tv Politics Public Policy Today CSPAN May 27, 2013 10:30pm-2:01am EDT
lady? >> she changed it in terms of putting education in the forefront. care of children. she was very concerned about them. inwhere would you put her the pantheon of first ladies? >> she's the first national celebrity first lady. i think we're talking about the development of of our understanding of the institution of first lady. she is the first one in which we didn't think about what the uses are all the celebrity, and good ways and bad ways. the first family was owned by the american public. we talked about how that could be a positive tool for the presidency. if only grover cleveland could have seen that. >> thanks to both of you. thanks to our viewers for your participation.
daughters of the american revolution. you can see it live next monday night at 9:00 eastern. on c-span3 and c-span radio. find out more about america's first ladies on our website, with videos and biographies. the firstbook about ladies published by c-span and the white house historical association. get your copy. >> c-span, created by america's cable companies in 1979. brought to you as a public service by your television providers. >> on this memorial day, the president visited arlington national cemetery. he honored the country's fallen
presidents be upon us in this day. we as a nation come together on this hollowed ground to honor the brave men for this who gave nation's freedom. it is because of your uncommon valves that we can stand here this day without fear and resignation knowing that that we can share a laugh sting piece -- a lasting peace. lord, let us never forget those who gave the ultimate sacrifice therefore, we continue. those who died for our country in war those who and died for our country in war and remembering too that this gift of peace often comes from long struggles, the kind of peace that is bound from the blood of heroes, brave men and women who answered the
call, saying send me. brave men and women who witnessed the crucible of war and failed to come home. let us know celebrate this peace and long for an everlasting peace that can come only from you onlygod. lord help us to recommit on our own lives so the service of our great nation, carrying the torch of freedom for generations yet to come. we, your people, give you thanks. amen. and amen. >> please join the united states air force band and the senior master sgt in singing our national anthem. ♪> drumroll.
["national anthem" being sung] ? >> whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the over the ramparts we watched that were so gallantly streaming. .nd the rockets red glare the bombs bursting in air. gave proof through the night that our flag was still there. does that star-spangled banner yet wave? --r the land of the home
over the land of the free, and the home of the brave? [applause] >> please be seated. >> les angelyn, general dempsey ladies and gentlemen, general dempsey. >> mr. president, members of congress, distinguished guests, veterans, fellow americans, and most especially the families of our missing and fallen warriors. welcome. 150 years ago this november at the soldiers national cemetery in gettysburg, pennsylvania, president abraham lincoln delivered one of the most monumental and enduring speeches in american history. in his gettysburg address delivered at a ceremony not
unlike this one, to an audience much like you, eloquently memorialized those who gave their lives so that future generations of americans might live in freedom. he also reiterated the very principles of our democracy. but lincoln did something more in his 272 were addressed. he challenged the audience to honor the memory of the fallen by every committing themselves to the virtues for which they fought and died. after a humbly miscalculating the lasting nature of his words, he urged, "for us to be dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead, we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion." how powerful, poetic, how proper. we stand today in this cemetery, arlington a, created during the war which lincoln spoke.
now it's home to our nation's fallen from all of its source. if we stand here thankful stewards of the blessings that these fallen have passed on to us. but we do not stand alone. today across our great nation in crowded cities or in country towns grateful citizens will bowed their heads in honor of our fallen heroes. that is devotion. whether gathered in a picnic or parade or baseball game or a solemn cemetery like this one, americans will remember that the peace and liberty we enjoy each and every day were made possible by the devotion and sacrifice of a long line of brave men and women in uniform. that line has continued to grow. today, america's uniform the sons and daughters are on patrol in afghanistan and many other places of on the frontiers of freedom throughout the world. our young men and women are serving as honorably and as bravely today as their
forefathers. when the nation called them to duty, they came. i'm inspired each and every day by their sense of purpose, their personal courage, their character, and their confidence. there are the best lead, the best trained, and the best equipped force on the face of the earth. as a nation, we must ensure that they remain so. today i join everyone here and across this great land in honoring those who have willingly sacrificed while donning the cost of our nation. we honor their loved ones who nobly carry on. today i ask all of us to reflect on this great nation founded on service and sacrifice. let us rededicate ourselves to the best of america, it's freedom, its responsibility, and its promise, and made peace be our ultimate cause. may god bless our fallen, are missing, our veterans and their families. may we be forever grateful and may god bless america. thank you.
my wife entire greatly honored to be with you today to observe memorial day. together we gathered to remember america's sons and daughters who sacrificed everything in defense of our nation. for generations, americans have set aside this day to honor those who have fought and died to keep our nation safe. civil war veterans, supreme court justice oliver wendell holmes once said, "every year in the spring at the height of the symphony of flowers and love and life there comes a pause. through the silence we hear the lonely pipe of death. every memorial day, america is reminded of these selfless individuals, america's quiet heroes. we also think of america's new generation of defenders, protecting our interests in every corner of the globe, preserving our freedoms and our way of life. they worked for a more peaceful
and hopeful world. as general macarthur said, "the soldier, above all other people, prays for peace, for he must suffer and bear the deepest wounds and scars of war." the memories of american heroes. arlington and around america have kept alive our families and communities. this memorial day we honor those families who are heroes left behind. the honor them in appreciation for the sacrifices they have endured. we also honor the perseverance and resilience of our military families today, for they are dealing with all the challenges of life. america thanks you. all of us in positions of trust and responsibility must always make decisions that are worthy of the sacrifices of those who serve our country. on this sacred day as we recall
the words of president lincoln when he referred to the domestic bonds in chords of memory -- we honor america's fallen patriots by striving to be worthy of their great sacrifices as we all work toward making a better future for all mankind. it is now my honor to introduce someone who has shown on wavering commitment to our service men and women and their families and to lead tarnation today with great strength and wisdom -- ladies and gentlemen, help me welcome, our commander in chief, the president of united states of america. [applause] >> thank you. thank you. please be seated, thank you very much. good morning, everybody. i want to thank secretary chuck hagel, not only for the
introduction but for your lifetime of service. a sergeant in the army to secretary of defense and always a man who carries with it the memory of friends and fallen heroes from vietnam. are grateful to you. i want to thank general dempsey, major general linnington, catherine condon has served arlington with extraordinary dedication and will be leaving us but we are so grateful for the work she has done. for. brainard secretary, and secchi, all our guests and almost of all, to members of our armed services and our veterans, to the families and friends who have fallen who we honor today, to americans from all across the country who will come to pay your respects, i have to say is
always a great honor to spend this memorial day with you at this sacred place where we honor our fallen heroes, those who we remember fondly in our memories, those known only to god. beyond these quiet hills, across that special bridge, is a city of monuments dedicated to visionary leaders and singular moments in the light of our republic. it is here, on this hallowed ground, where we choose to build a monument to a constant thread in the american character, the true that our nation and doors because it has always been home to men and women who were willing to give their all and laid down their lives to preserve and protect this land that we love.
that character, that selflessness, beets and the hearts of the very first patriots who died for a democracy they had never known and would never see. it lived on in the men and women who fought to hold our union together and in those who fought and defended a broad in the beaches of europe to the mountains and jungles of asia. this year, as we mark the 60th anniversary of the end of fighting in korea, would offer a special salute to all those who served and gave their lives in the korean war. over the last decade, we have seen the character of our country again with nearly 7000 americans who have made the ultimate sacrifice on battlefields, in city streets, have a world away. last memorial day, i stood here and spoke about how for the first time in nine years,
americans were no longer fighting and dying in iraq. today, a transition is under way in afghanistan and their troops are coming home. fewer americans are making the ultimate sacrifice in afghanistan and that progress for which we are profoundly grateful. this time next year, we will mark the final memorial day of our or in afghanistan. and so, as i said last week, america stands at a crossroads. even as we turn a page of a decade of conflict, even as we look forward, let us never forget, as we gather here today, that our nation is still at war. it should be self evident.
in generations past it was during world war two, millions of americans contributed to the war effort, soldiers like my own grandfather, women like my grandmother the work to the assembly lines. during the vietnam war, just about everybody knew somebody, a brother,, a friend who served in harm's way. today, it is different. perhaps it is a tribute to a remarkable all-volunteer force made up of men and women who stepped forward to serve and do so with extraordinary skill and valor. perhaps it is a testament to our advanced technologies which allows smaller numbers of troops to wield greater and greater power but regardless of the reason, district cannot be ignored that today, most americans are not directly touched by war. as a consequence, not all
americans may always see or fully grasp the depth of sacrifice, the profound costs that are made in our name right now as we speak, every day, our troops and our military families understand this and they mentioned it to me their concern about whether the country fully appreciate what happened. i think about a letter i received from a naval officer, a reservist, who had just returned from a deployment to afghanistan and he wrote me "i am concerned are work in afghanistan is fading from memor/." as we keep this conflict alive in the hearts of our people. he is right. as we gather here today at this very moment, more than 60,000 of our fellow americans still serve far from home in afghanistan.
they are still going out on patrol, living in spartan forward operating basis, still risking their lives to carry out their mission. when they give their lives, they are still being laid to rest at cemeteries in quiet corners across our country including here in arlington. capt sarah cohen had a smile that could lead a prayer room and after graduation she became a former black hawk pilot. was just 27 years old when she and four other soldiers were killed by helicopter crashed during a training mission near kanduhar. she was laid to rest in section 60 and she is remembered today by her mother who says she is
proud of her daughter's life, proud of her faith and credit per service to our country. -- and proud of her service to our country. [applause] staff sergeant frank e. phillips came from a military family that and was as tough as they come. combat medic, he was on patrol and afghanistan three weeks ago when his vehicle was hit by a roadside bomb. he was so humble that his parents never know how many lives he had saved the until soldiers started showing up at his funeral from thousands of miles away. last week, he was laid to rest just a few rows over from sarah. staff sgt eric gin was a born leader, a member of the marine
corps special operating command. he had served five tours of duty but kept going back because he felt responsible for his teammates and was determined to finish the mission. on may 4, he gave his life after escorting a high-ranking u.s. official to meet with afghan leaders. later, his family got a letter from a marine who had served two tours with eric. and the marine roche "there were people who measured their success on how many enemies they killed or how many missions they led. eric bass to success on how many of his friends he brought home and he brought home many including me." eric was laid to rest here arlington just six days ago. [applause] today, we remember their
service. today, just steps from where these brave americans lie in the eternal peace, we declare as a proud and grateful nation that their sacrifice will never be forgotten. just as we honor them, we hold their families close because, for the parents to lose a child, for the husbands and wives to lose a partner, for the children who lose a parent, every loss is devastating. for those of us to bear the solemn responsibility of sending these men and women into harm's way, we know the consequences all too well. i feel it every time i meet a wounded warrior, every time i visit walter reed and every time i grieve with the goldstar family. that is why on this day, we
remember our sacred honor -- obligation to those who lay down their lives so we can live our lives, to finish the job is men and women started by keeping our promise to those who wear america's uniform, will give our troops the resources they need, to keep faith with our veterans and their families now and always, to never stop searching for those who have gone missing or who are held as prisoners of war. on a more basic level, every american can do something even simpler. as we go about our daily lives, we must remember that our countrymen are still serving, still fighting, still putting their lives on the line for all of us. last fall, i received a letter from candy averett of charlotte, north carolina. both of her sons are marines and one served two tours in iraq and her youngest was in afghanistan at the time and he was, in her words, 100% devoted to his
deployment and would not have had any other way. reading the letter was clear that she was extraordinarily proud of the life her boys had chosen but she also had a request on behalf of all the mothers like her -- she said "please don't forget about my child and every other breed and soldier over there will probably choose to serve their country." and others plea. don't forget on this memorial day and every day. let us be true and meet that promise. let it be our task every single one of us to honor the strength and resolve and the love these brave americans felt for each other and for our country.
