tv Honoring the 116th Congress CSPAN August 4, 2019 11:00pm-12:01am EDT
us as the c-span cities tour takes american history on the road. we continue our travels with visits to cities in wyoming, ohio, michigan, south dakota, and many more. you can watch videos from any of our stops by going to our website. next, the u.s. capital historical society hosts an event celebrating the 1/16 congress, which started their two-year term in january. participants include nancy .elosi
>> my name is jane campbell and i have the honor of being the ceo of the united states capital historical society, a position i took in february. so it is new for me and this is my first salute to congress. i am so glad that you are all here with me. and so, the first thing is for us to all rise as the ceremonial unit will present our nation's colors. please rise. >> forward march. forward march.
thank you. thank you very much. you may be seated. i am honored tonight, as we gather to salute the 115th congress to present to you one of the most consequential political figures of our time, a woman who makes history every single day, nancy pelosi. she is the 52nd speaker of the house of representatives. she made history in 2007 when she was elected the very first woman speaker to serve as the speaker of the house. and now, in her third term as speaker, pelosi consistently reminds members and the rest of us of the importance of history. speaker pelosi expertly guides the united states house of representatives to act on behalf of of the people who elected them while managing the diverse personalities and perspectives in her first term.
she led the house passage of the american recovery and reinvestment act. the architect of the affordable care act. oversaw passage of the pay act. the establishment of the office of congressional ethics. the repeal of don't ask don't tell, and those are just the highlights. confronted with the loss of the
majority in 2010, then-minority leader pelosi did not stop. she invested in the next generation of leaders, ultimately retaking the majority in 2018 with the election, i might point out, of a historic number of women. nancy pelosi made history again in january 2019 when she regained her position as speaker, second in line to the presidency after the vice president, and the first person to do so to serve that second term in 60 years. her leadership is strong, inclusive, and decisive. thank you, speaker pelosi, for being with us. [applause] >> thank you very much, jane.
thank you very much for your warm welcome. thank you. i accept your kind words on behalf of all of the members of congress who care so much about the history of this capital, and thank you, as president of the u.s. capital historical society, for your leadership. brilliant leadership. new leadership, and for safeguarding the rich heritage of the people's house. celebration of the 115th congress. thank you and don carlson for his leadership as well as the chair. i am honored to be here with colleagues will be coming and going. 30 years ago, the great historian, david mccullough, spoke to congress of the statue of cleo. he said, for almost two centuries, cleo reminded of the people in these hallowed halls that we are part of history, that our works and options will face the judgment of history, and that we are part of a long and honorable heritage of our democracy. probably in the last three years or so, he was here and gave the keynote speech. we are very honored that dr. freeman will be giving the keynote speech here today. it is interesting how history comes alive through the art. dr. freeman's work on american -- various aspects of american history. david mccullough's work about the early times in our country.
they are much more well known to people because they read the books. sometimes, the movies that were made, and i really do believe that every time we have this event, there is a person, an artist, a creator, who is in our midst, to talk about our history, in a very artistic way. i believe the arts, dr. freeman, are what will unify america. it is a time where we shed our differences. we laugh, we cry, we are inspired. we learn, and it is unified. thank you for honoring us with your presence today, and congratulations on your great
work. it is an honor. president campbell referenced this. this is the most diverse congress in history. the house democratic caucus alone is over 60% women, minorities, lgbtq. it is amazing. in our freshman class, as freshman class, some of you may recall, but maybe the rest of you read it in history books, when the watergate class came, it was historic.
it was a big deal when they came, and not one of them, in this new class, not one of them became a subcommittee chair. in this class, 18 freshmen are subcommittee chairs and that is quite a remarkable thing. we are bringing new, young people up in the ranks. and this congress, where we have a record number of women, over 100 women in the house. more than that. much more. house and senate. this congress will be observing the 100th anniversary of women having the right to vote, which is pretty much an honor to be a woman speaker at that time with over 100 women in the congress. the members exemplify our founders created. we have diversity of opinion, debates, disagreements, and that is ok. that is ok. our founders gave us so much with their courage. imagine, to declare independence, fight a war, thank god they made them amendable so we can have expanding freedom over time. they give us "e pluribus unum," from many, one.
