Skip to main content

tv   Public Affairs  CSPAN  July 5, 2013 9:00am-2:01pm EDT

9:00 am
nutrition is in this. i think that is a big problem. a child can't learn if they are not getting proper nutrition, even at a young age. and i want to know what you think about getting physical education back in school. it seems like a lot of people i know who served in the service had a background of athletics. football, basketball, or whatever. that is one of the most important things, i think, is physical education in school. i had it. i played ports. a lot of times that is the only place they will get it -- magician and some kind of physical education at school. it all goes hand in hand. thank you. guest: that is a great question. is on obesity, childhood obesity. -- cdc's dead -- it isn't the cdc said that it is an epidemic. high-quality pre-k program, working with parents, coaching
9:01 am
parents, talking about nutrition, talking about physical activity and a healthy lifestyle. 80% of our seniors in high school have no organized physical fitness anymore. we need to bring that back there to because we need folks that come both operate high-tech equipment but can also go out there to various austere locations. part of the proposal is to ensure that we tackled attrition, tackle obesity, and we tackle obviously any other issues that might hold the person back when they enter kindergarten. host: on obesity, how much responsibility all's on the parents versus the school system? guest: we look at this as a team sport. obesity cannot be a spectator sport. everybody has to play in it. there is a role for government, for schools, for the individuals and families and certainly the beverage and food industries out there to bring us all together obesitythis increase in
9:02 am
. some reports out there say children that are obese -- or overweight by the age of 10 or 15 stan 80% chance to be obese by the time they grow up to be adults. type of hit the obese number, that is just a hard thing to turn around. in the military alone, we lose about 1200 kids a year before the first enlistment is over because they cannot meet the weight standards. something we have to tackle as a team. host: you support the 2010 healthy hunger free kids act? according to "the detroit free press" --
9:03 am
host: that according to a recent story on the new federal rule bans on junk food in schools by "the detroit free press there, joe from illinois on the republican line. caller: good morning. i would like to tell the general -- i am from the days when we got drafted into the military. in high school, we were told we have to register for the draft at age 18, our 18th birthday. the kids are not doing that today. they do not even teach them that in high school. , i bet the guy sitting next to you might not have even registered for the draft. and did no military service. there is no patriotism in this country anymore. and the schools teach -- we do not want to see a soldier with a gun. we want to see a soldier with a flashlight. all this anti-violence nonsense from these liberals make me six
9:04 am
-- makes me sick. that is why we need different education. the military is about fighting. it is not about holding a flashlight. can you please answer me? thank you. guest: the military is all about serving the needs of our country. whether it is armed conflict or responded to a natural disaster, that is what the nation calls upon us to do. host: james writes in on twitter -- do we do about the programs that are not high-quality? we spend a lot of time talking about high-quality preschool. if you could go over definitions. importantis a port -- to note this is not a free ride, so to speak. we expect the states to meet standards. around having high- quality teachers paid at a commensurate level. are agelassrooms that appropriate. curriculum that is age- appropriate. working with parents.
9:05 am
basically the states supporting their education systems by starting way back there for the three of four year old and working backup. so there is accountability to ensure taxpayer dollars are going to the right type of program. host: are the definitions of what meets high-quality? guest: that is to be worked out. again, we see from parents, from teachers, from states that have had successful programs, those things i just mentioned as far as being key to successful high- quality programs. to a viewer from washington dc on the independent line. you are on with the general seip . answer i would like to the previous caller's question to the general who obviously did not know the answer. since 1978, every child in the united states born with a selective service number. there is no board you have to sign up to. and then i would also like to
9:06 am
-- obesity,bese largess, and general low iq. the obesity i would like to talk about is the obesity in the pentagon budget. and the largess that we get inside the pentagon a budget. i would also like to talk about the general low iq of the generals in this country. iraq wary got the wrong, completely that the afghan war wrong, it cost us -- host: we're talking about pre-k funding here and talked about the issues we have been talking about the last half-hour. is it a program you think it is right for the military? caller: anti-americanism in the world right now. host: general, if you want to respond to that. guest: that is a hard one to respond to. he was all over the map. i would tell you that we in the military are concerned about all
9:07 am
the tax dollars given to us to spend and we look to try to do it efficiently and effectively and still maintain the edge that we need to in order to ensure that we have a strong military that can respond to any and all situations. host: tyrone is from country club hills, eleanor, on the democratic line. good morning. are you there? caller: yes. host: go ahead. you are on. caller: i wanted to run down a couple of things. i appreciate the general. hisi want him to expand thinking that here in illinois ast young kids can't pass urinal test for marijuana -- host: tyrone, you are going in and out. caller: yes. you would be proud that
9:08 am
the child-parent program that attracted 100,000 kids -- starrett -- staying in the schools that school system until they graduate. 29% increase in graduation rates and significant decline in children who get on the wrong side of the law. a significant decline in kids that needed special education or had to repeat grades out there. so, there are programs out there, high-quality, that will ensure that the folks can pass the test, whatever the test may be, in order to graduate from high school and graduate on time and be ready to enter society as a member of the military or as a person ready to be part of the workforce. host: he was talking about drug tests. you talk about criminal records disqualifying folks for service in the military. what level of offense disqualifies you from service? serious misdemeanor or felony will keep you out of the military. host: are the numbers in terms
9:09 am
of how many people it is qualified for those reasons? guest: we show the number, out of the 75%, 10% tied to criminal type of activity. but i don't have the specific numbers. host: your thought is more funding in pre-k investment to help people from going down the stretch later in life? guest: if you look at the preschool that followed children for 40 years -- host: a study? guest: it studied the folks who entered into strong pre-k programs and follow 40 years, and they saw a significant decrease in folks that that involved with the law, the wrong side of the law. the same thing if you look at parent-teacher program in chicago. were nott did not -- part of the program, 70% greater being -- committing some type of serious criminal offense out there by the time they were age 18. your group talking
9:10 am
about anything to do with the curriculum for preschool? a viewer writes in on twitter -- to eache leave that up state. this is a state and federal partnership. for those states who do not have programs, the money is there to set them up. those who have the programs can either expand on them. -- as far asg comedies of the steps you need to take and the types of of programs you need to have. each state, their goal out there as far as what they want a 12th grader who graduate high school to look like, to be like. so, they are looking at how they tie that into high-quality pre-k program that complements what happens when they enter the k-12 system. host: talking with retired general norman seip, executive advisory council member on
9:11 am
mission readiness, military leaders for kids. you can see their report ess.org.nreadin commitment to kindergarten is a commitment to national security. we have a few minutes left. tracy is waiting for minneapolis, minnesota, on the republican line. good morning, tracy. caller: good morning, guys. a couple of things. the general said this is a national security issue, or the army does. the unionsn that might consider taking a pay cut or reducing some of their stranglehold on the system for the good of the nation? how do we know that the whole public's cool system is not the cause for some of these things, and why would we want to give them more money? a great question. the aspect of national security really comes down to do we have enough qualified young men and women to enter the military as we compete against private industry, public service out there to ensure that we get the
9:12 am
same high-quality folks that they are looking for. so, we are looking to expand the pool and looking to to eliminate or minimize the disqualifier's which is poorly educated, obesity, as well as having a criminal record. as far as the school systems themselves, again, without trying to dissect each school system out there, we look at those programs that brought results back that parents expect when you have your children involved -- enrolled in a pre-k program, what the teachers expect, what administrators expect. we as the american public expect to win a person enters the pre-k program enters the k-12 program, and in the end as a high school graduate. host: a comment from a viewer on twitter -- it is not a preschool problem, it is a work ethic problem. i will work hard to learn, i will work hard to help my child learn. that he is from coldwater mississippi on the independent line.
9:13 am
he is -- you are on with the general seip. caller: i was watching and i wanted to comment on the role of parent in the education of their children. we think -- host: we are hearing you. caller: yes. of the first teachers. and we have left that responsibility to the school system through pre-k and other programs. but parents are the first teachers. the child is the next one responsible for his education. and then it is the teacher's responsibility to bring that child up to par where they need to be and keep them going. they have left the teaching job up to the school system. guest: we don't disagree with you. in fact, part of the criteria for -- to qualify someone to be able to take the label and say we have a high-quality pre-k
9:14 am
program out there is parent coaching and family involvement. because you are absolutely right, at the end of the day, it is about families being involved with their children and being involved with the school system and being involved with elected officials to and sure we all come together for the young man and woman to be successful. host: jerome is from pennsylvania on our democratic line. you're on with the general seip. caller: ok. first of i would like to thank the cable companies for c-span. to my knowledge, there is a male aton that a young age 18 must register for this selective service and if he does not register with the selective service, then he is not eligible for any other federal program. role doesale, that
9:15 am
not apply. so, i think that that is a .iscrimination based on gender and i will take your response off the air. guest: think you, jerome. don't know the law well enough to be able to comment on that. i know one of the earlier cawley's desk callers say you are automatically registered but for me to dive into the details as far as female and male and whether you are eligible or not eligible for federal programs is beyond my scope as a retired fighter pilot. the: as we talk about standards folks have to join the of 17-24-nd the 75% year-olds who fail the standards, can you add on the banner to the other countries have and how the united states standards compared to those? guest: i do not have the specifics on that, john, but i tell you our military continues
9:16 am
to be the most envied and moderate -- modeled after military the world. we continue to do that because we have the right standards and the right young men and women knocking on the recruiters doors and the parents and aunts and uncles -- are sending their kids forward to serve. is fromneral seip mission readiness, military leaders for kids and you can check out his report on the website. guest: thanks for having us. host: up next on c-span's "washington journal" we will have the weekly by the number segment. we will look at how the travel and tourism industry impacted the u.s. economy. we will be right back.