let us never forget and always remember to be worthy of the sacrifice they make in our name. may god bless the fallen and all those who served and my god bless the united states of america. [applause] [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, please remain standing for the playing ♪f "taps" and the benediction.
strength for the journey that lay ahead, let each and every day remind us to pray for the safety of our brothers and sisters in arms who stand at the tip of the spear for our nation this day for our freedom. continue to bless this nation, our friends and the flag research. made the spirit of god be near you to defend you within you to refresh you, before you to guide you, behind you to justify you, and above you to bless you for ever more. go in peace brothers and sisters, amen. >> coming up on c- span, suddenness the mayor answers questions from high
schoolers in denver. our first lady series looks at the lives -- look to the life of mrs. cleveland. later, president obama speech at arlington national cemetery. on the next washington journal, discuss tax exempt laws with marcus owens. , the senior white house correspondent for u.s. news & world report, will discuss his new book about the lives of presidents in office. washington journal begins live at 7 a.m. on c-span. >> i begin with integrity because it is so essential to who and what you will become. pathof you have a career in mind. many of you have no idea where you will end up.
you may be surprised where life takes you. was. in the end, it is not what we do, but how we do it. >> give me one second, i'm rational, when i woke up this myning, i thought about first month on campus. i was a freshman. the football team went number one in the nation preseason. i remember when i got here that there is all this excitement on campus. our first game was at wisconsin. we went out there and lost our -14.t game 21 there was this crushing disappointment afterwards. i want you to think about the soaring expectation sword --
followed by -- helps. >> fbi director robert mueller and florida governor rick scott. saturday 8:30, the twitter ceo and apple cofounder. find more commencement speeches online. >> sarasota mayor was speaking earlier this month in denver. , she spokeceremony to a group of high schoolers about her career and childhood. this is an hour. >> you know, it is still unreal
for me when somebody calls me a rock star. what i think about me, i don't think i've gotten old. i still think about me as your age. i was a lot thinner and i didn't have a lot of gray. inside, i still feel like you. what that makes be think about is the only worthwhile thing of today is probably that you got the day off from school. [laughter] and maybe some of you are wondering, what is she going to say to me that will mean something?
i do not know i can say something that will mean so much to you in the here and now. all i can do a share with you would have learned through my life so that if you have moments like the ones that i have had in my life that you might remember my words someday and they may give you some hope for yourself. when i was in your place and when you become a rock star white people say i am, you know what you lose? you lose your ability to be in the audience. they put me in the front of the room everywhere i go. sometimes it's just nice to look and listen. i get to do too much talking now. i'm only going to talk to you for a few minutes. then we're going to have a conversation.
i hope you'll ask me questions. there are a lot of seats over here. why don't you fill in the seats? do not be ashamed. come on. tell your mom to bring your over. when i was your age, i didn't know there was a supreme court. i'm a dinosaur. in the days before the internet, when you heard a word like supreme court, you had to go to the library and research what it meant. if i heard the word "supreme court," by the time i got to the library, i did not bother remembering the word or looking it up. i it knew there was a court out there. the only courts i had understood were the ones that i saw on television. there was a time when television
was still black and white. i got to see the first television lawyer. perry taught me something. television taught me something. your parents will hate me saying that. too much of anything can be bad for you. watching perry mason taught me about something called lawyering. it was a profession i knew nothing about. all of a sudden, television
exposed me to this different career. i started to examine it and think about it as a possibility for myself. but what wasn't a possibility was becoming a supreme court justice. if you don't know what the supreme court is, you don't know what a supreme court justice is. and that is the point. you can dream unless you know what the possibilities are. dreams do not just pop into your head. dreams are things that you learn about, that give you hope about something you can become. how do you find those dreams? you find them the way you are
right now, by taking a chance and applying for a competition and hoping that you get picked as the 100 in this room. the others who tried, you did something just as important. you tried. that is what life is about. to learn about your possibilities you have to try things that could be scary. how many of you have travelled and spent the night here last night? i bet coming -- your parents did not come with you, if a teacher came with you or sponsor came with you, that it was a little frightening. when you go away from home at your age -- the only people i ever stayed with it was my family.
unless you are willing to do things you are a little afraid of to learn new things, you cannot dream. you can dream but you will not really know where your possibilities are. and so i am proud of all of you for taking the chance to learn something new. not everybody in the room is going to become a lawyer. maybe one of you one day will be on the supreme court or maybe you'll be on the u.s. supreme court and i hope i'm around to see that. i'm going to make a promise i might regret. if anybody watching this today
in this room ever becomes a justice, i will swear you in. ok? now, i happen to like the law. one of the purposes of my book it was written for you. i am giving the cat away. you are all going to get a copy. thank you. it is a gift of the supreme court to the state of colorado. [applause] it is signed and dedicated to each of you. the reason i wrote the book was for you. it is for the hope that anyone who shares any part of real-life that could be like mine and i
have had a lot of challenges in life. i've had a juvenile diabetes and i've been giving myself insulin shots since i was 8. my dad had a drinking problem and he died when i was 9. i grew up in a housing project in the bronx. i spoke english. i spoke spanish before english. when i went to college, i had to teach myself how to write english at the right way because i wrote it very poorly. what would you guess? i am on the supreme court and i write every day. i did not know my possibilities.
i wrote this book so that anyone who ever feels like they are not sure about what they can do, they can look at my life and i hope say to yourself, she is just like me. if she could make it, so can i. that is the message i want you to carry away. it is not anything special that i have, except one thing. i always knew how to say "i do not know." i get a lot of lawyers that come to the supreme court. they get questions from the judges. they do not know the answer. instead of saying "i do not know," they try to believe they
know. i sit there scratching my head not in front of them but inside of myself. "what, are you crazy? why are you trying to make believe you do not know something?" you sit in a classroom and the teacher is talking. you sit there making believe you understand because you are ashamed. "you are not being clear. i do not understand." every single time i did not know something, i had enough confidence to say, i do not know. that takes courage.
most people don't have it. it is something you do not need a special skill to do. i encourage you when you need something that is new, look at that fear in the face and say, "ok, i'll figure it out." i looked at perry mason on television. i eventually learned about the supreme court and to learn more about the law. i will read you a little bit of my book. my childhood ambition to become
a lawyer had nothing to do with middle class respectability and comfort. some lawyers make a good living. i understand the job was to help people. i understood the law as a force for good and for resolving conflicts. the law gives structure to most of our relationships, allowing us to promote our interest at once in the most harmonious way. overseeing this noble purpose with this passionate wisdom was a figure of a judge. all kids have action heroes. astronauts, firemen, commandos. my idea of heroism inaction was a lawyer. a judge being a kind of super lawyer. the law for me was on a career
but a vocation. i found my passion. that is what you should be looking for. i really believe that what you do best are the things you are passionate about, the things you like. they don't have to be important to anybody but you. you watch television and think, "ah, the governor" -- i hope he is not here. the president, vice president, senators -- those are the important people in life. they too important jobs, but so does everybody else. the school bus driver who takes you home at night, the person who helps your parents with
their food or their home, anybody, any job helps and serves people. what is important that you do what you are doing well and that you like doing it. if you like doing it, you are going to be giving to others. i found my passion in a law. you can find it in almost anything you do. as long as it is legitimate work. that would be a bad thing. as long as you are doing anything that is gainful, that you like doing, you are going to be giving things to other people.
so you can walk around this building and you'll see all of the art. these are people who create things. they are doing this for a love. they are seeing a piece of art and they are the imagining the join others will take from it. i don't care what you pick. just pick something that excites you. that is what will make your life meaningful. that, i think, will give you joy, and it will give joy to the people around you. have i done enough talking? should i let you ask questions? i am grateful that you are here. did not leave without seeing the
center. it is extraordinary. it is an interactive center. it teaches you about the state of federal courts in colorado. before you leave, go and learn something about it so you can say with knowledge, i do not want to be that. [laughter] please. who is going to be brave and ask the first question? i saw your eye. tell us your name and where you're from. >> i'm from colorado. i am grant morgan from colorado. i was wondering the biggest challenge from being a latino woman that is a lawyer and who
became a supreme court lawyer. what was the biggest challenge for you? >> people organize their dealings with other people. often they have stereotypes. it is a way to simplify life. human beings are very complex. you have to make a lot of effort. a lot of people during my career a lot of people looked at me and said "a poor latino from new york, she cannot be smart enough."
there were a lot of people who believed that during my nomination process. it was very hurtful. here i had graduated very near the top of my class at college. i have lots of really important jobs. people were still saying i was not smart enough. i knew that was because of stereotypes. it is something we all have to spend time fighting. it is what makes you sometimes look at somebody else and say, "they are not really pretty." because you do not spend any time getting to know who they are inside. learning that becomes from the inside -- it has nothing to do with what a person looks like on the outside. the personality they give the world -- you need to take time
to do that. that has been my biggest challenge. dealing with people's expectations and having fun proving them wrong. [laughter] [applause] you guys are good. >> what did you like to do growing up besides watching "perry mason?" >> do you know why i am walking around? my nickname when i was a kid -- it was a name i family made up because i was seen as a hot pepper. i could not sit still. they would give me all sorts of labels. i was constantly on the move.
mom said that at 7 months old i went from the floor, stood up, and ran. i never walked. i still do that. i cannot sit still. i loved playing cowboys and indians. back then you had to use a lot of imagination. i do not want you to think i was that poor. i was poor but not starving poor. it was a different world. we did not have as many toys, we did not have as many interactive toys. we had to play games. i would spend hours playing an ever standing still. -- and never standing still. i got into fights with my younger brother and he talks about it all the time. i loved reading.
