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tv   Lectures in History Malcolm Xs Views on Africa  CSPAN  June 15, 2019 8:00pm-9:01pm EDT

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really understanding his role as uplifter, from really -- really from about 1890 1947. >> reginald ellis, thank you for telling his story. >> thanks for having me. announcer: you are watching american history tv all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. announcer: next, american university professor ibram kendi teaches a class about malcolm x's views on africa. he argues that through the 1960's, africa had been associated with a lack of civilization and described how malcolm x advocated for african-americans to have a more positive view of africa in order to develop self-esteem and combat racism. kendi: today we are going to be, of course, reviewing and
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discussing sections that really talk about malcolm x's views on africa and even the middle east, and of course we read a few of the letters that he sent home when he was traveling in 1959 as 1964, in africa as well as the middle east, as well as a , onepeeches that he made in 1959 and another in 1965 before he was killed that really talked about his viewpoints on also a verythen critical interview that he gave when he attended the organizational -- organization inafrican unity conference
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late july of 1964, in which he sort of discussed his strategy and the reason why he came to that conference and was appealing to these african heads of state. so hopefully everyone has read so listen to these speeches we can really get a sense of malcolm x's viewpoints on africa. us toally, in order for really understand why malcolm expressed some of the things he did in these letters -- because in many ways we see he is arguing against particular ideas within the black community that were right spread -- widespread. it is critical for us to have a very good vantage point of how african-americans, specifically black americans, were thinking about africa in the late 1950's,
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early 1960's. before we talk about that, in many ways when i think about my own life and even my existence itself, it is deeply tied to africa. i see some of you open your eyes, like what are you talking about? mother, theyand actually attended this concert and they had met before the concert a few times, but this would've reconnected after this concert -- but they sort of reconnected after this concert in 1973. you smiling, i can't tell how my parents hooked up. my father approached my mother, they talked after the conference , my father got her digits, and he called my mother a few days later to really ask her out. stated that she had
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been called to the mission field. she actually was leaving to go to liberia in a few months and basically told him, we can talk, but if we get close before i leave -- because it was still a few months away -- i am still going to go to africa. they both were sort of part of this black power movement. i think i spoke about this earlier in class, and more specifically the black theology movement, specifically this notion that god was black and christianity should be this tool of liberation, and really every sector of the black power movement. black theologians were one sector -- were connecting to africa. in the case of those who were manyred by black theology, of them were returning to africa as missionaries, but a different manyof missionary than europeans of previous
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generations. so she told them, i am going to africa, and she ended up going. they got close before she left, so they managed to stay in touch during the nine months she was in liberia. she actually taught at this school in this rural village outside of monrovia, the capital of liberia, and she was there for nine months. so i grew up, as you would imagine, hearing about these stories. she loved to talk about liberia. but i simultaneously grew up as a result of her hearing very fond and positive things about africa. i didn't realize until later in my life that in many ways, i was andy, because many sons daughters had not been born to people who traveled to africa or had a fond perspective of
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africa. and 1990's.1980's and certainly that was the case in the late 1950's and early 1960's, when malcolm was speaking out and speaking for africa. senseo sort of give us a of just how much african-americans knew so little about africa, or when they did know, their thoughts were negative -- anybody heard of w.e.b. dubois? of course. , three yearsois after publishing his landmark ,ook, the souls of black folk which he published in 1903, he helped invite this columbia , whorsity anthropologist
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came to atlanta university where do boys was teaching -- where ubois was teaching at the time, and he gave the commencement address. recounted address, he the glorious history of african kingdoms below the sahara desert for upwards of 1000 years before the slave trade. thesetalked about classical kingdoms like ghana. dubois later wrote in one of his books, i was too astonished to speak. as suddenlyout boas awaking him from the paralysis of the commonly held judgment talk to me in high school in two of the world's great universities that africa had no history.