9:17 am
>> one of the points we make in this book -- didn't make any difference to have have direct popular elections? i think we come down on the side that, yes, it did make a difference. senators began to act like house members which, of course, not something any senator wants to hear. it means they are scavenging for votes. they actually had to go and deal with the people as opposed to, if you got a state legislature and let's say there are 26 members of your state senate, all you need are 14 votes and you could easily pay off. and they did, indeed, in some
9:18 am
cases, pay off 14 senators. paying off their mortgages in a couple of notorious cases, to buy their election. >> more with historian emeritus of the u.s. senate richard baker sunday night at 8:00 on c-span's "q&a." blackokies thought coming west they would leave behind the racism. the sun didn't shine a little more benignly on them here, but i remember one of them tell me it was even a more cruel kind of racism. i smile on the face but a dagger behind the back, it which is how they describe california. iny were not allowed to live any of the cities, not even the small towns. they were locked out. and so the only land that was available for them were these patches of alkali land. it literally when you ride up on land and you look at it it is so salty that it looks like it snowed there. this was the land available to
9:19 am
them. they build their little wooden shacks. no water here it had go into town to fetch the water. no city sewers. they had outhouses. the area.roamed it was a no man's land. >> more from mark arax on the americanses, african- who migrated to bakersfield, california, as we explore the history and literary life of bakersfield as we can on c-span two and on american history tv on c-span3. >> "washington journal" continues. the unitedweek states bureau of economic analysis released new statistics on travel and tourism spending in the first quarter of 2013. in today's america by the number segment, we will take you through that report that was released last week. with the euro of travel and tourism branch chief paul kern and david heuther of the u.s.
9:20 am
travel association. mr. kern, let's start with you. in the first quarter 2013, how did the travel and tourism industry fair compared to the of the economy? guest: sure, thanks. travel and tourism grew 6.8% in the first quarter of 2013 from 2.1% in the fourth. just to compare the growth rate of the overall economy, it was 1.8% in the first quarter. and the fourth quarter, 0.4. it was robust growth. in oneconcentrated particular industry, air transportation. ad that is a little bit of surprise, because generally the first quarter for air transportation is quite mild. so, we are in the heat of the travel season now, but we're talking about estimates for january, february, and march. travel,ssarily great yet the airlines were able to manage very robust growth.
9:21 am
host: let's put it in terms of dollars, if you could. here is a chart that the bureau of economic analysis put out showing in the first quarter of $718.7 billion -- is that correct? guest: that is. a large amount of money. this is showing what we call the direct spending on travel and tourism. that is you purchasing your airline tickets to fly to visit friends or relatives. also secondary spending on travel and tourism, which would bring the figure up quite a bit. another level of the estimates. order forer words, in the airplane to fly, we need to put fuel in the plane, so that fuel purchase by the airline is also a travel and tourism expenditure, but in this particular chart, we are not showing that. , why thisid heuther
9:22 am
uptick? guest: i think there are two reasons. is that the inflation rate and the travel sector has been relatively modest recently. travel prices are only up about 1.8% over the past year. result, we estimate right now that americans are going to take over 2 billion trips this year. which is a record high. fact that the inflation rate is low, travel is affordable, people are taking a lot of trips. that is one factor. but even more important factor is international visitations to the united states -- a lot of people do not think of travel as necessarily an export. but when you have overseas visitors coming to the united states, spending money in the united states, that is an export. yes the as if someone selling a boeing airplane to lufthansa -- just as if someone sells a boeing airplane to lufthansa.
9:23 am
through may of this year -- because the travel data form a tame out a couple of days ago -- travel exports are up close to eight percent this year compared to the first five months of last year. about 30% offor the overall u.s. export growth in the past year. visitation to the united states is very strong. that is helping support the travel industry. host: in this segment we are taking your calls and thoughts and comments and questions about panels of exports -- experts here on u.s. travel and tourism. but we also want to hear how your tourism plans have changed in the current economy. give us a ring. we split up our phone lines regionally, eastern and central time zones -- host: i would have a separate line for folks who work in the travel industry, wanted to see are seeing on the ground --
9:24 am
host: mr. kern, as we go through the numbers, give us some definitions. how do you define tourism for your purposes? guest: we are talking about travel and tourism. the reason why we use both of the terms is that business travel is an important component of travel and tourism. so, if we just say tourism, we tend to want to exclude the business traveler. slide 8,ually go to that way we can continue david point and we can look at international visitors coming into the u.s.. host: go for it. guest: we hit a record of this year 67 million. that is 4 million more than in 2012. and we have very good data on where they are coming from. not a surprise that canada is
9:25 am
our largest source of inbound tourism. mexico is second. however, there are a few countries that might be a little bit of surprise. brazil coming in at number six. china, seven. south korea, nine. host: david heuther, what surprised you about the numbers? is this what the travel industry has been experiencing recently? guest: yes, we have seen the numbers jump up pretty significantly the last few years. it may be a surprise to some viewers who are not in the travel industry that you see brazil or china or south korea. thosee visitations from three countries as well as the developing economies in general as their middle-class is becoming stronger and stronger and growing have really been a source of significant growth for the travel industry. come to theisitors
9:26 am
united states, they spend a lot of money. when the brazilians come here, on average they spend $5,000 in the united states on the trip. when you look at a chinese traveler in the united states, they spend more than $6,000. one of the reasons for that is that a lot of the costs of consumer goods are actually lower in the united states than they are for a lot of our trading partners. so, a lot of international visitors come here, spend money, go to the national parks, go shopping, and they inject a lot of money into the u.s. economy. host: some spend less in terms of their representation, number of visitors. mexico, 14.5 million visitors in 2012 and the united states but it ranks fourth behind the united kingdom and japan in terms of dollars spent. we can show you that chart as well, who is spending how much during their visits. --st:) one of the be
9:27 am
guest: one of the reasons is you have canadian and mexican travelers who are daytrippers, not in the multiple days. so, on average their spending is going to be a little less than if you are traveling from australia or from china, where if you come here -- your first trip to united states, maybe ever possibly, you will spend several weeks here. you are spending a lot more more time here and spending more money. guest: slight counterintuitive. visits from european countries have declined recently, and that is quite logical given the economic situation that europeans have been facing. their outbound travel to the united states has dropped off a little. but these other countries have certainly made up. most canadian spending the by far, followed by the japanese at over $15 billion. then folks from the united kingdom, over $10 billion, and
9:28 am
in mexico right at $10 billion and then on down the line. if folks want to follow along with these numbers, these charts are posted on the website? guest: these charts -- this particular chart would not be on the bea website but on the ita website, international trade administration, which is part of the department of commerce. host: where can. if they want to see your recent report? .uest: bea.gov host: we want to see how your travel plans have changed and tourism with the economy. chip from juneau, alaska. you are on with paul kern from the bureau of economic analysis and david heuther from the u.s. travel association. caller: thank you so much. i am calling from alaska. the cruise ship industry has completely replaced the timber industry as far as the viable in history here in alaska. unfortunately, the timber
9:29 am
industry never paid any taxes and the cruise industry does not, either, u.s. taxes. i am wondering why the cruise industry industry is able to avoid u.s. taxes. thank you. host: mr. heuther, is that for you? guest: some of that is because the activity takes place outside of the united states, sometimes the taxes are not generated. but in general, the travel industry generates a lot of taxes. butjust federal government also, equally important, for state and local employers. if you have a traveler coming from more than 50 miles away -- could be from out-of-state -- and they are coming in and spending money spending money at your local restaurants, etc. -- etc., hotels, they are paying taxes and the taxes can be used by the state and local governments to support services. fact, if you look last year at the amount of state and local taxes travelers generated, it
9:30 am
was enough to cover all of the police officers and all of the firefighters nationally. the travel industry generates a lot of taxes for state and local municipalities. guest: one poi they will go to three places and one of them is outside the united states. i believe their tax burden is reduced dramatically. that will explain some of the unusual itineraries and you might see. of the people that work on cruise ships, their income, they are paying taxes on their income. there is certainly taxes generated from cruising activity. the caller was mentioning how the travel industry has replaced -- travel jobs in alaska
9:31 am
account for 10% of the states private sector employment which is up from 10 or so years ago. it is a major employer in the state. host: we are taking your calls. we have a separate line for those who work specifically in the travel industry. give us a ring. we want to hear about your travel plans. david is up next from florida. caller: good morning. thanks for this topic. i live in central florida. i was impacted by tourism coming into our area. one of the questions i have is the foreigners that come here and they spend a lot of money buying merchandise and things , do and taking them back you have any concerns over the nsa tracking will have on visitors coming in?
