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tv   American Artifacts Hoover Institution Library and Archives  CSPAN  May 26, 2019 10:00pm-10:31pm EDT

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questions. watch in-depth life with thomas sowell from >> started in 1919, the hoover institution library and archives have been collecting materials pertaining to war, revolution, and peace for more than 100 years. we visited the library in palo alto, california to see several items from the collection. records of 40e years of service of the american people in battle with famine and pestilence during and after all of these wars. here are the records of , andtors, despots great statesman. here are the records of what might have brought peace to the world and here are the records of the highest idealism and
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self-sacrifice for great principles, some of which failed. here are the records of the suffering of men, their heroic deeds and the supreme sacrifices. the purpose of this library is to promote peace and freedom among men. 100 years ago, herbert hoover was in paris as a delegate to the paris peace talks. he cabled stanford by telegram $50,000 which today would be at almost $1 million saying the university should collect material on board. mr. hoover had been a humanitarian. he organized food relief through the commission of relief or belgium. he followed that with another administration that said millions of europeans during world war i and after. some of the first records to
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come to us are the records of those organizations on food relief. the genesis of this institution. we still continue his vision of dynamically collecting documents. >> the hoover institution and nearly oneuses million volumes and more than 6000 collections on war, peace, and other public policy related topics from both the 20th and 21st centuries. the experts chose a cross-section of artifacts from the collection to show us. we have two items from our world war ii collections. this book which means secret in german was the estoppel arrest manual prepared for the invasion of england. names of 2000 people they wanted to arrest. the addresses. and what they did with the exception of jewish people which
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were listed as just "jew." including sigmund freud. very systematic plan for invading the united kingdom and arresting people who they thought were political enemies. here, this is an x-ray of hitler's call which came to us with his medical records. after the war, the americans went through germany and collected material to study and understand how this regime was formed and how it operated. and what kind of person this monster was. with the records came the x-rays of his skull. these x-rays were done by nazi doctors after the assassination attempt in which a bomb was placed under a table at which he was sitting. the bomb was on the other side of a heavy oak table. he did complain about headaches
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and ringing in his ears for a long time so his doctors x-rayed him to see if there was any cranial damage. --was a vegetarian who hate who ate and enormous amount of cake. he was not in great health. here we have a few items from our russian and soviet collections. the czar had a secret police force before the revolution that went around the world looking for communist especially in europe. the paris office of this secret police put -- produced a mug book that the agents carried around in their pocket and looked for various revolutionaries in cafés. this collection is interesting because it stayed in paris after the fall of these ours for many years and until france recognized the soviet union. at that point, the ambassador packed up the collection and and saidt to hoover
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please keep it until i die. when he died, we opened up the collection and it was of great interest. it showed how the secret police force work in the early 20th century. and its activity affected how the kgb was developed in the soviet union. it is one of our most interesting collections. >> this map shows radio free countriesarget including czechoslovakia and poland. 8 million people who lost their freedom after world war ii. exiled. colleagues are there are almost 500 exiles including editors, actors, announcers, researchers. my job is news casting. we do interviews in my native language, polish. language]foreign >> our largest collection by
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europe is the radio free radio liberty records and broadcasts that are here at hoover. radio free europe and radio liberty were radio broadcasts that were intended to influence the soviets and the soviet block towards western ideas and culture. collection has thousands of broadcasts and dozens of different languages. a very large and rich collection. you can also see the corporate records of radio free europe which has wonderful examples of cold war rhetoric and propaganda . as you can see here from the truth dollar campaign that is represented in these images. >> [indiscernible] they do have a deep appreciation for music in
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europe and the united states. i brought them backstage. it was not a huge place like yankee stadium. >> another interesting fact about radio free europe is that it really featured jazz and a lot of jazz musicians. that were jazz artists were broadcast through radio free europe. modern anden as cutting-edge and revolutionary. it is wonderful to come across these recordings of jazz artists in various stages of their career. radio free europe and radio theiry no longer exist in post-cold war iteration but they changed into voice of america which still sends broadcasts to
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other nations. ♪ >> the courts have relied almost exclusively on the 14th amendment for a authority in this entire field and the 14th amendment specifies congress should pass appropriate legislation. , -- o use a lawyer [indiscernible] >> you're talking about section five of the 14th amendment which has had a very murky history as to exactly what was intended. if you go back and read the discussions -- >> [indiscernible] >> i am not implying that. maybe that was a rhetorical way. >> one of the most frequently