as important as television was to giving me the sense of possibility of being a lawyer, the world open for me when i read. when i found books i found my rocket ship to the universe. i say that literally. among the books i love it was science fiction, mysteries, history, books about other cultures. i cannot travel to those places, i never imagined i would take trips i take now. who would thought -- who would have thought i would be in colorado? i had to visit those places in books. so i spent hours and hours reading. my mother says i never came to the dinner table with out a book. now my friends to fight about whether that is good or bad and telling their kids the cannot
read or play games during dinner. i do not know what the right answer is but those of the things i like doing. >> what is the best piece of advice you can give to high school students that would like to become successful leaders? >> i think i give it earlier when i said take chances. failure hurts. and no failure ever feats -- ever feels good. it can be mortifying and embarrassing. i talk about some failures in my book and they really sting. the hardest thing to do is to take chances where you can fail. most of us like the security of doing the things think we can do.
it took me until i was 15 years old to do it, to take dance classes. everytime i female cousins were taking dance class as i was outside chasing fireflies. and i cannot sit still long enough to watch and listen. it took me until i was 50 to figure out how to do it. i felt awkward. i am not a good dancer. but i try. that is my advice. take a course that you do not think you can do. try a new activity after school. it looks like fun and you might as well try it now.
when you get to college might not have the time. take chances. i am going to go to that end. >> i want to know what was one of the first opportunities that you went after to get where you are today? >> going away to college. no one in my family had graduated from college in new york when i was growing up. some of my cousins were just going to college. all of them are going to local colleges. i had a friend who called me up and said i had to apply to these
ivy league schools. what are ivy league schools?" i said i could not afford to go. he said they will give you a scholarship. how much does it cost to apply? he says they will waive the fee. i got in. if i had known how hard it was to get in i probably would not have tried because i would have thought that -- why take the risk? but i took the risk. then i had to decide whether i would go. my grandmother said to me, "why are you going so far away from
home? all of your cousins are going to local colleges." and i loved my grandmother and it was really painful for me to say, "i think this education will be important to me. me." that was the first step to the rest of my life. not that i could not have gotten a good education near home. but i met people from my college from around the world, from every place in the country, and they taught me so much about things i did not know about. being away from home gave me a chance to learn about different places and the place of living and the different opportunities that i had. it was safe because i still had
to go home at the holidays. i had been skipping at home with my mom. when i got really lonely i took a bus and came home. that going away did start with college. for every parent in this room who does not want you to go away, you are going to hate me today. >> i would like ask -- as humans we profile people but with the you feel about racial profiling and what is your favorite baseball team? >> i grew up in the brous so what other team am i going to love other than the yankees? you grow up in the bronx there is only one team. even when you leave the bronx
there is only one team. a little egotistical about that. i am assuming you are asking about racial profiling in police work. i talked to you about the dangers of stereotypes and that holds true in context, whether it is in police work, in choosing people for any kind of job. it has dangers in what you're doing up using profiling without thought. by that i mean if you are thinking -- if you are a police officer or anyone else thinking that profiling can be used to prove something you are going to be disappointed. that is not the way the world works. are there indicators that have to be listened to? absolutely. if you have been following the news about the boston bombing
and criticisms about whether they justified or not on following up on the activities of the two young men who were involved -- is that profiling? could be. is it something you cannot ignore? sometimes not. there is a fine line that the society walks in trying to be fair. as long as you understand that whatever you do in life do not do it without thought. really understand the purpose of what you're doing and that will give you better answers. back to you. >> my question is kind of complicated. i was watching one of your interviews with pbs.
you were talking about how supreme court justice john paul stevens said "no one is born a supreme court justice, they simply become one." in the interview you said you haven't become one yet. through all of your challenges in our life and your obvious position now, why did you say that? >> is a fair question. what i meant it is you grow in every position you are in. every day of your life you should spend trying to learn something new. i walked into a job at the justice on day one and i had been a judge for 17 years. being a justice is something new. it is a different sort of
judging. it is the same on a lot of issues. the questions are much bigger. and there are questions that do not have clear answers. when cases come to the supreme court is because generally there is a conflict in the courts below. different justices of looking at the same question and they are coming to different answers. by definition as it comes to the supreme court it becomes clear. -- it is unclear. if the precedents are not so clear and it is unclear then we have to do something else. we have to establish the framework of answering that question. that is a different kind judging in some way. because of that, each day that i may just as now i am learning -- each day i am a justice now i am learning how to do that better, to think more precisely, to understand better the consequences of the decisions we make and the why and how to
avoid bad ones in the future. no court is perfect. we grow. what i meant in that interview was i was not born a justice and that is what john paul stevens was saying. he grew into a legend after 30- odd years in the court. he was saying to me to become a legend. that gives me a lot of confidence in knowing that i was growing. my decisions today will not be as good as the ones 10 years from now. they will not be as good as the ones tomorrow. let me go to the other side so i play fair. the young man with blond hair.
colorado springs. very cute outfit. [laughter] >> thank you. you noticed? >> on the whole you have a lot of problems in our life with diabetes and everything. that is really hard to get past. what drew inspiration from that? these little things add up and in your case they want so little. >> they can be overwhelming at moments and they feel that way a lot of times. there was one gift i got from my diabetes. it was the gift of understanding how pressure shapes you. when i was first diagnosed, over
50 years ago, taking care of the disease is very different than it is today. for any diabetic in this room understand that diabetics can live a full life spans with many less complications. when i was first diagnosed it was the very beginning of taking care of diocese. most people were predicted to die young. i expect not to live past the age of 40. when i turned 50 and had my closest friends with me. i told them that story. i saw an age i thought i would never reach. it taught me that if i wasted any minute of my life that it would be criminal.
that is what has kept me going every time i wanted to give up and walk away i think to myself i have got a gift, why am i throwing it away? i can take joy from having you tell me my out it is nice. i can smile. that is all it takes in life, to look at a sad moment and at the same time think of the times. they exist, too. in the greatest of the stairs, and i have had some, deep within my memory i find a moment of joy to keep me going. that is all i can ever say to people in hard times. it will pass. you almost have to ride it out.
and seek out that next moment. >> thank you. [applause] >> i was wondering what it was like growing up with your father because i lost my mom when i was in fifth grade so i wonder what it was like growing up without your father. >> you will read in my book that it was complex because of my dad's drinking problem. it made our house of very unhappy. my childhood was filled with fighting. when he died there was a mixture of sadness but relief.
the fighting ended. i talk about in my book the first christmas without my dad. one of the things we had done every year was put up a christmas tree. he knew how to put up the perfect tree. he would spend hours hiding the wires of every single light, trying. i cannot do it. he did it perfectly. i remember standing back after finishing the tree and i picked one with a crooked trump so it looked like charlie brown's 3. i remember realizing that life is complex. you do not have your mom, and that is something you'll miss the rest of your life.
you have a relationship with your dad that a lot of people will never experience. it is always a mixture of good and bad. i do not forget about people i lost in my life. i try to remember the moment of joy. to hold me through the next day. i talk about at the end of my book when i was being sworn in as a justice -- my mind raced to of the people that raced -- that played a part in a life. obviously they weren't there but this spirits stayed with me. you'll read in the book that my mom is a great lady. she has not -- she was not a perfect mom.
it also depends on the case. about six weeks before cases are heard in court, anywhere from six to four weeks, we get all of the briefs. with the priest comes the record. it could be a thin volume, it could be multiple volumes. generally are only about 50 pages but we tell them how to pack those 50 pages so it is really 50 pages full of words we told them. you can have more than one party so you can have more than one brief period you can have what we call "friends of court." in some cases we have had over 100. if you do 100 times 25 to 30
pages, that is a lot of reading. then we have to read the supreme court cases on the issue because we have to study them. we have to read any articles we think are important that the parties have asked us to read. it could be hours of reading. i call that research. a law memo with all the supreme court cases. and that we have arguments. if you are talking about ours it is a lot of each case. afterwards when you are writing the opinion, it is your opinion, weeks.
every opinion goes through draft after draft. i tend to get an opinion first and turn it around and the coast back and forth. that is a lengthy process. even when the opinions, from my colleagues, even if i say i agree with you and make sure i am happy with what they're saying -- if i am not i then negotiate with them. all of the judges here know what that is like. drafting anything by committee is very time-consuming.
>> i go to st. mary's. i was wondering how you think as a nation we can overcome our differences in order to fight conflict and violence. >> it is the hardest issue around, conflict between people of for so many different issues has been with us since the beginning of man. i do not have the answer. i do think that talking and trying to understand the needs of other people is a good starting point. a lot of times we think we know what the other person is feeling. we do not really listen to them try to explain what they are feeling and a lot of it. we do not spend time checking our own behavior to figure out
if there are things we can do to alter the dynamics. it is a complicated process. it is what i described in my book as putting yourself in the shoes of the other person. it is only if you start there can you really start to think about how everybody is working together and might be able to satisfy those different needs. conflict is unavoidable. what is not is the ability to listen and talk. in the end we have to try to do that. >> hello. i am from a russell middle school. do you feel like you have too much power? [laughter] >> yes.
one of the reasons i wrote my book is because when i got catapulted in to this new life i went from the back of the room to the front of the room overnight. i had no idea i would be on the world's state. i am worried every day. how does it change? power can corrupt. if you do not notice it it will take you over. i work really hard at trying to remain true to me, to still be with people as people and not because of my position. that is so easy.
i wanted my friends, if they saw me getting too egotistical, to take my book and hit me over the head. the book says thank you in recognizing how much i got from others in becoming who i am. i just try to remember that every single day. there is something that can be too much power. i am just doing this randomly. >> i know that everybody suffers from their own type of issues in their life. we are always going to have something that boxes from where we want to be in life. my parents have always told me that despite your problems to
not let that take away your education because your education is something powerful in your life. if you ever see that in have nothing in the world. what was your motivation as a child growing up to become as successful as you are today? >> that lesson from my mother. that lesson is the one i got from my mother. your parents are right. education buys your future. you cannot do anything you want to do well unless you become educated. i am not criticizing them but i will say there is a lot of sports athletes who did not bother going to college. everytime i see one of them make that decision i think to myself >> don'tted thinking. they note that on every sports -- in every sports
game, there are complicated strategies in how you play the game. certainory applies to studies. if they went to college, they would play their game better. that is true about almost anything. whether you are a singer, and people an artist, would've won numerous oscars, like meryl streep. read andeep loves to write. this is a woman who is become her craft well. richard burton used to play shakespeare like he had lived in the age of shakespeare. my point is that education is the key. that is the key. even if you cannot do one job,
education permits you to do a lot of others. one thing, you can get stock. if you think about learning more, there'll always be opportunities. as soon as you hit a wall, as -- if you have knowledge about alternatives, you can think about how to go around the wall. you can do what you want to do and have fun with it. --may it please the court [applause]>> dating she hit a homerun or what? -- did she hit a homerun or what?