they could not imagine how differently would be from each other. we have to remember we are one. when we have our differences of opinion and our debates and the rest, always remember that we are one, and that is what america is all about. our founders were very brilliant. our founders wrote the beautiful preamble, "we the people," and they established the congress as the first branch of government. article one, the legislative branch. i keep telling that to the other branches. article one.
for over two centuries, we have exercised sweeping constitutional powers and responsibilities. that is part of what we celebrate tonight. but let us always remember that it is our responsibility to debate and legislate, get results for the american people. in the house, we call ourselves the people's house, and we take that very seriously. under cleo's gaze, we advance progress for all americans. to all of you, madam president, mr. chair, we thank you. thank you to the u.s. capital historical society for keeping the flame going. i have been joined now by my colleague, congresswoman debbie dingell. i know you will have an interesting program tonight. inspired by the arts, by dr. freeman. thank you for your allowing me a moment to share some thoughts with you, and thank you for your ongoing support of this magnificent institution. thank you so much. thank you. [applause]
you honored us with your presence and that is really something very special, and it speaks to your commitment to telling the story of the article one, the legislative branch. one of the things that the historical society is dedicated to is that we are always bicameral and bipartisan. as we tell the story of the legislative branch, we recognize that the house things they are the most important body and the senate thinks they are the most important body, and we are smart enough to have both of them come. so our next speaker comes from the other side of the legislative chamber. comes to us with a distinguished career of service to our country. after graduating from the united states naval academy, todd young served in the united states marine corps.
he was elected to the senate in 2016, so he comes as a bicameral individual himself. his legislative priorities include providing quality care for veterans, particularly disabled veterans, as well as care for the great lakes, and supporting business opportunities and growth. join me in welcoming senator todd young. [applause]
>> thank you. thank you. and it's great to be back in the house. it is really -- this is such a nice occasion. i want to thank the historical society for hosting this event and for all of the leaders who helped make this happen. i also want to thank everyone who came here. i know your time is valuable. recognizing congress's historical work is very important. i think it is important that we remember our history and all we have accomplished. today marks the 50th anniversary of the launch of apollo 11. you can applaud for that. [applause] >> thank you. nearly 600 million people were able to watch neil armstrong take that first step on the moon. created one of the most iconic moments in world history. if the past 50 years have taught us anything, anything, it is that society is moving at an all inspiring pace. no man can truly grasp how far
humankind has, and how fast we have developed. it really is truly incredible that humans, over the span of just 50 years, could think of all the different discoveries we have had and that changes to our economy and to our culture and society over just a year period. we have come quite far. 50 years ago of course, the world had barely dreamed of reaching the moon. and here thought the risk was worth the price from originally. the adventure and its success was a true demonstration of american ingenuity, american leadership, and american courage. as the great neil armstrong said before a joint meeting of congress 50 years ago, it was here, in these halls, that our
venture really began. a true testament to the space program which would not have taken off without congress. as we follow the footprints of history's major endeavors, there are countless tracks leading back to congress. in 1958, congress created nasa, passing the national aeronautics and space act. congress cap of hundreds of major issues from childcare to retirement to disease eradication to national defense. congress has drafted thousands of bills, most of them going nowhere, with hundreds of laws running the gamut of legislative activity, from the creation of new constitutional amendments and government agencies -- i don't know if we had eliminated many of those -- to ratifying foreign treaties. in 1964, congress passed the
civil rights act and subsequently the age discrimination act in 1960 seven. furthermore, in an effort to end workplace discrimination, congress passed the americans with disabilities act in 1990. history unfolds. trade is another area that has been so important to human flourishing, the flourishing of the american people. congress passed the trade expansion act and the trade and tariff act. nafta came in 1993. usmca may come soon. in the end, it is important to remember that those who came before us in certain that the united states would take the lead on every venture and six every issue from a righteous position. each member of congress, including myself, has vowed to move this great nation forward, to protect the constitution, to live up to the expectations of our constituents. to fulfill their needs.