9:32 am
they kind of looked to the united states freely to make the purchases freely without being tracked. now that information is obviously being tracked. do you think people will be more concerned about being so free in the united states? i am not an expert right now. what i would say is that one of the things the united states has going for it in terms of international travel is we are recognized internationally as a top destination with world-class attractions, shopping activities , national parks, etc.. at the same time, the value of the dollar right now is very competitive. along the2% or so
9:33 am
long-term average. international buyers have a lot of sending power. -- spending power. that is why you are seeing international travel in the united states to be growing at a has robust rate while other moderated at that. travel exports have the last three years roaming in double- digit rates which is what happened in more than three decades. we are in a really good place right now. i think because we have a very robust infrastructure in the united states, it allows international travelers to move to different states. that is an advantage that we have. it will continue to make travel a very strongest nation. host: take us through how the value of the u.s. dollar affects us. guest: this shows is the value of the u.s. dollar. the blue line. of theepresentative
9:34 am
average. the gold line is the growth in travel and tourism. in particular, where we have these lines, what we're pointing or theis a timeframe dollar was declining and the travel and tourism was actually spiking and the u.s. economy was actually quite flat during this time. what we see, we peel back and look at the numbers of inbound tourists which we show on a prior chart, you can see the spike in the number of individuals coming to the united states basically saying for themselves looking at the world and saying my currency will do very well when i go to the united states. i will be able to stay in nicer hotels. eat at a nice restaurant. they came in large numbers. host: we have seen spiking since about mid 2012 even as the value of the dollar has gone up -- gone down into mecca? -- gone
9:35 am
back up? guest: correct. it has continued into the recent timeframe. if we look at the prior slot, we can show you what travel and tourism does does to our deficit. everyone talks about the trade deficit and that it is large and negative. ast may not be well-known or one that is the travel and tourism does a very good job of reducing that total deficit. billiony is about $46 that travel and drew -- tourism generates insert plus -- in surplus. showinge gold line is -- guest: that is us spending our dollars. the blue line is coming here and spending their currencies. the difference between the two is the travel and tourism trade surplus. host: how many billions?
9:36 am
guest: $46 billion in 2012. host: we are taking your calls and want to hear how your travel check as plans have changed. louisiana, good morning. caller: good morning. [indiscernible] i could not help but see there were no african countries or africa as a group. our african countries spending in the united states not tracked? [indiscernible] i will take my answer off-line. it is tracked, it is not showing up on this chart, literally for space reasons. host: the top 10? guest: correct.
9:37 am
i think the top international spender in the united states i believe in south africa. i think that is the highest. the other thing i want to about the inbound tourism versus outbound tourism, it is not that americans aren't going overseas and traveling. in fact, last year, more americans actually went overseas cameinternational people to the united states. the difference is, when the international people are coming to the united states, their spending a lot more money in the united states than when americans go and travel overseas. if you look at how much americans go to china to my it $1200.nd when the chinese come here, they spend $6,000. one of the reasons for that is a mentioned earlier, in general the price of consumer goods are much lower here in the united states than our competitors.
9:38 am
you, a question for david heuther. which states get the most tourists? guest: you can look at it two ways. you could look at it in terms of differentorkers states are employed by travel and tourism. as you expect, the top states are handed a, florida, texas, new york, nevada certainly. illinois is also the top area. canada?lifornia, not guest: california. the private-sector workforce is employed with the travel industry? the number one state is hawaii. more than a third are employed by travel and tourism.
9:39 am
alaska, mississippi where more than 10% of workers private sector in the states are employed because of travelers going there. in essence in terms of is a big -- you are looking at california and texas, new york, etc.. a lot of mountain states depend on tourism significantly as well. from lakeis waiting worth, florida. good morning to you. you are on with paul kern and david heuther. caller: i have a few questions to try to weed out statistics. i noticed that canada was capita of25 a day per expenses, whereas mexico was only spending $10 a day.
9:40 am
they were down to number four. i was wondering since we are border countries, how much was that generated or how were those statistics compiled for the fromic for goods for trade either mexico or from canada coming into the united states as far as trucks? the second thing was, i was wondering if you were adding on a per capita basis for exhibitors, whether -- expenditures, whether that was what we consider immigration for workers that are over here with visas or college students that are going to college. i was wondering if that was factored into it as well? host: stay on the line and let mr. kern answer. coming tosomeone is
9:41 am
the united states and they will be compensated at the location, they are excluded to the greatest extent possible from the statistics that you see here. , we are notuestion including trade other than tourism trade. i think you mentioned a truck coming in with logs. that is certainly foreign trade but it is not tourism foreign trade. that again would also be excluded. a trucker coming up on mexico certainly, if he spends money, that expenditure would not be in these statistics. host: how would your tourism travel plans change with the economy in recent years? caller: i think what happened was, after that 9/11, we had a real drop-off with grounded planes. the biggest thing was to get confidence to get back in the
9:42 am
ai it was a little dicey. n ovolme in the network airport -- newark airport in new jersey. the thing that was happening is they were making everybody take their shoes off. people that have some weight on , it or were a little older was hard to bend over and put your shoes on. we advocated putting in she warns -- shoe horns. we still have the lines, but what i am seeing in the last four or five years is your price point right now. i think the people are shopping as thee harder as far airfare goes. they are still traveling, but they are buying their tickets two and three months ahead of time so they can get the bigges bang for their buck. host: can you talk about
9:43 am
message or interest rotation and some of the challenges that industry has faced? was anpost-9/11, there impact on the travel industry. we saw it the mystically and were the share of inbound travel felt significantly for a number of years. it bottomed out around 2010 or globalg from 70% of long-haul travel down to around 12% or so. the last couple of years we have seen a come back a bit. issues to our travel -- air travel, one of the things we have seen is in you look at wait times that have been in place when you have international visitors coming to the united states, sometimes they can be overwhelmed and wait
9:44 am
times can be quite long. one of the things we will advocate is to have increased funding for those agencies to increase personnel to reduce wait times and get international people into the united states. there can be sometimes negative effects if you have really long wait times. that word can get back to international potential travelers and they may decide not to come to the united states. they may decide to wait times will long am able i will go to a competitor. it is an issue i think that we have been working with the government to resolve. guest: we at the u.s. travel association-- host: how many people are a part of it? guest: about 60 or 70 people. we have around three or 4000 members. theepresent all assets of travel industry. we have hotels, attractions,
9:45 am
state tourism directors. we have convention and business bureaus. the whole span of the travel industry makes up our membership. is with theern bureau of economic analysis. he helped put together this report. he is a branch chief for the travel and tourism branch. we are talking about passenger air travel. if you can take us through some of the recent numbers. guest: sure. if we look at this chart on the screen, in the first quarter of 2013, we see the gold bar that is very tall, 19%. host: that is air travel? guest: that is air travel. the red is hotels or travel accommodations. host: what is the blue bar? guest: old tourism goods and services. host: it jumped up by seven percent? guest: right.
