tv National History Day - Dimes over Disease CSPAN October 13, 2019 5:45pm-6:01pm EDT
south dakota to learn about its rich history. to watch more video from rapid city and other stops on the tour, visit c-span.org/citiestour. you're watching american history tv all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. >> this year more than 500,000 students competed in national history day at the local level. just 3,000 students advance to the finals at university of maryland in june. the 2019 theme was triumph tragedy. the categories included exhibits, web sites, documentary, paper, and performance. up next, a 10-minute performance by three middle school students from mills river, north carolina. >> hello. we would like to present our junior group performance. >> dimes over disease. how the tragedy of polio >> and the triumph of public accountability. >> changed how america reacts to infectious disease.
>> infectious disease has caused death and suffering. >> changing the course of human history. these casualties were real people. with real dreams. >> real families. >> and real lives. >> according to a historian, the death toll was 10 million. >> the roman leader calmly responded to the second century outbreak. >> using his personal resources to keep panic from the streets. >> when you arrive in the morning, think of what a privilege it is to be alive. to breathe. to think. to enjoy. to love. >> the bubonic plague. >> unlike the romans, the sufferers of the bubonic plague lacked a strong leader to regulate panic. it has been reappropriated into a symbol of pop culture, including the plague doctor. >> a highly recognizable symbol of fear. >> and even references such as
monty python. >> bring out the dead! >> i'm not dead yet! >> smallpox. >> dating back to the third century b.c. >> found on three mummies. >> a global disease spread through trade routes. >> the wife of the english ambassador documented the process of elation. >> i'm going to till a thing that will make you wish yourself here, the smallpox. so fatal and so general among us, it's homeless, but an invention. tuberculosis. >> descriptions of this disease tended to romanticize it. >> authors like edgar allan poe, emily brone and victor hugo all had characters that suffered from tuberculosis. edgar allan poe wrote -- >> the beautiful lady, how could she die? and of consumption? but it is a path i pray to follow he and i wish that all i love could perish of this gentle disease. >> while taking away from a
plague is appealing, it does not cure the disease. >> leprosy. >> lepers were left to die. until the arrival of father. >> he cared for the sick by teaching them to farm and leading them in work shifts. >> once he contracted the disease, he began the service and would continue to do so until his death. >> typhoid. >> mary, how ice cream killed thousands. >> salmonella is a bacterial disease easily neutralized by the cooking process. unfortunately for mary and her clients -- >> they stung. >> she specialized in the concocting of ice cream. >> mary was immune to this disease, but boy, could she spread it. >> boil it, cook it, peel it or toss it. >> is calmly used used today. >> what have we learned through thousands of years of fighting this?
>> from the plague that we need a strong central threered minimize panic. >> we learned what not to do. >> smallpox. >> we're introduced to the possibility of vaccines and begin to value scientific research. >> tuberculosis. >> we learn that it is dangerous to lessen our fears by making something seem vavenl >> typhoid. >> we are introduced to modern sanitary regulations to begin to tear who >> we learned that prepares our food. >> we learned that those afflicted with still parts. >> humanity has a long-standing struggle against plague, often to no avisme however, polio struck the american population, and the country's response to this tragedy revolutionized the way charities raise money, recruited volunteers, and cared for those afflicted. this is a triumphant example of when tragedy is answered with strength and commitment. >> in the 1930's an effort unfolded. never before outside the military application has a public united to generate such address in addressing a national epidemic.
