of the marlon brando film "the wild one," which kind of kicked off
this whole popular culture myth of these marauding motorcycle games coming into your town to whisk your daughter off and cause trouble, but is really change the image of the motorcyclist in global culture. and, from a motorcycling point of view, there is a sexiness to that that draws a lot of people to the sport. downsides toious some of the activities that some of these clubs engaged in. it is interesting living here at the harley-davidson museum, because we get to interact with harley-davidson owners from all over the world. it is an interesting cross-section of the population. the kind of customization world, you ended up with two kind of divergent paths.
you have all of the guys kind of taking off from, they call them bombers, like the boozefighter bikes and be more minimal choppers, and then you have what some people refer to as works of art and other garbage wagons, but i feel like they are works of art. this guy here is one of my favorite works in the museum, partly because i got to know the family members, but it is also, you know, such a real feat of engineering prowess. this guy, felix, the little guy who wore those close and rode his motorcycle, he had a little shop in pennsylvania, coal mining country, and he would make these fantastic contraptions and ride them to motorcycling events and hand out business cards and say look, if i can do this, you can imagine i
can fix your bike for you. he would also make custom vehicles kind of the order for people all around the area. that hungboard outside his shop, and when he made a motorcycle or you, he would take a polaroid, but the name, the date, and stick it up on his board there. this is a fantastic story. rhinestone harley. numerous times when i talk to people to visit the museum, they would say oh, and i loved that liberace bike you had. ins one, i have a soft spot my heart, peggy townsend, before the start bedazzled, they were so proud of this deal, and we required for the museum. in 2008, when the museum opened, her whole family arranged to have kind of a surprise family reunion for her, so that is like my picture of the opening of
the museum, the whole townsend family in tears around his motorcycle. last year was the 10th anniversary of the museum. the whole crew came back, and the kids that were like, this theirn 2008 rode motorcycles in from minnesota. and it is a great example of how this activity can bring people together. in contrast to that sort of outlaw image of the motorcycle that, you know, sort of real family riding together and, you know, just drawn by their love know,orcycling, and, you rhinestones, in this case. harley davidson almost could not have happened in any other place other than milwaukee. it was a really unique combination factor that allows these young guys to build their company. so milwaukee and harley davidson
feels almost inextricably linked. there are a lot of people that associate this city with this motorcycle. here in this city, it is a point of pride. >> good morning, sir. how are you doing? >> while in milwaukee, we toured the city on one of its biggest exports, the harley-davidson motorcycle. we're at the harley-davidson milwaukee,h wisconsin. i'm with tim mccormack. stone'sare within a throw or a block or two of where living backs were then and when they first rolled out the harley-davidson motorcycle. >> very cool. i can think of no better way to thathe city of milwaukee on the back of a harley davidson. what are we writing today? tim: we have a softail, so we will be riding in style.
ashley: all right, shall we get going? tim: let's roll. ashley: with lake miss again the, wechigan around crossed the bridge and soon find ourselves immersed in the city. our first stop is downtown to place inut the city's culture. >> ♪ sunday monday, happy days ashley: i think the point that "happy days" was filmed in the city is a proud point. we are standing on the three-mile stretch, and we are in the heart of downtown milwaukee. the heart of the milwaukee river goes all the way to lake michigan, and we have all of the great downtown architecture behind me. fonzirelli was a
character on the sitcom "happy days," which was filmed here, and we decided to have a statue fot commemorated arthur fonz, and it would go with happy days, mork and mindy, laverne & shirley. i think it is one of the most wonderfully random things we have here in the city of milwaukee. it looked to do pictures of him, do the thumbs up. it is a bucket list in milwaukee. is a proud day. ashley: next, we will go to learn about two fictional rumors
it made -- brewers who made their way. >> ♪ give us any chance, we will take it, we are going to make our dreams come true doing it our way ♪ today we are at lakefront brewery, right on the banks of the milwaukee river down here in downtown. tour. a fun we have all culture, laverne & shirley at the end, where everybody gets to sing the song and with the club on the bottle. everybody gets to raise their face when they say -- ay ♪ donin' it our wy >> it was a show back in the 1970's. for four years, it was the number one show about two leaders to work in a brewery in
milwaukee. "laverne & shirley" was very representative of milwaukee, because they were great common people, ladies who worked out on wery,loor of the bre with a lot of people can relate to appear they were fun, energetic, and people would enjoy the. in thedy can look to united states and find a part of them in. >> our look at milwaukee continues, looking over lake michigan as we travel north of the city, we will visit the northpoint lighthouse which helps guide you into and out of the port of milwaukee for over 100 years. >> right now, we're at the top of the northpoint lighthouse, about 172 feet above the lake.
this is the bay of milwaukee. but they is about seven miles across and three miles deep, one of the largest bays on the western side of lake michigan. lake michigan is about 200 yards to the left of us. of lakeage depth michigan is about 300 feet you're the deepest spot is not hundred 20 feet. -- 920 feet. harbor ofht is the milwaukee. this is the skyline of milwaukee today. it will greet visitors as they come into the same milwaukee -- bay of milwaukee. i felt people when they climb to the top, they are going back in history. the place is a theater of the mind. a lot of people imagine what it was like looking out of the whit lighthouse in the morning, seeing all of the brewers out there, all the immigrants, with crops, with beer, all highs of things to
keep the city alive and make it largest part of the great lakes and just a nice place to visit. the fact that ms. cosan is the northwest, this was the territory, the best way to get here was by should. iip. down out of many, as far as buffalo, lake erie, lake st. clair, lake erie, came down to milwaukee. it was the best way to get here. there were no roads, no railroads, so a ship, was the best way to get here. 1805, there were 10 residents here. the fact that milwaukee was such a center for commerce as the city grew to the point where it became the largest port on the great lakes, and it became the
machine shop of the world, because we had a lot of industry all based and it was on the fact that you could be shipped out of the port of milwaukee. primarily people coming here, from tourism, lumber, iron ore, wheat -- milwaukee was the largest exporter of wheat for a number of years, also the largest exporter of leather goods, because we had a slaughterhouse here, the hide, the tanning on the hemlock trees, so we had a lot of tanning done here, and then beer. so many breweries, and the best way to get the beer out of fear was ships. there was a journal that the white house would have to record that wouldof ships pass. in 1876, 1 of the log entries is they not only had to record how many ships that what types of
168s, and one day, in 1876, ships passed. this was the freeway out here. the only way to get things across the poor, to and from the the eastes, but across coast and south. the lighthouse plays a very significant role in maritime trade, because it guided people safely into the port of milwaukee. light houses to get your way around. they are located all down the shore, so all of the lighthouses along the coast, the lights all and overlap. so when you're coming it overnight, or in a storm, this was your guide to get you to port safely. lighthouse was built in milwaukee in 1838, located downtown at the end of what is now wisconsin avenue.