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those two universities were harvard, where he earned his bachelor's and phd, and the university upper then, which in the early 1900s was the preeminent university in the western world. deemed the greatest and most educated african-american in the country, had no clue about africa's history. africahim, he viewed like african-americans generally viewed africa, as this place of barbarism, this place where civilization was never really known. and he also wrote in his reflections that, i came then and afterwards to realize how the silence and neglect of science can let truth other lead to severe -- let truth utterly disappear. the truth about africa.
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so he took it upon himself, and really from that point forward he started to write more and more and speak more about africa. 1912,fortunately by novel thatbattling a was first published in this periodical named all stories magazine written by edgar rice burroughs. anybody know what novel i am talking about? it became an instant sensation. this novel, more than any other cultural product of the 20th century, locked the concept of the animal african into the american mind. the main character in this novel was tarzan. was this orphan, infant of white parents, is abandoned in central africa and in thisd by this ape
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tribe of apes. , naming himyton tarzan, meaning white skin in the ape language, he grows up and becomes the most skilled hunter and worrier. he somehow finds his parent's cabin and teaches himself to read while his body is being chiseled away from this savage upbringing. his "straight and perfect figure, muscled as the best of the ancient roman gladiators must have been, and yet with the soft and sinuous curves of the greek gods." that is how he is being narrated in this text. isessentially this plot somewhat similar to a recent film. the name of it is escaping me, with the blue people? >> avatar. prof. kendi: it is basically the
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same plot. he becomes the greatest of the worriors, the greatest of this ape tribe. but he also comes across and has to relate to who else? africans. it is basically tarzan, apes, and africans. of course tarzan becomes the ior andr warr becomes the superior being in that area. inspired, this novel comic strips, merchandise, 27 sequels, and 45 motion pictures, the first in 1918. i don't know if there is a more famous fictional character in the 20th century than tarzan, and there is quite possibly no more racist plot than the plot that burroughs wrote up and
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continued to write until his death in 1950. just to give you a sense of how salient and pervasive tarzan was -- because for many americans, tarzan was africa. they were witnessing and viewing africa and understanding and learning africa through tarzan, to the point in which in 1966 at howard university, students blackelected the first woman homecoming queen with natural hair. it was like the start of black power at howard as well as around the country. this led to a massive student march around campus. was the students chanted [african word] black power. that was the way in which tarzan
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related and communicated to animals and black people in that movie. when people thought about how even words that africans used or people thought about how to communicate with africans, they thought about tarzan. world, the nation, the community of ideas that really raise malcolm and that malcolm was facing in the late 1950's when he started challenging many of these ideas. we should know that in many ways , malcolm was lucky, too. because his parents were raised in what movement? who were they following? marcus garvey, right. so marcus garvey in the 1910s talked fondly about africa and african people worldwide and about africa for the africans. but for many african-americans,
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of course they were not raised to think of africa as this equal place with the rest of the world. they were raised to think of the dark continent where enlightenment had never existed, a continent that was impoverished because of the andrty, the behavioral cultural poverty of the people. the african was synonymous with the savage and the savage were synonymous with the animal and the animal were synonymous with the african. stated,ult, many, as i african-americans did not want to be associated with those savages, those animals, and more so wanted to be associated with civilization, with america. as we read about text, he was quite happy
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in 1959 when he received the assignment from elijah mohammed to travel to the middle east and even to africa, on behalf of elijah mohammed. to come toasked egypt by the president of egypt at the time, and elijah mohammed decided to send his emissary instead to pave the way for elijah. that was really malcolm's -- even though he grew up having been taught about the beauties and glories of africa and its history, this was his first trip to africa and even to the middle east. being someone who identified as muslim, he of course was excited to visit a muslim nation in egypt. he also hoped and planned when he arrived -- when he planned as trip, to go on a hajj well. egypt,ved on july 4 in
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but immediately falls ill, so he is not able to travel to mecca, but he is able to spend more time in egypt, as well as he traveled to saudi arabia. this is one of the more critical periods in malcolm's life, and we wouldn't necessarily see the effects of it in his public rhetoric, but according to many biographers, this was a critical period as he lived in these muslim nations, because he began to see how much nation of islam's theology and traditions and practices was so unorthodox. about of course, he couldn't necessarily publicly speak out against those traditions and policies, but he certainly saw the distinctions when he was in
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saudi arabia, as well as egypt. one thing that struck him about saudi arabia -- and of course he wrote back about this -- was all of the variety of skin colors that existed in saudi arabia. he stated, it was almost like black america. you have the lightest of people as well as the darkest in this letter home. he talked about almost all of these saudi arabians would be jim crowed at home. when he was seeking to do was peopleis connection of of the middle east with african-americans, just as he was trying to make a similar connection of african people to african-americans, specifically making the case that african people were concerned and were looking into and were studying what was happening to
