tv Lincoln Assassination Attending Doctors CSPAN May 25, 2019 4:54pm-6:01pm EDT
>> from time to time, people complained that george washington, tom jefferson condoned slavery. slavery was there for centuries before either of them were born. neither of them thought that the office of the presidency had any power to do anything about it. lincoln was able to do something about it because he did so not simply as president, but as the commander-in-chief in a war. applied to people who were in rebellion against the united states. there was no basis otherwise. >> he is written many books including "economic facts and " discoloration and disparities." join with your tweets, calls and facebook questions. watch live on sunday, june 2, from noon to 2 p.m. eastern on book tv on c-span2.
next him up from the district of columbia, retired infectious disease specialist dr. john willen talks about charles leale, the first person to treat the mortally wounded abraham lincoln after he was shot while he watched the play at ford's theater in washington.he delivers an own -- an overview of the treatment administered to the dying president and describes the efforts of the doctors who assisted him. tonight is a very person.ced .he lecture service -- circuit he is been a practicing physician, infectious diseases for 30 years. californiad in before coming to d.c., where he then active in speaking for national museum of civil war medicine.
he is a frequent like -- lecturer. we are happy to have him speak for us tonight. he is a board of directors of the society of civil war surgeons and he is what we call a switch hitter. reenacting as a surgeon for both union and confederate soldiers. we are happy to have you anyway. please help a welcome to the podium, our own dr. john willen. dr. willen: normally, when i give talks, i think the organizers for inviting me. case, in the program chairman of this group, i think myself. we will dispense with that.
-- i have to thank myself, so we will dispense with that. the title of my talk is lincoln's first responder. we are talking about dr. charles leale, the first physician to attend to mr. lincoln at the ford's theatre, as well as aspects of the assassination itself. let me advance the slide. do we have a clicker to advance the slide? i am. [laughter] we are not advancing for some reason. there we go. piquedrest in this was
by the fact that in may 2012, a researcher at the national archives uncovered a 21 page report written by dr. charles leale. uncovered a 21 page handwritten report which was done within the first 24 hours of the lincoln assassination by dr. charles leale. previously, this was unknown. submitted seven reports on his care of the president after the assassination. this one turned out to be a treasure trove. who was this gentleman? the first doctor to be admitted to the presidential box was charles augustus leal, a 23-year-old. you just graduated from bellevue medical college in new york six weeks prior.
that is deceiving, because his stepfather was a doctor. man, his father had overseen the marine hospital in portland, maine. young charles, gained surgical experience. recalls receiving his first surgical instruction at the hospital as he visited the wards as a young man. in addition, his father had him privately tutored by two of the finest physicians of the day, one often foot senior, and the other frank hamilton. benk hamilton went on to involved with the union army. he wrote a manual of military surgery, which was used by the union surgeons. school, he went on to take a course under dr. hamilton
in the treatment of head wounds. at the time of the assassination, he was a surgeon in charge of the commission at armory square hospital on washington, d.c. you can see the pictures. it was located at 17 independence. with0-bed hospital officers quarters and chapel. it was named after the armory on the right. this is currently the site of the air and space museum. april 14, 1865. the president lincoln is assassinated by john wilkes booth -- we all know that story.