9:46 am
the primary conservator to the growth was the 19% jump in air transportation. host: coming off a time when it was following jets at the end we follow 2012? guest: correct. the prior quarters you had negative growth in air transportation. as i mentioned earlier, the first quarter points that we are looking at is not generally the best for irritation to generate a lot of revenue and a lot of income for their employees. it did happen. we look at the individual airlines as they talk about the within, and some detail they saw an acceleration in january and february. iny saw a slight soft patch march. we were expecting to see a bit more of a slowdown because of the sequester. average airline government travel makes up three or four or 5%, which is not huge but
9:47 am
certainly significant if we look at a quarter where things are generally quiet. saw a come in front, large growth rate. what we saw international routes to london, they were seeing significant increase in travelers. host: we are taking your calls and we want to hear about your tourism and travel plans and how they have changed in recent years. lines, we are doing regionally. those in the eastern and time zones can call us at (202) 585- 3880. mountain and pacific, (202) 585- 3881. we would like to hear from folks in the travel and tourism .ndustry at (202) 585-3882 tim is from florida. good morning to you. caller: good morning. can you tell me to the extent that pricing and airline tickets
9:48 am
are factored into growth in the industry win -- for example, i bought a ticket to europe recently and it said it was about $800 and the taxes fees, which are not growth ramos $700. i believe they were six hundred $90. that came in after 9/11 and this is is not your area. this is a result of us antagonizing people around the wouldand standing in line buy an airline ticket. my question is, to what extent was the growth in the industry include theussing taxes and fees which are about the same price as the airline ticket at least with respect to international tickets? host: paul kern? the $700 assumption is primarily was a fuel surcharge. on trips to europe, you will see the ticket price be one item and then the fuel surcharge can be significant if the price of fuel
9:49 am
has risen. it is actually gone down slightly recently. that should be helpful for people buying tickets in the near future. of course, as the world is seeing changes, the price of jet fuel is difficult to say what is core to happen. i am certainly not going to say what would happen. if the collar looks of some of the fine print on that ticket, it will tell you that it was a fuel surcharge primarily as well as taxes. at an airportands in europe, that airport has to charge a fee in order to support the airport. that fee is generally passed on to passengers. if you can heuther answer this question from twitter on world events and how the impact the tourism industry. how much european tourism might have gone to egypt cultural sites instead of national parks
9:50 am
in the wake of ongoing issues that egypt is having? guest: you have seen for several countries, such as the uk, visitation to egypt in the last 12 years has increased rather significantly. i think in general, if you're looking at the uk and european countries and where they will travel internationally, i think one of the things you have is that we are a fairly safe and stable place to visit. that is the one of the reasons why we have had their fears increase -- airfare increase. modern economy with modern amenities. florida tourism depends on not having a storm, correct? guest: that is correct. sometimes there are natural events that have a temporary
9:51 am
negative effect. visitation back to the gulf states in terms of tourism -- you see that tourism, while it can be affected due to a natural disaster, it is one of the areas that also can come back the quickest. nationally and you look at employment levels in travel and tourism, what we have seen is that after declining during the recession, the travel industry has generated jobs at about 15% faster and the rest of the economy to date through may of this year. i don't -- i know the employment numbers came out early this morning. up travel industry has made close to 90% of the jobs lost in the great recession.
9:52 am
i feel fairly strongly that by the end of this year, maybe early part of next year, the travel and tourism employment will reach an all-time high. guest: i did a little research this morning in egypt travel and tourism. it is making up about 11% of their gdp. the point of the collar, it it very -- to the caller, is important that egypt continues to bring in international visitors to see historic sites. that makes up a very large portion of the gdp. states, ourd economy is quite diverse and travel and tourism makes up three percent. brought up heuther the labor statistics numbers that were just released. the payroll increased by 195,000 in june.
9:53 am
unemployment was unchanged at 7.6%. this is according to a report that is out today. 75,000 jobs were added in june. monthly growth has averaged 55,000, almost twice the average in 2012. drinking places continue to expand in june. employment and gambling also continued to trend up in june at 19,000 more. jane is waiting from new york. good morning. caller: good morning and they do for taking my call. first of all, i would like to make comment. the comment is, it is nice that other people from other countries can come visit us and spend their money. we need their money. ok. now, what i need to say is, as
9:54 am
far as i am concerned, the only way i can travel is by car. timeshare i own a down in orlando, florida. i have not been able to use that 2008.are since i cannot afford the gas to go down. just a little bit before that, i was able to get down to florida, but i could not spend money in the stores and somewhat. you know, as far as the tourism part thing goes and can be people employed. i did not have enough money because gas was going up. i don't know if you guys are telling our government this information, but they need to know. we, the people of the united states, are not able to travel -- at least not the ones that amount of money to spend on travel. host: paul kern is with the u.s. travel association -- david heuther is with the u.s. travel
9:55 am
association. guest: she is not alone when she says she travels by car. about 77% of trips taken are taken by alto. if you look at -- are taken by auto. half the trips are taken within their own state. states half are taken to within the region or in other regions. a lot of travel is relatively close to where people are traveling from. i think that if you look at the impact of gasoline prices, there is a positive and negative story . the positive side is that gas prices have been fairly modest recently. i think that has been a boom to the travel industry. when you have higher gas prices and people are going to go on trips, then if they only have so much money to spend, they're going to spend -- shorten their
9:56 am
trip or spend less on amenities or shopping, etc. we look at what the tipping point is in terms of when gas prices get too high and when do effect travel. right now, our estimates are in excess of five dollars a gallon. right now, i think that we are in good shape to grow this year because the price of gasoline is fairly modest compared to some of the prices we have seen in recent years. guest: correct. hours statistics that -- show that it declined. given what we're seeing in the news recently, it is unknown what would happen to be price moving forward for stop in his first quarter, there was an 8% decline. set: we have a special line up for folks who work in the travel and tourism industry. good morning, norman. caller: good morning and thank you for taking my call.
9:57 am
i am excited because i just joined the travel industry. i am working closely together with the gentleman, david orlando.here in tourism is very big here, mickey mouse and shamu. we are excited and noticing that resorts are offering hotel room rates at hotel prices. , is that a smart way to go? is this the right time to do that? thank you for taking my call. guest: i think you were talking about a package deal with the hotel and the resort. fairly common business practice. i know it has been growing recently where you insert into this package deal that sometimes includes your airfare.
9:58 am
that has generally been a positive thing for the travel industry, from what i understand. deals leading to the growth we are seeing? guest: is a people industry. they thrive when there are more visitors coming to destinations. one of the things you see -- when you see spikes in gasoline prices, what you see is the industry will try to offset that by trying to bundle goods and lessces to make things expensive to encourage visitors to come. the travel industry is a very innovative in that way. host: newark delaware. good morning, nina. caller: actually, i am calling in from west chester, pennsylvania. i have two questions.
9:59 am
tourists who are applying from overseas to come to the united states -- this has created a huge hindrance and preventing them from coming to the units -- u.s. if terrorists would like to bring their cut -- family to disney world, what the government is doing is having out an application which is like turning over your entire property and markets. we're asking for a very unrelated questions. when theseat, families are finally given the visa after a very long application process, they give the father and one child a visa and the wife and two of the children are refused the visa. host: if you want to take this
10:00 am
quickly in the less than a minute we have left. is an interesting question. if you went back three or four years ago, the length of time it took to get a visa from china, india, brazil, was weeks and months long. we have been working with the state apartment to encourage them to increase personnel. the wait times and some of these high-volume countries have fallen dramatically and lead to increased staffing in this particular area. morenk we need to have offices to encourage more people to come here. pauldavid huether and kern, i appreciate you both coming on here today.
10:01 am
that is our show for today and we will see you back here tomorrow at 7:00 a.m. on "washington journal." [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013] >> you are watching c-span, created as a public service by america's cable companies. up next, a georgia congressman john lewis talks that his experiences during the civil- rights movement and then the interviews with pulitzer prize-winning photographer is on the syrians of war and after that, i look at the origins of the ins to gramm after two stanford graduate
10:02 am
built the company and only two weeks before selling it to facebook for $1 billion. tonight, a discussion on computer hacking and information activism. we'll hear about on line surveillance by the government and corporations and why the government could be using a lot from 1984 to prosecute whistle- blowers. here is a quick look. that there isng increasing government surveillance a thus, people and there is increasing corporate surveillance of usk, and at the same time, people who are exposing this, are being more heavily prosecuted and that cannot be underscored enough. i just want to talk about that. and how people are being prosecuted is that the government is using this will fraud the cfaa, computer and abuse act britain in 1984. fraud and abuse act written in 1984 before there was really computers.
10:03 am
the law is incredibly broad. it is frightening, really. touches aone that computer can be prosecuted under this law. whenever you come to a new web site or a facebook page, myspace thought account and you tick a terms of service agreement that you did not read and you do not obey those exact terms, you probably have no idea what they are -- you are in violation of the cfaa you could face five years in prison for that. accountade a mysapce with your dog or share a password, you are violating the computer fraud act. you face five years every time it didn't sell any of us could be prosecuted under this act. and we are not and who is
10:04 am
prosecuted under the cfaa? we see more and more that the government is using this to prosecute whistle-blowers, activist, leaders, packers -- is being used as a political weapon against information activists. >> part of a recent discussion on the annual left forum conference and you can see the entire event at 8:00 eastern tonight on c-span or anytime on line at c-span.org. american history tv in primetime continues tonight with architectural history and barry lewis explores american history through famous landmarks in new york history. at 8:00, a visit to penn station in midtown manhattan and then a look at grand central terminal and after that, the times square and coney island and how they became famous tourist destinations of what makes them historical sites today. that is tonight at -- right here on cspan 3.
