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tv   American Artifacts Votes for Women Exhibit Part 2  CSPAN  November 17, 2019 6:00pm-6:35pm EST

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that is c-span.org/history. >> follow the house impeachment >> follow the house impeachment inquiry on c-span. time pride -- prime re-airs or stream any time on c-span.org. >> next, a visit to the smithsonian's national portrait gallery. it is the second of a two-part program. a historian gave american history tv a guided tour about the exhibit marking the centennial of the 19th amendment, using political cartoons and images of suffragists picketing the white house, she explores the party tactics. a >> i'm the curator of votes
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for women. what weding in front of call our title treatment. it is a large blowup of a german born actress. the allegorical figure that represents the united states during the conclusion of the parade in washington, d.c.. that's just one event of the long suffrage movement this exhibition highlights. objects of this long history bringing it right up to 1920. amendment.e 19th
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i took the exhibition up to the voting rights act of 1965. to explore the 1913 parade more in depth. we are standing in front of the photo postcards of the 19th 13 parade. completely different tactic than what had been done before with other suffragists. after spending some time in britain she basically got sat -- got radicalized by the suffragists. back to the united organized withn
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the congressional union this parade. 8000 suffragists marked -- marched down the capital, down pennsylvania avenue. the treasury building had this pageant. suffragists had to make their way through 500 thousand spectators. one of the problems of this parade is it did not have police the chief wasause not a friend of suffragists. instead the secretary of war who is part of the presidential cabinet put what we would think
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of as the national guard on nearby fort myers virginia. became unruly, that's when they literally called in the cavalry from and had that group serve as the protectors of the suffragists. becauseuite dramatic suffragists were not expecting , but they didwds abate president wilson, because the next day for his inaugural speech as his first term as president, and nobody showed up. he asked where is everybody, and he was told the spectators had come out because he was
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gorgeous. you can see this is one of four existing programs that remain. there's the arts figures in this purple robe, which is the color of royalty, and she is walking down in front of the capital, presumably pennsylvania avenue, with a banner that says votes for women. i mentioned to alice, who had been radicalized by the british movement, she had brought those tactics back to the united states. she has broken off from the national american women suffragists association.
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she's employing more of these attention grabbing tactics, as well as creating a digital culture. he was actually employed by the container corporation of america, but he was married to a suffragist. that was a connection that the husbands and these women out there, advocating being active for the cause of having a political voice, they were doing their best to support women. he incorporated the double-headed acts and a winged and it is illustrating the defined messenger. double-headed act's symbolizing the mother goddess.
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it's different way suffragist , by reachingicate back to ancient civilizations. not women in america society as well? nina was an illustrator and an artist who made over 200 .llustrations like this one he worked to help the suffrage caused by creating depictions of women at work advocating for the cause. they were then published in the suffragette -- published in a magazine newspaper that the party produced for years and years. woman whoe this young is very much educating herself by reading a book called
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campaign textbooks. she has an embroidered shirt on with her hair up, well done. she is wearing nice shoes. she is sitting in front of her desk crowded with books. votersks are a list of and it is all specific to the map of his district. all of this is to's -- two example if i how this suffragists are lobbying. and the group who understands what lobbying was and what it entails and how it will gain power through convincing their representatives legislators legislators whatevs district was.
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they were really interested in the federal amendment. they were not asking the state by state change there's instead. and then when you convince your fellow legislators to ratify it, one goes out for two thirds of the ratification if necessary. figure in thet suffrage movement because we helped to popularize it. educated at the school of art in the philadelphia academy of fine art. we are excited to get some of these objects on the wall in the exhibition, to make sure that we understand the day how the suffrage movement was being own air of the 19
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teens. alice try to do something even more drastic then marching down pennsylvania avenue, and that was picket the white house. the first groups of picketers that were nonviolent. and basically declared there are terms, theypersonal would carry banner saying, what would you do for women's suffrage question mark the president, woodrow wilson, had carried out to terms and he did not endorse the suffrage because until 1919. at this point we are 1915.