as the next generation comes of age, america will need leaders who have the desire and the capacity to serve their country. i am not worried. i have great optimism in the future that those who come next will continue to make the u.s. congress the leading legislative body in the world. thank you all again for your time tonight. thank you for having me. [applause] >> thank you, senator young. we so appreciate you coming here
and sharing with us and sharing your time and perspectives. with one more distinguished member of congress and congresswoman debbie dingell is very special to the historical society. we knew her first as a congressional spouse, and as a member of the advocacy community, and she was always a great supporter of hours and of the congress. and certainly a great supporter of her community. we were fortunate, not long ago, when we honored the house energy and, committee, to hear from the great john dingell, tell stories about those times when he shared that committee, that he maintained anything that moved was under the jurisdiction of his committee.
but now, debbie dingell is a congresswoman all her own. she comes with a distinguished resume, having served as the president of the general motors foundation, chair of the manufacturing initiative, and lifelong advocate for issues important to women and children, founder of the national women's health resource center, and she brought all of that experience and all of that dedication, so her district is fortunate to have congresswoman debbie dingell serving not just her own district but as a leader in congress, and we are honored to have you today. [applause]
>> i want to thank the historical society for doing this and for all of you being here to support them. the last time john was in the capital was when he came here. it was his last trip to washington. but he loved this institution, and he loved this capital. and he just wanted to be here to share that toy. those stories. i was thinking about it, when i was going to say to you tonight.
i do not normally talk about this because i am my own person. i get elected every two years and i am accountable to the people of that district, but i have a lot of history and i am very proud of my last name, and john's father was elected to the united states congress in 1933. there were six women and a congress in 1933. i never got to know john's father. i was never lucky enough. he was a new deal-er. first offer of medicare for all. he introduced it after they had done social security. he loved this institution and he knew what it meant to be american. john was on the house floor when they declared -- when fdr declared war and gave his famous speech. i did not know this. john boehner told us this.
the only reason we have a recording of what happened on the floor when president roosevelt declared war was because john did not listen to the pages and knew that it was history and allowed him to continue or to take what was happening on that floor. he was elected in 1955. what i love was jack brooks served with john's father. he was telling me a story. john wanted to deny it. when some young boys ran all the way to the top of the dome, but water balloons, ran down the stairs, and the vibration have water balloons fall on people. that was in the 1940's. that is when this was -- i wish now that for this place to continue to be the people's house, that people -- we did not
have to worry about security. people felt they could come in and it was easy. and they still feel pride, but the capital historical society is making sure it is possible that it is still about way. i look at john's history and how his first speech -- a reporter told me this. his first speech in the house in 1955 was on civil rights. he was one of the first authors of civil rights legislation. you cannot imagine it in this day and age but when i was cleaning his office, he got denounced across the country for wanting to do the clean water act. democrats and republicans. the world has changed. he always believed that you worked across the aisle, that we were all americans. he never forgot that. he believed he started in the
middle and brought people in, and that compromise was not a dirty word. i look back to when i married john. i was one of the first working spouses. spouses, when i first came in, and yet now, spouses are working out of sheer economic necessity. the world is changing. when i married john -- i am not old, but i am seasoned, people moved here. they went home, but their families got to know each other. there were relationships. republican and democratic kids dated.
their parents chaperoned their proms together. you spent saturday night in somebody's backyard. relationships matter. that is part of what is missing today. although we do make good bets on college games a lot. i am looking at joe. the university of michigan lost to his team. that is what really matters. so tonight, i am really happy. thank you for preserving the history of this capital. at a time of more strife than i would like to see, and it sounds like blood is going to tell the story of other times in the history of our country, we have to always remember what a great democracy we have. of sacred our constitution is. free speech and the ability to disagree is something that is fundamental, that people can express. what we need to do is to listen to each other more, because the fact of the matter is none of us
is ever totally right. we each have different perspectives. when we listen to each other's perspective, we learn. i thank the capital historical society for teaching of history. there have been other times like this. i was reading john's book and trying to say when i was going to say tonight. now, i am serving in the congress. i do not know that this is anything to whatever, but i was the first spouse that was in that did while her husband was alive. and it was hard, by the way. it was really hard because he was looking over my shoulder every minute. i now talk to him a lot and say where are you giving me that advice that i may not have quite appreciated as much as i wish you were here now? we have more women than we have ever had for all the new members.