>> the learning center is open for everyone to see, have fun, and experience. you have to see our video. i want to thank all those students throughout the state who are watching this on the internet. our raw now get to see video directly. then, you will have to sign off. justice sotomayor or, if you would be our guest. >> tomorrow, the new explores howation religion is spreading online and leading to homegrown violence. live coverage on c-span begins at 12:15 eastern.
also tomorrow, and look at political change in egypt and tunisia. a discussion about the progress made in this country since the arab spring. you can watch live coverage on c-span two. >> it tends to be a denigration of the u.s. military by some historians. .hey are mocked tended to be tactically superior. man to man were the better military. .his is just nonsense it's pointless. global war is a clash of systems. it is which system can produce
the wherewithal to project power in the atlantic, pacific, indian ocean, southeast asia. -- 10system tempered news candeuce the civilian -- produce the civilian systems. we will take your calls,, and tweaks. on book tv on c-span francis fulsome cleveland was a celebrity first lady unlike almost any before her. the mass production of her image to sell a variety of goods by the american consumer industry in the mid-1880s angered both her and her husband resident grover cleveland. -- toso understand
understand the sweeping sensation, we begin our story inside 1600 pennsylvania avenue as citizens eagerly awaited details of the president marrying his 25-year-old bride inside the white house. the modern white house. >> it is the same basic layout it would be in june 1886 when president grover cleveland and his bride to be came down what was then the large staircase to the family quarters at the west end end of this quarter. they would proceed down the hallway, and the music started up the east side of the hind is here where the united states marine band was assembled at the time of the famous john philip sousa who played the wedding march as the happy couple came down.
, these verye doors same mahogany doors, they would've come into the room. there was a different chandelier here. they stood under the sender and did their wedding vows to the assembled group. there were an enormous amount of flowers in the room. table wherelarge the sofa is now. potted plants underneath and flowers were hung, suspended from the moldings. the mantelpiece was covered with flowers. the fire pace was filled with red begonias to give the feeling of flames and the fire. it was a very brief ceremony, 7:00 p.m. this semblance went on to the east room for what they called the promenade, which i think was an opportunity for the bride to show off her dress with greater ease than could have taken place in this room. then we then -- then wait -- then they went down this
hallway to a wedding dead -- dinner in the state room. are the strings of an 1890 recording of john philip sousa and an orchestra playing at the wedding of grover cleveland. story of francis fulsome cleveland, the youngest first lady ever to serve in that role. johnll us about this, dunlap is the offer -- author of a new book. let's start with the press and the coverage. without that, there would be no celebrity. there is a press corps. describe what it was like for the nation in the 1880s and how this business of covering presidents was beginning to come into an age of its own. guest: if you think about the 1880s as the age of newspapers, every major city had multiple newspapers, and every one of
those newspapers was looking for a way to make money. the best way was to get the best story. what she was wearing, what she was doing him a what she looked like, who she was seen, that would help sell papers. it didn't hurt -- hurt if they made a little bit of it up. host: you tell us the word was beginning to leak out and there were all sorts of investigations into who this young woman might be and what the circumstances could be. there were really priming the pump. guest: absolutely. from the time cleveland came in to office in march of 1885, there was speculation about who possibly could be his bride, and it would waver between some of the women who would help his sister rose with her receptions at the white house, and then there was this sort of competition in the mind of the public between whether or not it was francis or her mother emma. people were convinced that he would not marry francis.
she was too young. read about this time, what they used to called decoration day, and now we call it memorial day, in 1886, cleveland sent out a wedding invitations. francis came back from europe. at the decoration day parade, francis was introduced to the public. host: the president was not very fond of the press. we have one of many quotes about the way in which he described it. one way he would refer to them was the goals of the press. -- ghouls of the press. here is one thing he said -- this is about their honeymoon. he had some naïve concept that they would be able to sneak away for a honeymoon on their own. how did it turn out? guest: that was what he wrote when they were going to take
their first vacation at the end of the summer, but he thought he had been able to outsmart the press because they had arranged for a special two-car train. it was going to be on a side rail. i figured they could get off to an area in maryland, some private land, but there was a telegraph agent who was able to be bribed and reveal the destination of the train. as it was pouring rain that night and when they got to the train station they then had to take a carriage on the station to their actual honeymoon location, the carriage got bogged down in mud, which give the press even more time. was there by the time they got there. host: it gave rise to a new term, keyhole journalism. guest: absolutely. with josephiated pulitzer, looking in the keyhole and seeing what you could see with what was going on in other people's private lives. host: i read in your book that they try to concede and gave an interview during the honey room
-- honeymoon. how did that work? to keep the interest tapped down? host: cleveland liked the press. he had a respectable papers and the not respectable papers. i presume the respectable papers were the people whose views coincided -- who thought his views were good. he invited reporters from the so-called respectable papers to come into the cabin are he and francis were staying. these telegrams from well-wishers on the table. they shared some of those, very nicely staged and choreographed, but they allowed the press to see some of these papers, allow them to see he and francis become engaged. it was a way to say, boys, you had your fun. you leave us alone so we can get about the business of being married? host: it was also the beginning of the age of consumer branding. as we said in our introduction, there was widespread use of both the president and first
lady's's image to sell all kinds of products. it is how you first learned of this young first lady, looking back at the history of branding. if you were to use the president's image, you would quickly get calls from lawyers -- were there any rules whatsoever about the use of the first couple's image? host: no, that is why all these companies were allowed to get away with it. there were several supporters of cleveland in congress who were trying to get that type of legislation passed that you could not use somebody's image without their permission, but congress kind of did not like cleveland. the way he would veto legislation was to edit it. then he would veto it. he had enough detractors that even though they liked francis personally, they did not want to give him anything he wanted. they couldn't get these laws passed. guest: here is a bit of francis cleveland" she has about her frustration with being used in this way. she said --
?here is this from host: that is a letter she wrote to the editor of "country magazine." he ran an ad for this company and she had become friends with them and so she asked him if he would please arrange for that to happen. host: we have to explain to people how this 49-year-old president and a 21-year-old bride ever became a couple. tell us briefly the story of grover and frances cleveland. guest: grover cleveland was law partners with francis' father. when oscar and his wife had francis, cleveland supposedly gave them the first baby carriage. she became a fixture in the house. she started to call him uncle cleve. her father was killed tragically a couple days after her 11th birthday in a carriage accident, and oscar was not a good money manager.
people who knew more about the family history said he was a bit of a rogue. he actually owed more money than he had in his estate. leave when stepped in as executor and money manager to help handle the affairs and work with emma to oversee francis' education. host: my take away was that his interest -- i read these short biographies -- it tells a story that he became interested after he got into the white house him a visit of mother and daughter, but your tail goes back farther. to the time she was in college, he was sent in bucket loads of flowers to and writing letters constantly. did he have his eye on her for quite a while? guest: i think he did. one interesting thing is that people who know a little bit more of the history in the area will tell you about the special trail train that came to the depot there so that grover could visit her. he did write her letters, sent her flowers, she also
accompanied him on campaign appearances when he ran for governor of new york in 1882. yes, this is pre-white house years. was: you say the family very receptive of this relationship, but what was the public reception about the age difference between the two? guest: you had some language that call them beauty and the beast because they do not like -- 49, he was 47 portly, he was not necessarily the most handsome man in the world. she was an absolute stunner. dark hair, blue eyes, tall for that age, very good-looking. there were people who thought there was something a little strange about it, but for the most part, because they fell immediately in love with her, they kind of accepted him as part of the package. host: gary robinson on twitter asks -- readingt a lot of time
her voluminous correspondence, and you answer that question. guest: she loved him. i think she started out as most people do early in the marriage thinking it was romantic, but the age difference is pretty significant, and over time, love matured into a deep caring. over time, i would not say it was a gushy kind of love, but it was a respectful and caring kind of love. host: grover cleveland had some very specific views of women in society and what he wanted from a life. would you explain it? guest: in that time, there was this attitude of speed -- in spheres of influence where women were supposed to stay pure and take care of the home and children. that is exactly where he wanted francis to be. he did not want her pretty little head upset with notions about being first lady were -- or beinged by affected by all the demands of the white house or being the
wife of the president. he also did not think women should vote or be outside the home. host: this series, if you have been watching us, as you know, is interactive. there are a lot of weighted -- ways to do that. you can send us a question on facebook. or is already a chat that has been going on about frances cleveland. facebookind c-span's page and be part of that. you can also send us a tweet. use the #firstladies. you can also give us a phone call. if you live -- live in eastern or central time zones, it is -- we will be working your questions throughout our 90 minutes on francis cleveland. also something special for you tonight. we had an opportunity to go inside the smithsonian's collection, and you are going to meet lisa kathleen graddy who was the first lady's curator at the smithsonian to go behind the scenes and look at some of
the francis cleveland items they have on storage, not open to the public. this is really special for you tonight. we will take you for our first of several looks at the smithsonian collection. [video clip] >> we are here at the political history storage room. the collection is too vast to be on display at one time. objects that are not on the floor are stored in here. at any given point, they can be used for exhibition purposes. this is francis cleveland's wedding dress. francis cleveland was incredibly popular, she married the president in a white house ceremony, the only white house ceremony for a first lady. , filled in with the , this goes around it and creates a softening effect. it was a longsleeved dress. , thewonderful long train
underside, trimmed in lace. even the underside of these close you do not see how this -- clothes have this beautiful trim. more than clover lane. for cleveland's, we have both public pieces and personal pieces. one of my favorite things in the entire collection is this cake box. each of the guests at the wedding were given a satin covered cake box painted with the bride and grooms initials. to hold a piece of wedding cake. the for the wedding, grover cleveland and france's fulsome found time to sign a card for every cake box. , wrapped ininside lace, would've been a piece of cake. was particular cake box given to the minister who performed the wedding. his name was byron sutherland.
