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tv   Holocaust Survivor Halina Yasharoff Peabody  CSPAN  August 31, 2019 1:05pm-2:06pm EDT

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evangelicalism or any other faith and then use that as a way to get votes, which seems like the worst possible way. announcer: watch book tv every weekend on c-span2. announcer: next, holocaust survivor halina yasharoff peabody, recounts her family's radiance after the invasion of experience after the soviet unions 1939 invasion of poland and eventual german occupation. her father was deported to siberia, forced to leave behind his wife and children. they survived by pretending to be catholic. warren: good morning and welcome the holocaustof museum's first-person series. warren: good morning and welcome to the holocaust memorial museum. my name is warren marcus. i will be your host today. we are in our 20th year first person.
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i want to tell you i am always honored to support this program. my first year, 20 years ago, family endowed the program in honor of my father who passed away. he was an american g.i. in europe. our first guest is halina yasharoff peabody. a few announcements, this season is made possible by the lewis franklin smith foundation. also, the fisher foundation. we are grateful for their sponsorship. first-person is a series of twice-weekly conversations with holocaust survivors who volunteer at our museum and share their first-hand accounts of their experience during the holocaust. if time allows, you have an opportunity to ask a few questions. if we do not get to your question, you can always tag the museum on twitter, facebook and instagram using at holocaust
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museum. i hope you people understand that because i do not. [laughter] a recording will be made available on our youtube page. we have prepared a brief slide presentation. we begin with this photo of her being held by her father, isaac. her mother is directly behind her, surrounded by family members and friends. halina yasharoff peabody was born december 12, 1932 in krakow, poland. her father was a dentist and her mother was a champion swimmer. the town in ukraine came under soviet occupation in 1939. at the time of occupation, her sister was only two months old. officials detained isaac and then later deported him to siberia.
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here we see a photo in 1940, after their father had been deported. in 1941, germany occupied all of poland. realizing that they were in danger, her mother bought. alse documents from a priest that identified them as roman catholic. here is a false baptismal certificate stating that her religion is roman catholic. with her new documents, they traveled by train. they found shelter with a woman who took in boarders. on the left is the house where they were sheltered and on the right is a photo of the girls celebrating christmas while in hiding. following liberation, they were
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reunited with isaac and settled in london, england. she has two sons, one of whom lives in england. another lives just 10 minutes away. she has two granddaughters. hannah and olivia. she speaks frequently of her experience during the holocaust. here at thend museum. she engages with visitors at the survivor desk. she is also a contributor to the publication of "echoes of memory." it features writing by survivors. she will be available to sign copies available in the bookstore. with that, i would like you to join me in welcoming our first person today, halina peabody. please join us. [applause]
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warren: which seat? you are the boss. i will take this one. [laughter] good morning. we are so happy to have you here. i am honored to be interviewing you here. ms. peabody: thank you for coming to hear my story. warren: we have about four hours of stories to share with you. we will do our best and maybe have time for questions. i would like to start right away. can you tell us about your early life in your hometown? i already announced it once. i will not risk it again. tell us about the community and your family. i am always interested in the relationships between jews and non-jews before the war.
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fill us in on your family and your town. ms. peabody: i was born december 1932, so i was only six and a half when the war started. the relations -- i did not have that information on that. i was about to go to kindergarten in 1939, when we knew that the russians were coming, and they were going to take over our town. everybody was very frightened. what happened was, a lot of people wanted to run away, and we were right there at the edge of romania. the river was a natural frontier with romania. you could go halfway. when my mother and father got married, they looked for a
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smaller town. they all came from krakow. that was a big city. my father was a dentist. he looked for a smaller town, which they found. it was a wonderful ocean city where people came for summer holidays. my mother, having been a champion swimmer was very happy because it had water. we used to go on boats. we had lovely beaches there. one was shady and another was sunny and you could go with a boat from one to the other. as a child, my mother taught me skating. when i was five, i was skating.