street, opened in 1861 by john t. ford. john wilkes booth was part of the booth acting dynasty, starting with junius brutus booth and edwin booth. i like this anecdote about edwin booth. booth was at a railroad station in new jersey and he was traveling with john t. ford. they were about to get onto the train when a young man slipped and was about to fall into the gap between the platform and the train. booth grabbed him by the collar, pulled him back up and saved his life. was none other than
robert todd lincoln. the headline at the time was booth saves lincoln. what motivated booth? there are several theories. one is there is a book that propagates the theory of the case of sibling rivalry. edwin was the more famous actor than john. indeed, he told john i will act in the north, you will act in the south, smaller audiences. which is one reason john became very close to southerners. he also was a racist, of course, and that is part of the motivation. this is lincoln's second inauguration, 1864. the arrow points to a man in a top hat. when you enlarge it, that is considered by most people to be booth. when booth himself stated what
an excellent chance if i had wish to kill the president on inauguration day. why was he there? fromd procured a ticket the daughter of the u.s. senator from new hampshire. he was secretly engaged to lucy. they may have attended the inaugural ball together. she was also a friend of robert lincoln. this photograph was actually found on booth's body. the photographs of four other women were also found on his body. [laughter] thewillen: he decides, president is going to attend -- we all know the story, but it is worth repeating. to attend a performance of "our american cousin" starring laura keene. there is the ticket and the playbill. 15 people turned down the president to attend
ford's theater that night. mr. and missus grant. julia grant could not stand mary lincoln so they said they are going to new jersey. mr. and mrs. edward stanton. the famous telegraph operator. the speaker of the house did not even want to go. who presided over the republican convention. the present governor of illinois and the x governor of illinois all declined. y from illinois also declined. william howard, the postmaster of detroit. going down the list. allace. mrs. willia even the governor of idaho did not want to go. last, not least, his own son
robert. this is a carriage huge to transport resident and missus lincoln to ford's theatre. it is built in chicago. that carriage is that when the studebaker museum. we had it at the smithsonian american history museum at the lobby of the 150th anniversary of the assassination in 2015. here's who did go. clara harris and major henry ratboone. the daughter of senator ira harris. rath ther married henry bone's mother, making him his stepsister. she was murdered by her husband henry in december 23, 1883 in hanover, germany. her father, the republican
senator ira harris from new york, also a friend of president lincoln. henry was a lawyer from albany. he participated in the battles of antietam and fredericksburg. counsel tointed hanover. he murdered his wife in 1883 and spent the rest of his life in a german asylum for the insane. novel of henry and claire, based on the relationship and the murder of claire harris. but not a lot of nonfiction. here's the group of lincoln conspirators. dr. mudd is not in the picture but the rest of them are. we will briefly run through the group. you know about lewis powell, lewis paine when part of these most of these rangers.
a confederate army soldier attended to murder seward. carriageeroth, a repair man and painter. assigned to murder vice president johnson. he got drunk in the bar of the hotel at the kirkwood house where johnson was staying and lost his nerve. did not go through with it. interestingly enough, this is the guy who would have been president had atzerodt succeeded. a republican senator of connecticut. he actually voted against a bill granting the vote to african-american men in d.c., but did vote for the 13th amendment. a lot of people do not know this, andrew johnson asked if he could delay being sworn in until april when tennessee had
ofroved the abolishment slavery. foster would have become acting president of johnson was not sworn in by april 14. he could have been acting president. next guy is david harrell, a pharmacist assistant. he was picked by booth because he knew the geography and the territory of southern maryland quite well. they wanted him as a guide. he surrendered with booth on april 26 and was sentenced to hang also. atknow about mary surratt, the boardinghouse of sixth and h. she also owned the tavern in clinton, maryland. she is the first woman executed in united states history. mudd, set samuel
booth's leg. his problem was when the authorities came to him he said i never saw the guy in my life before which turned out to not be true. he was pardoned -- he was sentenced and missed execution by one vote. he was sentenced to port jefferson. because of his efforts during the yellow fever epidemic at fort jefferson. , he was pardoned by andrew johnson. samuel arnold, former army he dropped was -- out of the plot. it started off as a kidnapped plot. they were going to exchange the president for prisoners of war. when the war ended, that became moot and booth decided he was
going to kill him. that is when he dropped out. also, a boyhood friend of booth's who also dropped out when it became an assassination plot. he died of yellow fever at fort jefferson in 1867. edmund ned spangler, the stagehand, he got the worst deal. he was a stagehand at ford. a friend of booth. booth asked him to hold his horse. burroughs, also known as peanut john because he sold peanuts, to hold the horse. booth, when he came out of the theater, hit peanut john with his knife, but ned spangler got sentenced to six years at fort jefferson. he was also pardoned by andrew johnson and became very good friends with dr. mudd. ended up coming to live with dr.