it was built in the wrong spot on the inside of the bay, and the ships coming from the north could not see it. so in 1855, they can to the northern most point of the bay and built the queen city lighthouse 100 miles from where we are today. but it was too close to the bluff. by 1888, the love had eroded to were abouthere they 10 feet away from falling into the lake. so they built a bolted cast-iron about 42 feet tall. in 1892, fred olmsted arrived. architect landscape for the columbia exhibition of 1893. he came to milwaukee a divinely part, which we are in today, riverside park, and washington park. the tree-lined got so high, you could not see the lighthouse
anymore. so they turned off the light, brought a lightship in, and they put it in the bay about two miles away. in, they coulded not see it at all. bolted dismantle the cast-iron section of the tower and put the original one on top of it. so it is the only one in a country with two lighthouses. 1888,ighthouse was lit in and it was a functional 1994.ouse until today, people navigate using their phones. it has been abandoned since 2003, when it was designated as an historic site. then they got the funds together to restore the house and reopen as a museum in 2007. i think it talks a lot about the
history of milwaukee, not only commerce that came here but also the immigrants. milwaukee is a melting pot of immigrants. the germans started coming here in the 1840's. milwaukee has the largest concentration of germans outside of germany anywhere in the world. 48% is german ancestry, including myself. the lighthouse was a beacon for ships, and now it is a beacon for history. people come here to learn about not only the maritime history of the lake but also about the people who live here and the people who settled and groom milwaukee. -- grew milwaukee. banks of lakehe michigan in milwaukee, wisconsin. up next, we take you inside the milwaukee exhibit for a closer look at the early years. the streets of old milwaukee a while she starts and 1890's and takes you from about 1917,
89 when america breaks out on the world scene. it is an immersive look at the way people lived in the late th century. theives you an idea of kinds of people who were here, the kinds of businesses that were going on, and a little bit about what was going on in each and every neighborhood. at the time depicted in the streets of old milwaukee gallery, milwaukee itself at almost 290,000 residents, and of claimed,000, almost 60% german heritage or direct german immigration. we also experienced vast immigration from southern europe as well as canada and parts of mexico and asia. in the city of milwaukee itself, smallwere scores of
neighborhoods that were polish, german, you name it, they were all here. we had over 35 different ethnic groups in milwaukee around 1900. this is the vestibule of our time traveling streetcar. in this area, what you will find as you look at the photograph and the signs coming across, it is modern times. as we progress through the streetcar, the buildings get older, the cars get older, people change, and all of a sudden, when we get to the opposite vestibule, you find yourself here in the streets of old milwaukee, you step into a time when milwaukee manufacturing was just blossoming. -- corporation. it actually started here as a into a and it evolved manufacturing facility. they made gearing, different pieces for streetcars and railroads, very heavy
industries. and they are still available today as falk corporation here in milwaukee. manufacturing in milwaukee has a long, long history. it goes all the back to the 1840's. by the 1880's and 1890's, steam technology was so strong and it really made heavy manufacturing truly possible. like many american cities, you have these massive plants developing in milwaukee, like faulk, like chalmers. there is a lot of interconnectivity between the companies. they grew quickly. we were a large railroad hub.
chicago northwestern, smaller belt railways. there was a lot of facility here. always the most important thing for milwaukee was the milwaukee court. that goes back to the 1840's. foot long piers. the green industry, from wisconsin, minnesota, the grain would all come here. shipmentbigger grain point than chicago. because of all of that grain and the german influence, we had a lot of beer going on here. the schlitz tavern or saloon is a major feature of the streets of old milwaukee as it was a major feature of many of the neighborhoods. over the years, saloons like this became what was called tied houses.
this started in the 1880's and lasted until prohibition. the idea was that the local place, allld apply a the product, all of the necessary materials, to run a tavern. some of these were owned by the breweries themselves. some of them were leased. some were independent entrepreneurs that ran the taverns and the local neighborhoods. you could always rely on a good, clean beer out of these type of establishments because the taverns were held to a very high standard of quality and service by the breweries themselves. that said, there were many independent taverns around milwaukee where the quality was very high but could also be very low and also have some very questionable people about. like many places, we had our trouble districts here in
milwaukee they were actually kind of an interesting story and of themselves as well. we are standing in front of a milwaukee police entry box. they took the idea from various american cities that got the idea from european cities. milwaukee instituted its first police box in about 1866. by about 1895, there were over 900 of these boxes all around the city. they were used by police officers as a way station. once an hour, they had to check in and pick up the phone to call central dispatch to see if there was anything they needed to do our know about. they also used it as a place to keep extra clothing, lunch. sometimes, they would put people inside of this while they were holding them in custody, waiting for the black mariah, also known
as the paddy wagon, to pick them up. this is a depiction of a house owned by sally and susanna watson. they came in 1850 from ohio after gaining their freedom from virginia in 1834. it was a hopscotch kind of immigration. abouts interesting immigration is that it was family driven immigration. their oldest daughter moved here. .other and daughter there were letters back and forth. after the 1849 cholera breakout in columbus, they said, we are moving. they came here by wagon in june the850, settling amongst earliest milwaukee african-american communities.
it was a close tightknit community, very religiously centered. people had wonderful skills. his daughters and were trained seamstresses. they were working as barbers, working as cooks, also working s and blacksmiths. they were a growing and vibrant community. over the course of the time from the end of the civil war through about world war i, there was a fairly good sized influx of african-americans from other parts of the country. south, thehe deep southeast, southwest. a lot of people came from missouri.
they came here with limited skills and quite often they were forced in some ways to take some of the poorest jobs in milwaukee. some people did work their way up but otherwise there was this little bit of an underclass. and is an honor cabin, 1830's -- an 1830's vintage someone to show what it was like to be an early german-american here in milwaukee. if you were one of the beer barons, you wind up with a mansion, but many people had wonderful middle-class homes, ran their own businesses, and worked very hard. many of the industries were created by german-american migrants to milwaukee. ,here was a vast pool of talent a vast pool of high energy people interested in building milwaukee.