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my mother loved all sports. she was very good at swimming. also, she danced and skated and rode horses. my mother was very brave. she thought that sports developed courage, which she proved later on. in 1939, when my father knew that the russians were coming, they basted off the first world war where the men were conscripted into the russian army. that was hard labor. in that case, men were more scared than the women. they never imagined that there would be problems for the women and children. in our case, i had a two-month-old sister. my father was worried. he decided to cross over by himself. there were other families that
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joined him and went over. we stayed back. when the russians occupied us, they made various laws that at six and a half, i could not appreciate. everybody was very scared. my father had crossover. slowly, things quieted down. they arrested people. they demanded gold and silver. we were just quiet and waiting to see what was going to happen. when winter came, everything was frozen over. this was a part of the world where you had a very hot summers. the river was frozen solid. the people who crossover like my father decided that perhaps the
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russians had settled then and settle down and maybe they could quietly cross back home. without any trouble. they took white sheets and they tried to cross the river. unfortunately, the russians had already sealed the border. they caught everybody. they put them in jail, and in my father's case, he was a dentist. they accused him of being a spy because he went over and came in. they gave him 20 years hard labor and sent him off to the labor camp in russia. we were again left alone.
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in addition to which, under russian law, if he were a family of criminals, you were also sent somewhere to a russian labor camp. we were packed and ready to go. they did not take us for some reason. what they did was throw us out of our house because it was too rich for us to have a house. we were thrown out to a place up the road, not very far. warren: so once isaac was sent away, did you hear anything from him? ms. peabody: we did.
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the first year, we did not hear anything. he was in prison. he didn't want to talk about it. when we were -- that picture that was with my sister, that is where we stayed. we stayed there throughout the russian occupation and after a year, we heard from my father. he wrote a little bit about the conditions. we were able to exchange a couple of times. my mother sent a package to him. warren: when you were a and half, the war changed everything , the warand a half
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changed everything when the nazis invaded. ms. peabody: first of all, we were there when all of this was happening. we went to school. what the russians did was drop everybody one class because they wanted the opportunity to educate us. we were there for about a year and a half. suddenly, one day the russians disappeared and we heard that the germans were going to take over. we went back to my house. we settled back in and we waited. we had no idea what to expect. everybody was anxious, as usual. we did not know what the plan was. eventually, the germans arrived with motorcycles and shiny
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uniforms. very scary. they came down the road. i was looking at them and it was scary. i remember my mother taking me. she told me to stay inside. when the germans settled in, every local job, everybody in charge was german. they started putting in laws. the first was that the jewish kids do not go to school. we were also not allowed to go to parks. we had a curfew. everything was rationed. we had much worse rations than the others. they just made it much harder for us. every jewish person had to be working for the germans.
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not for pay, just had to be working for them. if there was a not particular job for anybody, they were told to clean the sidewalks. my mother was known for other talents that she had. she was a fantastic knitter. she embroidered as well. they knew everybody and they knew my mother was a good knitter. they made her the chief knitter for the mayor because he had a lot of children. she was told that she would be knitting for the children. everybody else had to do some job. they used to take whips of young -- groups of young people for various jobs at farms. they would say we need so many
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people and then they collected them and then the square, they would march them out. after they did whatever jobs they had to, they would be brought back. there was a jewish committee that wanted to not go directly to the people. the jewish community was tasked with getting the right number of people for whatever job they demanded. it went on a couple of times. and then they decided that they needed a big job to be done at the road. there was an old military camp. the winters were very cold. he said that they needed to find the trucks of the trees for winter. they needed many people. they asked a certain number of people, like 600 people they
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asked for and they were supposed to meet at the square in the morning. they marched them out. we waited for them to come back. nobody was coming back. we did not know what was happening. everybody got very anxious. warren: was this men and women and different age groups? or was it just young people? ms. peabody: mostly young people. apparently, some people joined voluntarily, just to help. nobody was coming back all day or all evening until evening. one person came back. it was a young man. he was shot in the arm. he told us what happened. the story was that when they got to the camp, there was no job
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for them to do the trees. what there was was an open air grave with sticks over it. they were told to undress, lay down on the sticks and then they were shot, and as they were shot, they fell into the graves. this man was one of the last that were shot and dropped in. they missed his heart and hit his arm. so he managed to get himself out of there and he came back and told us the story, at which point we realize that we were in grave danger. we lost all these people. everybody's first thing was looking for a hiding place. warren: i watched your testimony and i read your story.
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i just want you to keep in mind the strength and resourcefulness of her mother and how old you were, all the responsibilities and choices that you face. at the time of the first shooting, there was no warning. all of a sudden this happens and the news comes back, how old were you? ms. peabody: nine. warren: and your sister was very young. her mother had to decide what to do. the remaining jews were trying to find places to hide because who knows and the next action could continue? ms. peabody: we knew that we were in great danger. everybody was looking for a hiding place. there was no room for children. we knew everything because we were part of it, except for my sister, who did not really know what was going on.