mudd and ultimately died of tuberculosis. john surratt, the son of mary surratt, in el myra, new york the night of the assassination, scouting out the prisons. he was a confederate agent. he escaped the country and ended up in rome. he was captured in alexandria, virginia. he was brought back here in 1867. he went on stage attempting to lecture at the lincoln assassination. he was not very good. the presidential parties will head to ford's theater. how did booth get into the box? two people were in charge of that. a d.c. policemen by the name of john parker was assigned to guard the president but his
duties were only to guard the president on his way to the theater and after the theater, not during the play. say he was he wa having a drink, watching the play, but he was not at the post to protect the box. the president's valet was sitting outside the box. all booth had to do was present his calling card to him because he was a very famous actor. john wilkes booth would like to see the president and he said go right in. what happened was an act three, hawk, the actor was on stage. enoughi guess i know to turn you inside out old ga l." i tried to look up what that means and it means you latch onto something and won't let it
go. had beeny, harry hawk fooling around with one of booth's girlfriends and booth threatened his life. when he saw that booth shot a gun in the theater, he took off because he thought booth was there to kill him. the president is shot. he's using a philadelphia behringer .44 caliber. ford's and been to the presidential box. the conventional wisdom is when booth jumped, this 11-foot jump, that he broke his left fibula by catching his for on the flag. there is actually school of thought that he broke his leg when his horse fell on him. we are not sure. he shouts and makes his escape.
he makes his way to the tavern and ultimately to dr. mudd's home where dr. mudd sets his leg. we know he was later convicted as a co-conspirator. there is the reward poster. why was dr. leale at ford's theater that night? he attends865, lincoln's speech from the white house where he expresses his support for black suffrage. dr. leale actually knows his face. he says it is "the almost divine appearance of the president's face in the glow of the light from the white house." he decided at that moment, he was going to go to ford's theater at the next opportunity where he was going to take the next opportunity actually to study the president's face. when he found out he was going to be at ford's theater, that is why he wanted to study the president's face.
>> there are some who say the expression a grant is blessed comes from that. lincoln wasere mary banished by how secretary stanton, when he arrives he basically took over and became the acting president. he became managing the situation -- he began managing the situation. mary was hysterical and he said, get that woman out of here. leale decided he wasgoing to hold the president''s hand. "i held his hand firmly to let him know in his blindness that he had a friend." he's going to progress towards death at 1:00 a.m.
he expressed an episode of armshing, spasming of his that put his arms downward. that is a sign of severe brain injury. it meant that lincoln was rapidly progressing towards death. general has ton show up at 2:00 in the morning. once the surgeon general gets there, he thinks he has to do something. myshow these probes in reenacting career. they're porcelain. you insert them into a wound looking for a bullet. if you hit something hard, you will have gray discoloration from the lead.
you don't normally want to do this sticking it into the brain. the president had no chance to survive anyhow, but the surgeon general administered the coup de grace. this is the chart of the president's vital signs. he will rapidly expire. his breath became intermittent at 7:22. know, at least we think we know that edwin stanton now said "now he belongs to the ages." or did he? there are many that says now he belongs to the angels. when they publish in the newspaper, he changed it because he said ages sounds better than angels. he says there now lies the most proof -- perfect ruler of men the world has ever seen.