10:05 am
>> john lewis is next on his experiences during the civil the black oak leaves thought the woodley behind the racism. the sun shines more benignly on them here. a number of them told me that it was a more cruel kind of racism. a smile on the face of a dagger behind the back is how they described california. there were not allowed to live in any of the cities, not even the small towns, there were locked out. the only land that was available to the more these patches of alkali land. when you look at it, it is so salty, it looks as if it snowed there. this is a land that was available to them. they built their little wooden shacks here. there was no water, they had to go into town to fetch the water. there was no city sewers, they had outhouses. there was no police in the area. it was a no man's land. > more on the black okies,
10:06 am
black native americans hope migrated to bakersfield. this is on c-span three this weekend. the associated press is reporting that today's unemployment numbers are raising hopes for a stronger economy in the second half of the year. u.s. employers added 195,000 jobs last month and hiring turns out to be much stronger in the two previous months than had been estimated. the unemployment rate stays the same at 7.6%. that is because more people started looking for work. congress is currently on break this week for the fourth of july holiday. when the house returns? 3, lawmakers will work on a strategy to consider immigration legislation. house republicans are scheduled to meet behind closed doors july 10. the senate is expected to take a student loan rate which doubled
10:07 am
the first of this month from 3.5%-6.8%. bill isculture spending ready for house floor action. the senate appropriations committee has completed work on four of the 12 bills and both chambers return for work on monday at 2:00 p.m. eastern. coming up next on remarks from georgia congressman john lewis and his experiences during the civil rights movement. experiences during the civil rights movement. he participated in several famous events like the 1963 march on washington. he spoke at the national archives last month as part of the 50th anniversary of the march on washington in the 150 of the emancipation proclamation. it is an hour and a half. >> john lewis is no stranger to the national archives. in 2006 he launched the successful exhibit eyewitness, american originals. the exhibit features his
10:08 am
testimony from the court case arising from the 1965 leddy sunday from selma to montgomery in support of voting rights that were stopped by state troopers. he is also chairman of the host committee formed by the foundation of the national archives to promote our celebration of the anniversary of the emancipation proclamation this year. 9000ring more than visitors over the new year's holiday this year. the host committee is a group of former presidents and first ladies, civic and community leaders, historians and authors and celebrities. he also contributed the introduction to a proclamation book and tonight and there are copies signed by congressman available for purchase in the lobby. and he has agreed to remain for a brief time after the program. described as a lawmaker whose
10:09 am
fingerprints are on some of the nations most significant tributes and monuments to the contributions of african- americans to american culture, the son of sharecroppers was inspired by the counts of the bus boycott in the words of dr. martin luther king jr. he heard on radio broadcast. the inspiration led to action as is a student -- as a student, he organized a sit ins and later he helped form a nonviolent coordinating committee, which he later led. thehe age of 23, he was youngest speaker at the march on washington in 1963 and the sole surviving speaker. he helped organize the bloody sunday march across selma. he had made his mark as a public servant. the981 he was elected to atlanta city council and then to congress as a representative
10:10 am
from georgia in 1986. he has served in the democratic leadership in today is aior member of the house ways and means committee. joining him in is scott simon. he is the host of weekend edition saturday on national public radio. he joined npr in 1977 and since then he has reported from all 50 states on the covered campaigns in eight wars, reported from central america, africa, the middle east, and the caribbean. he has received numerous honors including the columbia university award. peabody award, the presidential award, a unity award for media, and a 1982 emmy. when he was awarded the 2010 medal freedom, congressman lewis said it is important for people to know the story and the full story of americans for
10:11 am
generations yet unborn. it is important to leave history to inspire, inform, and educate. placet think of a better than to give this conversation that at the national archives. please welcome scott simon and congressman john lewis. [applause] >> i am going to open in a way that might be redundant. i am fortunate enough to have two young children so i am learning history all over again. and one of the things we learned is that we all stand on
10:12 am
the shoulders of great men and women who have gone before us and i think no pair of shoulders in the history of america are stronger than those on this man here, john lewis. [applause] i am sure he is going to be great. he is going to be enlightening, funny, warm, moving, inspiring but before we ask you to utter a word, could we stand and on behalf of america, give him an ovation for what he has done for us? [applause] [applause]
10:13 am
how many times have you been arrested? [laughter] >> i was arrested and jailed 40 times. during the 1960's. since i have been in congress, about four times. [laughter] >> all for matters of principle. we are talking about a member of congress. >> protesting around the problems in south africa. and the sudan. and a group of us went to jail. >> what was it like to be in a prison in the segregated south of the united states in the 1960s when even the prisons were segregated? >> i must tell you it was not simple and not easy. youret arrested with
10:14 am
fellow sisters and brothers who happen to be white, asian american, native american, latino, you were put in the and you were segregated. not only in the outside world, but to be arrested in nashville or to be arrested in birmingham or montgomery or selma or atlanta, you also had racial discrimination. segregation was real. alabama, in rural colored waiting, white waiting, i would ask my parents, my great grandparents, why? it is. don't get in the way.
10:15 am
i was inspired to get in trouble. necessary travel. going to jail became a place where, mississippi, alabama, we studied. we studied the philosophy of nonviolence in jail. we conducted nonviolent workshops. it made us more determined to fight the fight. bei realize you have to approximate, how many times were you assaulted, beaten? >> a few times here and there. i did not try to keep up with the number of times someone punched me or poured water on me. hit me in the face or someone would spit on us. incidenthe worst occurred during a sit in when
10:16 am
somebody locked us up in a restaurant in nashville and tried to fumigate the place with us in it. and the local officials came up and broke the windows in order to open the door and led us out. freedomwere the first rights like? ini came to washington, d.c. 1961. i was a few pounds lighter. there was 15 of us. seven white and six african- americans. they could not board a roundhouse bus and be seated together and leave the city of washington and travel to the rest of the south. but on that night on one night,
10:17 am
in training and orientation, we went to a chinese restaurant. growing up in alabama, i had never been to a chinese restaurant. i never had chinese food. we had a wonderful meal. they had a lazy susan. you would turn in turn, the food was wonderful. well. this may be like the last supper. the next summer a group of us boarded a bus and others a greyhound bus. -- the next morning. i will never forget it. we arrived in north carolina and a young man, young african-
10:18 am
american man entered a so- called white waiting room and and try to get his shoes shined in a so-called white barbershop. he was arrested and taken to jail. then later the next morning he went to trial and a jury dismissed the charges against him. the two of us tried to enter a white waiting room in south carolina. the minute we walked through the door a group of young men attacked us and left us. lying in a pool of blood. the locals officials wanted to know whether we wanted to press charges. we said we came in peace. with love. we believe in nonviolence. many years later one of the meividuals that attacked
10:19 am
came to my washington office, february 2009, about a month after president obama had been inaugurated in with his son to seek out the people he had wronged. this man said to me, mr. lewis, i am one of the people that beat you. will you forgive me? i want to apologize. his son started crying. i started to cry. they hugged me. i hugged them back. we call each other brother. movementthe what the was all about. to be reconciled. to lay down the burden of race. yourt me ask you to use fine sense of intelligence and character to tell us what went on over the years. what turned their hearts?
10:20 am
>> i think many people grew to believe there is not a vast difference in humankind. the saw many of us living teachings of gandhi, the teaching of the great teacher. the teaching of martin luther king jr.. peacefulus as participants that wanted to bring people together. and all across the american south i ran into people every day. thank you for freeing me. thank you for making me a little more human. we hugged, we laughed, sometimes we cried. dr. king used to speak about the ability of the movement to
10:21 am
transform people, to redeem the soul of america. we want to create a beloved community. i think people saw that. we did not become bitter or hostile. we wanted to become one community, one family, what i like to call one house. butjust an american house, a world house. arey the way, you and i probably playing to the c-span cameras. goodbody wants to get a look at you. [laughter] back i get you to take us to that day, march 7, 1965, the bridge in selma. this is like beacon hill. >> you must remember selma was located in alabama. in 1965, 2.1% of black people
10:22 am
were registered to vote. people had been standing in lines. my own organization had been working there off and on since 1962. after the march on washington into63, many of us went selma, we went into mississippi and other places. in order to become a registered voter in selma, you had to pass a so-called literacy test. interprete asked to the constitution of the state of alabama. a man was asked to count the number of jelly beans in a jar. there was a man, a big man, tall, he had a gun on one side, a nightstick on the other.