>> we are taking a harley-davidson motorcycle tour of milwaukee with a stop in the walkers point neighborhood where a music style that was popular with the early european immigrants is finding a new audience. ♪ polka was never intended to be safe. polka was never intended to be so bland. polka was meant to get people moving. polka was intended to get people sweating. to lightenntended the humors in a person. >> polka in its most simple forms is about sex.
it is about getting a group of people together and making it culturally acceptable for them to touch, to hold hands, to put a hand on a hip, to move together. a lot of cultures, having certain origins and various mores, it was an ok to get together and physically express themselves. you have a dance hall. everyone is there. it was culturally appropriate for men and women to get together and physically interact with one another. it really helped the process along of building community. polka music defined in a lot of different ways. if you wanted the textbook definition, then polka music is a dance in 2/2 time that originated from the bohemia
region from what is the modern-day czech republic. it is traditionally dance music and it is also culturally music of the working class. polka moved all throughout europe first. poland, germany, the ukraine, hungary, slovenia and slovakia. polka found its way to america and in particular to milwaukee through immigrant framing -- immigrant families. all of those immigrant groups and all of their traditional forms of polka kind of created this hotbed of polka activity. it created a beautiful melting pot for all of these different cultures to come and finally start mingling with each other as their old divisions kind of started to die away. probably my parents are may be the last generation who were still going to polka dance halls
with some regularity, and it was even kind of dying out then. by the 1960's and 1970's, that had kind of gone the way of the -- of the dodo. there has been a resurgence lately. like to think we have been a part of that and milwaukee. in some small part, the polka fusion bands are kind of leading the way. introducing it to new generations by including influences that they will be more familiar with. ♪ genression of multiple joining together with polka is where my band, the november criminals, came to be, the world's first polka hip-hop band.
there's no one that would be stupid enough to combine those two things. we want milwaukee to be a safe place for people to conceive of what polka is going to be. we want to make sure it is accessible to new generations, not just the stuffy old music your grandparents used to listen to. a living, vibrant musical form that anyone can play around with. polka still has something to tell us because it is working class music. i think a lot of the struggles we see today can look back and see a lot of the same issues that the working class has always been dealing with. they needed some form of music to take the edge off. they needed some form of music to get everyone in the same place to organize, even if it
was just to have a good time and form those communal bonds. polka is so much about that history, bout us together as a group and what we can achieve if we unify and if we are not separated. that, to me, is what polka is and what the history has to teach us in the modern day. >> we are at the milwaukee county historical society, houston side this bank built in 1913 -- society, housed inside this bank building 1913. >> the socialist party essentially started here in milwaukee in 1897 under the leadership of victor berger, and it just kind of took off from there. there were a number of factors that led to the formation of the socialist party here. number one, there was this huge
influx of german immigrants into milwaukee. many of them had a socialist bent already when they got to milwaukee. immigrants kind of provided leadership for socialists here in milwaukee. ofn there was a huge pool industrial workers in milwaukee. in the late 19th century, it was becoming the machine shop of the world basically. there were numerous factories around the city and so you had this huge pool of working class largely immigrant workers who were very receptive to a message that promised to benefit the working class. there's thise that wide gap between the owners of the business and these working-class people who are laboring for pennies.
they could see that the working conditions they had to deal with were not good at all. they worked in the hottest, dirtiest, most grungy jobs available, so they were hoping that socialists could make those conditions and their lives in general that much better. is an economic system that preaches or believes be --t there's going to what was the class essentially of the capitalist system and it statee replaced by a where the working people are controlling the means of , andction and distribution that it will usher in this golden age where people are equal, there won't be a gap
between the haves and have-nots. victor berger, he is the one that most people consider to be the key for -- the key figure in the development of socialism in milwaukee. milwaukee was kind of just a loose affiliation of labor unions that each had their own agenda. there were some political groups that were kind of akin to socialism but they weren't all that effective. rger who brought all these disparate groups together. he also was the one who tweaked socialist theory a little bit. socialism tofor really take root here in milwaukee, you had to make it a to americanamenable tastes. that is why he had the socialists focus on meat and
potatoes kind of issues like streetlight systems, the sewer system, and things of that nature. that a he didn't believe socialist state had to go through a violent revolution to be achieved. he thought it could be achieved gradually and peacefully through the ballot box and through education. he bought a struggling newspaper, became editor for that, and it was through those vehicles that he got out the word about socialism and what it was. he was very successful at that. we've moved into the research library part of the historical society. i pulled a number of items related to socialists in milwaukee county. is example, this first item a campaign leaflet from their very first campaign in 1898.
the party itself was formed in 1897 and they immediately fielded several candidates. gradually, from that point on, the socialists did better and better and throughout the next several elections. at theee turn-of-the-century, it was undergoing some really rapid changes because of industrialization and a huge influx of immigrants. you are dealing with overcrowding, with pollution, crime. those kinds of urban issues. compelled, they were to address all of these things. victor berger, he was the first socialist elected to the u.s. congress in 1910.
it was part of a sweeping victory for the socialists. in large part, it was because of the corruption of the previous administration, there was all sorts of graft and backroom dealings and that kind of thing. also kind of pushed milwaukee as this wide open, wild city liquor,bling, saloons, prostitution. all of those things kind of ridened to help socialists this wave into power. won controlialists of city hall. they won a number of county seats, state seats, victor berger was elected to the u.s. congress. the party put out this calendar success aswaukee's
far as advancing the socialist movement. again, it starts at the bottom with city hall and all the people that won offices there, including victor berger's wife, who was elected to the school board. then at the county level, then moving on to the state capital in madison, and finally to the capital in washington, d.c., with victor berger winning election there. the socialists, they had a very contentious relationship with milwaukee streetcar company. they had a monopoly on streetcars in milwaukee. they battled them for years and years, so they were always a target for the socialists. this little leaflet here shows basically how milwaukee is being
cheated by that monopoly of the , showing, wepany had to pay $.11 when other cities were paying for, five, six cents as far as ridership and the cost per unit for the streetcar. the ownership of the streetcar company didn't change until the lease was up in the 1930's, so the socialists weren't able to gain public control over the streetcar system, but it didn't stop them from trying. from the beginning, people viewed -- most people anyway viewed socialism with a little bit of trepidation and there were all sorts of fears that they were going to take away private property or that they were bent on getting rid of religion altogether or they were going to basically make
everybody the same and take away individual initiative, things -- made them successful in a capitalist society. the socialists wanted to dispel all of those criticisms and arguments, so they put out this little pamphlet basically showing that they don't want to divide up the wealth, they just want to have public control or worker control of certain industries like public utilities things that were supposed to benefit the public in general. they argue they are not going to get rid of private property, or they don't have anything against religion. their argument is that socialism has nothing to do with religion. it is strictly an economic system meant to improve the welfare of all working-class.
