tv Alan Mc Pherson Ghosts of Sheridan Circle CSPAN October 26, 2019 11:11pm-12:01am EDT
pinochet. it is important the residence is there because the residence it self now has a bust of orlando letelier to try to remember him also. around the circle, we have these two memorials to this one man and of course, to ronni moffitt . sheridan circle will be marked event. by this one >> hello, everyone. we can hear everyone. welcome to busboys and poets. my name is olivia. i am the book events coordinator and i'm very excited to welcome alan mcpherson for his book "ghosts of sheridan circle." it was an event that i was not aware of, honestly, and i'm very excited to read about it in this book, and i'm excited for alan to speak about it and have conversations -- to speak about
it. here at busboys, we like to have conversations that others are not having, and this is one of them. i would like to give you an overview. if you have cell phones, please take photos but don't make the flash happen. we are filming tonight, as you can see, and that is distracting. we will have the book for sale. we have them or sale currently. if you want to, i employ you to look through it and have alan sign it. we have a wonderful server who will be here all night, so please take care of her as she will take care of you. i will now turn it on over to alan for the top of "ghosts of sheridan circle" -- for the talk of "ghosts of sheridan circle." dr. mcpherson: thank you very much, olivia. thank you to busboys and poets for hosting this. i want to thank my publisher for putting this together, the few institutions, also, who made
this happen in washington. i'm so happy to be presenting this in washington, which is literally the scene of this crime. the institute for policy studies is very important in letting me interview them and keep the memory of this book alive for 40-plus years. also, the embassy of chile was important. let me begin with the first words from this book. these are the people talking. "isabel, i have a surprise for you. have lunch with me." >> today will be difficult. i have work. but you will love the surprise, orlando letelier insisted. isabel letelier acceded. after all, her husband was a charmer. it was time for orlando letelier to go to work. he had been at a leftist think
platformyears, using a that undermined the ironfisted dictator who had overthrown the government of president salvador day ---- salvador in president salvador allende. now, hevate citizen exposed pinochet's human rights atrocities, incited boycotts, and discouraged investment. two of his colleagues happen to ride with him that day. michael and ronni moffitt, both 25, recently married. they waited while he showered and dressed and rushed out the door. isabel barely had time to kiss him goodbye. orlando took the wheel of his 1975 chevelle malibu classic. opened the- michael front passenger door for ronni and plopped himself in the backseat. in less than an hour, orlando
and ronni would be dead. michael would be traumatized for life. this is the actual car after the bombing. i never learned what the surprise was, isabel recalled when i interviewed her over 40 years after the event. to this day, the killing of orlando letelier and ronni moffitt remains the only assassination of a foreign diplomat on u.s. soil and also the only state sponsored assassination in washington. the letelier-moffitt assassinations constituted the most brazen act of international terrorism ever committed in the united states. the only state sponsored such act and the only car bomb. the two decades long resolution of the case would hold implications for chile, the united states, terrorism, human rights, and the state of democracy everywhere. my book literally argues it was crucial in taking down the
entire pinochet government, but today, i want to explore a subtheme of the book. fascism on one side and human rights on the other that clash and outlive the capitalist communist ideological struggle of the cold war. these forces are still with us today, and letelier's assassination brought them into open conflict. on the cover, you have -- you have the car on the bottom, but on the top, you have orlando letelier on the right and ronni moffitt on the left. the order to assassinate letelier was not simply an overreaction by a communist regime, although it was that. it was also rooted in the fascism that lurked inside postwar political culture. in chile, that fascism partly came from germany. southern chile in the 19th century attracted 30,000 settlers from the german states. a military mission from prussia
resulted in the gray uniforms and goose-stepping of the daunting chilean army. in the 20th century, the mostly fair skinned well-to-do germans filled the ranks of far right parties. they cheered and marched when hiller came to power. the nazis of chile boasted 60,000 members, electing three to the national legislature. they attempted a failed putsch in santiago. throughout, not only did they tenants but also added their own. the tradition of catholicism, a rejection of empires, and the
championing of latin american unity made this among the most in latintalitarianisms america. on the right,men was the head of the secret police who gave the order to kill letelier. after world war ii, he admired spanish dictator francisco franco. when pinochet and his allies -- aed out their plan colonel, contrary is no answer to no general, minister, or judge, only to pinochet. he dominated all other intelligence agencies.