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in 1917 they are picketing the white house. every day they would send -- stand outside the white house and hold the silent sentinel. they would leave the headquarters in front of the white house. on the others was the headquarters and they would leave their headquarters with banners in hand carrying colors theurple, white and gold national women's party around 1913. that is what they did for two years. you can see there is college women, wearing the banners of which college they went to.
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which college women would protest or different state delegations would protest or even working women would protest. working women only had one day off a week from work. that was on a sunday. they couldn't protest unless it was a sunday. you see the title cover of the maryland suffrage news depicts a woman who was white, who was a has been working for more than eight hours today, which are normal working hours but regulated by federal law. working women felt they were abused and there was no law that protect them.
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the lustration was made by mary aim that one of the many suffrage chapters of the united states. the suffragists were eventually arrested. pathic.e arrested for all the spectators -- for traffic. all the spectators were obstructing traffic. you can see this portrait of these two women, the policeman holding their banner. the women were most likely not and theypay their fine
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were going to be sentenced to jail in the d.c. jail. i find interesting is they are very well dressed because the women that were picketing are from an elite wealthy background, the majority of them. there were working women that would help ticket on sundays. there were no african-americans there were are part of this movement, this effort because alice paul did not include them. it meant that they were at a higher risk than the privileged white women were at. there is a balance they were striking at this point in time.
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in the top photo you can see lucy brenner. paul, protesting alice who had an in present -- had been in prison, that the government gives the other suffrage prisoners the privileges of the american privilege -- american political prisoner. the american government did not treat the suffragist as political prisoners, they treated the suffragists as criminals. was a poorthere fool, there were no privileges given to the suffragists when they were in prison. the suffragist immediately picked up on that and created banners that spoke to that to point out that the russian a politicalave
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activist those privileges. so why didn't the american government do the same for other political activists in the united states is the question? see another beautiful drawing. the women are getting grabbed and assaulted by angry men to like getting that moment to training for the draft. the united states entered world war i. this is a major moment for suffrage because the suffragists were able to say they were able to do all this effort in the home front and they were serving as nurses and doctors over in the red cross. and getting involved directly.
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why couldn't they have a political voice if they were giving up their lives for the united states? the suffragists are carrying .anners are attackingn these white women carrying the banners. cotton foriece of obstructing traffic. they decided to create their own, buoyed her to signature. it was a record or witness or testimony to the fact that they were there and this happens to them.
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you have two photographs. paul,s also with alice one of the leaders of this military suffrage movement. here you see the arrest of the suffragists, they are being put cartede police wagon and off to get sentenced to jail. from 1917 through the end of 1919, the suffragists led by alice paul continue to picket outside of the white house. imagesnterested to see of the suffragists up close and personal. i wanted to emphasize these were individuals with their own lives spending their time, which we know is precious on this
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important cause. the video behind me is playing through images of them picketing. they kept up the pressure. spectacle, ihe think the suffragists finally see the kind of momentum they were searching for throughout the entire movement. the pressure was so much that he finally endorsed the cause. on may 21 of 1919, the amendment that was proposed at lee past the house of representatives and past the senate in june for 1919. the amendment was sent out to the state ticket two thirds of them to sign off on ratifying,
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which would then become law. of the exhibition covers the militant suffragists, explains why they were doing what they were doing. the we are going to look at 19th amendment, see what it says and see when political voices change after being granted the right to vote, and which women didn't have the right to vote and what they did about that. rightomen finally got the to vote then they had a political voice. themrent parties recruited in different ways. coolidge running for vice president. the republican party tickets in november of 1920. women for your own good, vote republican ticket.
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they are producing all this kind of recruitment basically published info. also material-- culture. clearly it was engaging as the new female voter. and then on the piece of paper where the ribbon was sold, it says souvenir of this greatest event of my life. act ofally dramatize the voting. for some women this was the greatest event of their life. it meant they achieved the first step toward equality.