socialistslot of the won election in 1910 were voted out of office. one of the big reasons why is that the established democratic and republican parties created this fusion ticket to join forces and not split the electorate, thereby helping the socialists win. aat was created was like nonpartisan primary ballot. as you can see on here, it is nothing but names. none of the political parties are indicated. so, this must have been a bewildering ballot for people voting. it is just a list of names. unless you are really up on each individual that is running for a specific office, you are not going to know which party you
are voting for. you couldn't vote a straight party ticket. things like that kind of helped usher the socialists out of office in 1912. focused his energy on .ewspaper editing 1918 evenlected though he had been indicted by a grand jury for violating the espionage act during world war i. disaster i, it was a for the socialist party not only in milwaukee but around the country. opposed insts general all wars as capitalist ventures to dominate world markets and increase profits, that sort of thing. the milwaukee socialists, for the most part, were no different. here, berger, you can see
the united states, we are not even in the war yet in 1916, but there is this growing anti-german sentiment in the country. starveialists are saying the war and feed america. they were urging president woodrow wilson to establish a complete embargo against the belligerents in world war i. they didn't want to send food overseas to the germans or to the british. very -- they were critical of what they saw as wilson's favoritism toward the french and british allies. they grew increasingly critical of wilson and his war policies. there was the sedition act that was passed that basically made it a crime to make statements against the war effort.
the way the probe war people looked at it, you are helping the enemy basically. , and several editorials, he basically said, this is a rich man's war. that was enough to get him indicted. but once the war had ended and ,assions died down a little bit he was finally admitted, and he remained in congress until he was killed in 1929. this is kind of an interesting record here. coroner's inquest of victor berger from august 1929. he was struck by a street and killed. that thet is irony streetcar company that he had
fought against for years and years and years was finally what did him in. was recognized by friends and foes alike as being one of the key figures in milwaukee's history. his funeral, it was a massive gathering. everybody paid their respects to berger, just for how influential he was. they may have disagreed with his policies, but no one doubted how much he wanted to help the working-class people. the socialist movement ushered good,ong tradition of honest, efficient government. amil seidel, the first socialist mayor of milwaukee, a mayor who was mayor for 24 years, frank
likeer, who was mayor for 12 years, they were all recognized as honest, decent human beings. that became an expectation among voters in milwaukee. i think one of the things that milwaukee socialists demonstrated is that it could work. system't this radical that was bent on destroying the current economic structure of the united states. socialists, they were very fiscally conservative, which fits right in with milwaukee's reputation with germans. it did work here in milwaukee because milwaukee was recognized very often as one of the best governed cities in the country, one of the healthiest and safest cities in the country. it was all under the socialist administration.
>> we are touring milwaukee on the back of a harley with a swing through the 3rd street district. once known as the neighborhood of german immigrants, and has been home to a sausage company for 100 years. we stopped by their deli and smokehouse for a taste of recipes. >> we make them the same way my grandfather made them. we as fresh garlic. we don't use garlic powder. we use fresh onions. we use a natural smoking process where the product is smoked in two-story brick smoke houses. it is smoked over an open fire. thereat grandfather founded company. he immigrated in the late 1870's. he was a sausage maker in germany. he came to milwaukee because of its large german population.
he settled in town here, established his craft. in 1880, he established this business and the approximate location of where we are now. at its birth, it was just a sausage shop. the sausage was made in the back by my great grandfather. my great-grandmother actually ran the store. together, they built the business and, from their own retail store to other grocery stores, corner grocery stores in the neighborhood, that evolved into supermarkets at some point. then we shipped products around the country and that is sort of how the business grew. andou grew up in milwaukee your parents were avid sausage fans, they shopped here. we have had multi-generational customers. that is what it is all about, why we are iconic here in milwaukee. generation after generation comes in buys their products here. >> milwaukee's walnut street was
at the heart of a thriving african-american community during the middle part of the 20th century. next, we visit the wisconsin black historical society to learn about the growth of the african-american population in the city for -- this city. >> the mission of wisconsin tock historical society is preserve wisconsin's african-american history. every city should be able to regain and recapture its history. african-americans have been in the state of wisconsin since the beginning of the state's history, as trappers and guides, frontiersmen, even enslaved people. we were brought here to do various things. in the western part of the state, we were here as enslaved people to mine and bring forth led. we have been here a long time. but hugege numbers,
numbers, in the 1950's after world war ii. but we have been here. joe oliver is an early arrival who becomes the mayor of milwaukee or the caretaker, and a real estate broker. is in milwaukee in the 1830's, 1840's. joe oliver is a caretaker, cook, and friend. to havemajor issue african-americans to vote. joe oliver is the first african-american to vote in 1835. in 1848, wisconsin becomes a state. gillespie comes to milwaukee in the late 1840's. he spends the whole 1850's fighting for the right to vote. as he killed gillespie took that banner up and said, we are going to demonstrate, we are going to
march, we are going to have conferences. even frederick douglass would visit the state of wisconsin and have various conferences and meetings. they saw this vision that voting empowers a man, and a woman too, to have some say about their destiny and futures. the issue was with suffrage for african-americans, when. but people felt that the issue was not legal, it was tied up in the state of wisconsin's supreme court. it took a whole -- it took the whole period of the civil war for it to be ratified. brought-of-the-century a socialist movement and also brought in african-americans from the south, looking for new opportunities. those new opportunities certainly included jobs. domestic work, to work in the
home, taking the children, work in those factories, to do the hardest and the dirtiest work. we saw that there was a socialist movement going on. ,ducation in the school systems a quality of life that they hadn't experienced in the south. after world war ii, what appeared to be a great migration began to occur in milwaukee. people from the south, mississippi, louisiana, arkansas, western texas, began to migrate to the city and they settle around what we call walnut street. theegation existed in 1940's, 1950's in milwaukee in a real way. if you found yourself straying somewhere else, the bus driver would bring you back to what is your segregated community.