unfortunately, we had a guy taking notes, james tanner, in a boardinghouse next door. a veteran that lost both of his legs. one of the things the war department would do is hire a lot of these injured veterans. he knew shorthand so that is how he got the job. he was living next to the petersen house. at the time of the president's so thehis pencil broke words uttered by stanton were not recorded. he later stated that stanton did say he belongs to the ages. the new york herald reporter was there. never mentioned anything about stanton saying that. it is actually apparently a book "ages or angels." people will write books anything. the guy that was brought into do the investigation by stanton was judge david kellogg from the
d.c. supreme court. he took the testimony of the witnesses which james tanner subsequently recorded. john, the reverend who was lincoln's pastor prayed. he said "thank, oh, heavenly father, looked down and pity upon the bereaved family and preserve our sorrow stricken country." we do know what the reverend gurley said. now, they will do an autopsy the next day in the white house. it will be performed by two surgeons by the army medical museum, now the national museum of health and medicine. one is dr. jj woodward. the other is edward curtis. it will be done in the prince of wales room, which is currently
now the presidential dining room. it was called the prince of wales room. leale the people -- dr. was invited to attend the autopsy but he stated he needed to get back and care for his patients so he declined to attend the autopsy. those who did attend where the surgeon general barnes, surgeon robert stone, lincoln's personal physician. dr. taft. another man, assistant surgeon william morton from the surgeon general's office. we don't have a picture of him. master.stant coroner assistant surgeon general charles crane. orval browning. here's the prince of wales room
where the autopsy was performed. like i said, it is now the presidential dining room. it is also the room where william lincoln died. here's what the report of dr. stone, lincoln's personal physician said. handwritten notes of a diagram of his observations. they were found 100 years after the autopsy. he states the bullet was lodged in brain substance on the left side. dr. woodward's autopsy report. physicians talk to so it has a lot of medical terms. the ball entered through the occipital bone, passed through the left posterior lobe of the brain. it lodged into white matter of the cerebrum just above the interior portion where it was found.
striatum.he corpus it is actually involved in movement. the point is the bullet was on the left side by all accounts. theories but the path of the bullet is beyond the left eye. accept. now most people basically, you could see where the bullet went in and where the bullet lodges, behind the left eye. are the instruments used in the lincoln autopsy. any of you who have been to any -- theyeenactments, peopl don't sterilize autopsy instruments -- you will see the medical instruments of the day have wooden handles. it would not matter because you cannot sterilize wood, but they
would not sterilize their instruments. now the medical museum, national museum of health and medicine, privileged enough -- we have the bullet that killed the president lincoln which i am standing in front of there. there is the bullet. cuffshave the bloodied with president lincoln's blood. we know a lot about the autopsy of curtis because he wrote a letter to his mother the next day describing what happened. dr. leale's shirt cuffs are at the smithsonian. i had been bugging the curator to show them to me. we don't have them on display. we do have at the national museum of health and medicine the actual bullet probe that the surgeon general used. we have fragments of the patient -- president lincoln's skull.
we also have a lock of his hair. this is the last sketch of president lincoln. aprilas made in new york 1865 by a french expatriate and a washington acquaintance of the president. contents of the presidents pockets. also note the confederate money. we think he made a trip down to richmond several days earlier and we think that is where he got the confederate money, when he was in richmond. eyeglasses which he had string around because they had broken and he repaired his eyeglasses. this has nothing to do with the lincoln assassination, but because people ask all the time do you guys have -- the answer is yes, we do have the leg.