he was minister at the first presbyterian church in washington, d.c.. withublic fascination francis cleveland and the sweating, as is a piece of sheet music, the cleveland's wedding march, composed in honor of the wedding because it was not the wedding march played at the wedding. you can see it is obviously decorated with pictures of mr. and mrs. cleveland. these images of the cleveland's together will be part of popular culture for the next 12 years. host: we are back to our set. i want to introduce our second guest, returning to us from an earlier program, taylor sturmer, a historian for colonial williamsburg. welcome to the conversation. the election.ut anybody who thinks there is hard knuckle politics today, look at the election of 1884 that brought grover cleveland into
the white house. pretty rough stuff. what was it like? guest: politics is brutal. we do think about earlier elections in american history in which they are taking swings at each other like jefferson and , but in 1800 election politics in 1880s, with the growth of the newspapers, is personal, visceral, and because of the way political parties developed, they are able to take these swipes at each other that we would find surprising today. in 1884, all of these things are coming out in 1884 election because you have two candidates who could not be more different. you have grover cleveland on the -- he hasho had been very little political experience of this sort. he was mayor of buffalo in 1881, elected governor of new york in two years later,
he is the democratic nominee for president. that is all the major political experience he has. he has developed a reputation of being honest and trustworthy and a reformer, where is on the other hand, you've got a guy in, theohn blame continental liar from maine, if anything, who has too much political experience. speaker of the house, one of the major figures in the republican party. yes, he has a reputation for probably having virtue, a good family man, but also tainted by public corruption and an inside the beltway guy. 1884 endscampaign of up revolving around these things. host: personal politics. politics.sonal the greatest strength of grover cleveland, the greatest opportunity that the democrats had and james buchanan to get back the white house is the reputation of cleveland as being
, the vanpublic virtue as good local operative would point out. they did. they went straight after his which is thent, illegitimate child. host: a refrain for anybody who studied the history am a -- history, mama, where's your pa? what was the story? guest: a woman by the the name of maria hoss and dave birth -- gave birth to an illegitimate child. was notitimate child necessarily all that unusual in , buffalo, newrk york. maria named him oscar fulsome cleveland. cleveland stepped up to the plate and said he would take
responsibility for her and the child. maria apparently had problems with alcohol and was not taking care of him. an opportunity developed for cleveland be -- to be able to place the child in the home of a family, the family of mr. and mrs. james king. this young man who started his life as oscar cleveland became james king junior. it was all pretty quiet until they uncover the dirt and found out that cleveland assumed or sponsor building for the child. therefore, the assumption he was father of the child, and there were efforts initially to cover it up and the famous line that cleveland says is, tell the truth. host: what do we learn about cleveland from this? , het: that he is understands the virtue of making a story of nonstory. go ahead and admit to it and move on. this is sort of how it works. the stories go back and forth about why he does it.
if either he is telling the truth and it is his child, or weause the scant evidence have is that it is his child. it is also a possibility that it was the child of francis' father. go ahead and admit to it, make it a nonstory, say that it is true, and move on. that is in essence what happened. familyw did francis' react to this, because it cleve, the man she was eventually betrothed to, or at the same time, it could have been her father's child. what was the reaction to this? guest: it was interesting considering that we have been talking about, leave and was obviously courting francis at this point in 1884. -- cleveland was obviously
courting francis at this point in 1884. apparently there was a story where one of her classmates came into her dorm room and happened to see a picture of cleveland on the desk and wanted to know who it was. francis referred to him at that point as the mayor of buffalo. i do not know why it was not the governor of new york. her comment was, a man more sinned against than sinning. emma wrote a letter to francis saying that she hated to see cleveland going through all of this trouble with the issues with this boy, but there is never any discussion in those letters about who they thought the real father was. host: i will take some calls and come back and talk about the cleveland's first administration and the chickens in history. al watches us in maryland, good evening. caller: thank you. first of all, i have been a viewer of c-span from almost the beginning. you do a wonderful job across the board. i live in allegheny county, one county east of
where the cleveland's honeymooned. several years ago, i had to do some research on some of the president's to visit this area. i dug out my notes on the honeymoon of grover cleveland and francis. i wrote down a few notes. after the white house ceremony, apparently late that night or the next morning, they boarded a private railroad car and arrived in deer park mama maryland, which is in present-day garrett county. they honeymooned here for about six days and stayed at the deer -- cottage, which which has since been known as the cleveland college. the press followed them up from washington, and railroad detectives had to surround their cottage so reporters would not bother them. the reporters climbed trees, they tried to spy on the couple using binoculars, they would bribe the servants to try to get a story of what they were
eating, where they were going, and according to local accounts, the cleveland's went trout fishing several times in a string that is known as deep creek. they caught almost 50 trout. they attended church together in downtown oakland, what has since become known as the church of the presidents. upon their departure to washington, on june 8, they left from the deer park railroad was then thatt the president met with reporters and some of the locals and he said that their honeymoon exceeded their most optimistic expectations, that they never slept better, that the air and temperature are simply delicious, and they could not have found a more suitable retreat have a search the entire united states. host: thank you. you've added a few more details to the story we told at the beginning. we thank you for that. any thing more to add to his description of their enjoyment? guest: he's done good research. that pretty much lines up with everything i have discovered.
host: is the cottage around today? guest: it sounds -- i don't know. it sounds like it. host: joseph in gary, indiana. caller: hello. that sheme time ago was always concerned about grover cleveland's weight. is there anything you have in your research that comes across any documentation that she actually try to get him to lose weight? guest: she makes a couple of comments -- they bought a place ofside of what is now part the cleveland park section of washington, d.c., oak view. they were the first president that she was the first president to buy a purchase -- a residence. francis in an interview talks about getting him to walk run the farm, but normally what you try to do was to get him to dress in a way that did not accentuate his weight. host: wasn't worried about his
size but how he looked. paula in pennsylvania. hello. caller: thank you for taking my call. i do have a question regarding the wedding dress. i like seeing that image. i just wanted to confirm -- i'm concerning -- i am assuming it was white in color? host: it looked to me more like a cream color. was that original? guest: i think cream was the original. it has yellowed with age. i think cream was the original. host: any other questions? caller: i do not know how to phrase this -- because of the age difference, if that were to take place today, for lack of a better term, would we call her a gold digger for marrying somebody with such a big age difference? host: who would be criticized? guest: he could've been criticized as well. host: it is interesting to speculate what the media would
do with such a match in this day and the pursuit of her in the years before hand. in this age when nothing seems to be held sacred for a long time. guest: if the press knew then what we know now about his involvement with her from her birth, he did buy her first baby carriage, he knew her for her entire life, then there would be people who would think this is a little creepy. if you are talking about modern society, people think about may-d trump and these december relationships. what your moral basis is for understanding these relationships, i think you will get into a similar conversation. or hiso the importance politics of the age, you told us grover cleveland successfully rund the 24 year republican
of holding the white house. but he was a fiscal conservative and the big issues were the gold over standard, -- gold and silver standard, tariffs, and corruption. what was his approach to the presidency? was he strong? guest: he was an exceptionally strong executive. not to say he was a great constitutional thinker. he was no james madison. however, he did have a clear idea certainly about what the role of the presidency was and what the role of the federal government was. he thought that his role was to be guardian of the federal government and do what he had done in albany as governor of new york or mayor as governor -- or in buffalo as mayor of buffalo. to go ahead and make sure that tigers was not doing and -- doing anything that would screw country up, congress would not engage in unnecessary social policy, unnecessary economic policy. he was there to keep them honest and also to do what he
had done in these other positions, reform the broader system of patronage he thought undermined confidence people have in their government. host: to do that he employed the veto 304 times. guest: more than that, if you include pocket vetoes along with regular vetoes. he vetoed 414 pieces of legislation in his first term, which is more than all the presidential vetoes combined before him. pensions.bills like he thinks this is just a way for members of congress to be able favorssome political among their friends back on. he is vetoing these things left and right. he has no problem whatsoever in doing that, but he also has no real understanding given his experience of how the legislative process works.
he is not really about compromising with congress. he is not interested in having discussions with them about these issues. he cares about tariff reform, making sure that tariffs are being lowered. it wants to sure they are maintaining the gold standard because he thinks that is a sounder economic policy. outside of that, he wants congress to stay quiet. guest: the bad part about that is we have reached a point in our economy were tariff reform is really important, because we still had tariffs that were way too high and were impacting our trade and hurting us internationally. probably some of the lack of that reform is part of the reason why the depression that started during benjamin harrison's time and made cleveland second terms of second-- cleveland's term so dismal was because they could not get reform in place. cleveland was not a negotiator. he did not know how to curry favor and work with groups and try to get things to happen. this answer might be self-
evident. in our many past first ladies, we saw them practicing politics, hosting dinners to bring warring factions together under one roof. he had an acrimonious republican senate. did they use the white house to bring together any forces looking for compromise? guest: lesson this white house than many other previous white houses -- less in this white house and many other previous white houses. grover cleveland's biggest issue was tariff reform. francis actually attends the senate debate. she is sitting in the gallery over his major piece of legislation on tariff reform. it is one of the only pieces of direct evidence that we have of her involvement in any kind of political influence, but other than that, they are using the white house for very different kinds of things. she is able to improve his standing in d.c. by standing next to him. he has a reputation coming into
the white house of liking poker, hanging out with his guy friends, smoking, drinking bourbon. she socializes them, symbolizes him almost immediately, which gives them some political cachet. we're talking talking about how the white house was used in ways we talked about in terms of other first ladies. she is doing things like getting involved in copyright legislation to focus on intellectual property. this is a woman sphere, to protect the arts, authors. a reception at the white house for authors to bring attention to the need for intellectual property. guest: to become -- to pick up on what taylor was saying, part of why you did not see politics was cleveland when not have that. he did not see that as her role or responsibility. he did not want her engaged or involved in anything that would
have smacked of her showing a political view or opinion. she had views and opinions, but he did not want to use her in that way to take advantage of what she probably could well have done for him. if he had utilized for skill set as much as we have talked another shows about how first ladies exercised politics. host: this innermost publicist he and great public interest on this young first lady that people were very excited about having, he has this great political chip or tool at his disposal, and elected not to use it? guest: everybody seems to know it except for him. this is his great heart to play -- card to play. he will not play it. instead, he will focus on the telling as much legislation as possible, taking off as many people on the hill as possible, which continues to undermine his
political capacity. host: you're right about the fact that he is very decided views of the roles of women. was this framing his decision? guest: yes, that is part of his view. he did not want her involved in anything political. even the things she got involved which -- with, which were not political, and she gets involved with the new york kindergarten situation, you see he is angry with her because of how much time she is spending with these organizations and not involved with things that he thinks she should be involved with, like taking care of him. host: as you can see from these photographs, we have moved fully into the age of photography and we are able to show you so many more images. with the rise of media, many more illustrations done by the media. this is all the -- also the first time in the series that we have some video of one of the first ladies. as later in her life. we thought it would be interesting to show you as we
talk about the media what a first lady will look like -- what the first lady looked like later on on in life. we will watch that as we listen to a phone call from matthew in new jersey. you are on. caller: how are you? i'm calling from the birthplace of grover cleveland. we have the memorial day parade today. i'm proud to say i took grover cleveland to the parade. host: how did you get that role? caller: i am a member of the association. i talked them into it. [laughter] host: how is your ship compared to the president? caller: i am 230. i guess he is a little bit heavier. i'm 62. i think you a shorter. i could gain weight, maybe i will. five: someone said he was feet tall and four feet wide. host: as somebody who is
interested, what question do you have for our guests? caller: a question about the vetoes -- i said he was lucky because garfield before him and mckinley after him were assassinated. it was a tough time to be a president of the united states during i find them interesting. -- states/ -- states. i find him interesting. host: thank you so much. we talked about francis while she was not being used politically. when we talk about influence and image, on the image side, one that was carefully watched in the united states. we will return to the smithsonian and look at some of the dresses she chose. how she might have affected style in the country. [video clip] withe public fascination
frances cleveland extended to her clothes, she was a real fashion icon. women emulated her hairstyle, her clothing. she popularized everything she had ended. this is a dress from the second administration. in a way, this is the most private piece of all because this was the inaugural gown. this was her down from 1893. it stayed in her family and became the family wedding dress. the bottom of the dress is exactly the same, but the top has been remade. it originally had a satin top with large sleeves with gold on the shoulders. the lace from the original dress was used to re-create a new bodice to make it a more fashionable, modern wedding dress. this was used by her granddaughters. a wedding dress and a non-not -- on inaugural dress. even france cleveland everyday close were stylish.