restrictions are clearly labeled, that african-americans cannot own or occupy these houses outside of the designated area. redlining is a method in which redsystem codes the color on a map, saying that that is an area designated for discriminating practices. and that any person interested in either living in those areas or having businesses in that thatshould be cautioned insurance companies charge excessive insurance rates for those areas. it is also an area which the system made a decision to manipulate the voting pool so that we could not get an , torman to run for office decide whether or not there is
enough african-americans, europeans, and change the voting when time comes to vote, african-americans could not engender enough african-american votes to get an african-american in office. first older woman in 1957 in the city of -- the first of 1957an in the city in milwaukee, she becomes the first judge, she becomes the secretary of state. but, it is her winning the alderman's position and becoming a member of the democratic party traveling throughout the united states and the world, talking about human rights. she fought to get fair housing
past. at -- shebasis, she submitted a bill that she was not successful. she would not get the bill passed. father james is another gallant fighter for human rights in milwaukee. sees housing as an obstacle to returning veterans. >> it is up to the government of this city and state to see to it that we exercise our right of freedom of speech. we will execute -- we will exercise that despite the danger. marches fromppi judges houses and other places, asking the city to pass a fair housing legislation bill. eventuallys groppi
at the washington, d.c. invitation of lyndon johnson. this bill was prepared by a senator from minnesota. gives itmes groppi life, gives it energy when he testifies before congress. april ofpasses it in 1968. the law had been watered down. fair housing really means more than ability to live. yes, there are african-americans living in the south side, and suburban communities, but it really means to stop creating ghettos such as redlining, health disparities, closing down
on businesses. all of that has to do with their housing, not just where i can live for don't lift. there are people who want to live right here. that is what their housing really addresses and that is what this bill, although this bill has been weakened quite a bit since its passage, that was the message and the goal that was put forward. milwaukee is still segregated and racism still goes on. still a ghetto in milwaukee. poverty, food islands, a food -- a food desert. we still have those things. neglect.have
statistics where you say we are codeumber one city or zip in terms of incarceration of african-americans. you lookee that when at housing in the area, when you see the disparity between african-american youth getting wider and wider. you can see that with factories and businesses closing their doors to the neighborhoods that depend on them. you can see that with the behavior of people in violence because they don't see any other thise and they internalize with the -- with it. it is evolving, changing, and it needs to change more. it is not just about having
african-american representatives, because the conditions still are in bad shape. there needs to be greater change. >> i am so proud to represent the fourth congressional district of wisconsin. the center of the district is the city of milwaukee. the machine tool makers of the world. over onehave had 36%, third, direct laborers engaged in manufacturing and had a large middle class base, economic base. now, that number has dropped to about 14%. of course, the income has dropped as well. we still depend upon
manufacturing as a large part of our economy. one of the places where the labor movement was born right here in milwaukee. blood, died, fighting for the eight hour workday. it is a place where, in recent times, it has been turned into a right to work state. my district is best known for its diversity. i believe it is the best -- the most diverse district in the state. it was first settled by african-americans, followed by the french, poles, germans, african-americans, mexican americans. one of our challenges is to make sure that that is not something that just rolls off of our tongues, that we actually have minority participation. there are things that we are not very proud of. this is not one of the greatest places for african-american
children to grow up. we have high incarceration rates among african-american men. the decline in manufacturing jobs has meant a diminishment of people's income. so while there is a lot of braggadocio about how low unemployment is, it is over 13% for african-american men. the aspirations i have for this district is that we eliminate some of the negative numbers surrounding our community. >> we hopped on a milwaukee manufactured harley-davidson motorcycle to visit different areas of the city. at walker's point, we stopped at the makers of wisconsin's iconic cheese head hat. >> when do you have to keep an eye on your cheese?
when it is up to no gouda. >> this factory is known for the sometimes infamous cheese head hat. in 1980 seven, our current owner was actually supposed to be helping his reupholster her couch. he took a look at the couch cushion and realized that it looked kind of like a wedge of cheese. he was on his way to a brewers game and he wanted to take the derogatory term cheese head and use it more as a fun piece and something he can wear on his head. his friends were initially really embarrassed and they scattered, but ralph noticed that a lot of people were coming up to him and asked him to try on the hat. itnever intended on selling but he realized how popular was and decided to make a few more. around the mid-1990's, packers fans began taking it and running with it. it was right around when we were
on our way to the super bowl. sellingde a caravan cheeseheads down to the super bowl. foamation today, we are 32 years old. we have gotten into the entertainment business, too. we have factory tours. we welcome in locals and tourists to take a look at what is.cheese head >> i am mark, your wonderful commander-in-chief. this comes out of our warehouse. we will need to heat this up. we will then use a release agent. we spray this, then work it in. ourcially around trademarked name for the holes. cheese actually 24 in a
head. fill a point, i will large cup, place it on the scale. i will take this to our shave machine, as i call it. expanding.ing and it is already starting to rise just a little bit in the mold. it keeps expanding. he will plant -- we will clamp this down for about four or five minutes. that's looking good. i think we will gently pull away from the edges. .ou have your cheesehead there is air inside this cheesehead, so we like to hug
our cheesehead, and that forces the air out. placed onready to be any other cheese head in the world. iswhile the cheesehead mostly recognized as a packers fan base item, we do really have our ties with wisconsin as a state. just kind of being able to make fun of ourselves and be very proud of who we are. we never wanted to take our products and make them abroad or anything. it is all made right here in milwaukee. >> miller brewing company was founded here in wisconsin in 1855. next, we learned about its history and the brewing history of the city. >> the word iconic is overused but miller is certainly an iconic company in milwaukee's history. the company began in 1855 and
has been here ever since. is the last of the major brewers still located here. miller brewing was founded by frederick miller, an immigrant from germany. he was born in 1824 in a small town in southern germany, which was and still is a center of beer culture. goldme here with $9,000 of on his person. obviouse emerged as an choice. good farmland around here, so barley becomes malt, hops are a key ingredient in beer. you also had true winters. at the time before refrigeration was done mechanically, that was really important for keeping ice cool. the most important reason he settled here was that it is the most german city in america. you have that german triangle of milwaukee, cincinnati, st. louis. all three became brewing centers.