if 9000 300 employees could rate homes and jail suspects without charges, and it's 20,000 to 30,000 informants spread fear throughout other chilean government agencies. it's logo featuring an iron glove, he was responsible for about 1200 of the 3200 excuse and xander pinochet. andassociation between he fascism were legion. it was alleged that if employees of rhone ande use ancient germanic alchemy and the celebration of solstices and equinoxes to revive nazi-ism. members addressed each other as pharaohs, priests, and slaves, denoting their status within the hierarchy. contrary is even allied with ofmer nazi paul schaefer colony of dignity and for me. the u.s. department of defense compared dena to hitler's gestapo.
franco supporters lined up on the avenue from the airport and chileans' motorcade the stiff armed fascist salute. in my book, i call contrary rest aresontrary rest -- contre the hitler's of the andes. there and in other detention centers he would remain for a year, never charged with a crime, psychologically tortured and they until the venezuelan government obtained his freedom. washis relief, letelier told in no uncertain words general pinochet will not and does not tolerate any activity
against his government. still, letelier ended up working against pinochet in washington. his work coincided with a golden age of human rights activism in the 1990's. more than 200 groups in the united states worked on human rights. over 50 lobbied congress and about 15 concentrated on latin america. thel rights icon became first assistant for democracy, human rights, and labor under the jimmy carter administration. just a few months after the letelier assassination, mark schneider, who had worked for kennedy in massachusetts on several issues. in congress, representative don fraser chaired the first congressional hearings on human rights in 1970 three. helping him were among others harrington,michael all democrats. on china, congress's greatest achievement was the 1975 harken
amendment, which cut off aid to any government that grossly violated human rights. unless the president determine such aid would directly benefit the needy. the following year, teddy chiley directly targeted . one chilean magazine called kennedy the most angers for an adversary of the pinochet regime. ronni andhelped by michael moffitt, worked for one of the most influential human rights oak and a station's in the country. he talked with american universities, he lunched with senators. angela davis once came to his house. joan baez was his friend. he became a unifier for chilean exiles numbering in the hundreds of thousands worldwide. he also convinced dockworker federations to boycott the handling of chilean goods and
therefore won the cancellation of a plan 62 million dollar mining investment in chile. these two things seem to have convinced pinochet to order letelier's assassination. from 1975 to 1983, contrary rest allies --s and his henry kissinger became an expert. letelier one month beforeletelier -- one month before letelier was killed, assinger's office prepared report demonstrating washington's deep concern over their plan for the assassination of subversives in prominent figures both within the national border of certain southern countries and abroad. in other words, the state department was supposed to tell south american dictators not to kill people outside of south america, but for one month, none of the ambassadors who received
this cable from washington did anything about it. usually you're given an order, you do it. the ambassador to europe feared for his life if he wagged his finger at the generals. the envoy to chilly -- to chile feared pinochet might well take as an insult he was connected to any assassination plots. five days before the letelier assassination, kissinger ordered no further action be taken on the matter. back in chile in the same summer eras entrusted the and americaner, chilean explosive expert. this is michael townley with his wife. during the allende years, he worked with shock troops called fatherland and freedom.
they received training in coding and code breaking, weapons handling, explosives, martial arts, nunchucks. later, paolo rodriguez would regularly line of his troops, as he called them, and review them with his right arm crossed against his chest -- remember, these are teenagers, not soldiers. they wore black uniforms and white armbands indoor -- adorned with a swastika-like emblem. hitler's brownshirts would have approved. called followers fatherland and freedom a bunch of fascists. turns out they were correct. in fall 1970, kissinger requested and received $38,000 for support of this fascist organization. others in the group admitted receiving no funds and added that an extra $5,000 per month filtered in.