stylish.s were a lot of them look like something you can wear now. , black with this ,eautiful purple blue velvet definitely daywear. this is a more evening appropriate piece. this is a bodice, would've had a matching skirt. you can see the beautiful lace and sequence, beating -- beading. vest.ly more ornate this would have a matching color -- collar. you can wear this with the shirtwaist and skirt. 100 years old now. ,ne of the earlier dresses
wedding dresses on display for many years -- we change the dresses around -- this address was on display even before that. this was a reception dress mrs. cleveland would have worn during the second reception. the 1890s are when sleeves became much larger and puffs become a big facet of the clothes. this is a beautiful skirt and bodice, and a matching evening down. ,hese huge puffed sleeves trimmed in lace, and butterflies. a description at the time talks about the butterflies looking alight on her shoulders. you can see the damage that light will do. that is why we rotate dresses. velvet is originally this color. over the years, it has faded. i am curious about how whose familyold
finances were rather insecure after her father died when she was youngster -- a youngster, evoked a sense of taste. guest: i guess it was just an eight and she seemed to have had it. there is some suggestion that her grandfather who lost all three have his adult children and was therefore able to -- interested in taking care of his grandchildren, provided money to pay for her. cleveland was not as wealthy as some of the other presidents who owned large amounts of land and were slaveholders, but cleveland was not a poor man either. when she married him, there was money for her to be able to purchase very nice clothing. host: did she set trends? guest: she set some. the one she is the most famous for, although it may not be a true story, but it certainly has gotten a lot of press, and that .s getting rid of the bus and it had kind of gone out of
fashion in the 1870s. then a french man by the name of charles werth decided to bring it back so could sell more fabric. needed more fabric to drape over this metal contraption that was from the waist over the hips. were looking for a story, and they said anything about mrs. cleveland sells. she quit wearing a bustle. the whole public -- public believed it. all women had their dresses remade. when france's went shopping, she asked for a bustle, and they said, mrs. cleveland, we heard you quit wearing them. since we heard that emma and everybody quit asking for them, we move them to the basement. if you want one, we will go down and get one for you. francis was with her companion and said, well, if they say i have stopped wearing a bustle, i guess i will have to stop wearing a bustle. she had all of her close remade the next day. day.othes remade the next
guest: i think that is remarkable reflection of how important all of that coverage is. they can use all the extra ones as catchers masks, she said. that is one thing i love about francis. host: we should make the point reform was very applicable to the clothing women were wearing was very constructive. it was a movement along with the women's suffrage movement release women from these constricted pieces of clothing. it was the big battle of the conservative view versus the more liberal view. did francis get involved in this at all? guest: not directly, but it is interesting because if you look theirtographs of her at summer place, she was dressed very casually. but shearing a dress, and her mother are in bathing costumes. ,he is wearing simple shift
away from the puppy sleeves, all the ornamentation. when she was in public, she was going to dress in way that she thought the public expected her to look. host: back to phone calls. judith and marion, massachusetts. your question? caller: i am calling to say my husband and i own the house that the cleveland's rented for two .ummers in marion they came to marion because richard watson gilder had given a talk at wells college and had met mrs. cleveland. she thought her husband was under a lot of stress. when they found out there was good fishing off of marion, they came during the summer for four summers in between his two terms. they also have the only child that was born in the white house, esther, and their oldest daughter, ruth, she was supposed
to have been named after her, and their next daughter, marion, born in 1895, is named after marion because they loved living here so much. had receptions here and were very accessible to the people of marion. the people from marion are very fond of the memories of the cleveland's. host: what is the house like today? is it still in the style of the time, or has it been renovated? guest: it has been added onto. lived in it when it was more like a farmhouse. i had quite a few photographs of them sitting on the porch. later on in 1891 or 1892, it was made into a much larger house of the shingle style that was popular for houses on the water. so it changed. actually, grover cleveland
wanted to buy this house, but the owner then named a very high price, and so he decided -- he was a frugal man -- he decided not to buy it and went down and bought a house called grey gables. host: you may be getting a phone call from our guest. take you for sharing your own personal connection to the cleveland history. we are going to quickly run out of time on this important first term of the cleveland's. how involved was she at all in any of the aspects, any of these big issues of his residency? -- presidency? issue she biggest was involved in was the copyright. would you agree with that? guest: in terms of her perk -- direct involvement, yes. she is going beyond the parlor politics of having people over and talking and that kind of retail politics. she is even doing things like going to rallies to support this
legislation. them at thelding first presbyterian church in town. she would go there unaccompanied by the president. she would make sure she was directly associated with this legislation. guest: there is also a connection between what was going on in marion, massachusetts and the support of the copyright because that was where richard watson gilder, the owner of "century magazine" and his wife have started the arts students league. at is how francis met the actor jarvis jefferson and mark twain and several well-known writers of that time. that is how she got involved. then she became very supportive of the copyright. i guess we should tell your viewers that the issue with the the reverse of the tariff issue. the issue was that american writers were not able to get royalties if their works were sold abroad.
what the effort was to get these international protections for american authors so they would be able to get royalties on their works were sold internationally. guest: when you talk about the major, the major political issues of the day outside of the things francis was directly involved in, tariff reform, the huge debate over the gold standard versus replacing it with something that was based on a silver or with legislation regarding the native american lands and assimilation, any kind of legislation dealing with the massive increase of immigration into america, how america is transformed, she is really not involved in any of that to any extent. there is one particular story -- during the first term in 1887 -- the new york fire department asks her to go ahead and come up to be part of a public event.
she writes back saying that she is not going to attend because it is her view of the role of in first lady to not engage these kinds of public ceremonies without the presence of her husband. the head of the new york fire department gets a little ticked off and writes to the president and says, president cleveland, i agree with her position, however, it is up to her, and if this is her concept of what the role of the first lady is. guest: i'm not sure that was her decision. [laughter] host: did they travel during the first term? guest: yes, they had a very successful western and southern tour. guest: historically important. guest: correct me if i am wrong, this was the first time since
the end of the civil war where a president embarked on this extensive of the two were to south as well as the west, which was gaining and population. -- in population. letters to francis say, get some bodyguards, some protection. she writes letters back and been a wonderful intuit -- terrific tour. i'm so thankful nobody got killed. the crowds were just enormous. they actually made coins with her image on it and they handed it out. host: we are up to the 1888 election which pits grover cleveland, who stands for reelection, against benjamin harrison of indiana. what were the big issues? i thinkhe biggest issue is the economy is
thely starting to tear, but major part of the issue is really about partisan politics, theyally about making sure can shift the monetary standard to silver, that the republicans were able to get back into the white house. got a got to get back, get back to new york. benjamin harrison ends up being this compromise candidate. he was a bit of a cold fish. political cartoonists have their way with him. they would depict him in this huge overcoat and is old- fashioned hat, suggesting he is wearing his grandfather's close. obviously his grandfather was william henry harrison, former president. thes sort of riding connection into the white house.
the important thing about the election in terms of our understanding, two things, and the first thing is that it is the first thing of a big-money election. this makes campaign finance history. the republicans put 3 million into this race. race.million into this they forget about the popular vote. they want to focus on strategically applying this money to win new york am a, and $3 million is an enormous amount of money, more than has gone into any kind of election up to that point. then another issue is about, what do you do about grover cleveland's greatest card? a republican one said at the time that it was one thing to go after grover cleveland, and it is another thing to go after to trybeat them both --
to beat them both. we are back into this bareknuckle kind of politics, which they -- republicans bring up the story -- grover cleveland is abusing francis. rumors of spousal abuse during this campaign. , true or untrue? guest: i'm pretty much convinced it is untrue. grover loved to veto legislation. did not always go with her to the theater. a woman did not go on escorted. a lot of times she went with a member of congress or somebody on the white house staff. the story is that a supporter from congress, senator waterson, took her to apply, came back, had a chat with with the president, said good evening, and that is allegedly when he
beat her and beat her mother. there was a minister from massachusetts, reverend pendleton, who started saying these vile things from the the situation with the illegitimate child, getting out in front of the story, francis writes a letter that is sent to all the papers. as we are talking about, she is not supposed to be political and she is supposed to stay in her sphere, this letter goes out with her signature that says, i wish all the women of this country are as fortunate as i too have such a kind and caring husband. here's the interesting thing about the letter i'm even though it is her signature -- if you look at the actual letter, it is not her handwriting. the chief ofn by staff. host: it was crafted within the administration. guest: it was their way to deal with it. some contradictions when
we are talking about grover cleveland and the deployment francis and political ways -- the way the democrats use for during the election, you've got to tamper down this particular is in but this election fact the one election in which the image of the first lady is employed in direct political ways, more than any other election in american history. in the 19 -- 1888 election, the democratic party is dependent on francis cleveland. host: this comment -- in fact, here is her quote --
she sounds supremely confident. guest: supremely confident. to be honest with you, i think the minute they hit new york which is where they lived for the next few years, she started campaigning for him. nott: part of it is he did lose the 19th -- 1888 election. outpaced harrison by tens of thousands of votes. but he was swamped in the electoral system. president other than fdr to win more than two elections. host: the republicans were ahead of the democrats into doing this electoral college strategy. guest: absolutely. host: we have another smithsonian video. as will talk about the political partner -- this will talk about the political partner and the roles it played in the election that year. [video clip] >> francis cleveland is so popular.