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african-americans in the united states. he argued, of course, in his letter home from the sudan, when he visited there in 1959, that he wanted african-americans to realize that africans cared about them. he talked about how he was trying to fight against this u.s. propaganda that of course was saying, don't worry about those africans, because they don't care about you. meaning this is what it was saying to african-americans and they were saying the same thing in africa. those african-americans don't care about you either. also made very plain what people in africa thought about the condition of african-americans. findstes that the african it difficult to understand why, in a land that advocates
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equality, 20 million black americans are without equality. classifying itself as a leader of the free world, 20 million black americans are not free. colleges and all forms of educational opportunities, 20 million new need theegroes military to accompany them. he ends the letter stating, here in africa, the all seeing eye of the african masses is upon america. this would become a theme throughout his speeches over the next five years, making his case that to african-americans, africa cares about you. as i stated, he was both trying to build this sense of afro
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also solidarity, while trying to rebuild what was known , the townicanism africanism of garvey, the notion that african people worldwide have this collective shared identity, this collective, shared political interest, this collective, shared cultural similarities. so essentially, african people worldwide need to care about each other, struggle for each care about each other, struggle for each other, and come together for each other. but at the same time, i think unity becamean easier to have in 1959 then afro asian solidarity. from the standpoint of the nation of islam and elijah mohammed, he was arguing that the solution to the niekro problem was a separate black state.
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so he essentially wanted complete separation of black people from everybody -- not just white people, but all nonblack people. course had the that certainly caused malcolm to emphasize more so the pan-african unity than the afro asian unity in those letters. we also of course -- listen to this speech that he gave in 1959 for african liberation day. the nation of islam was not the only group or organization in the united states that was advocating pan-african ideas. there were many groups that were doing so, specifically in new york city. malcolm of course was connected to many of these groups, so he was invited, as well as elijah
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mohammed, to come speak at this african liberation day. speech, asin in this in his letters home from africa, he continuously tried to emphasize the unity of african people. thisne of the ways he did is he sounded very similar in 1964 as he did in 1959, when he would talk about the enemy -- the european enemy of every single african state. french,opean enemy is who is the european enemy of this country, that country? it is british, it is the portuguese, it is dutch. what do they have all in common? they are all from europe. what do we have all in,? we are all from africa.
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he would make this case that they are working together to oppress us, speaking to black people, so why are we not working together? howsked in that speech, could so few white people ru le so many black people? how could europe, which from a land standpoint is much smaller than africa -- africa is three times the size of the united states, let alone europe. how could such a small landmass, a smaller group of people, rule such a massive continent, massive group of people? according to him, the disunity of those people. toof course he wanted emphasize, to really encourage people of african descent around the world to come together, arguing again and again that "we ," and thaton enemy
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common enemy is colonial masters in europe. i think weso add, as talked about in previous classes , that this was a critical sort of period in the history of africa, right? because what was going on in africa in 1959, 1960? >> [inaudible] prof. kendi: decolonization, all over the continent. movementslonization were inspiring african-americans , and was of course inspiring people of african descent around the world. but he didn't want people just to become inspired, he wanted people to become connected. he wanted this to become a global struggle against white supremacy. and he felt it was critical to emphasize that unity in order to make that global struggle happen. malcolm, probably his
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most critical trip throughout his life is when he went back to africa and the middle east in 19 1964. in and this was after he left the nation of islam, or pushed out of the nation. on two, he would go extended trips to africa. last aprilf course 13, 1964, and on this trip he would travel throughout the middle east and africa, traveling to egypt, lebanon, saudi arabia, nigeria, morocco, and algeria. but of course, what was the most critical aspect of this trip? what city, what town was most important to malcolm's
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development? >> [inaudible] prof. kendi: mecca, without question. of course, as we talked about in previous questions, being raised in nation of islam theology, he was raised to think that white people were fundamentally evil. , his ownny ways lifeiences, his own experiences with white people reinforced that. he was told while he was imprisoned by his brothers and sisters who had converted to the nation, it didn't surprise him. it actually clicked for him because, according to him, it made sense in the terms of the way he had been treated, the way his parents had been treated. he is the son of a father who most likely was lynched. some of his uncles were lynched in georgia. he of course experienced and
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watched his own family broken up and not supported by michigan authorities. he saw his mother, instead of being supported by other people, because she had so much children to take care of on her own after her husband was assassinated, he saw her thrown into what? an insane asylum. and then of course, the way in which he was treated in high school when he spoke about being a lawyer, apparently, and his teacher said, that's not the type of job foray negro, you should think about being a carpenter. or when he felt he was being a mascot at other times, or even when he started robbing houses in boston, and as part of his robbery crew, he had two white women.