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my mother decided that she would take us to a lady who used to cook for us. next time when they demanded a group of people, they said they wanted people to work in germany. nobody believed anymore. we had realized this was not true. everybody ran around and they hid. my mother, sister and i stayed with a lady who used to cook for us in the evening. they loaded them on the train and they took them away. it was a small town. the community was not that big. my mother thought that they
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would do something else, that -- what is going to be the next step? the germans decided that they did not want to go around looking for us again because there were fewer and fewer of us, so they just threw us all out. the town was cleared of any jewish person officially. we would go to another place, another small town at the road, -- up the road, not very far. we were told -- afterwards it became a ghetto, but it was that area that they told us to be in. everybody obeyed. everybody started looking for hiding places again. my mother explained to me. she said it is not going to work
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because they are going to do it over and over, and there is not much help from us. there she was with two children. they also did the same, exactly the same thing in the towns around this area, so they brought these little groups that remained, and they put us altogether in this place. the first thing we did was looking for hiding places. my mother said, it is not going to work. they are going to move us again. she was desperate. everyone was looking to see what they can do and where they could run. there was not much to do. there were some crossing over the river to romania. i remember at one point she was hoping to do that, to send the kids over, but nothing worked.
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the next time comes and again, they are demanding a group of people to go work in germany again. nobody believed them by then. we were there during the russian occupation. my mother knew some farmers there. when the call came that they needed people from that group, they did not -- i'm say. sorry. everybody obviously scattered. but in a different area, so not everybody knew each other. my mother knew a few farmers quite well. she split us up.
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i was with one farmer up in the loft. she and my sister, they were with another farmer. they paid them in advance and they were going to stay there until they stopped looking for people. all day long, i sat there and i waited for my mother, not knowing what would happen to her. i kept thinking that she was caught. the lady who had meat would go into town and i was very anxious to know what was happening and always thinking that my mother would be caught. i spent all day long waiting and being anxious. towards the evening, they caught enough people and loaded them on the train. i wondered if my mother was
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coming back, but she did. she told me her story when she came to meet me. she said, we are never going to do this again. we are never going to split up. whatever happens to us, we are going together because i thought all this time that you were caught. she said we are not going to do that again. >> she probably had the same fear again for you. she had no idea about her. exactly.dy: that was her decision. of course, i agreed. we started thinking, what could be done? what can we do? they came up with this idea because we were all female. as you probably know, the men
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can be recognized and identified, but the women, they could not check. i was blonde and green eyed. they thought that we could pass as catholics. so they went to a priest and they got those papers. so we left there. our friends put us on a train, and we had a couple of suitcases and some money that they collected for my mother. we said goodbye and my mother said we were going somewhere on the way to krakow and it would take four days and four nights. we were going to go as catholics. my mother sat me down and gave me my new name. i had no idea about the catholic
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religion. i knew very little about my own. all i knew was that i was jewish and i was going to hebrew school on sundays. but my father taught me to read polish. he wanted me to read the newspaper going to kindergarten. >> so you are bilingual in kindergarten? ms. peabody: we did not speak english. i just knew polish. my mother was pure polish. they hoped that we had a chance, and we got on the train and said goodbye to our friends, who did not survive.
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it was going to be a long trip, a hard trip. my mother carrying my sister and me by the hand. we settled in to the carriage and we started on our trip. my mother had taught me my new name, my grandparents, where i was born. that was all i had to learn. >> that's all, at eight or nine, that's all you had to learn. let me just ask you before we get to what happens on the train, at this young age, you have a new relationship with your mother in some ways because you have to work together to keep this charade up. you have to remember all of this. you had to grow up quickly. nobody wanted to die. my sister was the lucky one. she did not know. >> you were almost partners with your mother.
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peabody: we were definitely partners. partners. >> so what happens? ms. peabody: we got on the train. a young man sat next to my mother and started talking. my mother told me, this young man kept asking me questions and pushing me. i had no choice and i admitted to him that we were jewish. at that point, he said, in that case, i'm going to have to hand you over to the gestapo. i am going to the same place and i am going to accompany you and the kids. when we get there, i am going to have to hand you over to the gestapo. >> and probably shot. you knew there was great danger if he turned you in.
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ms. peabody: i understood very well because my mother said that the children did not survive. they had no use for children. if you've that caught and taken to a concentration camp, they separated the sick, the old and the children. you had to be about 13 or 14 for them to keep you for work. other than that, you did not have a chance. my mother knew that. she did not want to survive without the children. i knew that this was what was going on in her mind. we had no choice. we were caught. we traveled with him, and he was very careful to keep us in his eyesight. we had nowhere to run. my mother was trying to think of what we could do. in the end, she decided there was not much we could do because we cannot run.