people are imitating her clothes, her hairstyle. a piece of want francis for themselves. they wanted to feel like they owned the first lady. of the first lady became extremely popular. you can purchase your own pictures of mrs. cleveland to have in your home. based on these pictures, advertisers and manufacturers make souvenirs that you can purchase and have mrs. cleveland in your house, in your home. you can purchase a small painted glass portrait, you can have plates of mrs. cleveland. mrs. cleveland can convince you to buy a product, including bindingeric thread, the country and the first couple together. she is used in campaigns. grovere have grover -- cleveland running for president, we also have mrs. cleveland running for first lady.
this is a set of campaign playing cards or you are actually electing a president emma vice president, and first lady. vice president, and first lady. and the second administration, she looks a bit different, a young mother, a confident matron. this is a pretty piece you could have in your home, a print of francis cleveland. notice that the image is used in this ribbon. the cleveland's visited the world fair. we are looking at a souvenir that not only commemorates the world's fair but also the cleveland's visit to the fair. host: they are moving to new york. why do they choose new york city for their next stop? host: i think that was probably a good place for francis with her interest in the arts and cleveland got a job. host: what did he do? guest: he worked for a law firm. andattorney for jpmorgan
several other extremely well- known and financially well off and influential people -- he was considered counsel. he was not practicing law as much as overseeing activities within the law firm. host: the suggestion was it was an immediate bid to reclaim the white house? guest: yes, they kind of launched back into it. the fact of him winning the popular vote continues the democrats in thinking that they will be able to recapture new york. there are some adjustments they can do in order to get back into the white house. much question that cleveland was going to be the candidate in the 19 -- 1892 election. what steps did they need to take to shore up their electoral vote so that they can get right back? host: she also gives birth to the couple's first child named
ruth. there are a number of questions, this one from holly -- what is the story? guest: curtiss candy company developed this candy bar. ruth cleveland tragically died of disparate in 1904. she would've been about 12 years old at that point. 1909,ndy bar came out in but there have been a lot of songs, as we may get to in the show, songs, images, just as they used mr. and mrs. cleveland in the 1988 election -- 1888 election, they used mr., mrs., and baby ruth in the election. they named the candy bar for her. the kindergarten movement was a big social movement in the country at the time, which
was designed to do what? guest: it was designed to help americanized immigrant children and their mothers. the idea of being able to put children into a school setting in which you could begin to teach them their numbers and letters, to speak english, american customs, patriotism, and then it was also a tool with which children were learning, mothers would learn with them. mothers would take that knowledge back and bring it to the husband and all the children in the family. host: we should say about immigration in the country at this time, it was a critically important issue. lots of waves of immigrants. >> it is extraordinary. it is the greatest. of mass immigration in america. in terms of percentage of the population. its 500,000 people coming in every year. they are german. they are irish. there are catholics. they are eastern europeans.
the demographic change that the american population is going through in this major movement from a mainly a growing population to one that is based in the cities and is focused more on manufacturing. it is having a major impact on american culture. there's the question question about how do you assimilate these immigrants. how do you deal with temperance
as a political issue? you have people who enjoy a pint or two at the end of the day. these kind of issues that are coming up are the kind of things that are in her sphere. especially when you're talking about what is going on in bigger cities like new york. what do you do for the people will have the least resources among them. kindergarten was a way to get at that. >> she did. she had a kindergarten for ruth. daniel lamotte was back as the chief of staff. both men had children about the same age. there was a kindergarten in the white house. frances was active in higher education. she founded a college. she was very active with their alma mater. >> the 1892 election was a rematch between benjamin harrison and grover cleveland. the first lady and mrs. harrison died just before the election all stop how did that affect the election? >> how to that affects benjamin
harrison? he was never terribly interested in campaigning. it does put a little bit of an impact. it impacted him negatively. he had no gusto. harrison suffered major defeats during his presidency. the economy was going into a tank. there was not anything that he could do about it. the republican party was splintering. his secretary of state resigned right before the end of the presidency. he wanted to see if he could get one last bite at the nomination apple. the democrats are finding a better recipe to call lasts. in the 1892 election, it was the
backdrop. >> in 1892, frances's production comes true. there was economic uncertainty in the country. president cleveland returned to office. soon after was one of the most interesting presidential stories. he is the only president to serve two nonconsecutive terms. he gets to numbers in the lineup. soon after, they discovered a spot in his mouth. he was a cigar smoker. it leads to an interesting story in which frances cleveland was involved. >> he called his doctor because
the spot bothered him. they decided that it was probably cancerous. esther was born in the white house. they went to a rental house that they had been renovating in the cleveland park section. all of a sudden, there was an announcement in the paper that they changed their plans. mrs. cleveland wanted to take her baby to winter's day in massachusetts. she wanted to enjoy the wind and breeze. frances goes on a yacht with her friends. the yacht comes back and grover cleveland gets on it. in the meantime, to dispel some
rumors, they said that he was on a diet program. they said he was on the 1890s version of weight watchers. he is gone for a month on the yacht. the press starts to say, what is going on, mr. president? frances says, he's just having a good time fishing. he needs the rest. .he needs this time away. finally, he arrives. he has to go back for a final operation. a reporter finally breaks the story. the administration, unfortunately, decided to discredit him. she wrote to joseph jefferson
and said, when you think a child would have more sense than that? >> this is an incredible tale. the president is off the coast of the united states being operated on for cancer surgery. yes his entire upper jaw removed. he is with a prosthesis. and, he is hidden from the press. >> daniel lamont and frances said that he was just off on a fishing trip. they tried to cover every step that they could. >> there are fears that the economy would take further. >> this is the issue. there are bigger things at stake, in terms terms of the american economy. the markets are very jittery.
the vice president, who was the grandfather of adlai stevenson, was not someone who is seen as being reliable. his supporters believed that any hints that the president was in danger at all, in terms of his health, would send the markets further into the tank. all of the investors would pull out and accelerates a tank that was already in full swing. they had to maintain the liquidity in the markets. the only way to do that was to keep this completely secret. we're not talking about a little secret. they have to do a surgery to make sure that that there are no external scars. >> he sounded like he was purposely ok.
>> it must've been a skill to learn how to speak with that. >> my question has to do with what mrs. cleveland did after she left office. the next democratic first lady, mrs. wilson, got involved in international affairs and attended democratic conventions. so did eleanor roosevelt. jacqueline kennedy worked to save places like grand central station. did frances get involved in any way? did she attends democratic conventions? did she use her influence politically? >> we will get to that story and a few minutes. thanks for asking that. that is an important question. patricia, your question. >> hello susan.
i never miss your friday night program. my grandfather -- there is a chapter -- my grandfather was appointed as he on a dirt secretary of state. his wife is frances's closest friend in aurora. they often visited the white house. frances was the godmother to my father. i still have the long dress. my question is this, kamala willard's aunt. how did frances feel about the temperance movement? >> i lost track of catherine willard.
frances introduced catherine willard to mr. baldwin. she honored that up until the latter part of her life. unlike the hayes', she served alcohol. >> it is not a policy issue of hers. the temperance movement was not just about temperance. -- were the biggest critics of her in the first term. >> whether it was her dresses or her low necklines. >> i found myself very busy with my social duties beginning again and my two babies.
i give so much time to the children because i won't be cheated by the babyhood by anything. frances cleveland held weekly summits for working women. did she continue that during her second term? >> she did not. she scaled back the social calendar. she said it was necessary from a diplomatic standpoint. they tried to get out of the white house to a house that they
had in another part of washington. >> there was concern about the cleveland children at that time. people will concern. how do the cleveland's approach this? >> people decided that they did not like her. she started closing the white house gates so that the public could not see the children armor when they were out on the grounds. >> we have another video on the cleveland children. >> one of the children has always been popular with the public. when she became first lady, she was a young bride. she developed her style. when grover cleveland was reelected, both baby ruth and the harrison grandchild were part of the campaign.
this is a piece of sheet music. the music talks about the two babies vying for who will be the next baby in the white house. during the second term, the cleveland's had their second child. her name was esther. esther cleveland. she has eyes that open and close. the public was so fascinated with them. every time they went outside, mrs. clinton was afraid that people would try to pick up the children. they felt that the first children needed to be protected. they were part of the american family. mrs. cleveland had a second home. they only stayed in the white house during the social season. they had a private residence the rest of the time. >> her approach to protecting the children made her less
popular with the american public. the economy continue to be challenged. by the time they finished their second tour of duty in the white house, what was the american public's view of the cleveland's? >> the economy was in the midst of the worst depression in american history. it lasted five or six years. unemployment was above 10%. he was seen as being able to do nothing about it. in fact, he was not able to do very much about it. frances was seen as being much more withdrawn. these questions about the first family great game for the very first time. there is a reporter was snipped a lock off of bruce hare. there were concerns about the
security. the white house security staff goes from four to 27. she is seen as being much more aloof to the american people. she is not the same personality that we came to expect during the first term. you combine these two things together, they cannot wait to get out of the white house by the end of their first term. >> maplewood, new jersey. hello, sarah. >> cleveland is buried in princeton, new jersey. along with ruth and frances. i had no idea. i figured that out. >> we're about to learn the story of of their post-white house years. he was a new jersey native. after he ran for the white house
for the second and final time, how did they decide where to live next? >> what is interesting is, she said that they could not go out and look for a house on their own. they had agents. finally, they both came down for breakfast and one said to the other one, i had an idea where we should live. the other one said, i did, too. they decided on princeton, new jersey. it was the best from the time that they got married. they were a family unit. they got involved in princeton university. she got involved in the growing
number of women who graduated college. they adopted princeton students who did not have family close by or money. they provided a home and support for them. cleveland worked with the life insurance association. he wrote articles. >> they had more children. their first was richard. in 1903, she gave birth to their last child. >> how long after that did the president died? >> he died in 1908. he probably had cancer. it was a slow, drawn out, painful death. he died in the house in princeton.