by 1860, milwaukee had a majority of germans and its population. you have a lot of taste for beer here and a lot of talent for making it. he set up shop in the plank road brewery. a small town in the country about 60 miles from here. it was started a few years before by members of the betts family, who also started the pabst brewery. they didn't make it, so he bought it. they made -- this will be the oldest surviving structure here on the milwaukee campus. in 1849 at the then brewery.d
the cave system here was built in 1849. it was all hand done, making it our oldest surviving structure in milwaukee. the chamber we are in here is 15 feet wide, 18 feet high, and at one point stretched an additional 800 feet behind the mural. to 12,000 store up barrels of beer. rackswooden storage similar to a wine cellar. keeping beer cold, which we did through a system called ice. we would harvest blocks in the winter, have it delivered at a , packetabout $.72 a ton at the walls and cover it in sawdust and strong. the insulated nature of being underground was enough to keep
ice intact with a median temperature in the cave between 36 and 40 degrees all year round. the following winter, we would harvest more ice. that is what kept beer cold for the better part of 50 years until the advent of mechanical refrigeration. this is the last surviving chamber of that cave system. the rest of either collapsed in on themselves or deteriorated to the point where they can't be repaired. others, we intentionally filled in to accommodate building of new buildings. >> other brewers who were active here, there were more than two .ozen brewers he became kind of a player but never became during his lifetime more than the fourth largest in milwaukee. fourth or fifth place here is good for first in virtually every other american city.
bruin played a huge role in milwaukee's economy for the first generation or two of statehood. what went on over the years, they began to help grow the local market, there just were not enough germans here to drink all that beer. the more impressive ones became shipping brewers, and that meant adding market area year-by-year. a big help was the chicago fire of 1871. that wiped out about half of chicago's breweries. milwaukeeroad -- breweries were only too happy to fill that vacuum. i think in the years after the fire of 1871, there was a full train of beer going to chicago every day of the week. ,hey didn't get off the mat though chicago brewers, because milwaukee kind of filled that
vacuum. there was only one year back in major leather a tanning center, a major flour center. what really got -- what really kind of shifted milwaukee's perspective, beginning in the 1870's or so, and until the recent past, what they call durable goods were our most important products, and that is the metal bending, everything howitzersne tools, during the war efforts, turbines, marine diesels. the fact that you did not go down to a corner store to buy a theyg shovel meant that weren't advertising those on the mass-market but bruin, they were. even though 1890 was the only
year that it was their most important product, because of all that advertising, it became cemented in the national image, that milwaukee equals beer. >> welcome to our brewhouse. the brewing process begins one floor above us. we will combine water, cereal grain, barley and a large tub called mash. we will cook that for two to three hours into a substance called mash, which you can think of is browned, runny oatmeal. it will then flow down into one of our large copper kettles. think of that as a giant industrial sized coffee filter. we are going to strain out the grains and barley hops from the rich, sweet, sugary liquid that we want called wort. down into theflow brew kettles. we will take those grains and barley hops and dry them out. we are able to sell those to local farmers for cow and
chicken feed. every drop of beer that we produce here is brewed in one of the kettles down below here. they are stainless steel inside and out, and 18 feet deep. they are much bigger than you can see here. at this stage we are going to add hops to the beer. after we have boiled them for about one hour to 90 minutes we are going to string out any remaining salad ingredients and pump them over to our fermentation facility via an underground piping system that runs under the street below. fermentation is where we add our yeast. for many facilities we use the same kinetic strain of yeast that are founder brought over in his pocket from germany. fermentation is a living organism, yeast is. that will interact with and digest with the starches. it will produce two essential byproducts needed for beer.
one is carbon dioxide and the other is alcohol provides us the alcohol. the entire fermentation process takes eight to 10 days. when we are done we strain out the remaining yeast and we drive that out and sell it to local pet food companies. brewers yeaste listed as an ingredient, chances are it came from a facility like ours. while we technically have beer at this point, it is not yet ready to be packaged and consumed. we now have to send it to our aging facility. we are going to keep it in large tanks away from light where it will blend together and a process called mellowing for about 10 days to two weeks. in that time we will filter one final time. --remaining impurity process takesing anywhere from three weeks to two months. miller lite takes exactly 21 days of start to finish. miller high life is 25 days.
was a long,on painful timeout that took away what had been a critical source of license revenue for local governments. and i calculated that the loss of license fees would have been enough in inflation-adjusted dollars to pay for every neighborhood library in the city. really took a hit economically. it was a hit culturally. people had been accustomed to relaxing with a brew after work, and taverns and saloons after prohibition, where some people described it as communal living rooms. the working man's club. all the breweries doing prohibition had to do something else. made everything from processed cheese to chocolate bars. they all made some form of soda water, pop. -- malt made multi-
tonic, malt syrup. it was not illegal to make it, it was illegal to sell it. public libraries could not keep brewing manuals on the shelves. so, it really was -- even though they tried to keep the doors open it was never more than a fraction of capacity before prohibition. there's an case, interest in operations before prohibition and they decided to say, well, what is our go away price. they decided $5 million is what they would take for the whole operation. had925 after prohibition been on the books for six years, the same assets were listed for sale for $300,000. the same exact assets, and there were no takers. valuetook the economic and hollowed out the economic value of all these operations
and it did not come back until 1933. when beer came back in 1933, miller was among the brewers and all the majors were still in milwaukee. the ones that were able to survive. it was like a champagne cork being released. the pent-up demand really created almost a frenzy. people wanting milwaukee beer. flying about chicagoans in planes to take back cases for a party that night. it really was kind of a, "fina lly, the drought is over" and people could legally satisfy their thirst again. >> we sit on 84 acres and consists of 80 buildings. this is the largest of those buildings. a total area of 200,000 square feet. that is the equivalent of five nfl football fields lined up
side-by-side. to 750 1000 up cases of beer at any one time. that sounds like a lot and it certainly is. we have the capacity to package up to 60,000 cases of these beers each and every day. that does not give us much time or space to keep things sitting around. that means everything you see here is going to get shipped out and turned over and replaced within the next 24 to 48 hours. a lot but let me put it into perspective. if you drank a six pack every day it would take you 22.5 years to drink all the beer on just one semitruck. we can send out between 200 and 250 of those everyday. >> long story short there has been a lot of consolidation. and a lot of merger and
acquisition activity in the beer market nationally and internationally. schlitz closed in 1982 after problems. miller as the last 19th-century brewers standing. the big change was the purchase of miller by phillip morris in 1969. phillip morris were master marketers. what they did was in 1972 they bought a breeder -- a beer marketed as a diet beer for women. they retooled the recipe and changed the marketing to tastes great, less filling, which could not be near a tv and not hear it. every professional athlete in the country was somehow enlisted. the result was between 1969 and
1977, miller moved from number seven in the country to number two. it was a remarkable case study how you market your way to success. that really establish that miller is not just a ledger -- last major standing in milwaukee, with anheuser-busch one of the two majors left in the country. looking at everything from miller high life theater where you see shows downtown to miller park, where the brewers play. what it is basically is a ethnice expression, an and economic legacy that was really important and remains important. announcer: continuing our special look at milwaukee, grand avenue was once home to some of milwaukee's wealthiest residents. lined with the mansions at the
turn of the 20th century. today it is where you will find marquette university and the pabst dimension. next we visit the home to learn about the past -- the pabst family and the origins of their family's brewing company. >> brewing and milwaukee are very synonymous. that was pretty early on. the walkie in general for german immigration and brewing just developed along with all of that. they remembered lager beers from their homeland. i think todayt most people would recognize him from the ear company. -- beer company. but to milwaukee and he was a 19th-century celebrity. he immigrated in 1848, which was a large german immigration due
to political unrest at the time. he spent the early part of his life in the u.s. in chicago. met someone 20's he and that tied him into the growing -- brewing company for the rest of his life. he would often take frederick pabst between milwaukee and sheboygan, wisconsin to purchase items for the brewing company, bringing along his children. became close friends and were married in 1862. he would become president of the brewing company and largely used his skill as a people person and as a really great marketer. he really had no background in brewing. he did not understand the ingredients that went into it.