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of course he felt when he was arrested and found out that these two white women were assisting them, he felt he got a much harsher sentence because of his affiliation with these women. up to that point, malcolm's life -- he had experienced so many negative things at the hands of white people. but it wasn't until he went to mecca and he, for the first time, had not just positive , but he was in a space where there were people of all different colors, hair textures, there was tremendous amounts of diversity in net when he visited -- in mecca when he visited. racial diversity. but he simultaneously saw all of
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these people were essentially doing the same thing, engaged in the same rituals, all, according to him, treating each other as if they were brothers. he writes in his first letter home, he has to tell people back home, you may be shocked that i say this, but he says there were tens of thousands of pilgrims from all over the world. they were of all colors, from blue-eyed blondes to black skin africans, but all per dissipating in the same ritual, displaying a spirit of unity and brotherhood that my experiences in america had led me to believe could never exist between the white and nonwhite. what's interesting about this first letter home, and really what did heip, was assign as the cause of essentially witnessing this
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antiracist sort of space and behavior among white people and even nonwhite people? what did he considered to be the fundamental cause of what he was experiencing? yes? [inaudible] prof. kendi: yeah, they were all muslim. so what did he think was really causing it? yeah, islam. so he didn't just sort of write about the unity and the brotherhood, as he called it, and these experiences, he also stated, you know what, what could be the cure for racism in america? he made the case that islam could be the cure for racism in america. peoplecourse, many black in multiracial muslim nations
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would have probably had issues with that type of statement. but he of course offered that as a solution to the racial problems in america. as you would imagine, if you go on a hajj and you have that type of incredible religious experience, which is supposed to , he was i think hisany ways trying to fuse religious experience with the political experience. i think that was the way in which he was able to do so. yet again, when he of course ventures to some of the african nations, he again pushes back against what he calls this propaganda that africans are not interested in the plight of africans. he writes back home, our africans brothers and sisters love us and are happy to learn
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that we are also weakening from our long sleep and developing strong love for them. i don't know if y'all noticed specifically, these readings for this week -- we like to talk about people being woke today. well, malcolm was talking about that 60 years ago, 55 years ago, the concept of being awake. that was almost in everything we read, this concept of african people, african americans in particular, waking up to reality. so i don't want y'all to think you originated woke. so -- another interesting aspect of these letters he wrote on his first visit in 1964 was what was ironic to him about
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integration. you remember reading that? he talked about him coming ,cross white people in africa and he talked about them trying to integrate into africa's wealth and beauty. at the same time they are what? denying or spitting on african-americans who are trying to integrate with them. so he really been home this contradiction -- really beat home this contradiction. onmany of his speeches africa, he would come back to this point, specifically the first part of the point. essentially he was an evangelist for africa, so in his speeches when he would speak about the beauties of africa, he would say things like, why do you think the europeans are there?