republicans and democrats have new vigor and energy. it is a g. i wish we were not fighting quite so much. but it is a good thing. john's last words, i encourage you all to read what was in the "washington post" the day after he died. he had lost the ability to write, but he was very, very focused. he had a message. called it his last words to america. and he even kicked me out of the room on thursday morning, and i said, christine has to go home. he said woman, leave me alone. he was dictating it to her. i will tell you something else. bill clinton called to check on john on wednesday before the day thursday that he died, and john anded to bill clinton,
george bush called me, to check on me. neither of them thought that john would be ok. he was focused. president bush could not stop laughing. john was so, this is what you have to do, and this, and this, and this. something about, in the last 24 hours of his life, he talked to the democratic president, and one of the last people he spoke to was a republican president, and he respected both of them, and never forgot that. in his last words to america, he reminded us all that in our government, we hold power, entrusted to the officials from the people who elect them. we will all serve our constituents with the greatest responsibility they have granted us for a period of time. so we all get caught up in the news of the day, in the strife on the floor, but it is really
important to remember this nation's history, that we live in the greatest nation in the can never that we take our democracy or freedom for granted. thank you very much. [applause] >> what a powerful message, congresswoman dingell. you have a way with words, and you bring us history, and you bring us the future as well. because you stand there as a member of congress now in your own right, but understanding the
history that you come with. of thendeed the work historical society to keep the history of congress and the history of our democracy alive. and one of the ways we do that is to bring distinguished scholars to this body. so that whentory, somebody throws their hands up and says, it has never been this bad, we have never had this kind of divisiveness, we found someone to speak to you today who can convince you, lo and behold, it has been worse, and our government has survived, our nation has survived. our keynote speaker this evening is joanne freeman, a professor of history and american studies at yale university, who specializes in early american politics and political culture. her interest is in political
violence and political polarization. as she calls it, dirty, nasty politics. something we know nothing about. and that interest has made her work particularly popular in recent years. dr. freeman's award-winning for, first book "affairs of honor, national politics in the new republic," explored political combat on the national stage in the founding era. her most recent book, the one you saw given to each member of congress, "the fields of blood, violence in congress on the road to civil war," focuses on the physically violent clashes in the house and senate chambers, and this is the former house chamber, the very place where that violence took place, and how they shaped and savaged our
nation. dr. freeman has been committed to public-minded history for some time. you may not know that the popular musical "hamilton" was partly based on her research. and lin-manuel miranda, who was the winner of our freedom award not many years back, relied on her research and engaged her in his studies as he tried to prepare that incredible musical. she is the cohost of a popular american history podcast called "backstory." we could go on and on, but mercifully i shall not do that, youinstead will present to joanne freeman. [applause]
dr. freeman: thank you so much for that introduction, and good evening. i want to start by saying that particularly, given that i am here speaking at an event that is honoring a congress that does include so many women, i am very happy to stand before you as a woman historian, so it is only appropriate. [applause] thank you very much. now, i want to start by saying something that was just referenced. i am very honored to be speaking before you this evening in this particular space before this particular audience, speaking in honor of this particular congress. i spent much of the past 17 years focusing my scholarship on the institution of congress in the decades leading up to the civil war. congress, the capitol building, and this hall, for a time, the
house of representatives, have been at the center of my thoughts for much of those 17 years. a lot of what i wrote about happened in this room. the people, the politics, the passion, the politicians, particularly lesser-known ones who were fascinating to study. all of that transpired in this space where you now sit. so speaking to the congressional community tonight in this space is kind of a bucket list moment for me. truly, i have been relishing it from the moment i was invited to come here. i want to thank you and the congressional sponsors of this program and the wonderful folks at the capitol historical society for giving me the opportunity to be here and to address you tonight. now, i have to say, given the amount of time i have been immersed in studying the doings of the antebellum congress, looking around this space, i see