>> it occurred because of an inspiring leader. >> a will public. >> and a brilliant scientist. >> polio is an infectious disease which invades a person's bhain and spinal cord and causes paralysis. in 1921, i was 39 years old, had been married to my wife for 15 years, had six children, had just lost a bid for vice president, and i contracted polio. >> polio is one of the most feared disease insist the u.s. as the weather warmed up each year, panic over polio intensified. late summer was polio season. pools were shut down. movie theaters urged patrons not too sit too close together. insurance policies started selling policies for newborn. the fear was well grounded. >> suddenly my husband was paralyze would from the waist down. franklin would sit with braces . at first our children were heartbroken, seeing their father in such a vulnerable state. but eventually the perfect with which the children accepted his
limitations helped him in his own acceptance of them. >> those who are fortunate to be in full possession of their muscular powers naturally do not understand what it means to a human being paralyzed by this disease. it means the difference between being dependent on others and being wholly independent. this experience has led me announce the formation of a new foundation, the nfip, national foundation for infantile paralysis. it ensures that every responsible research agency in this country will be financed to carry on investigations into the cause of polio and the methods by which it may be prevented. >> in 1933, a public relations pioneer suggested a nationwide party be held in honor of the president's birthday to raise funds for combating this new epidemic. >> if my birthday may be of any
help. >> the party was on. letters were sent to newspaper publishers across the country asking them to find a leader who would be honored to be appointed director of birthday tpwhall your city. select a ballroom. and manage the expenses soon as that from the seafl each ticket the national committee will receive $1 for the funds. for small towns it was rejected. >> for large cities, union halls for the working class. >> and black tie banquet for the financial elites. >> for all of them, the slogan -- we dance to so that others may walk. on the president's birthday, over parties were staged. 6000 >> and in may that have of that same year a check for $1 million was presented to the president. >> there's long been charities associated with fundraising. but in the realm of american philanthropy, this was a watershed event. overnight the act of giving became a patriotic duty. of the made polio one
country's number one health threats. >> uniquely dangerous on one hand. >> completely defeatable on the other. >> in the 1920's, charitable giving was at a fever pitch. americans bought liberty bonds, raised money for cathedrals and -- procedures and supported the red cross. >> but the great depression changed that. financial gifts were hard to come by. >> a popular entertainer known as the veteran of vaudeville hosted a popular national radio tv show suggested a national foundation begin a new initiative. >> we could called it the march of dimes. >> they called it the march of times. >> ask people to send their dimes directly to the president of the u.s. >> good evening, ladies and gentlemen. this is eddie kanter bringing you the chase and sanborn hour. tonight i would like to speak with you regarding the march of dimes, to allow all people, even the children, to show our president we are all with him in this battle. >> two days after this radio address, the white house supported a modest increase in volume. two days after that she the roof fell in. first 5,000 letters. then 30,000.
then 150,000 letters poured in, all carrying dimes. >> the united states government stopped functioning because we couldn't clear away enough dismse >> the basic strategy remained the same. >> rely on small donations from the masses. >> giving millions of ordinary people a stake in the crusade. by the 1950's in america, polio had become one of the most serious communicable diseases among children in the u.s. in 1952 alone, nearly 60,000 children contracted the disease. thousands were paralyzed, and over 3,000 died. >> the combination of a national leader having a personal experience with polio and a public motivated by zpeer compassion paid a portion final for jonas salk. >> the march of dimes directly funded the work of dr. salk. >> and resulted in the creation of a vaccine. newsman edward r muro famously
asked. who holds the patent on the vaccine? >> the people, i would say. there is no patent. can you patent the sun? >> he gave the formula away for free. the vaccine worked. >> and the american public rejoiced. for thousands of years, plagues have plagued hypothetical. >> and more often than not they got the best of us. >> but in the united states of america in the middle of a crisis that left our children unable to stand. >> to run. >> to jump. >> to walk. >> and we won. >> the tragedy of polio left a sitting u.s. president unable to stand unassisted. >> which led him to found a foundation. >> to inspire the american people to donate time and money. >> which funded research. >> and resulted in a cure. >> and a triumph. [applause] >> tonight at 9:00 eastern in her latest book "tough love" former obama administration
national security advisor susan rice talks about her life and career in diplomacy. she is interviewed by robin wright. you worried about russian intervention in the 2020 election? >> i think this is important for the american people to understand. this has been constant. the were very active involved in 2016 through hacking and stealing emails. to infiltrate our election cycle. they put out false information. they were very active on social media trying to pick americans against each other over domestic issues. .hether it is race, immigration their whole thing is to discredit our democracy. to cause people to hate one another and turn against one another. and to try to weaken us.
atwatch afterwards tonight 9:00 eastern on book tv on c-span [applause] 2. tv productshistory are available at the c-span online store. go to c-span store.org. check out all of the c-span products. monday, on american history tv, supreme court justices ruth and sonya ginsberg sotomayor discussed the first woman to serve on the supreme court, sonya sotomayor. she quoted a minnesota saidme court justice who at the end of the day a wise old woman wille old
reach the same judgment. true.k that his cris growingould have said up female is not the same as growing up male. in could see the difference an opinion justice o'connor .rote was holding against mississippi university for women. this was a man who wanted to become a nurse. in thet nursing school area was mississippi university for women. they challenge the exclusion as
it did not allow for equal protection. the justices, justice powell, looked on the reservation of the nursing as an affirmative action. it was ok. sandra, if you read between the lines, what she is saying is if you want to improve the status of women in nursing is to get women to do the job. pay will inevitably go up. [laughter] that was an insight that she had. school was not a favor to women. former more about supreme court justice sandra day o'connor's judicial impact
monday at noon and 8:00 p.m. eastern. you're watching american history tv on c-span3. >> >> next, on real america, from 1948, operation vittle. short story tells -- short film tells the story of the berlin airlift. ♪ >> 1948. that's when i was assigned to cover berlin again. the city was still occupied and caught up. it had lifted its head and begun the war.