les losty was dan sick his leg at the battle of gettysburg and donated his leg to the museum. every year, he would bring a delegation of congress to visit the leg and they would go out and have a few drinks afterwards. me?eduse >> [indiscernible] dr. willen: yes. this is the hat worn by president lincoln. this is at the smithsonian is one of my highlights. you will notice there is a black band around it. that is called a mourning band. back in those days, if you lost a spouse or childe, you would wear a black crate mourning band. you all know that willie lincoln passed away from typhoid fever in february of 18 safety to so the president was still wearing
-- of 1862 so the president will still wearing the band. they did not have hat sizes back or measurede curate it. it is a black silk hat. his everyday hats, you probably know he'd use as a briefcase. this was found on the corner of florida box. it became part of the investigation. it resided with the interior 1964 when theil american history museum opened and it has been there ever since. it is considered one of our prized possessions at the national museum of american history, president lincoln's hat. the president is going to be and brown. henry could tel
almers.ar embolmer they were the ones who had embalmed willie lincoln. comes from thomas holmes. he made a fortune embalming soldiers in the civil war. dhey had used zinc-base embalming fluid. holmes came up with a great miracle embalming fluid which contained arsenic. where it became a problem was later on, you would bury people and occasionally the arsenic would leak out of the body and contaminate the area. ok. the funeral service is april 19 in the east room. dr. leale was part of the honor
guard at the head of the president during the service. known photo oft lincoln in his casket. that is when he is on view new york. some of you may know the story of how this was discovered in 1951. a young man from iowa was working -- doing an internship for harry pratt who was the state historian of illinois. he was going through lincoln papers and he found this photograph. stanton had confiscated and ordered all photos of the president to be confiscated. somehow, this one escaped. he founded basically in papers. i don't know how nikolai got a hold of it or how it escaped
stanton's attention because stanton attempted to suppress all photographs of lincoln taken after his assassination. the funeral procession from the white house to the capital. dr. leale is an the carriage immediately preceding the president. review, he is asked to sit in the grandstand in front of the white house. he was invited to stanton's office. we know about the execution on july 7 of 1865. it is at the washington arsenal, now fort mcnair, where the scaffolding is is now the tennis courts at fort mcnair. dr. leale did have a life after the assassination. will marry, 1876, he
rebecca copcutt, the daughter of a wealthy merchant in yonkers. the home is now the rectory of the saint casmir's church. the union would produce six children. lincoln'slked about of theurs, the story resuscitation came from. february 1909, the 100th anniversary of lincoln's birth, dr. leale addresses the new york state commandery of the military order of the loyal legion. descendents. he previously testified before congress in 1866. that speech was published as lincoln's last hours. he had quite an extensive career post-assassination.
go toately after, he will england and study entrand treat cholera. later, he returned to new york where there was cholera in new york in which he became involved in treating. in was the physician an charge of the northwestern dispensary, treating over 500 children. it is sort of the free clinic. a clinic for poor people in new york. one of the lectures i also give uque,out dr. simon burr the father of a confederate army surgeon. he worked at the northwestern dispensary for a time. he was a physician so those having heart and lung diseases. became president of the alumni
association of bellevue college. he was a two-term president new york county medical association. founder of the children's free city hospital of new york. chairman of the committee of instruction. new york institute instruction of the deaf and dumb as they called it back then. he got involved with deaf children. also a surgeon specializing in heart, lung and chest surgery. and also doing pg -- pediatric surgery, operating on children. e chairman of a charity. quite a career. now, as a young man, his father had taken him to minstrel shows. he became a fan of stephen foster and quite a big fan of
music. a medicalhe's student at bellevue hospital. a patient who had been at the bowery hotel fell and hit his head. he was assigned to medical student dr. leale. he died under his care. another incident with dr. leale -- november 1864. this is the only time the three actingrothers were together in a benefit performance in new york. performance of julius caesar. dr. leale was in the audience. that night is when the confederates attacked new york. there is a hotel next to the theater which they set on fire. patrons in the theater were
trapped in the theater. for a time, there is panic. the booth brothers calmed the audience down. dr. leale goes out in the street and there are burn victims he begins treating. that is the night he decided he wanted to become a union army surgeon. a series of coincidences. 13, 1932 at on june the age of 90. granddaughter his grandfather's grave in yonkers, new york. her husband's great-grandfather is mayor of new york and was the founder of harper's weekly which we all know about. harold holzer met helen leale harper before she passed away.