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aed audiovisual resources is collection of television show called firing line which was a public affairs show that ran from the net -- from the late 1960's and ran through the 1990's. it was hosted by william f buckley. he was very witty and used a large vocabulary and his guest list is a who's who of the ladder and of the 20th century. he hosted everyone from ronald reagan to the dalai lama to as you can see here, margaret thatcher. 15005 shows. we are digitizing these shows and making them available online so people can enjoy them just to watch and enjoy but also to use for scholarship. at a raree looking photograph album from world war
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ii. this comes from a william -- collection. manas a very interesting that did a lot of work for the office of strategic services in world war ii and then he worked with prosecutors at the trials in nürnberg. his job was to do profiles of high-ranking nazias. this album from his collection is a personal photograph album of hitler's foreign minister. and the pictures show him pact.g the nazi-soviet also in the pictures, you will find stalin. stalin looks very happy in this picture because he knows he will acquire half of poland from this pact. rare to see so many in one place because he was
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very superstitious about having his picture taken because he had been hunted by the secret police for the bolsheviks came to power. we havehoover, wonderful collections that reflect the history of the cold war. this is an interesting item from that period. a large, oversized scrapbook documents the life and exploits of marion miller who was a los angeles housewife who was recruited by the fbi to partyrate communist activities in los angeles. she was very successful. her husband happened to be a poster designer and a commercial artist. they put together wonderful the media that follow coverage that came when she revealed that she had been a spy. it includes everything from clippings to photographs of her to a letter from j edgar hoover
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himself thanking her for her activities. fact about her is that her story was turned into a film that starred ronald reagan. >> the hoover institution also has one of the most renowned poster elections of the 20th century with all 15,000 items in it ranging the gamut from solidarity posters and recruitment posters. this poster encourages irish men to join the armed services to avenge the sinking of the lusitania off the irish coast. it was sunk by german submarines in 1915. this is one item that hoover almost came to known that came to own. it sits 300 feet underwater off the coast of ireland. it is an amazing story about the sinking of the ship.
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we have a piece of one of the lifeboats from the lusitania .hat washed up on shore someone from ireland brought it to hoover and donated it to us. someday, we hope to have the actual wreck of the lusitania. two items from our collection from modern china and taiwan. on this site, we have photographs of a young mao zedong. -- thise of the collection comes from a woman. she also went by the name of helen foster snow. she and her husband traveled to china and interviewed him. she took these pictures when she stayed with him. many do not see this leader as a
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young person. next, there is an interesting item. this is a personal diary of general stilwell who worked in burma and china on the burma road and worked with jen kai-shek. his diaries are also a very popular item here. day by day his interactions with him and the fraught relationship that they had. they did not like each other. what you have here is an interesting ability to look at both diaries at the same time to see how they spoke about each other. what they were trying to do and what their ulterior motives were. >> this is one of my favorite documents that we have here in the archives. this is from the collection of a man named raymond. he was a renowned speechwriter
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for fdr. he was part of his brain trust. documentok at this closely, you can see that it is actually the first draft of a speech in which he coins the term "the new deal." it is ironic that this document and seven the collection of herbert hoover. fdr and herbert hoover were not allies. landslide beat a herbert hoover in his reelection campaign. how did this get here? once the new deal went into play, raymond changed his mind about it completely. he resigned his position with fdr and became friends with herbert hoover. he decided that he would come ironically, donate his collection to the hoover library and archives.
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not only did he do that but he decided he would annotate it as well. when you see the new deal in the and thene wrote "crap" he signed and dated it. it is an incredibly valuable and historical document. wealthhives here have a of information about the history of nuclear energy. one of the most well-known documents related to that is this which is the original strike order for the bombing of your shema. is on --n see, this paper. you can see stable marks in the top corners. this is hanging in the mess hall on the morning of the attack. this is how the pilots of the enola gay knew that today was the day the attack would be carried out. -- they did know
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not want everyone to know so the bomb run is listed as "special." this document comes from a collection of a man that was a physicist and who worked on the manhattan project and was instrumental in planning the attack on japan. he was also very diligent about keeping the evidence of this event because he knew how important it was going to be. thatsisted for example cameras be placed on the planes which is why we have the footage of the attack which is actually held in the archives here at hoover. you can see here there is a picture of the plane and also his dog tags. makes thishat library very special is that we open access to all therefore we have students, ,rofessors, historians journalists, filmmakers -- everyone can come and use these materials to promote a better
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understanding of history. >> you're watching american programming48 hour of american history tv every weekend on c-span3. follow us on twitter at c-span history for information on our schedule and to keep up with the latest history news. ♪ the atlantic wall has been penetrated. there after the first assault, the allies clung precariously to a few beaches but now they have a solid foothold. men and material have poured onto the beachheads. command has announced that the battle of the beaches is complete. a tremendous offensive was bitterly contested. -- the american,