a lot of historical shadows. for example, i can almost see john quincy adams. he would have been sitting over there. he came to the house notably after he was president of the united states, and i can almost hear him literally bringing the house down around him with his aggressive stance against slavery. looking at what used to be the face before the speaker's platform, i can almost see the massive brawl that took place between armed northerners and southerners in 1858, largely having to do with the institutions of slavery that ended only when one congressman yanked the toupee off the head of another congressman. reducing the room to laughter. which really only goes to show you that slapstick is eternal. [laughter] now, to get a real sense of the space and action, i want to offer you the words of a
congressional clerk named benjamin brown french, who described a typical evening session in this hall in 1836, including both its highs and lows. french wrote, this is from his diary when fully lit at night, , the light in this hall is equal to that of at least 1000 candles. the beautifully painted roof, the vast pillars, the red drapery about the speaker's chair, and between the columns, all appear richer if possible by artificial light than by the light of day. the galleries are usually crowded during an evening session with all the gentility of washington. if the house happened to be in a good humor, as some interesting subject is under debate, i know of no more imposing spectacle than an evening session. but, french continues, when
11:00 or 12:00 at night arrives, the spectators begin to thin off and the members drop away. those who remain become tired and sleepy. one by one the debaters grow angry. motions are made to adjourn and negatived. noise and confusion frequently occurs. speaker calls "order, order" at the top of his voice. members might be seen sleeping in their seats are stretched upon the sofas and chairs or even on the carpet behind the speaker's chair. by 2:00 in the morning, french goes on, someone usually moves a call of the house. by 5:00 in the morning, the sergeant at arms has arrested missing congressmen and dragged them back to the house, and they arrive not quite in working order, hair uncombed, looking as according to french, as little like the first gentleman in america as possible. obviously, some of the highs and the lows of the antebellum
congress indeed. i offered that selection to honor benjamin brown french, an amazing figure who left behind an 11 volume diary that allowed me to delve into this institution and get a sense of not only how it works, but what it felt like to be in it. i offer this account to set the stage and pull us back into the pre-civil war congress. but i also quoted it to note something central to understanding the u.s. congress, what it is, how it works, and what it does. this is an obvious statement, but it is a statement that is worth making. congress is a human institution, with the emphasis on human. it is the ongoing interplay of people with each other. the dynamics of human interaction that make it go, so to speak. throughout our nation's history, those human dynamics have been shifting, sometimes unpredictable, sometimes
problematic, sometimes highly problematic. my most recent book, "the field of blood," notes what happened during some of those highly problematic moments. when researching the book, i am uncovered roughly 70 physically violent incidents in the house and senate between the 1830's and the 1850's. and by physically violent, i mean caning, shoving, fistfights, people pulling guns and knives on each other, and duels, duel negotiations, wild wild melees, and a handful of fistfights. it is a really dramatic story, and it is little known outside of scholarly circles for good reason. a lot of it was censored out of the period equivalent of the congressional record.
there are clues in the record, so for example, now and again, you will see when you're reading through the record -- i spent a whole year reading the congressional record, which is dedication -- there are clues. i discovered once i knew, that violence was there. for example. now and again, the record will say something like "the debate became unpleasantly personal at one point." [laughter] in one case, that meant -- that was describing a moment when one congressman pulled a gun on another congressman. that is indeed unpleasantly personal. or the record will say something like "there was a sudden sensation in the corner." in one case, what that meant was two congressmen got in a fight, started punching each other and flipped over a desk. enormous brawls sometimes get mentioned in the record, but often in the very barest detail, as in the case of one huge fight in 1849 that a clerk recording
it described with this language, poetic writing in brackets in the record "the house is like a , heaving billow." [laughter] some of this violence was a product of the times. the united states during those decades was an exceedingly violent place. there were riots, mob actions, electoral violence that sometimes led to death, and of course the violence centered on the institution of slavery, and the nation's brutal treatment of native americans. the united states has a long history of violence, and a lot been rage-based. -- some of the congressional violence was strategic, and it involves these westerners,rners or
who intimidated or threatened their political opponents into silence or compliance, particularly on the issue of slavery. for example, take john dodson of louisiana. when someone insisted john quincy adams had every right to discuss an antislavery petition, dodson, who happened to generally arm himself with both a pistol and a bowie knife strapped to his back, went over to the fellow that adams had the the antislavery petition and said to him "do , that again and i am going to cut your throat from ear-to-ear." message received. in essence, southern slaveholders attempted to silence debate on slavery, and for a time, this strategy worked quite well for the south. for a time, southerners wielded an outsize influence on the floor of congress and protected their slave regime in the process.