i can say i know somebody who knew dr. leale's granddaughter. that is my connection to dr. leale because i know harold holzer. we know it for the educational center. the tours which opened in 2012. tower.-foot-high over 10,000 lincoln books now. my wife and i used to live in los angeles so in 2012, we attended a performance at the pasadena playhouse. some of you may have heard of hershey, an actor who does one-man shows. composers inarious character. but, he decided he was going to do dr. leale, accompanied by a 45 piece orchestra. we attended. i attempted to speak to him but
i was never able -- the program was good. my only criticism was he was wearing a polyester uniform. [laughter] -- iillen: the question had to add this slide. could president lincoln survive today? we showed you the photograph. bobby kennedy was shot in the head and did not survive. gabby giffords, who was shot a few years back, the congresswoman in tucson when she was shot. she was lucky enough to be located in a city where they had a trauma center at the university in tucson where she was taken and subjected to hypothermia. her body was essentially frozen and that decreases the metabolic demand for the brain which preserves neurologic function. if you study the path of the bullet of gabby gifford, it was much more superficial than
president lincoln. my contention is if president lincoln was shot today, take getsg.w. trauma center, he iv's, hypothermia -- given where the bullet was, i suspect he would have survived but he would have been a vegetable. might have been worse. even today, i don't think he would have had any kind of meaningful survival. i always end the talk by quoting churchill who said the farther backwards you look, the further forward you see. a course, i said i'm reenactor. 150th anniversary of the battle of gettysburg there. said, the first time since 1863 we have had a hospital here.
we are going to stop now and take questions. [applause] >> i understand many requests have been made to analyze the dna, but nobody has ever. can you agree with that and can you ask blaine why or why not? dr. willen: i guess it would be possible. the question has come up which i think is what you are hinting at thatd he have a condition caused him to have a particular body type? this has been looked at pretty extensively by medical experts. it is one of the things we in civil war medicine use -- this and the death of stonewall jackson are kind of parlor games.
the with harold holzer, conventional wisdom is he did not have the syndrome. multiple inhad type two.-- syndrome people with this have the same type of body type president lincoln had. one of the diseases of that condition is thyroid cancer. if you remember the last photograph of president lincoln, people said it is because of the stress of the war. there is one theory that he was suffering from thyroid cancer at the time of that photograph and that accounts for his appearance. even without the assassination, he was not going to live a long life. of course, there is no treatment of thyroid cancer back then. hatan you tell me about the -- dr. willen: of lincoln?
>> no, of dr. leale. dr. willen: that's me. [laughter] dr. willen: he is not in this picture. >> the apron? dr. willen: that is me. that is not dr. leale. i said i'm a reenactor. that is not dr. leale, that is me. [laughter] dr. willen: it is on my business card, that picture. yes? entered the theater at 10:15? we current times customarily that late? dr. willen: he came in during the performance. they played hail to the chief. laura keene stopped the production and all of the actors applauded the president. the president does not have to be on time. >> please correct me if i am wrong, but i have been telling
my groups for many years it is another story of what happened to lincoln's hat. the story i heard was that after the investigation had been completed, the hat was sent to the head of the smithsonian, dr. joseph henry. and dr. henry said i do not want to make the smithsonian a freak show. he put it in his best drawer and forgot about it. have you heard that? dr. willen: it is funny you say that because when we were doing our training there, they did not tell us that story. they said it was part of the investigation and then turned over to the interior department. now, whether or not joseph henry -- the joseph henry story, they did not tell us. they did tell us that henry was not interested in having this in sony and ba music -- the
smithsonian be a museum that has objects. francis beard was the guy who got involved into making it a museum. yes? >> [indiscernible] would booth have just gone away with what he did? dr. willen: the question is if parker, the d.c. policemen would have been there -- parker was known to get drunk and an ineffective cop. i don't know why they picked him to do this job. he was not even disciplined by the d.c. police because his job was only to protect the president going and coming from the theater. now, the real speculation was he wanted to get grant. if grant would have been there, he would have had much more security, would he have been
able to thwart booth? booth wanted a chance to get both lincoln and grant but grant probably would have come with more security. julia grant could not stand mary lincoln. she would never go to the theater with her. >> [indiscernible] dr. willen: we did not have secret service back then. presidential security -- you could walk into the white house. the story about christopher spencer, he wanted to sell rifles to the army in 1863. he makes an appointment with lincoln and comes into the white house carrying a rifle to show to the president. yes? >> i think it was dr. leale in 1909. he mentioned that lincoln had an incredible physique, a man much