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why do you think they keep coming there? they keep coming there because it is so beautiful. be a very sort of seductive and engrossing concept when he would talk about how white people are trying to integrate into africa, especially when he is speaking to black people who think that white people are going to go to places that they considered to be beautiful. so it actually meets them precisely where they are and takes them where he wants them to go, which is to have a better viewpoint aboutso it actually at africa is wealthy and beautiful and that is why white people are there, that is why they are fighting and dying. . to keep their african colony they want to stay in africa. home theseting
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contradictions, which i thought were critical to his philosophies on africa. like garvey in a very public sense -- and what i mean by that is he didn't speak about african-americans returning to africa physically. how did he want african-americans to return to africa? not physically, but in what ways did he want african-americans to return to africa? yes? >> mentally? prof. kendi: yeah, mentally, for lack of a better term. he would say to african-americans, you left your mind in africa, your language, your culture. you left who you are in africa. do i sound a little bit like malcolm? so of course, if you make the
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case to people that they have and something somewhere, specifically talking about culturally and philosophically, he was urging them to what? go back there and get what you lost. im,s was critical to h this sort of cultural and philosophical return to africa was absolutely critical to malcolm x's ideas, because he felt it was critical to black people developing a strong sense of what? >> solidarity? prof. kendi: not just solidarity, but he wanted each and every individual black person -- he felt by them developing a more positive viewpoint towards africa, they would develop a more positive viewpoint to what else? >> [inaudible] prof. kendi: themselves.
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so he of course made that conceptual -- and of course that speech that we heard him give in one of his last speeches in 1964, he would make this point again and again. speechespeech and many -- even last week, that run in which he was like, who taught you to hate yourself? who taught you to hate the hair on your head? who taught you to hate the color of your skin? who taught you to hate -- am i getting malcolm a little better, do i have my denzel? he would constantly talk about what we now call internalized. racism. -- internalized racism. he would talk about how black people thought there was something wrong with black people, how they thought black people were inferior, how black
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people thought there was something wrong with themselves and the way they looked and acted and they felt they needed leadership or to be. led by white people. -- to be led by white people. he thought all these racist ideas that black people consumed and reproduced were directly tied to their perspective on africa. he thought that was the root of it all. andhought that was the rug if you swept that rug up from under them, black people in america could start having a more positive conception of self. of course, there is a tremendous amount of truth to this idea. throughout african-american history, we are of course learned about dubois, what do boys thought in 1906. to give another example, in
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1817, there was this group called the american colonization society that had just been formed. was presided over by some of the most powerful people in the united states. , george washington's relative, a series of other major political figures. basically what this group was thinking to do -- was seeking to do was essentially to take free blacks and return them to africa. that was essentially their mission, and it was the american colonization society that was critical in the founding of liberia, where of course my mother would go 150 years later. 1820's, a few hundred african-americans were sent to liberia. so what the american colonization society hoped was
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that they could essentially get rid of the need grow problem -- of the negro problem, because the problem was the free black person. it was a sort of coalition between those slaveowners, who felt that free blacks posed a threat, to enslaved africans and two reformers who felt that if they slowly, gradually ended slavery, they could also gradually get rid of those free blacks from slavery. black people got word of this, particularly the very powerful black community in philadelphia, and they got together at this decidehurch in 1817 to whether african-americans would support the american colonization society's efforts to send basically free blacks
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back to africa. against theolved american colonization society. they felt that they were deeply tied to the struggle, the abolitionist struggle, and they felt they could not leave the free, enslaved black people here by themselves. they classified them as their brethren. but they also said is, we don't want to go back to the savage wild of africa. even within this progressive, for lack of a better term, community of black people who is opposing the american colonization society in 1817, they were also reinforcing ideas about the savage, dark, backward africa. that would continue through dubois in 1903, and he would move away from that in later