back to townley, the bomb maker. the rhetoric and the actions of fatherland and freedom and started making bombs for them. "the masses are not ready to govern themselves," he said. "democracy leads only to government ruled by the herd. power should be reserved by the few, the intellectuals." in the united states, townley connected with about five cuban-americans, also proto-fascists. they called themselves the cuban nationalist movement, headquartered in a new jersey byly cuban iced -- cubanized fidel castro's revolution. here's a picture of a few of them in their headquarters in new jersey along with their logo , which has the island of cuba with a number three, which means not communist, not capitalism, , whichhird way
essentially meant violence against cuba. eras, these cuban-americans had decided to kill opponents throughout the world. between 1970 four and 1976, u.s. authorities tied 202 major bombings in 22 countries to cuban exiles. one every five days on average and 113 of them in the united states. in 1970 four, cuban exiles 5% of allfor 40 terrorist bombings on the planet -- in 1974. the cuban nationalist movement motto cuba before all. pamphlets outline and ideology similar tolism
hitler's. one of these cubans once asked michael townley and his wife during a dinner, what do you think about the world jewish conspiracy? remember, they are trying to fight communism. townley's says, i beg your pardon, what? the jewish conspiracy, he repeats. >> it seems to me, she told him, you got sidetracked on purpose. fidel castro is too difficult to target. naturally, it is easier to fight the jews than the cubans. still, these cuban-americans help townley build a car bomb 'sd install it under letelier car. when cuban drove behind him while another pushed the button on the detonator. for washington, the challenge the assassinated -- the
challenge the assassination posed was enabling fascism to infiltrate the chilean government. those such as teddy kennedy, who champion human rights, and the vast majority in the middle who needed the car bombing to prompt them to care enough. early on, mainstream u.s. observers tended towards absolving the chilean regime. the new york times editor concluded it is hard to believe that even as ham-handed a regime as chile's would order the murder of an opponent as mr. letelier in the united states. the national security council admitted that right wing chileans are the obvious tooidates and could be obvious. thankfully, the investigation was not up to them. it was the job of the fbi and attorney general's office. the amendment were anti-communist but also gifted technocrats, dedicated to
solving the murder wherever it took them. for almost 18 months, the fbi had no solid lead on this case. it had heard of a mysterious gringo among chileans but had no name. turns out it was michael townley. fromd heard rumors cuban-americans, a grand jury mumoena them, but they kept , and the investigation kept getting threats, just as orlando and isabel had before the assassination. on october 4, an unknown male aunt.d orlando's fbi will nothe help you. your legs will be spread in washington, d.c., just like orlando's." in november, a flight attendant about to join her crew was
standing at kennedy airport rifling through her purse for her keys. suddenly, a man grabbed her arm her around. "you tell your little friend ng nose out of our business or you won't be so pretty anymore. boom boom. you know what i mean?" if they can do this and get away with it under the nose of the cia and fbi, said president-elect jimmy carter, then no president can govern. he was talking about the letelier assassination. hand, such a brazen attack was unacceptable making the united states look unable to police its own borders. they made the cold war seem out of control. on the other hand, foreign policymakers were careful about
pushing a cold war ally too hard. a u.s. political officer in chile explained they are not against facial in government -- against a chilean government but against the abuse and terrorism performed in its name. it was offered up to regular to pressure carter officials against the chileans. townley froml chile, which prove success will, ,nd second, expedite contreras which proved a failure. part of his determination to get to the bottom of the crime. pinochet nodded and promised cooperation, but my book reveals how behind the scenes, the dictator orchestrated a cover-up. , therefore, moffitt
being the widow and woodwork, were aghast. moffitt asked at a press conference, if carter is serious about human rights, why doesn't he welcome isabel and me like he welcomes pinochet? all,nski did not help at letelier told me. we could never get through to him, never. she remembered this in her late 80's. newspapers local cover her, as did local radio and television. this is the human rights network. when the right wing media in the u.s. tried to smear orlando as a tool of fidel castro, isabel debunked their lives. the dam finally burst when in march 1978, investigators published photos of the two men whose name they ignored, but whom they accused of being
involved. they have their passport photos but not the names. they just knew these men had come to washington during the assassination or at least before it. within days, chileans identified townley and his friend, armando fernandez, as the two men from chile who were in the united states during the assassination. was he a hippie, a jew? the americans saw no trace of a chilean manhunt for townley. they were certain that instead, chileans were prevaricating while hiding townley. there were also consummate professionals among the diplomats. u.s. ambassador george landau, for instance, a man who had been meeting with the chilean foreign minister. he dropped all the diplomatic politics he had practiced throughout his career and