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so she started talking to him about a deal. she gave him our tickets for the suitcases. she gave him all the money that she had. she even promised him the coats on our backs, but one thing she asked him was that when we get to the gestapo, have us shot quickly, all three of us. she explained to me that it would be less painful than being separated. she could not bear the thought because she knew that the children had no way of surviving. she did not want to survive by herself, so she only wanted it to be quick. she said this way would be the quickest. so that is how we traveled. i had nothing to say about it, except thinking that this is
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what is going to happen. it took a long time. we were on this old-time train. we were tired and exhausted. >> four days. ms. peabody: exactly. >> and you knew what was coming. ms. peabody: we were so tired. i do not think that i thought about it much. when we finally arrived, this is so clear in my mind. as we were walking down the steps to the platform, i suddenly realized that now he is going to take us to the gestapo and we are going to be shot. i started pulling at my mother. i don't want to die. we continued walking. my mother turns to him and says, perhaps you could let her go.
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she is blonde and green eyed, maybe she could survive. i said, i am not going without you. i didn't know what he would say, but i was not about to go. so we continued walking. finally, she said this to him. she said i gave you everything that we have. keep it. why don't you let us go and let us try our luck? she added, why do you want this on your conscience? whether that or something touched him, he said to us, you do not have a chance. it sounds better in polish. he said you do not have a chance, but he left us. were, in a strange town on the main road.
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>> i recall that your mother said to him, do you have children? ms. peabody: that was before, yes. >> remember what i said about her mother's resourcefulness? so, you have to wait for this guy and you have nothing. ms. peabody: we were standing in the middle of the street, and the main thing my mother understood was that we cannot be found on the street. the germans were wandering around with guns drawn, meaning that they could do whatever. we could not be on the street for the night. we needed to get in somewhere. she spotted a little cafe near where we were standing and she walked in. she asked for a little bit of milk for my sister. then she started looking and asking around if there was anybody who knew a place.
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it was for lodging, because as i said, it was dangerous to be on the street. as far as the papers that we had, we did not know, to this day, if they were real or not. the main thing was for us to be inside somewhere. >> and nobody knows that you are jewish. ms. peabody: absolutely not. a young man got up and said that he knew a place. a lady who was a washer woman and took people in. he said he would take us over there. he walked us over there. this very nice, very short lady, sweet old lady, looks at us. my mother said, i do not have any money, but tomorrow i go to work and whatever i have, i will
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bring to you for keeping us. she said ok. i will take you. and then her son came up and said do not take her. i can imagine how we looked. dark out she had four sons, right? ms. peabody: i know there were at least two sons there very , tall. they said, do not take her. said, no, this is a mother and two children. i have to take her. that was the most christian thing that i have ever heard. she took us. she gave us a bed, which is good. we had one bed. i slept at the feet and she slept with my sister. the next day she went out and did all kinds of household jobs,
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just helping around. wartime, so you always took a little bit of food from people when you are working for them. because everybody was hungry. she started working and doing whatever she could to bring something home. my sister was very sickly. she looked after her very nicely, the lady. as a polish child, was supposed to go to school. it was two hours every day. one hour was for religion. another was for general studies. my luck really was that i could read. cross myselfs to going in and of church, and i was very worried.
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i was young, so a lot of things could have been overlooked, but i was very scared. i did not know what was going on, but the priest was extremely nice. he taught catholic religion by a little booklet called the catechism, which had questions and answers. i was able to read through it very quickly. i was very quick to learn because it was necessary. >> do you think he had any clue that you were jewish? ms. peabody: absolutely not. not a soul new. that was the thing. learn and be with other codes, but you could never tell because it was enough if it
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they pointed at you. the germans had no compunction. they would take you away. >> set this time your mother made the decision to hide in plain sight. tell us some of her jobs. iesco ms. peabody: she was working for households. she would do some jobs. even i was working. across the street was somebody who was partially german. they had the right to have a polish person work for them for nothing. i knew how to darn socks, which i hated. my mother thought it was the right thing to do for me. you could do more if you are engaged more to do things, so the more that you did, the more useful and you were, the better it was.
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she was worried about the security from the very beginning. first of all, my sister had terribly curly hair. i take terribly -- i say terribly because that was because polish girls have straight, blonde hair. not today, but then, yes. my hair was blonde and wavy. they braided mine, but sister's was like an afro. my mother was worried about that. she said to the lady who took us in, she said she was going to shave it off completely to make it thicker. that was baloney, but it was an explanation, but what she was doing was taking the hair off so that it would not be visible as much. >> i imagine she was not excited about that much. ms. peabody: i don't remember.