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parts of his life, but many african-americans did not. generally speaking, even when i actually ventured to africa -- i first visited ghana -- i don't want to tell you what year because i am going to date myself. forget people asking the silliest questions. i remember one person asked me, did you, like, were you able to go shopping? do they have malls in africa? some of the most basic questions. do people wear clothes? all different types of questions about africa, and this was in the 21st century. so imagine what people were thinking back then. certainly -- so malcolm x -- me.ourse, my -- excuse
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thoughturse, malcolm x it was absolutely critical to reformulate african-american ideas of africa, because he felt it would reformulate african-americans' ideas of themselves. so of course in that speech, he speaks of all the different ways black people hate themselves and the different ways black people hate africa, and made that connection. "in hating africa, we ended up hating ourselves and not really realizing it, because you can't hate the roots of a tree and not hate the tree. you can't hate your origins and not hate yourself." he would make this case that
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white people knew that, and according to him, that's why they were feeding this negative propaganda about africa, because according to him, it would cause black people to hate their african identity, to hate the african heritage, to certainly hate calling themselves africans , and hate their skin color. he also would make this case, which was a radical idea then and even is a radical idea today -- he would make this case that african-americans, or what do we negro,, the so-called was more african than american. connectwanted people to themselves to africa through how they identified themselves, as african. of course, that furthered
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pan-africanism, because if you had people of african descent around the world all identifying as african, then it certainly would further that pan-african unity that he felt was necessary to challenge global white supremacy. is what was also interesting he would make the case that african-americans are more african than american because they have never tasted the fruits of americanism. about justa long run because you are at the table doesn't mean you are what? doesn't mean you are dining. right? just because you are in america doesn't mean you are an american. he would constantly make that analogy. i am sure you have heard people make that analogy since then. do they quote malcolm x when they say that?
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no, they don't, right? so i think this was sort of critical. also think finally, he african-americans to have a positive perspective, or realistic perspective, i should say, on africa because he believed, particularly by 19 to steve for, that -- particularly and newly d africa colonized african nations would be critical in african-americans finally gaining what he called their human rights, finally gaining their freedom. what's important for us to understand is how and why he thought that the world, specifically africa, could play
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a leading role in the redemption , in the improvement and advancement, of african-americans. that's why i wanted you to read that interview he gave in july attendinghen he was the second organization of african unity conference in cairo, egypt, because he talked "it was and i quote -- always the world pressure that was upon america, that enabled black people to go forward. it was not the initiative internally that the negro put forth in america, nor was it a change of heart on the part of uncle sam. it was world pressure." what he was arguing is actually something that historians and
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other scholars have been finding there is a tremendous amount of truth to, which is that though we are taught this civil-rights narrative that by the mid-1950's, americans began to recognize that jim crow segregation and that mass ,isenfranchisement was wrong was morally wrong, and that these sort of struggles and movements were able to persuade americans in how wrong it was, which then led to the brown v. board of education decision in 1954, which of course declared segregated schools unconstitutional, which we are taught led to the civil rights act of 1957, which we are taught led to the civil rights act of 19 to q4, which we are taught led to the voting rights act of
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1965, that people recognized, that powerful americans, americans writ large, recognized that this problem was bad and that essentially in recognizing that through the civil rights movement, america decided to fix it. that america has always essentially been moving forward through this sort of moral compass toward greater equality and freedom. period wassult, that precisely that history moving forward. malcolm gave a different explanation. dostated it had nothing to with americans realizing anything, and everything to do with world pressure. what did he mean when he said world pressure? what was he talking about? who was he talking about?