in the late 1850's, the dynamic changed, and the violence peaked for two reasons. issue of foremost,t he slavery was undeniably, ever more aggressively at the center of national debate due to the nation's expansion westward. second, and to me, particularly intriguingly, the technology of communication changed. at the same time that the nation's growth was keeping the problem of slavery front and center, a new form of technology, the telegraph, made matters worse by transmitting news around the nation with breakneck speed before theticians could psspin news as they saw fit. conflict began to fester, a new technology spread news faster than ever before and without congressional spin. it would be hard to exaggerate the degree to which the technological innovation of the telegraph changed the nature of
politics. one small example of that, in 1850 in the senate, one congressman pulled a gun on another congressman, and there was what was at the time called a stampede, and some confusion, and in the end nothing happened. after the episode was over, a senator from new hampshire stood up and said, "i feel the need to tell people that within 45 minutes, the nation is going to be reading that we are slaughtering each other in the senate." and you can feel in that account that the room was kind of realizing that they lost control of the story. there was little they could do to change that narrative. think about how we are grappling today with the reach, power, and implications of social media, and we begin to get an idea of what i am talking about. democracy is an ongoing conversation between officeholders and constituents, so in a sense it should come as
no surprise that dramatic changes in the modes of conversation caused dramatic changes in democracies themselves. so when northerners discovered, partly through these technological changes, the degree to which their representative rights were being stifled, the ways in which their representative voices were being silenced, they urged their representatives to stand up and fight back, and they tended to vote more combative men into office. many northern congressmen did indeed fight back, with words and sometimes with fists, until the fighting overwhelmed to the potential for good faith arguments and mutual trust that lies at the heart of the doings of congress. the distrust, the bitterness, th e sense on each side their opponents were degrading them, to use their word for it, felt by north and south alike, eroded the functioning of congress.
fighting overwhelmed the working of congress. now, there's a lot to be learned by the narrative i just laid out. i will say that i seem very savvy for having written a book about congressional conflict and violence that came out at just this time, but it took 17 years to write it and i never could have predicted that here would be at just this moment. but there is much to be learned. i think the story has much to tell us. i will mention a few key points in the few minutes i have left. first, our political system has become so complex over the centuries, i think it is easy to forget the ground-level power of congressessence of and what it does. andpowerful emotions equally powerful symbolism that structures and complicates what happens in congress, and what people feel about how their representatives are, for people looking on in the nation at large, congress is kind of a
national sounding board. for some, it is a personification of the state of the nation, with all of the emotion that that implies. it is something of a cliche, that americans generally like their members of congress more than the institution of congress. but even so, the workings of this institution, its mood, temper and dynamics, send americans at large a strong message about the state of affairs in their country. in fact, what first drew my interest to congress in the first place was its unique status as an institution that brings people together physically from all over the nation, and puts them into two chambers and forces them to hash things out. having that kind of space, for that kind of conversation, however contentious or fraught or problematic or caustic that conversation might be, having that kind of space matters. and of course, having a national audience witness in some form
what happens in that space matters as well. the americany to public is the ultimate guardrail of democratic governance. intense linkat between the american people and their representatives, what happens here and what is said here sometimes has exceedingly broad, profoundly symbolic meaning that reaches far beyond the specific impact of a piece of legislation. thus, congress's extraordinary potential to create what i call a "national we." symbolically, structurally, politically, emotionally, rhetorically, visibly, congress is in fact the american people in assembly. it both shapes and reflects public sentiment. a lot of waysn congress is the nation's beating heart. its workings as a