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gaining a more democratic experience as a citizen of the united states through the voting right they have achieved. in the concluding gallery of this exhibition, i wanted to point out the text of the 19th amendment and what it says and doesn't say. it reads the right of citizens of the united states to vote shall not be denied by the united states or by any state on of sex. when you think about the wording of the 19th amendment, nowhere does it say, "guaranteed the right to vote." a big difference in achieving the right to vote for everybody.
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what we think the 19th amendment did and the reality of what it did. in this moment states can still find ways through which to disenfranchise voters. into our contemporary moment 2019 there are states and laws out there seeking disenfranchised voters. they are still contending with the wording of this 19th amendment because it is not as specific as we would like it to be. it wouldn't be until the voting rights act of 1965 that things became crystal clear. and that people had the right to vote and guaranteed the right to vote and not be discriminated against based upon their race. i'm standing in front of a portrait, who, like other native
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americans, was forced to attend carlisle boarding school, which created assimilation of native by not allowing them to have -- not allowing them to speak their languages. result she became bilingual. she understood the culture of shenative tribe and also andable to bridge the gap talk with white leaders. as a result she was able to find this society of the american in the end. society an activists that really promoted equal rights for native americans.
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it was a long and lonely road. this is four years after the 19th amendment up sensibly granted citizens the right to vote. that does not apply to native americans. ever since, native americans continue to fight for their cota, including in north when voter enfranchisement laws actually made it so you cannot vote unless you have a physical address. lots of native americans living on reservation. they are not allowed to vote under these current laws. i wanted to point out also
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citizens of the united states who include citizens of puerto rico, we are looking at a made in 1992. quite elderly at this time. been elected as the first female governor of san juan. suffragist and a actually advocating for the in residing in puerto rico. trying to advocate for untilge and it wasn't 1935 that women across puerto women weren't -- were given the right to vote.
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which she held for many terms through 1968. she's not the only suffragist from puerto rico. we don't have a portrait of her. we couldn't get one in time for this exhibition. this is a portrait from our own collection we were able to use to represent populations in the united states. you ay i'm showing of someone who is active for native american rights, and she was the expert witness when there was a civil .ights case in 1879
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he was able to help the native americans choose where to live. and had been moved left right all over the place. in this case she was actually the to help make into law rights of native americans to choose. this is another example of an activist who is not single issue focused only on suffrage, but working on other ways to help women lives and rights of women in the native community. -- who had that one it -- who didn't have that one issue they were working towards, but lots of issues.
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portrait ofng at a a great activist, especially in the 1964 democratic convention. she gave a speech that galvanized the american public, because it was televised. she said i'm sick and tired of being sick and tired. she was alluding to her long as anle to have a life african-american citizen in the united states. attempted toad vote in the early 50's. as a young woman she had to give up going to school in order to help her family. this is one example of an
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activist whose words are spoken from the heart. this unmeasurable success in influencing the american public at large because her speech was televised. the voting rights act was signed in 1965, in part because of that convention. it was signed by president lyndon b. johnson. this is a later portrait, she also had been working on the voting rights act. she also seen and witnessed the infringement of her citizenship right. legacy as the voting rights act but also title ix. thewent on to help design
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architect of the title ix amendment, which is basically the equal opportunity education act. a lot of us women have benefited from. these figures help to take the 1965 and beyond. and how these activists really influenced american law. i'm so excited to have told you a little about this exhibition. it included this long hallway and was really covering the time also1832 through 1920, pointing to the events that happened after. through the portraits of these women, what i'm hoping people come away with is that these
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women were empowering themselves and help to empower us today. pastwere looking at the and what had not been done. to change the unites states constitution. example toet the take our voting rights and to ensure they remain sacred and they remain unquestioned and safeguarded for eternity, for american citizens. not only are you learning history, but hope you are feeling empowered yourself. >> this was the second of a two-part tour of the national portrait gallery's vote for women exhibit, marking the centennial of the 19th amendment. you can watch this and other american artifacts programs by visiting our website at c-span.org/history.
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