threatened that if townley was not made to answer the u.s. government's questions, all u.s. activity with chile would be in danger. "friendly, i don't believe your people are trying very hard," landau said, which is a rare thing for an ambassador to say. shortly after, the 15th floor of the building out of which he ruled, pinochet's political team that, setting out its task keeping townley in chile. suddenly, the french doors to the meeting room swung open, and in walked pinochet himself. the dictator rarely did -- rarely descended below his 22nd floor. mindse continue, don't me," the strongman said to his advisers while he paced behind their chairs. then, of course, he interrupted. "we were doing so well, then this. this is a banana peel. we step on it, the government
will fall. we will fall." seemed to anxiety change the momentum of the meeting. talk of avoiding townley's expulsion switched to handing him over to the americans. within weeks, therefore, townley was spilling all the chilean secrets. he is likely now still living in the witness protection program. three cuban-americans were also tried, but there guilty verdicts were soon after thrown out on technicalities. the champions of human rights had won a limited victory, but pinochet remained in power and contreras, though demoted, remained free. the chilean court refused to extradite him, espinoza, and fernando, three chileans who were directly involved. my book is the first to recount what happened over the next 15 years. after about 1980, the story shifted to chile, where fascist and human rights champions again
remain. and her family technically kept the legal case alive but held out little hope of an actual trial while pinochet was in power. in the u.s., the reagan government repealed carter's already weak sanctions. democrats in congress force the executives to "certify" that charlotte was making progress on the case in order to allow military to military relations, so it's the democrats in congress who forced reagan to be tough on pinochet. it took a few breaks in the late 19 80's and early 1990's to reinvigorate the case in chile. the first break was a defection in 1987 of armando fernandez, the other guy in the passport photos. inhad surveilled letelier washington, had not committed a particularly serious crime. for the first time, americans are the details about pinochet's
orchestration of the cover-up. onlyndez ended up spending 21 months in chilean hospitals in u.s. prisons, but it was the first conviction of a chilean military man in u.s. courts. it also seems to have led the cia to new clues that pinochet not only covered up the crime but also ordered the hit, and this is a conclusion that only came to light in 2015. in 1990, another defection of sorts confirmed fernandez's story. a former dancer had accompanied fernandez to washington to act as his wife under the pseudonym liliana walker. she had disappeared from everyone's radar and spent much of the 1980's suffering from debilitating alcoholism, drug addiction, and schizophrenia. on april 17, 1990, chileans awoke to a dramatic front-page
headline -- "i am really on a walker," declared accompanied by a 1976 passport photo. an intrepid journalist have found her living at her parent'' house. at this point, the reagan and bush governments had turned against in o'shea. the democratic opposition led the way. the press felt free to criticize the regime and as a result, pinochet lost a referendum. in early 1990, a new democratic government was in power. because of the confessions, the letelier case could be reopened in chilean court because there was new evidence. they found contrary rest and espinoza guilty three years later. spent the rest of his life in detention until he died in 2015. espinoza is still in prison. affair stands as one of the most consequential assassinations of the cold war. in chile, the quest for justice
brought about the dissolution of defanged thetually country's amnesty laws. it forced the government to put pressure on the dictatorship. contrary rest and espinoza --contreras and espinoza were the first of pinochet's military officers to go to prison. the case sparked a movement that has adjudicated more than 1000 abuses of human rights violations in chile alone. the story also demonstrates the transnational power of human rights. thecivil case represented first wrongful death case ever brought in the united states against a foreign nation, and it culminated in a payment of millions of dollars to the in thers and moffitts 1990's. it also broke down walls
separating domestic and international terrorism. blending human rights and counterterrorism advances, the case produced additional firsts -- the first deal against extradition when the united states had an extradition treaty with another country, the first charges ever filed in the american legal system against cuban-american terrorists, the first conviction of a chilean american in american legal court . in civil court, the case became the first filed under the foreign sovereign immunities act that dealt with terrorism. a 1996, it led to a law that strict immunity from a foreign state when damages were sought against specific terrorism acts. diplomat, "the letelier assassination was one of the most stupid things done by any government."