he relied heavily on people who had already been working at the best brewing company, as well as his brother-in-law who would marry the younger of the best daughters. he would be the one who really understood more about the operations of a brewery. when you combined those talents, those two would be the ones who turned the best brewing company into the largest brewery in the world by 1890. in 1889 they changed the name from best to pabst. 1889, they had both passed away and the board of directors voted to change the name of the company to the pabst brewing company out of recognition at frederick pabst was the president and largely substantial -- responsible for making it the largest company. there was that name change in 1889. the 1890's were the heyday for the pabst company and family as
a whole. it was nicknamed the pabst decade here in milwaukee. they really largest lager brewery in the world. pavilion to large advertise. that was one way they really got the name out there to a worldwide audience. you have the billing of the 1895t mansion, the pabst in after it was purchased. all the different restaurants and resorts were largely built in the 1890's across the u.s. american history is a very important decade. but set up the america we know today in many respects as well as herein milwaukee with the pabst family. a lot of their children married local 1890's, so celebrity, that'll help to spread the pabst name and the brewing company which was the
most visible of all their businesses. mention began construction in june of 1890. they hired a local firm and it took two years to complete. the family moved in here. but would have 10 children, five died as infants, which was not uncommon at the time. when the pabst mention was completed, a granddaughter would come to live there as well. the pabst mansion is 20,000 square feet. five levels. a basement, which was a workplace for staff at the house. the first, second and third floor were living areas and a full-sized attic. about 37 rooms in total is how we generally count that. definitely enough space for four principal family members. it is designed in a renaissance revival style.
a real northern european style you would find in the netherlands and northern germany. it is a distinct style in milwaukee in general. the decorative stylus in the house we believe were probably influenced by the pabst son-in-law, a local artist. he was the lead interior designer probably laying what they -- relaying what the pabst family wanted. they were going to go with what was new and modern as far as available products including wallcoverings and tapestry. building, which of course is like a goldleaf product. features. more modern floor,city on the first telephone closet among other things. we are in the music room. the music room is what we would term an ornate family room. this is the room where the pabst
celebrated holidays together, formal occasions like the youngest daughter's wedding. and funerals were held here as well. the first space is the original custom built furniture done by the matthews brothers in milwaukee. it has the same woodwork style as the room itself and it has the tapestry fabric as well. the objects in the space include a lot of original artwork including a portrait of captain pabst as well as the pieces that represent his early days as a theme ship captain as well. one of my favorite stories about the music room is christmas of 1903. frederick pabst passed away new year's day 1904 and 1903 his health was in bad shape, so the family all came back to celebrate here together. i always like to smile when i think about the struggle the children must've had to figure out what to get there millionaire father. one thing that came up for that
last christmas was to purchase a brown jersey calf to present to him as the breed he always wanted to introduce to his farm in wisconsin. the local paper wrote an article here in was uncreated the mansion and paraded around the room as a gift to their father. we moved into the dining room. the largest space in the home for entertaining in. family always had food-based dinners here and detainment at the house. -- entertainment at the house. very typical german food that we think of today. my favorite example is a very formal dinner called a moonlight snack that they had here in the 1890's. the menu you would think would include some higher-end types of foods but included ham, bratwurst, potato salad, radishes. very reminiscent of the kinds of
things they would have grown up eating served here to their family and friends. dessert, theter invitation mentions captain pabst would have cuban weed available. the family seems to be fairly informal when amongst themselves. of course missus pabst, it would be important for her if they would be in public or have a formal event that it was done to the style and expectation of the time period. outside of that, we think because of their humble beginnings that they were very casual. doesow that the table compact down to four seats, which would be a smaller table for the four family members here. people,xpand to seat 22 so they can really then go fully elaborate for those dinners they were having here for their friends. the dining room is a really good example of some of our more popular collections, as well as
how the pabst inc. modern features. modern -- att the the chandelier, you can see how the pabst inc. electricity early on with their wing. they worked along with natural gas fixtures. you and icloser to would little knobs on the side. we like to point out if you see the knobs, those originally were natural gas and if you do not, they were electric. the dining room also features some of our more interesting elections, including over here on the north wall. this is a brass and copper wine cooler. and we know that the pabst family preferred to drink german wines at the house. wasmansion that beer built not the drink of the family. they really imported a lot of bottles of wine to search other guests.