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british, and canadian troops held firmly onto the soil of france. and made contact with the french people. driving thepushover germans back. some of our troops dropped within yards of the water's edge. there were two enemies, the germans and the heavy seas. ♪ german prisoners were taken almost at once. american and british aircraft supported the troops magnificently preventing the germans from marshaling reinforcements. american marauders plastered piece all looking -- [sounds of bombing]
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[sounds of aircraft] with beaches free of enemy fire, the allies brought heavy equipment on shore. bulldozers cleared the way for vital airstrips. german defenses were left shattered and many dead german defenders. survivors were given prompt corps.on by medical
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doughboys and tommy's pushed forward yard by yard into the villages and small town's. and more and more prisoners fell into their hands. arrogant,still reluctant to raise their hands in defeat. landing craft carried the captives back to england. this then is hitler's invasion of britain. they come now defeated men to the confinement behind barbed wire. ♪ onslaught istions smashing on many fronts. here at home, general clark watched his men march into the city. the allies were able to view the work of their mightier support. some of these rail yards were
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bond months ago but repairs were out of the question. now is the same devastation being brought to transport throughout the whole of europe. in their triumphal entry into the eternal city, u.n. troops moved past great monuments of antiquity. the long history of the ancient city has seen few more joyous events. the liberators exclaimed with ecstatic fervor. europeanhe first great capital to be freed from the enemy. the flags of the united nations were unfurled at once heralding the end of tyranny for the people of rome.
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♪ and here is the balcony where mussolini -- his people. suddenly, there is excitement in the square. bomb has been thrown into the former german headquarters. the italians discovered those hiding inside. and soon, they smashed their way and. -- way in. ♪ germanyllaborators with find little forgiveness in the hearts of the people. as general clark drove through the capital, american flags found their way into the hands of liberated italians. general, a brilliant commander
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of the french army, went up to the balcony with the american commander. then come of drama shifted to st. peter's. his holiness the pope was about to speak and nearly half a million impact the historic square. -- packed the historic square. --e pius had this to say thanks be to god, rome has been spared the horrors of war. we should show our gratitude by good works and cease from hatred and rank her. or.ranc language]ng foreign
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[cheering] >> back in the english channel, great convoys of troops and reinforcements continued to move towards the beaches of normandy. ♪ the beachheads already had expanded to 50 miles and they put ashore the complete equipment of a highly mechanized army. pinpoint shooting put members of put put numbers of --
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numbers of nazi tanks out of commission. [sounds of bombing] ♪ >> the allied troops are received as long-awaited friends. peasants showed them the way, showing them where to expect minds and giving them all possible help. allies have found a firm resistance and are prepared for even stronger contests.
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less than a week after the initial landings, we had taken 10,000 prisoners. there is much hard fighting ahead but the germans are now faced with a three front war. in the northern reaches of russia, in the mountains of italy, and here against this most tremendous military operation in history. ♪ among those witnessing the beachhead operation was the supreme allied commander, general eisenhower. here are coming he meets with general ramsey and with britain's great soldier, montgomery. he is on hand to learn firsthand how the offensive is going. what he learned was good indeed. the meeting of these brilliant leaders symbolize the unity of all they represent. the britishce over, leader returns to his normandy
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headquarters to get on with the business at hand. ♪ >> this memorial day, american history tv marks the 75th anniversary of the world war ii invasion of normandy, france 1944.took place june 6, starting at 8:00 eastern on monday, alex kershaw, author of "the first wave" joins us live from the national d-day memorial in bedford, virginia to take your questions. that is memorial day monday here on c-span3. on sunday, june second at noon eastern, in depth is live with author and herbert hoover institution domicile. sowell.s
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>> from time to time, people say slavery. condoned slavery was there for centuries before thomas jefferson or george washington were born. neither thought the office of the presidency had any power to do anything about it. lincoln was able to do something about it not as president but as the commander in chief of a war and what he did applied only to people who were in rebellion against the united states. there was no basis otherwise. written many books including "economic facts and "discrimination and despair as the -- and disparity." watch in-depth live sunday, june second from noon until 2:00 p.m. eastern on book tv on c-span2. tvnext, on american history
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historian henry louis gates , talks about reconstruction, which lasted from the end of the civil war until 1877. the amendments passed during this time to promote equality for african-americans and the subsequent jim crow laws and other measures used in southern states to reestablish white supremacy. the national constitution center hosted this event. >> ladies and gentlemen, welcome upstairs to the national constitution center. [applause] passion ofhe professor gates downstairs and all of our colleagues, so we are just going to jump into this conversation. i think you can tell, it is urgently important to bring as many schoolkids as possible to come see that incredible exhibit. [applause] that is why i'm thrilled that

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