10:23 am
he had an electric cattle prod. he did not use it on cows. he had a pin that said "never." sometimes i felt he was just mean. he went to bed mean. he dreamed mean. he got up mean. he made it hard and difficult for many of the citizens to make it up those steps, to get registered. so in the hometown, 35 miles from selma, there was a demonstration in mid february and a young man tried to protect his mother. there was a
10:24 am
confrontation. he was shot in the stomach and died a few days later in selma. because of what happened to him we made a decision we would march from selma to montgomery to the nation into the world that people of color wanted to register to vote. 11 of the comments we had to pass, they did not have a single registered african-american voter in the county. so on sunday, 1965, at the church we conducted a nonviolent workshop and people lined up to walk from selma to montgomery. theame to the edge of bridge, crossing the alabama river, and a young man by the
10:25 am
name of jose williams, walking with me said can you swim? i said no. i said can you swim? he said yes. a little. i said there is too much water down there. we are not going to jump. we are going straight ahead. i was wearing a backpack, before that became fashionable. [laughter] and i had two books, i wanted have something to read in jail. i wanted to have something to eat. i had an apple and an orange. since i was going to be in jail with my friends, i wanted to be able to brush my teeth. ahad toothpaste and toothbrush. nobody said a word. oncame to the highest point the bridge. alabama sea of blue,
10:26 am
state troopers. behind the troopers we saw members of the sheriff's office. he had requested all white men over the age of 21 team down to the courthouse on a saturday night to be deputized to stop the march. we came within distance of the state troopers and a man said, this is an unlawful march. you will be allowed to continue. you should go back to your homes or return to your church. and i was a williams said to miss a moment to kneel and pray. and he said troopers advance. and so these men put on their gas masks. they came toward us. beating us with sticks, and releasing tear gas. i was hit in the head with a nightstick. one of the first ones to take a
10:27 am
below. i thought i saw death. i thought i was going to die. i thought it was my last nonviolent protest. somehow in some way i lost consciousness and i do not remember, i do not recall but i made it across the bridge to the church. i guess somebody carried me back. but i do recall being at a church. it was full to capacity. more than 2000 people trying to get in. someone said, say something toi stood up and said something like, i do not understand. our president is sending troops to vietnam but can't send troops to selma, alabama, to protect people who want to register to vote. and the next thing i knew i had
10:28 am
been submitted to the hospital. operated by a group of nuns/. they were brave. they took care of us. 17 of us hospitalized. the next morning on monday, dr. martin luther king jr. came to selma, came to my bedside. dr. king said don't worry. we will make it to montgomery. the voting act right will be passed. he had requests from religious leaders to come to selma. on march 9, more than 1000 religious leaders came to selma and later that night, three young ministers, one of them from boston, went out to get
10:29 am
something to eat at a restaurant. when they returned, they were attacked by members of the klan. the reverend was sosa barely beaten he had to be transferred to a hospital in birmingham and the next day he died. because of what happened in selma, president johnson called governor wallace to washington to try to get assurance from him he would be able to protect us. wonderful man. he testified what happened. he ordered governor wallace to -- the governor could not ensure the president you would be able to protect us so
10:30 am
president johnson came to congress a days after bloody sunday. and made one of the meaningful speeches and the american president had made in modern time. over the question of voting rights and civil rights. he started by saying i speak tonight for the dignity of man and the destiny of democracy. as time, history, and fate meet at a single place for what was more than a century ago, he introduced the voting rights act, and before he concluded his speech, he said and we shall overcome. so today we call it the we shall overcome speech.
10:31 am
congress gave him a standing ovation. i was sitting next to martin luther king jr.. in the home of a local family as we watched and listened to president johnson. i looked at dr. king. tears came down his face. i started crying. he said we will make it from selma to montgomery. the voting rights act will be passed. president johnson ordered the military to protect us. all the way during those five days of walking from summit to montgomery. , -600ived in montgomery people but we had more than 25,000 people over america. there were some members of congress, elected officials can, the religious community. it changed america. the only thing i did, i just gave a little blood. some people gave their very
10:32 am
lives. do you love your country after what happened? you maintain or grow to love the united states after what happened here? america.inued to love wanted to make america better. i wanted americans to live up to those principles. that we are one people, one family, one house and it doesn't matter if we are black or white or latino or asian american or native american. we are one. 1963, the march on washington -- it is one of the anniversaries that we're observing. i have read that you are the only speaker at the march on
10:33 am
washington who still lives. so far as you know that is the case? >> i have a list but i remember distinctly. i spoke number 6. dr. king spoke number 10. it was a wonderful coalition. itself,he march president kennedy had invited us to the white house. we met with him in june of 1963. we told him we were going to have a march. to randolph was considered the dean of african american leadership. have a marchted to on washington. he convinced us that it was time for us to march. a few days later, after meeting the president, we met in new york city at the old roosevelt
10:34 am
hotel. on 42nd street. i walked by there sometimes and i just want to go in and find a room where remember. -- where we met. the six of us met there and in that meeting, we invited four major white religious and labor leaders to join us. we issued the call for the march. we thought maybe we get 70,000 people. people came from all around the country and mr. randolph was the chair. we had a young lady worked in in the march office in new york. you could call any time of night r morning and say," rochelle, how many people are coming from new york? how many buses coming from
10:35 am
philadelphia? how many people coming from boston? how many people will be on that train? how many people coming from the west coast? " \ she could give us the number and i remember so well that theing, august 28, 1963 -- town of us, the six plus the four, came up on capitol hill and we met with the leadership of the house both democrats and republicans. we went on the senate side, constitution avenue, and we met with the republican leadership, the democratic leadership and we came out of those buildings and we could see the sea of humanity coming from union station. we knew it was going to be big. we were supposed to be leading the march but people were already marching.
10:36 am
there go my people, let me catch up with them. [laughter] this sea of humanity just pushed us so we just locked on and started moving toward the washington monument, on toward the lincoln memorial. inwas a wonderful period american history theme i have read a few accounts that suggests that you had some remarks were prepared to make. to change wanted them? >> that is true. my original speech was pretty strong. some people and the administration took a position that if a person had a sixth grade education, he should be considered literate and able to vote. my organization took the
10:37 am
position that only qualification for being able to register and vote should be age and residence. i was working on my speech with the help and encouragement of my colleagues. black women in southern africa carrying signs," one-man, one-vote." during the speech, i said one man, won the vote is the african cry? that must be ours. down further in the speech, i said something like we are involved in a serious revolution. some people did not like the word revolution. another part of this speech, i .alked about the black masses aey ask why i use that stacks philip randolph said there was
10:38 am
nothing wrong with the use of the revolution. in the beginning, in a proposed speech, i said today remarks for jobs and freedom. we don't have anything to be proud of. residents, they are sick receiving starvation wages or wages at all. i talked about the party of kennedy. is the party of eastland. the party of jarvis or rockefeller is the party of cold water. where is our party? at the end of the speech, i said you tell us the weight, tell us to be patient, we cannot be patient. we cannot wait. we will not -- we want our
10:39 am
freedom and wanted now. you cannot say we cannot be patient. i think it would have been suspicious. we slept over that but at the end of the speech, they had a line in their saying that we do see meaningful progress today. the day will come and will not confine our marching on washington. maybe fools to march from the south the way sherman did non violently. [laughter] the negotiations started. [laughter] to mr.time we got lincoln, we had a little conference, a consultation with naacp and s of the
10:40 am
mr. randolph and martin luther don'tr. and dr. king said ifso rigid and he asked martin luther king contrived -- could grow his hair he was my hero and inspiration. 1955 and was 15 years old and met him in 1958 when as 18. -- when i was 18. there was some rhetoric here and there. would march on certain cities, certain towns and certain villages, certain hamlet. in the end, i said wake up america, wake up america. the rest is history. >> i wanted to ask you about some of the note to people you have known over the years.
10:41 am
let's begin with dr. king. iss is a man whose birthday likely we will set -- celebrate as a national holiday but you knew him before he was a national figure. what was he like? >> he was a wonderful man. he was a wonderful human being. i was was growing up, out of troy, alabama, finishing high school in 1957. wrote to dr. king in a letter. i told him that i needed his help. i needed his support. a lot to attend a little state college called troy state only two miles away. the did not admit black students. and he knew ick was poor and sent a bus ticket.
10:42 am
i told my mother. i did not tell my father or any sisters or brothers at a little college in nashville, an uncle gave me a $100 bill. locker.me a foot i used to raise kitchen -- chickens and preach to the kitchens. i put everything in that locker that i owned except the chickens. o off to school in national and that -- and after being there two weeks, i told one of my teachers to get in touch with dr. martin lifted king jr.. this teacher in new dr. king well. they had attended morehouse college together in the atlanta so he informed dr. king that i was in school in nashville. dr. moot live the king jr. got back in touch with me that when i was home for spring break to come and see him. in march of 1958, i am 18 years
10:43 am
old, i boarded a greyhound bus, traveled from troy to montgomery as a young -- and a young lawyer by the name of became our lawyer during the freedom rides. he met me at the greyhound bus station and drove me to the first baptist church pastor by reverend abernethy. he ushered me into the pastor's a study of the office of the church. i saw dr. king standing behind a desk with reverend ralph abernathy and i was scared. dr. king spoke up and said," are you the boy from troy? are you john lewis? " robertid i am john lewis. i gave my full name and that was the beginning. [laughter] i admired this man. i loved this man. he lifted me. .
10:44 am
he inspired me. he in tuesday with the philosophy and the discipline of nonviolent along with the man by the name thejim lawson. in a sense, he was a funny man. he could tell jokes, make you laugh. oh, yes, he would tell jokes. he would say to you try to preach? and i said sometimes/ when i was taking a shower. he would just laugh. he would laugh at his own jokes. [laughter] he thought was so funny. he was wonderful. one time we were traveling in alabama someplace and there was some restaurant. and i thought of the got arrested we go to jail on a full stomach.
10:45 am
he thought it was funny about what was bill conner like? >> he was something. on one hand, he could be very mean. of jailwere taken out during the freedom ride in , he hadam, seven of us already arrested two young people at the city limits of birmingham. there was a young black man anyone -- a young white man. they refused to move. segregation was strictly enforced in birmingham. about four clarke county friday morning, he came to our jail cell and said he was taking us back to nashville. we were traveling on a regular greyhound bus and he asked to see all of our tickets.