you are entering captain pabst's study. we have moved to the westernmost point on the first floor. captain pabst's study had two main purposes. it included his home office as well as a smoking room. the many years of cigar smoking that would take a toll later in his life took place here in the study area. a darkerork, walnut, style helped hide the cigar smoke residue. also if you notice along the north and east wall, these are well-placed cabinets. all of the pieces are individually done and applied with glue. on the ridge here, which is how captain pabst for his staff thesehave access these, actually open up to reveal storage areas. the design here in the study is probably the most ornate in the house. if you get close in, a lot the
scrollwork divine, flower petals, seashells. here above theds records closet door. above the main doorway are some cattle heads. had an captain pabst interest in farming but the american west was a very popular topic especially with german immigrants here in milwaukee. a lot of the artwork had small nods to that. we think maybe these were in reference to that as well. study was at's space utilized for him to conduct a lot of his business work. he had also written a lot of personal letters in the space which was a main form of communication at the time. letterthe showcases is a written called the "my dear children letter." it is basically a goodbye letter
to his kids. it was included in his will. when he passed away it was taken out and read to them. a good example of what the contents of that letter includes, quotes like they want them to be generous and unselfish, be honest and noble with each other and with the world and to always have a good name. their greatest happiness will come from the knowledge of doing right. we think a lot of were very personal things that captain pabst wanted to impart to his kids. coming from such a humble background it would not have had the same experience he did. he was always stressing how fortunate they were and it spoke volumes to the kind of character that the children were raised to be. they were almost equally as loved as their father was here in the milwaukee area. we want people to have a better understanding of who the pabst was. this was not a family that came from wealth.
they sort of lived the american dream as far as coming as immigrants, working your way up and acquiring enough wealth to build a home like this. but they also remained humble. it tells in the history of milwaukee is very important. the street now, people would have no idea that this was the premier section of milwaukee at the time. beer towelsory that is the larger story of milwaukee. our cities tour staff recently traveled to milwaukee to learn about its rich history. to watch more video from a walkie and other stops on our tour, visit c-span.org /citiestour. you are watching american history tv, all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. announcer: book tv today is featuring three new nonfiction books starting at 6:20 p.m.
eastern. in his book clarence thomas and he lost constitution, city journal editor-at-large looks at the tenure of the supreme court justice. there is no's view higher, nobler, more just or more up-to-date purpose for any government if the framers had realized -- failed to realize that ideal because of slavery, civil war per food -- announcer: at 9:00 on afterwards, and author and her book unbecoming, a memoir of disobedience, that talks about her efforts to overturn the ban on women in combat. >> it was a very common experience that all women i had talked to experienced some form of discrimination and most had experienced harassment and many experienced assaults. affirmation that we had experienced something that
desperately needed to be addressed and acknowledged and tonged, fueled the desire take these issues to capitol hill and demand reform. announcer: and at 10:00 p.m. eastern, and her book where the light enters, former second lady joe biden -- jill biden discusses her family and career. >> so nervous about getting up in front of a crowd. but then when we were elected vice president, i thought, you know what? i have been given such a platform, and i can talk about all my passions, all the things that i love. education, community colleges, military families. and i thought, i cannot waste this platform, and i better get better at this. announcer: three new nonfiction books, today starting at 6:20 p.m. eastern on book tv on c-span2.
announcer: each week, american artifact takes you to museums and historic places to learn about american history. here's a brief look at one of our recent trips. women were leaving the victorian parlor where society had told them they ought to combine the activities to sewing and reading and doing a little bit of charity work and so on, and raising their children and running their homes. nothing wrong with that. but the new woman wanted more. and the new woman looked around her community and said there is so much work that need to be done here. this is the progressive era, and women were saying we need to go beyond the confines of our home. of they use the ideology their role as guardians of the home to justify leaving the home and getting involved in political issues that affected the home. said if itmple, they
is our job to raise and feed our children, we need to know that the food that we buy is safe. so they got involved in early food safety laws when public attention was drawn to that. they said we need safe places for our children to play, so many women got involved in funding and organizing and installing public playgrounds in their communities, public libraries. many of them got involved in labor reform and worrying about women workers in the factories, in the department stores, in other jobs, who had long days and no breaks and had to stand up for hours on end and very poor wages. gotany women got -- involved in union organizing. and of course many women got involved in suffrage. possibly the issue that most affected them, or at least their civil rights, was suffrage.
many women were indifferent to suffrage or against suffrage. so, the suffragists, a lot i what they had to do was bring more women over to their side and realize that suffrage was the right. here is aat we have reenactment of two suffragists who were some of the many, many women who stood in front of the white house in 1917 and 1918, the silent sentinels. they had these banners, this is a reproduction of an original banner with the original in the back of the gallery. these are the original sashes on loan to us from the museum on capitol hill, which is the headquarters of the national women's party. i encourage you to visit it. they do a wonderful job of telling the story of women's suffrage there and have many more banners and artifacts of the suffrage movement. but here are some of the silent sentinels, and they would stand
in front of the white house with these banners which directly addressed president wilson. this again was not considered proper behavior for women. not only were they involving themselves in a political issue, but they are standing they are in public, open to the public gaze, and addressing the president directly in a critical manner. this is just not polite behavior. and so they are saying mr. president, what will you do for women suffrage? mr. president, how long must women wait for liberty? and when the war started, the banners said things like, mr. president, it is not fair to conscript our sons in a war when we have no say in the government. they also started quoting him and his words justifying our entry into the war to defend the rights of other citizens of europe. and they said, hello? you are going to war to defend
our rights. these are rights that we women in america do not have. again, it was really considered unpatriotic and rather threatening, if not positively treasonous. so they got a lot of harassment, they started having police beatings, they got jailed. strikes, on hunger they were beaten, very badly treated. they endured a great deal in this rush for suffrage.
announcer: travel with us to historic sites, museums and archives. each sunday at 6:00 p.m. antenna cry p.m. eastern on our series american artifacts. this is american history tv, all weekend on c-span3. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2019] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] announcer: for 40 years c-span has been providing america unfiltered coverage of congress, the white house, the supreme court, and public policy events from washington dc and around the country, so you can make up your own mind. created by cable in 1979, c-span is brought to you by your local cable or satellite provider. c-span, your unfiltered view of government. announcer: 50 years ago on may 18, 1969, apollo 10 blasted off for an
eight-day mission to rehearse for the moon landing to come to -- two months later. it included a lunar orbit, a descent within nine miles of the moon surface, and crucial test that paved the way for apollo 11. apollo 10, to sort out the unknowns, is a half-hour nasa film documenting the mission. ♪ narrator: may 18, 1969. we were almost ready. man had orbited the moon once. man had test flown the lunar module, the lunar landing craft in earth orbit once. before we would commit man to a lunar landing, there were still a number of things to be worked out. this was the mission of apollo 10. in the words of its commander, to sort out all the unknowns and pave the way for a lunar