that is true. it took decades, but there monstrous actions backfired. the result of a movement of human rights activists who correctly identified the fascist core of the pinochet regime. thank you very much. [applause] olivia: we can take some questions from the audience. i have a wireless microphone i can walk around with. if anyone has questions, just raise your hand. >> [inaudible] could you talk a little bit about the research you did for the book? dr. mcpherson: i'm happy. >> [inaudible]
dr. mcpherson: right. well, i did research on three continents. north america, latin america, and europe. this, it was about 2014, and i thought all the , right?s were out i'd better go find them. i realized while i was at this amazing archive, while i was doing research there, i realized shortly after that we were not done declassified materials, so new d classifications came out in 2015 and 2016. among those, as i mentioned in cia documents the that basically concluded that pinochet not only covered up the crime but also ordered the hit. up to that point, this had only something that everybody
knew was true but nobody had any evidence. the cia said, we are concluding this, so it has become an official finding of the letelier assassination. i found great documents at the .nstitute of policy studies onlyhe archives of not letelier who worked there, but his colleagues and his widow. she he was killed, essentially took over his job and there were several psychological follow-through's on how this had traumatized her, traumatized michael moffitt, traumatized their children. she and orlando had four teenage sons when this happened. those are amazing documents that allow you to follow the story in human wayay and in a how people were traumatized for
decades after this. in chile, i found the documents of the letelier family itself. i had not been in the archive for very long. i'm not sure a lot of people have worked on them, but they are amazing letters. notably letters that letelier and his wife wrote to each other when he was in that concentration camp in patagonia, losing 30, 50 pounds, and they were sending love letters to each other, and his kids are sending letters, and you have to realize these are teenage boys, and they are sending letters to their father who is in a concentration camp and he could die at any time, and is nothing they can do about it. i interviewed her in santiago. i interviewed two of her kids who are now in their late 50's living in the united states. i interviewed a bunch of other people who were connected to the case in some way. it has been a fascinating research adventure.
>> [inaudible] dr. mcpherson: sure, i'm glad to. the question was about the reaction of the u.s. government in the first few days after the car bombing. remember, this happens during the ford administration. stillkissinger is .ecretary of state carter will be elected about a month and a half in the future, but there is an election going on, so the response -- i mean, we have no real response that has been recorded, but we have internal documents from the department of defense, department of state, and the general stance is that pinochet
-- dina probably did this, but it seems too obvious, right? they're looking at all the options. the options include not just dina, but it could be a rogue force within the government or paramilitary force. it could also be -- this is something many people think or are trying to spread that it could be the extreme left. it could be these leftist guerrillas organizing violently against pinochet. the government glommed onto this explanation. they say of course this must be what it is. orcannot possibly be dina this righteous anti-communist government. it has to be these extreme communists, and they want to make it look like it's us, so inside the u.s. government, you immediately have, you know, a bit of a tug-of-war. you have people saying this, but you also have people going, it
might be the extreme left, but it's probably pinochet. he has the means and motivation to do this sort of thing. also, there's a tug-of-war between the fbi and cia. they don't particularly get along at this point. the cia has done a lot of dirty work in south america and been allied with most of these governments, and it has essentially given the green light so these governments can do what they wanted terms of human rights and it will not stop them. the fbi does not really work abroad. partly it has some folks abroad, but it mostly takes care of crimes in the united states. it thing it does is immediately takes this crime away from the washington, d.c., police. we are a little afraid of what the cia will do with this. if we ask them to contact their chilean operatives, not only could they burn bridges, but they will give them some of our
information, so we don't want to waste our information or lose our information through the cia because they don't really trust the motivations of the cia. cia wants to win the cold war, where the fbi wants to solve this crime. the cia is much more ideological . there is immediately a tug-of-war, but clearly, the provocative is that of the fbi and the department of justice. is that ofogative the fbi and the department of justice. >> early in your talk, you mentioned refund of money from the cia that went through henry kissinger. can you expand on what happened with those funds at all? dr. mcpherson: sure, yes. i'm not sure exactly what happened to it. it was not a lot of money, right? we are talking tens of thousands
of dollars, and i'm sure it's not the only money that this guysization had, but these were not only fascist in their ideology, they were essentially terrorists. they were youth shock troops which means they were mostly college students, high school students, and they were organizing during the three years of the linda -- of the allende regime. so you have a marxist president trying to run the country and he's having some problems, and some come from these groups who are marching in the streets but also setting off bombs here and there, and they are trying to prepare a coup, so they are hoping that a pinochet-like coup will occur and they're trying to make it happen by creating chaos in the street. they will bomb an electric power station, so they have to turn off the power and all of santiago, and they will blame it