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i do not think she understood what was happening. she was so young and she was not well. she had some kind of problem. i don't know. she was very weak, and my mother was always worried about her. doctors, andt many so she always worried about it. then she thought, maybe, if we can offer work in germany, that was a good thing to do for young people. the germans were not as good recognizing jewish people as the polish. polish. that was another worry, that they might point at us and say, who are they? she decided to offer us to work in germany.
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fortunately, or unfortunately, they would not take my sister because she was too young. therefore, of course my mother said no, so we would not go. she then decided to hide in plain sight. if that's what you were referring to, if she could get to work for a german place and have the id, they would stop and ask for papers if you showed that they were working for them. that's all they wanted to know, and the polish were slated to be the slave labor. all they wanted to know was that you were working for the germans. she took this step which was dangerous. she applied to the german military camp for work. they asked for papers. in those days, there were no
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computers, but giving papers was dangerous for us because we did not know if the paper is good or not. she took the step because she felt she had to because she felt threatened by the situation. she thought if she had this, it would be some form of defense for her. >> she had two young girls applying to the nazis for a job. ms. peabody: the military. they did approve it. she was working. the job was to peel potatoes. that was the job, but she had the id. it was useful at one point. the germans came in the middle of the night, screaming and
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yelling, everybody out. a cold, winter night and everybody came out. my mother showed them the id. they said, you stay. we were told to stay put. the others they took to a gestapo station. they checked them out and came back the next day because they were all working. they were fine, but we never had to go to the gestapo station. that is the kind of thing that she was worried about. those little things helped. during this time, we had one letter from the people that we left behind. they told us that there was a letter from my father, who had written through the red cross that he was safe with his sister in palestine.
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my mother knew that there was family in palestine. they went out there in the 1930's and we never met them, but we knew that there was family there. we knew that because he was out of russia, that he was free. later not know how, until discovered that stalin and churchill and roosevelt met and decided that they needed more people to fight out and front. general anders was also a political prisoner and he was asked to create this unit. he was a very good man because he said i am not only taking men, i am taking the family. my aunt, uncle and cousin came out that way as well. they came out and they thought
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that my father was fighting. this i learned later. at this point, we were just pleased to know that he was out of russia. we had no idea. we could not contact him in any way. during the occupation you could not contact anybody. radio, iftened to the somebody had one that was the death penalty. we did not know what was going on. we just lived in and day out. one morning, it was complete silence on the street. a loud silence where you did not know what was happening, but there was nothing moving. the polish farmers were working
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from 4:00 in the morning and usually there were horses back-and-forth. but nothing. my mother was still thinking whether she should go to work or not. i was standing by the window and suddenly there was a tremendous bang and everything went dark. what happened was there was a bomb that came over the roof. shrapnel came through the window and hit my hand. i started yelling, my hand, my hand. my mother grabbed me and my sister by the hand. we walked out. my hand was reading badly. time --not from that [laughter] unfortunately, i fell and it got
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hurt again, but it was bleeding badly. we just walked to the nearest hospital. >> you were bleeding profusely. ms. peabody: right. she was carrying my sister and i had to walk. it was not too far. they picked me up, cleaned me up and they were very worried about my hand because they said it could get infected. i had a very big wound. they said that the russians were coming, that the germans were leaving, and they disappeared, the germans, altogether. i was in the hospital for two months. in the meantime, my mother was trying to find -- everybody was trying to look for people. my mother was knitting and trying to get money to put out announcements about looking for
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my father. my father had no idea that we were alive because we were completely cut off. after some time, we did find him. he felt bad afterwards about what happened, but in the meantime, where we were, we were still catholics, so it was a strange time. >> this wonderful washer woman who took care of you, what happened to her when the bomb hit? what happened was, when my mother spent the night with me and my sister in the hospital, the next day she came back, and that little house was completely destroyed.
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the wonderful woman was under the roof of the kitchen that fell on her. she was killed. we did not realize that anything like that had happened. >> and the care for your injury was very primitive. there were very few drugs and antibiotics. ms. peabody: they did the best that they could. they were wonderful. they were wonderful nurses. they said if there is an infection, they would have to cut my hand off. luckily, they were fantastic. they cleaned me up. they had to burn it out, because of all of the possibilities. >> we are a little short on time. i want to clarify a few things. your mother did not renounce her catholic faith right away.