10:46 am
our tickets read from national to birmingham, birmingham to montgomery, montgomery to jackson, jackson to norlina. that's so someone regular to get off the bus. he ordered the police officials to place newspaper and karl rove the windows, the windshield, and the back of the bus to keep the photographers and reporters out. they placed us in jail and then he was in the car riding in the same car with me. he kept telling us that he was taking us back to national tour college campus. one of the young ladies in the conner, mr.r.
10:47 am
commissioner? >> he was the safety commissioner. >> that's right. he said -- they said you can have lunch first breakfast with us. he was engaging. we arrived at the tennessee- alabama state line. he said i am letting you all off here. it was klan territory. he said you can make it back the best way and the boss will come along or a train, along but you cannot come back to alabama. we started walking and one of the young african-american students said, it must be some black people here, there must be some colored folks here someplace. we kept walking. we came up on an old shotgun house and knocked on the door. knocking an elderly
10:48 am
black man came to the door. we had the freedom drivers. we said please let us in and he closed the door. his wife curtis knocking again and she came and said to her husband, baby, please let them in. of us into aeven we went on a hunger strike. we had not had anything to eat since tuesday night, may 16. we left nashville wednesday morning, may 17. this was early friday morning. gentlemanis man, this from daylight came, somebody to go to a shop and get us some cold cuts. anything like cheese or milk or
10:49 am
juice or anything. this man, bless his soul, was so smart, with to several different places and tried on to alarm anybody or make people aware that he was by all this through for us. he brought the food back. we made a call back to nashville. and a young lady by the name of ofne nash was the leader the natural movement virtue wanted to know whether we want to come back to nashville and if we want to go back to birmingham. she said 11 of the packages had , 11 shipped by other means other students had left by train to continue the freedom ride. we told her we wanted to return to birmingham. she sent a car and a young 18-
10:50 am
year-old student at tennessee state university center in his the spot whereo were and drove us back to birmingham. the two young men that had been arrested, there were released from jail, one young lady was a student at peabody college in nashville and her father for down from buffalo. her back took nashville. we arrived from the shuttle in birmingham. leader and 11 students met us. we went down to the greyhound bus station to board the bus. this bus driver made a classic statement. he said i have only one life to give, i am not going to give it or the naacp. and he did not laws board the bus.
10:51 am
we were kept in the so-called white waiting room and the klan started marching around the station and a call about the dogs to protect people inside. apparently, attorney general robert kennedy became so involved and engaged, we thought was very -- he thought it was dangerous for us to be in birmingham. at one point he said let me speak to mr. greyhound. [laughter] he wanted to know whether the greyhound company had any black bus drivers that would be willing to drive us out of birmingham and make it to montgomery. our problem and our situation with the officials at greyhound and the officials of the state of alabama. wey made a decision that would leave at 8:30 a.m. on that saturday morning. boarded the bus with a spokesperson for the bus.
10:52 am
a private plane would fly or the boss and every 15 miles, there was a patrol car. could see the patrol car as often as you saw the plane. in most of the freedom rides, we set up all night. in the station. we arrived in downtown montgomery. patrol car disappeared. it was like a sign that the police presence and the moment we started down the steps of the bus, members -- members of the metis around us. an angry mob came out of nowhere. during those days, the tv people had big cameras on their shoulders. they destroyed them.
10:53 am
they destroyed the photographers pads and pens and then they turned on us. , a young gentleman from connecticut -- from of ussin rather, the two were beaten. i was hit in the head with a wooden crate and transfer to a doctor's office and put a patch on my head. look like the red cross. was hospitalized for several days. namenot think of the man's of the public safety director of andama came with his gun held it in the air and said there will be no killing today, no killion today. the mob disperse. all the young woman got in a
10:54 am
cab, both black and white, but the cab driver said i cannot take you. in montgomery in 1961, black people and white people could not ride in the same taxi cab. one black woman told the cab driver to get out. she would drive the cap. [laughter] three young white woman got out to get away. singlethauer was representing robert kennedy and john kennedy -- >> he was from natural. >> he had been in the newspaper business. saw these three young ladies and suggested them to drop in the car to get away from the mob. they said for him not to get involved. while the was tried to communicate that to someone in the mob walked up and hit him
10:55 am
and the head with a lead pipe. that left him bloody and unconscious. because of what happened in montgomery, president kennedy federalized alabama's national guard and called out the united states marshals. he put month -- alabama under martial law and on that next sunday, a group of us as freedom riders were in the church for a and probably a lot of people would of been killed that night. john segenthaler became the publisher of "the national tennessee anmany years later.
10:56 am
when these conversations occurred when you are alone or with friends and you have your memories, are their names would not find as familiar but are very important to you? >> there were many young people, so smart and so gifted. in a sense, we were maladjusted. dr. king said we were maladjusted. [laughter] to go into some of these places and get in trouble, good trouble, unnecessary trouble. balber guy named james was born in mississippi and his family moved to cleveland, ohio. >> i believe that is the home town of marion barry. >> that's right. marion barry was in the
10:57 am
movement. he was the first chair of the national committee and i became the third chair. as a student and is a register and, marion was very involved there were plenty of unbelievable groups committed and dedicated young people. >>james bibble. he organized the children's crusade in birmingham >> you have waves of hundreds of young people that were willing to ,arch, to face the bulldogs fire hoses. go into birmingham and see the fire hoses. it was so powerful. they took part of a tree. tree.k off of a
10:58 am
you walked to the 16th street baptist church and there were very brave young men and women. it was even in selma. the children, crusaded. this mean man, he took a group of young people that was marching and put them on a forced march. he said if you want to march, he took them out on a highway and then chased them with men on horseback. jail ands went to slept on floors in selma. we are inviting -- i will check my watch -- will invite your questions in just a few minutes. i think use of beautifully set i just found that
10:59 am
out i would be honored to be here to die. this is about the first question that occurred to me. >> and i am honored to be with you and thank you. children.two young i am very glad they are growing up in a country in which they and their friends seem enormously casual about the ethnicity, race, religion cost being colored all that. it does not seem to count for inh i consider it a blessing which you and many others, and you a little more or more than a little more, are responsible for bringing that blessing to this country. them to have the blessing of that hard earned casualness in their lives. on the other hand, what you did
11:00 am
for this country and what others did for this country as part of their heritage, too. what somem to know brave people dead to make this a better country. those lessons to our children? without scaring them, introducing them to ideas that anti 10 vast from our midst. >> you just have to make it plain and simple. i spent a lot of time talking to children. they come to my office from all over america, young children, school groups. dekip p a group of students, the fifth graders from all over america, not at the same time, but they come. [laughter]
11:01 am
i see hundreds and thousands of students on the steps of the capital. we show photographs, very large photographs. they come to my office. we show them a 14-minute film of what it was like growing up in the american south during the 1940's and 1950's. we try to tell the story and try to make it very simple. let them see the signs that says white men,colored. colored men. white women, colored women. in my office there is a photograph of a water fountain taken at a courthouse in georgia. it was taken in 1962. a beautiful, shining fountain marked "white."
11:02 am
and nearby, same room, only a step or two apart, is a spigot marked "colored." and i tell them, we broke down those things. and the only place you will see those is maybe in a book or a video. we live in a better country and we are a better people. and sometimes i tell them the the story from my book, " walking with the wind." when i was in alabama when i was only about four and a half, and i remember it like it was yesterday. she livedaunt geneva. in an old shotgun house. she did not have a manicured lawn, but a simple, plain,-yard. -- plain dirt yard.
11:03 am
you could at night, look up through the holes in the ceiling, and could count the stars. and when it would rain, issued a bucket and catch the rain water. and from time to time she walked out into the woods and cut branches from a dogwood tree. she would call that the brush broom. she would sweep the dirt yard several times a week, but especially on friday or saturday, because she wanted it to look good on the weekend. i tell these little children that one day, one saturday afternoon, a group of my brothers and sisters and a few of my cousins, about 12 or 15 of us young children went to the yard and it's unbelievable storm came up. the winds are blowing and the lightning flashing and the rain kept beating on this little shotgun house.
11:04 am
and we cried and cried.my aunt cried. we thought this old house was going to blow away. one corner of the house appeared to be lifted.my aunt had us walked to that corner, to try to hold the house down with our bodies. little children, walking with the wind. we never left the house.i said to them, we are all little children. it doesn't matter if we are black, white, latino, asian american, native american, we all live in the same house. we are one family. and it is not just a house in washington d.c., but a house in georgia.it is the world house. we must learn to live together.
11:05 am
as dr. king said, if we fail to learn to live together as brothers and sisters, we will perish as fools. >> we would like to invite your questions. >> have two microphones. congressman lewis, thank you for that poetic and. -- end. i think you were right to call it a revolution. it was not a peaceful revolution. some people took the blows, and you were one of them, and i want to thank you for that. [applause] and i think of asking a question about the maladjusted issue. [laughter] i don't think i've ever heard you or anyone else address the question of fear.