>> there are a number of comparisons drawn between frances cleveland and jacqueline onassis kennedy, the public fascination with her and that she remarried when she became a widow. what is the story about her remarriage? how long after his death did she remarry? >> it was 1913. it was to a professor at princeton. he had moved to wales from princeton. he is a professor of archaeology. there will a couple years apart from each other. his name was thomas hobson.
she made a point of saying that she and the president had very little in common. he found boring when she found interesting. it is different with the second husband. they had a lot of insurance -- they had allotted share interest. interest in traveling. -- they had a lot of the same interest. interest in traveling. they had much better relationship. >> how public was mrs. cleveland's life after grover cleveland's death? >> she had to manage the press. it waned over time. she was active during world war i. she was active with an organization which made him made garments that they gave to nonprofits for giving out in
emergency situations. you could still read these items about her. the session was nowhere near. >> she continued to be against women's suffrage. >> she was the vice president of the league of anti-suffrage from 1913 on tell women got the right to vote. >> what was the public's reaction to a first lady who is campaigning so vigorously against women's suffrage? >> it is interesting that there is this lets. there was a debate on whether or not it is necessary for women to have the right to vote. whether or not it is important part of women's role in life.
mrs. cleveland exercised her own right to vote. yet, she was still part of a way of thinking about women and their place in american society that developed in the 1870s and 1880s. that first wave feminism. if you want to be the best woman that you can possibly be, that is by exercising authority within your own special realm. this is what grover cleveland thought about what women should be able to do. so, opposing women's voting, and also her language during world war i and when she was doing in terms of trying to be active in supporting american patriotism. the qaeda speeches that she did during world war i are incredible pieces of rhetoric. she becomes a very different
woman after her marriage to her second husband. >> richards first wife was an alcoholic. so, they were divorced. frances -- mrs. cleveland thought it was important for them to have a mother. mrs. cleveland helped to raise anne cleveland robertson. >> she was my grandmother. this one incident happened on a
sunday night in new hampshire where we spent the summer. on sunday nights, we used to get together the family and the cleveland family to sing hymns. we all really enjoyed that. but, each person had their own favorite hymn. one sunday, i got together with a group and went bowling with my cousin and square dancing friends. we had a very good time. i do not think there is anything
terribly malicious about it. my godmother closest friends called my grandmother and said, where was ann during the him session. my grandmother called me to her desk. she said, with a quiet smile, she would like to have me back for the rest of the summer. she did it because my godmother, who was a very dear lady, was very influential and very strict. my grandmother was trying to be strict with me. i appreciated that. i obviously went back and sang hymms. >> your grandmother didn't drink because of the temperance
pledge. >> my grandmother was older. i stop by. i love to see her. i stop by. -- i stopped by. she had a poor set had a lovely view of the mountains. she was having her breakfast and she was taking her medicine with her breakfast. she announced, with a laugh, that she was taking her medicine that was supposed to be good for her heart. grandmother had always been a key told her.
she allowed alcohol to be served in the white house. she herself had never had whiskey. i can assure you that she did not like it as medicine. we thought that was pretty funny. that was the way she was. she had a wonderful sons of humor. she can laugh at herself. she did not appreciate whiskey. >> that whole interview runs about six minutes long. and cleveland robertson -- ann cleveland robertson. >> we are creating a a repository up on our website of first ladies. we have just a short time. i want to get larry and from frankfort, kentucky.
>> good evening. a question for dr. dunlap. local history suggest that eleanor lindsay was a very close friend of frances because they were both younger women married to older men. i wonder if dr. dunlap knows about this relationship and, more generally, what her relationship was with otherwise in washington? >> i do not know anything about the relationship with ms. lindsay. she did an excellent job of having friendships with some of the older washington wives. that was held by the fact that older wives took her under her wing. she was a young bride.
they respected her. she had a great relationship with them. >> did future presidents are other first ladies ever invite france's cleveland act the white house? >> she was it invited in 1913. >> there is only one criticism of the remarriage. for the most part, people embraced it. she was back in washington a number of times. she met sherman and eisenhower. she maintains her level of celebrity. >> this is the dunlap biography. >> frank was originally a given name. it was a nickname that she went by. >> what the grover cleveland color?
>> frank. >> in your closing paragraphs, you make the case that she has been lost to history but shouldn't be. why? >> she was strong on education and the arts. >> attaches the role of first lady? >> she changed it in terms of putting education in the forefront. she took care of children. she was very concerned about them. >> where would you put her in the pantheon of first ladies? >> she's the first national celebrity first lady. i think we're talking about the development of of our understanding of the institution of first lady. she is the first one in which we didn't think about what the uses are all the celebrity, and good ways and bad ways. the first family was owned by
>> next week, caroline harrison, wife of benjamin harrison. she made the first speech by a sitting first lady. you can see it live next monday night at 9:00 on c-span, c- span3, and c-span radio. you can find out more about america's first ladies on our website. there is a book about the first ladies published by c-span and the white house his store coal association. it your copy for $12.95.
>> c-span, created in 1979, wrought to you as a public service by your television provider. president obama takes part in memorial day observances at arlington national ceremony -- cemetery. our discussion about how media covers war. on the next washington journal, the enforcement of tax exempt laws with the former director of the irs and the senior white house correspondent for u.s. news and world report will discuss his new book. washington journal begins live at 7:00 eastern on c-span.
the last full measure of devotion they gave themselves to serve the greater need and for those who did survive and came back home alive they join in praise of comrades who were slain and highly resolve to, most highly resolved that these dead shall not have died in vain ♪ ♪ in vain beyond the call of duty were their deeds
major general michael lenington, commanding general united states army, military district of washington. ms. catherine conden, director arlington national cemetery program. general martin dempsey, chairman joint chiefs of staff. the honorable chuck hagel, secretary of defense. >> ♪ [a horn playing] >> ladies and gentlemen, the president of united states.
>> ♪ ["hail to the chief" playing"] >> ladies and gentlemen, the chaplain. >> let us pray. almighty and eternal god, we ask that your present be upon us this day, a day which we as a nation come together on this hallowed ground to honor without hesitation those brave men and thosewho gave all they had for our nation's freedom. it is because of their selfless service at servicevalor that week -- service and valor that we can stand here this day
without fear knowing that we can continue sharing a lasting peace with liberty. greater love has no one than this than someone laydown his life for his friends. let us not forget those who gave the ultimate sacrifice. therefore, we continue. those who and died for our country in war and remembering too that this gift of peace often comes from long struggles, the kind of peace that is bound from the blood of heroes, brave men and women who answered the call, saying send me. brave men and women who witnessed the crucible of war and failed to come home. let us know celebrate this peace and long for an everlasting peace that can come only from
you onlygod. lord help us to recommit on our own lives so the service of our great nation, carrying the torch of freedom for generations yet to come. we, your people, give you thanks. amen. and amen. >> please join the united states air force band and the senior master sgt in singing our national anthem. >> drumroll. >> ♪ ["national anthem" being sung] ♪
>> ladies and gentlemen, general dempsey. >> mr. president, members of congress, distinguished guests, veterans, fellow americans, and most especially the families of our missing and fallen warriors. welcome. 150 years ago this november at the soldiers national cemetery in gettysburg, pennsylvania, president abraham lincoln delivered one of the most monumental and enduring speeches in american history. in his gettysburg address delivered at a ceremony not unlike this one, to an audience much like you, eloquently memorialized those who gave their lives so that future generations of americans might live in freedom. he also reiterated the very
principles of our democracy. but lincoln did something more in his 272 were addressed. he challenged the audience to honor the memory of the fallen by every committing themselves to the virtues for which they fought and died. after a humbly miscalculating the lasting nature of his words, he urged, "for us to be dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead, we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion." how powerful, poetic, how proper. we stand today in this cemetery, arlington a, created during the war which lincoln spoke. now it's home to our nation's fallen from all of its source. if we stand here thankful stewards of the blessings that these fallen have passed on to us.
but we do not stand alone. today across our great nation in crowded cities or in country towns grateful citizens will bowed their heads in honor of our fallen heroes. that is devotion. whether gathered in a picnic or parade or baseball game or a solemn cemetery like this one, americans will remember that the peace and liberty we enjoy each and every day were made possible by the devotion and sacrifice of a long line of brave men and women in uniform. that line has continued to grow. today, america's uniform the sons and daughters are on patrol in afghanistan and many other places of on the frontiers of freedom throughout the world. our young men and women are serving as honorably and as bravely today as their forefathers. when the nation called them to duty, they came. i'm inspired each and every day by their sense of purpose, their personal courage, their
character, and their confidence. there are the best lead, the best trained, and the best equipped force on the face of the earth. as a nation, we must ensure that they remain so. today i join everyone here and across this great land in honoring those who have willingly sacrificed while donning the cost of our nation. we honor their loved ones who nobly carry on. today i ask all of us to reflect on this great nation founded on service and sacrifice. let us rededicate ourselves to the best of america, it's freedom, its responsibility, and its promise, and made peace be our ultimate cause. may god bless our fallen, are missing, our veterans and their families. may we be forever grateful and may god bless america. thank you. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, listen now as the sergeant from the u.s. air force performs "america
>> ladies and gentlemen, secretary hagel. [applause] >> mr. president, mrs. obama, secretary shinseki, general dempsey, fellow veterans, service members, and distinguished guests. my wife entire greatly honored to be with you today to observe memorial day. together we gathered to remember america's sons and daughters who sacrificed everything in defense of our nation. for generations, americans have
set aside this day to honor those who have fought and died to keep our nation safe. civil war veterans, supreme court justice oliver wendell holmes once said, "every year in the spring at the height of the symphony of flowers and love and life there comes a pause. through the silence we hear the lonely pipe of death. every memorial day, america is reminded of these selfless individuals, america's quiet heroes. we also think of america's new generation of defenders, protecting our interests in every corner of the globe, preserving our freedoms and our way of life. they worked for a more peaceful and hopeful world. as general macarthur said, "the soldier, above all other people, prays for peace, for he must suffer and bear the deepest wounds and scars of war." the memories of american heroes.
arlington and around america have kept alive our families and communities. this memorial day we honor those families who are heroes left behind. the honor them in appreciation for the sacrifices they have endured. we also honor the perseverance and resilience of our military families today, for they are dealing with all the challenges of life. america thanks you. all of us in positions of trust and responsibility must always make decisions that are worthy of the sacrifices of those who serve our country. when he referred to the mystic bonds of memory, we honor america's fallen patriots by striving to be worthy of their great sacrifices as we work towards making
it is now my honor to introduce someone who has shown on wavering commitment to our service men and women and their families and to lead tarnation today with great strength and wisdom -- ladies and gentlemen, help me welcome, our commander in chief, the president of united states of america. [applause] >> thank you. thank you. please be seated, thank you very much. good morning, everybody. i want to thank secretary chuck hagel, not only for the introduction but for your lifetime of service. a sergeant in the army to secretary of defense and always a man who carries with it the memory of friends and fallen heroes from vietnam.