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she held onto that identity for some time. why was that? because, i said, i can say my name now? there was a problem. she said that there were some people that came out and they were killed. unfortunately, there were some people who did not like the fact that the germans did not finish. so, i was very upset that i had to keep up the lie. my sister did not know what was going on. she was actually asked. now you can tell us you are jewish. she said, look at me. do i have horns or a tail?
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that was her understanding of being jewish, so there was a primitive element there. these people are not very educated, but it was frightening to know that this is what happened. the neighbor that took us in, they werey mother did not finisher' the job. my mother, all that she wanted was to get us out as quickly as possible. we finally found my father. he was not in palestine, he was stationed in egypt with the british army. it took a while before he managed to send my cousin from palestine to try to get us out of poland. >> what was it like to see your dad after all of this?
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ms. peabody: it was very strange. my sister was two months old when he was gone. it was very strange. you had not seen your father for >> seven years. ms. peabody: we got ourselves together. we had to be transported out of poland somehow. there was an agreement between the russian government and polish government about the holocaust survivors getting out. we were in a group of people trying to get out of poland. they would take a few of us at a time and throw us over the border to germany. >> some people accused you of being jewish just to get out. right? what they said was,
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we have polish names. we had no papers, whatsoever. we had to leave every little thing out. so when we were in this group of people coming out, they said at one point that we were poles pretending to be jewish to get out of poland. >> and you were contending to be catholic for many years. ms. peabody: and my mother was saying but the name of my husband was isaac. finally, somebody remembered that she was a polish champion in swimming. so they accepted us. it was really a reversal of fortunes. >> there is so much more about england. israel has these maccabee games that are like that jewish olympics. you represented in what sport?
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table tennis. ms. peabody: i wanted to play tennis, but there were no facilities. there was a table everywhere, so i played table tennis. it did give me a lot of help because i represented england in the games, after israel was created, it was like jewish olympics. i was happy to do that. >> like i told you at the beginning, we have four hours of stories to share. previous interviews are on our website, you can hear the rest of her story about england, working at the american embassy in israel and you and your husband eventually came to america. i will make a few announcements and we will wrap up.
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i will read the official close. it is our tradition to give the first person the last word. >> stick around and maybe chat with people individually. like i told you, she is one of the authors of echoes of memory. if you are interested, you can have her sign a book in the lobby. you can get to know her a little more. thank you again. go ahead. ms. peabody: i dedicate my story to my mother. this is unbelievable courage and imagination and selflessness saved my sisters and my life. it is important for us survivors to tell our story so that future generations can better understand the horrors that
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befell humanity and particularly the jews during hitler's rampage through europe. volunteering at the museum gives me the opportunity to say thank you to her, my mother, and the best way that i can and pay respects, and remember the 6 million who perished. warren: thank you so much. [applause] [applause] this is americanouncer:
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history tv on c-span3. each week and we feature 48 hours exploring our history and programs past. announcer: this weekend on real america. we look back 75 years to world war ii, when allied forces landed on the mediterranean beaches of france. here's a preview. announcer: as the dark of the night melted into don, the faint outline of other ships could be detected. tense and alert, the men waited at their battle stations. up and the fleet opened the invasion of southern france began. landing craft bearing men, tanks, and ammunition, raced toward their objectives. guarded pt boats van the invasion.
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transports released to their cargoes. some assaults boats or lowered empty into the sea. others were fully loaded. as these landing craft headed for the shore, there could be no turning back. ,he roar of the fighting planes the big guns, and the rockets zipping overhead created a never to be forgotten inferno. of landing craft escorted by destroyers move toward another beach sector. troops began to scramble up the beach. they were prepared for an emmy onslaught. not a single german soldier appeared. -not a not even a luftwaffe sword overhead. announcer: you can watch the entire u.s. army film, invasion of southern france, sunday at 4:00 p.m. eastern on real america. one on american history tv c-span3.
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tv,, on american history michigan state university dagbovierofessor talks about historian carter g woodson, founder of the association for the study of african american life and history. mr. dagbovie is the author of "carter g. woodson in washington, d.c.: the father of black history." we recorded the interview at an author event hosted by the association for the study of african american life and history. mr. dagbovie: carter g woodson is known as the father of black history. he was a black history association-builder. he founded the association for the study of african-american life and history in 1915. when he founded it, it was called the association for the study of negro life and history, and it ran parallel to the mainstream white-run orgati

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