for they -- on allende government. maybe the money went to publications or radio programs and that sort of thing, but maybe it did go to this real , andof subversive activity that is pretty revealing that our government would do that sort of thing, but that is more or less what the cia did through lots of people in south america. they did not do it themselves, but they gave money and said, look, you are freedom fighters. you can do whatever you want with this money. in hispinochet later life ultimately ever have to face or answer for this crime? dr. mcpherson: did pinochet answer for this crime? that is a good question and it's dealt with mostly in the epilogue of the book. the epilogue goes from 1995 when contreras and espinoza are found guilty and go to jail, to
essentially 2018. the quick answer is no. pinochet never had to answer for this crime, although if you know the story of pinochet, you know that in 1998, he does have to start answering for other crimes, right? he goes to london, and the spanish essentially try to extradite him for crimes against spaniards, and this starts this whole process. he is eventually sent back to chile, but at this point, the courts of chile have really turned around and they put him on the docket and accuse him of all these crimes, and he dies before he is ever found guilty of any of them. a number of his crimes, but it is interesting that in the early 1990's, while controversy is being accused of these things -- and he's appearing on tv all the time -- he starts mildly accusing pinochet of actually being the order. gave them the
he never says the words pinochet ,id it, but he says things like "everything i did, i did because it."fe told me to do at some point, they even have a shouting match against this. pinochet saying, "no, i just gave you general directions to deal with subversives. i did not tell you to kill anyone." it is not absolutely clear from those conversations and shouting matches what contreras really meant. his ex nation for this particular crime was always the same. until he died, he said the cia did it, and michael townley was an agent of the cia because that is a lie that anyone in south america would believe either on the left or on the right. they would believe the cia is able to do the sorts of things,
and of course, it is able to do it, and townley is an american, so it seems to make sense. >> i have one last question. i just wanted to know what your personal connection to the story drove you wanting to explain more from 1995 to last year. dr. mcpherson: i have no deep personal connection to the story, although chile is one of the first countries i traveled to when i was exploring in my early 20's, soy spent a few months in the country, traveled to the north and south and loved it. it was during the first years when chilean democracy came back -- pinochet was gone, but i remember hearing about the colony of dignity, which was this concentration camp in the south of chile that was completely private, but now we know that contrary was prisoner
there to get tortured. there was a movie about this that came out a couple of years ago. in fact, several movies have come out about this. emotionalof had this connection generally speaking to chile and its people. i've had good friends come from there, and when i started isearch on the next project, was interested in reagan and latin america in the 1980's and i read a pretty academic book about reagan and pinochet. it's a very good academic book, and partly, it made me realize that this story had not the ledger byf the reagan administration. i thought once they captured townley in 1978, it is essentially over, but it wasn't. it remained a real bonus contention, so intellectually, i got interested in why and how it couldn't remain such a bone of contention. it's just an assassination.
how could it completely change the dynamics of these two really close cold war allies so as to really fracture those relations by the 1980's? once you start reading about their lives, which are really kind of exposed in this book, you really get a sense of who these people are. you really get attached to them and care about what happens to them and their families. thank you very much. [applause] thank you so much, alan, and thank you all for being here. like i said, "ghosts of sheridan circle" is on sale at all of our locations, so i employ you to take a look at it if you haven't already. thanks for coming. have a great night, everybody. tvthis is american history on c-span3, where each weekend
we feature 48 hours of programs exploring our nation's past. american history tv is looking back 40 years to november 1979, when a number of iranian students seized the u.s. embassy in tehran and took 56 american hostages. this weekend, a former u.s. foreign service officer talks about his time as a hostage in iran. here's a preview. joined the ever foreign service, i had lived in iran as a teacher, as a
researcher. my wife was iranian -- or is iranian. so i thought i knew the country fairly well. i went there as a diplomat in -- 1979. 1970 that was about six months after the fall of the shah. as some may remember, it was also about two and a half months before president carter decided to admit the deposed shah and two weeks after that, a group of iranian militants, young people, .tormed the embassy that's where the story starts. at the time, we all thought this something vaguely like a student sit in, that this would last a day, that it would last
48 hours, and that the adults in the room would eventually get together and straighten it all out. became 2, 2 became a week, a month, and clearly that was not going to happen. more on sunday at 6:00 p.m. eastern. it is an interview recorded by the association for diplomatic studies and training. you are watching american history tv. >> monday night on the communicators. >> when it comes to facebook, the ftc recently find the company. how did you come up with $5 billion, and where does that money go? >> the money goes to the u.s. treasury. in terms of the monetary funds -- monetary fine, it's only one obtainof the release we
from facebook, the $5 billion penalty that also brought relief in the way in which facebook can handle consumer data going forward. our interview with the ftc commissioner monday night at 8:00 p.m. eastern on the communicators on c-span2. next on lectures in history. university of colorado denver professor teaches a class about the 1981 jean harris trier. who is accused of murdering the scarsdale diet doctor. professor fields describes ms. harris's background, prolonged relationship and her conviction for the doctors murder.