younger. i think he compared him to michelangelo's moses. talk about all of these things that might have shortened his life but he had extraordinarily strong physical -- dr. willen: that is true. we of this is speculation, will never know. physicians like to do these parlor game things where they speculate what conditions people might have had. we know that as a young man, lincoln was a wrestler. an outstanding wrestler. he was extremely strong as a young man. book you have a favorite about the assassination? one that you think is particularly worthwhile. dr. willen: i happen to be
friends with ed spears. [laughter] dr. willen: if you want to read about the pursuit of booth, swanson's "manhunt" is very good too. there is only one biography of booth and that is called -- it's an actual biography of booth. one of the things that terry alford does is he has a piece of the crutch that dr. mudd made for booth. he carries it around with him. he will show it off. i took a picture of it one time. i actually have gotten to know some of dr. mudd's descendents. his granddaughter comes to the surratt society every year. finally, the mudd descendents agreed that dr. mudd was
probably guilty of at least obstruction of justice. he was not part of the --spiracy, but he certainly a timely topic. he was probably guilty of obstruction of justice. >> jon willen, thank you for sharing your expertise with us. [applause] jon will take advantage of you one more time. we want to treat you as we do all of our speakers who inform us, entertain us and make us smarter. thank you very much. thank you, sir. [applause] >> is there any further business before the group tonight? i declare this meeting adjourned. thank you. good night. [applause]
[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2019] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> monday, memorial day, american history tv and c-span's washington journal are marking the 75th anniversary of d-day. starting at 8 a.m. eastern with a live view and caller program with the author of the first wave: the d-day warriors who led the way to victory in world war ii. and mary louise roberts. during the program, we will take your phone calls, tweets and facebook comments. monday, memorial day starting at 8 a.m. eastern. >> this year marks the 75th anniversary of the june 6, 1944 d-day invasion of nazi occupied france. this weekend on real america,
normandy, the airborne invasion of fortress europe. a u.s. army documentary the details deplaning, training and combat operations of d-day. here's a preview. >> part of the price paid for six and seven, june 1944. ♪ 1662 troop carrier airplanes dispersed in the first 24 hours of the assault. 43 were lost and 311 damaged by small arms fire. a lot happened here that cameras could never get, but a corporal with a pathfinder remembers. >> they were covering the landing by the first bunch of gliders, pinned down across the field. they stepped right into it and it started to drop right around us. a german canon blue one glider
apart. >> a veteran glider pilot. that means more landing casualties and extreme difficulty in unloading. it is not desirable. pilot. >> i flew in a parachute in the first night. what i could not see the light which was supposed to be on the drop zone. department observer who entered combat with one of the airborne divisions. >> troops were dropped generally in the vicinity of the dz. it appears three supply systems are not flexible enough for combat. supplies should be dropped as called for by local commanders. large-scale parachute resupply drops are wasteful and should be restricted to emergencies. more attention should be paid to switching over to ground supply.
>> a troop carrier liaison officer. >> our pathfinder teams in two cases i know of suffered heavy casualties. the light teams which we expected help from were only 10% operational due to enemy fire. 50% of the resupply truck landed in enemy hands. communications did not exist to address later changes in the enemy situation. troop carrier operations and communications personnel should move with the first parachute on glider units. 89% of the horses and 50% crashed and landed. 75% of personnel and equipment are ready for combat. filmncer: watch the entire sunday at 4:00 p.m. eastern on reel america. you're watching american history to be -- merrick in history tv. announcer: next on "the civil war," a panel of historians
compare the geographic meters of the war, exploit tactics, leaders, and soldier motivations. this discussion was part of a daylong conference hosted by the university of virginia center for civil war history. >> we are ready to start our final panel of the day, and this is a new thing we are trying. if you have been here in the past, you would know we have not done this before, but we thought it would be fun to get everybody together and have a conversation. before we get started, i want to introduce my colleagues at the other end of the table, professor elizabeth baron, the professor of history and on the executive council. also an integral part of the center. so thank you. [applause] i will get us rolling. we will have a pretty informal discussion here. we