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yes? criticism,ional funding for pushing civil rights organizations -- outside forces trying to change things inside. cold war and different aspects of communism -- the idea of democracy basically that democracy wouldn't apply to everyone. >> we talked a lot about hillary and germany compared -- talk a and germanytler compared to america. prof. kendi: going back to the cold war. ,articularly after world war ii you had all these places that were due colonizing, in asia, latin america, and certainly in
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africa. you had these two great superpowers, the united states and the soviet union, who in itselfys the cold war was about these two forces not only battling themselves -- battling each other for supremacy, but also seeking to woo these newly created and sovereign nations around the world. of course, part of america's pitch was that it is the land of what? freedom. it is the land of equality. nationsmany of these who after world war ii saw -- black soldiers who fought in world war ii coming back to places like georgia and getting lynched, or all the ways in which that black woman who tries to degas -- who tries to
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desegregate the university of alabama in the mid-1950's, when they saw the treatment, when they saw the brutality, because this treatment, particularly in the 1950's and 1960's, were being circulated in newspapers world, it contrasted deeply with the united states' pitch. later historians, the united states recognized that in order to be able to truly woo and attract the markets and resources and relationships that would be born of creating alliances away from the soviet union with these newly independent nations would be to correct this serious problem at home. malcolms the case that
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-- that is what malcolm believed was the fundamental engine of change, of civil rights change, world, global pressure. it is critical for us to understand that to understand focused on getting african-americans to think positively about africa, because he saw african-americans' liberation as coming through africa, specifically the united nations. so when he spoke -- or i should say created or wrote a letter, an appeal to these african heads of state who gathered together in july of 1964 for the second organization of african unity conference, he appealed to them, literally, and he described
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african-americans to them as "their long lost brothers and sisters." he argued this again and again. the line he said over and over again was, our problems are your problems. he said this in this appeal over and over, speaking to these african heads of state. and he spoke about the brutality and the racism that african-americans were experiencing, but then he also talked about the brutality and people from africa were experiencing when they visited the united states. what is interesting is he would talk about you are mistaken for an african-american. remember, he wrote about that. course was making the
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african-americans -- that what african-americans were lacking was fundamentally their human rights. the reason why he emphasized human rights, even though civil rights was the term of the day, was because that would allow him to connect what african-americans were seeking to what these african heads of state of newly d colonized nations were seeking, that the decolonization movement itself was a movement for human rights, that human rights have sovereignty over your own land, to have the ability to control your own economy, to elect your own leaders, the ability to not be someone else's colonial subject. -- his fundamental and in writing this appeal
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bringing african people worldwide together and causing african-americans to release themselves from anti-african plan was the sort of grand for malcolm in the last year of his life was he wanted these african heads of state to help him bring the u.s. government before the u.n., before the united nations, to charge the u.s. with violating the human rights of 22 million africans, african-americans. essentially, the u.s. to be brought before the world in thend ridiculed 1960's in the way south africa had been brought before the world stage in the 1960's and
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ridiculed. in he spoke directly to that this appeal to these african leaders and stated that, south africa is like a vicious wolf, openly hostile towards black humanity. , heould preface this with actually said america is -- did he say it was worse or better than south africa? he said it was worse. he made this case that america was worse than south africa because at least south africa, he said, south africa breaches segregation and actually segregates, while america preaches equality and segregates. so to him, they were doing the same thing, but one was not openly admitting to what they were doing. he also said that south africa is like a vicious wolf, openly hostile towards black humanity.
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black america -- i'm sorry, cunning like a fox, friendly and smiling, but even more vicious and deadly than the wolf. framed south africa as this vicious wolf and america as this cunning fox. the reason why this is interesting is because it is a nice segue to what we are going to talk about next time, his views on the liberal versus the conservative. he would of course make this and that both the liberal the conservative are enemies of african-americans, but they are certainly different, and he would of course classify the conservative as the vicious wolf and the liberal as the cunning fox. i don't want to give that away.
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we will talk about that next time. thank you. y'all have a good evening and i will see you next week. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2019] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] announcer: you can watch lectures in history every weekend on american history tv. we take you inside college classrooms to learn about topics from the american >> american history tv products are available at the new c-span online store. go to c-span store.org. check out all of the c-span product. join american history tv next sunday, june 23 when we mark the 50th anniversary of the stonewall riots. a key turning point in the gay rights movement.
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-- historian mark steyn will be there to take calls and questions. next sunday, june 23rd beginning at 8:30 a.m.. >> next on the presidency, white house historical association historians matthew costello and lindsay chervinsky talk about their jobs and the history and preservation. susan: matthew costello, you are a senior historian of the white house historical association. i have read you wrote or said that the white house touches on almost every facet of american history. what did you mean by that and give me some examples? i always see the white house as a place where you can study american history through a wide variety of perspectives and lenses. if you are interested in the people, and you can learn more about the people who live there, the people whok

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