representative institution, its fundamental role as checking the balance of power, giving voice to the popular will and allowing difficult conversations to happen within this constitution, all of those things are the lifeblood of democratic governance. earlye said as much, as as 1805, and i'm about to do something that is really counterintuitive. wherever alexander hamilton is in heaven, i hope you will forgive me. i am a hamilton scholar, but i'm about to discuss the man who killed him, ehrenberg. -but- aaron burr. but you will see why. burr was a controversial figure during his lifetime and forever after, although he's having something of a moment because of that play. his politics were somewhat equivocal. he was something of an adventurer. he killed hamilton. he was tried for treason and acquitted, sending himself to exile in europe for many years. but he was apparently a very good vice president. wasas fair-minded,
attentive to procedure in presiding over the senate, and he understood the profound significance of the institution of congress in the making or breaking of the american nation. lines, toward the end of his vice presidency, he said the following during his formal farewell to the senate, and i think it so profoundly captures the significance of congress, that i want to close with the words of aaron burr. he said, "this house is a sanctuary, a citadel of law and of liberty. bee, if anywhere, will resistance made to the storms of political frenzy and the silent art of corruption. and if the constitution be bytined ever to perish the sacrilegious hand of the itsgogue or the usurper,
dying agonies will be witnessed on this floor." thank you very mumch. -- much. [applause] you.ank theone of the things society is privileged to -- come here, mr. chairman. this is don carlson, the chairman of the board. [applause] we're honored,gs we have some of the marble from the renovation of the capitol, and we use that to create all kinds of products. when someone honors us with their speech, especially a scholar, we provide to you bookends made from the marble of
the capitol. [applause] >> oh, and my boss, the chairman, says to make sure to tell people we now have the lego set that you can buy from us and build the capitol yourselves. so, we are almost to the eating and drinking time, so you can stand or you can sit. all i want to do is take a minute to acknowledge the board of the capitol historical society. if those of you on the board would please stand and be recognized. appreciate your -- [applause] nonprofit organization
that exists by the investment of time, talent and treasure of the people on the board and the people who care about the history of congress. one of the groups that was especially helpful today was the national association of realtors. yourank you very much for contributions to allow this event to happen. [applause] and i don't know if cheryl johnson is here with us, the clerk of the house. i talked with her earlier today, and suggested she might want to join us, because of the story being written by the clerk. congresswoman virginia foxx, i see you. one of our very best board members and members of congress. appreciate you being here. [applause] and there are a few other members of congress who may have slipped in and out. please stand.
come on. [applause] thank you. congressman wilson. thank you. thank you so much. and i get the privilege to stand here, but i don't stand here haven't pulled this event off by myself. there is a really dedicated group of staff, who work for the society, and a dedicated group of volunteers. so i would like all the staff members to please wave, including the interns. come on. [applause] thank you very much. thank you. to eat, drinktime and be merry. thank you very much. thank you for being with us. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2019] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2019]
[indistinct conversation] >> ok. the contingency sample is down. a little bit, to dig through. >> it is interesting. a very solid surface, but here and there with the contingency sample collector, i run into a very hard surface, but it appears to be very cohesive material of the same sort. i'll try to get a rock in here. >> you are watching american history tv. every weekend, beginning saturday, we bring you 48 hours
of unique programs exploring our nation's past. american history tv is only on c-span3. >> i believe they are setting up the flag, now. this is houston. radio check, over. >> loud and clear. >> roger. >> loud and clear, houston. >> roger, buzz. >> monday night on the communicators we will talk about the future of broadcast television and challenges local broadcasters face when online platforms like netflix and with the- and amazon president and ceo gordon smith. it is still the answer to what is happening with
journalism. we are still doing the reporting, we are still investigating, we're still holding people accountable. i think the future for broadcasting is not just one we will survive, we will thrive because the people need what we do. even though they sometimes take for granted that we will be there. we occupy what i would describe as an irreplaceable, indispensable nitch in communication. >> watch the communicators monday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span2. >> next on the presidency. about richard nixon's early life and career. how they influenced his presidency, and what ultimately downfall. he is the author of "richard nixon: the life." the smithsonian association hosted this event. >> it is my pleasure to welcome my figure tonight. he is a contributing editor to