11:06 am
you put yourself in harm's way, and we heard about that again tonight. significant harm's way. surely, as you entered the bus station in south carolina or in other places, you knew what was about to happen to you when you saw the men come up to you, or you knew what was happening when the news people were pulled off the bus and beaten and left for you knew what would surely happen to you. or on the bridge.the edmund pettus bridge. when did fear play a role in what you were doing? when did it tests your results? -- your resolve?
11:07 am
>> i must tell you, we went through the nonviolent training, the non-violent workshops, following the teachings of gandhi, the teaching of the great teacher, follow the teachings of martin luther king jr., studied the role of civil disobedience. you come to that place where you say you are not afraid and you will not let fear conquer you. you will stand up and you will speak out and sometimes you can do that without uttering a word or opening your mouth, just many of us grew to accept nonviolence not simply as a technique, but as a way of life.as a way of living. i lost all sense of fear.
11:08 am
you arrest me. you throw me in jail. you beat me. dr. kinge can you do? said, on occasion, it may be better to die a physical death than to die a psychological death. so when i say maladjusted, you had to be maladjusted to the wrongs of evil, to the injustice around you. and maybe people call it a little crazy -- [laughter] you know there's a possibility that you could be beaten, that you go down that bridge. and be notve to go on. afraid. and sometimes you have to have
11:09 am
what i call an executive session with yourself. [laughter] and just don't talk back to yourself.i am going on. dedicate yourself. i am going all the way to see what the end is going to be.i often think, during the movement, we did not have r & r. we didn't have a va.we did not go someplace -- maybe sometimes we went to a doctor's office or hospital, and got a little patch here and a little patch there. and we got back on the front line. we had to do it. if we did not do it, what would happen? we were committed. >> i have a question for john.
11:10 am
in snic, you were succeeded by stuckey carmichael. and later in life, your ideological positions diverge. stokely later became representative of black political power.and economic development. some of his suppositions were vindicated by the election of obama for the second term. later in life, some of his positions became outrageous. how do you think history will treat him in terms of his legacy? and the other question is -- i don't know how well you knew him, but what contributed to his ideological position diverging from yours as he progressed in i first met stokely
11:11 am
she had been a student at howard university. he was from new york. 's.came south in the 1960 i think he came from a different environment. the young people that came out of the city and the end people that came out of the south were different. they took the position that if it is -- that it is not a struggle of one week, one month, when my time.-- or one lifetime. , and on on and on struggle you have to pace yourself. we said to many young people who came to the north, -- from the north, black and white, that we will not solve the problem one summer or one semester. you have to take the long, hard look. i used to say to members of my family, to my staff, to people in the movement, you have to
11:12 am
pace yourself. you cannot be like a firecracker and just pop off. you have to be like a pilot light and burn and burn and burn. i'm not sure -- and stokely is not here to speak for himself, but some people are not -- some people never accepted the philosophy of nonviolence.i heard people say, yes, i will practice the philosophy, just for this protest. to let itot going control me as a way of life, as a way of living. one of the ways i grew to accept the way of nonviolence, the way of peace, the way of love, is try to see every child, every baby as someone who is innocent without any problems, without any hangups.
11:13 am
something happened. is it environment? even the sheriff, even governor wallace, even those who beat us and left as bloody and if you come from , you will say,om in the bosom of every human being, there is a spark of the divine. and you must respect that and not abuse it. let me go further. as you heard me say earlier, in 1961, we arrived at the greyhound bus in montgomery. the police department in montgomery made a decision that they would not be there to protect us. they wanted to give the mob and opportunity. this came out in the court hearings and everything.
11:14 am
to beat us, to leave us bloody, to hurt us, to attempt to stop the freedom ride. many years later this past march, the second, we arrived in montgomery and went to the first baptist church with several members of congress, republicans and democrats, members of the house and senate, staffers, all type of people. a young police chief came to the church to speak on behalf of the city and a half of the mayor.-- and the half of the mayor. -- on behalf of the mayor. this young man was not even born during the freedom rides in 1961. he was not even a dream. but he came up and spoke and
11:15 am
gave an unbelievable speech. at one point, he said to me, congressman lewis, i want to apologize for what happened. on may 20, 1961. what the police department in montgomery did was wrong. i want you to forgive us. and as a way of showing that we want to repent, he said, i want to take my badge off and give it to you. and i said, chief, you can't do that. [laughter] you are the chief. i am not your badge. worthy of accepting your badge. he said, i want you to have my badge. he took it off and he gave it to me. his deputies started crying. and all the members of that
11:16 am
congregation, children,spouses, members of congress started crying. that was a moment of reconciliation. i have to badge. i get it framed. i received a great letter from him a few days ago. i wrote him one some time ago. and will probably give it to some museum here in washington, or in alabama, atlanta, ofeplace.i see these pockets changes all over the place.the same school that the lot -- denied me a mission in 1957, after i got elected to congress, the same library that would not give us library cards in 1956, i went back there july 6, 1989 to
11:17 am
do a book signing of my book. they gave me a library card. [laughter] not troy state university, but troy university a few years ago gave me an honorary degree.and senator hal heldman was the commencement speaker. change -- you never give up. you never become better or hostile. shouldccurs to me you hold onto the the badge a little while longer, because you will never get a speeding ticket in montgomery. just keep that nearby. [laughter] >> congressman lewis, you are one of my heroes, and president obama is one other one of my heroes. i would like to ask you, in your heart of hearts, which you like to see the president do with the rest of his term to continue the work you started 50 years ago?i
11:18 am
will take my answer off the air. >> i would love to see the president and the congress working with the president pass comprehensive immigration reform, and do it and do it now. [applause] too many of our brothers and sisters -- too many of our brothers and sisters are living in the shadows. it is not right, not fair, and not just. for hundreds of thousands of people in many parts of our country to be living in fear, that is not the american way. we must do it. i would like to see more resources spent to educate all of our children, and much less--
11:19 am
[applause] i'd like to see the president. and it is not the president alone. working with congress, spend resources on saving this little piece of real-estate on this for a generation yet unborn. we have a right to know what is in the food we eat. we have a right to know what is in the water we drink. what is in the air we breathe-- save the environment, not just for ourselves, but for those who are coming after us. and we have to get people back to work and create jobs. and do what we can, the president and those working with him, to create a world community at peace with itself.we don't
11:20 am
need more bombs and missiles and guns. we just don't. war is absolutely out of tune with our foreign policy. [applause] >> let me put you in a tricky position as a follow-up. as a person who has been a student of non-violence and gandhian principles -- drone warfare? >> let me tell you, as a member of congress, i don't vote for appropriations for war. i do not support that. it would be a butcher of my conscience. if you notice, when the vote comes up, i support our troops. when i see a young man or young woman in uniform, i thank them for their service. and when i see a police officer on the capitol steps -- and they
11:21 am
all have said to me from time to time, they say, your the best member of congress. i wish there were more people like you, because i speak to them. i call them brother, sister. how're you doing? but in good conscience, i do not want to be a party to violence we have got to end it. [applause] >> i have heard bits and pieces of your story, and i must tell you that i'm still laughing and i'm still crying. we have friends on the pine ridge reservation in south dakota to whom the poverty level
11:22 am
is an aspiration. when they gather together, they march behind veterans and the american flag. your story and their story coincide in that you both love this country for the idea and the process of becoming. are you worried that there are some forces among us, who shall remain nameless perhaps, who are obstructing progress and gathering steam? or do you think they are just a bit of a speed bump? >> i am concerned, but i think that good forces and good people have been too quiet. we need to make a little noise and get in some good trouble. [laughter]
11:23 am
d we've just got to continue to push. we've got to create a coalition of conscience agian.and not be afraid. be daring. be courageous. , orbuild a strong movement nobody is left out or left behind. during the 1970's, i had an opportunity during the carter administration to get out and visit some of the native american sites and spend some time. about two years ago i went and visited it in oklahoma, visited .he charities.-- the cherokees more of us need to get out there and see how other people are living, and try to walk in their shoes. >> congressman lewis, thank you
11:24 am
i want to know if during the civil rights movement -- did any of the nonviolent civil rights leaders have interaction or any type of discourse with those in the civil-rights movement who were not as patient and not as nonviolent? and if so, what kind of were theyons were they? basically -- were you trying to convert them over to your side, or just aware that they were there and just went were separate ways? >> during the late 1960's, the we did1960's, we did talk. meet. we did try to convince, and i would not the convert, but send the way of peace, the way of love, the way of non-violence as a better way.a more excellent way. and the nonviolent movement, everybody can participate.
11:25 am
just convene in love, peace. dr. king said in a very funny way, he said, john, what we need to do is just love the hell out of everybody. [laughter]just love everybody. i remember the night before the march on washington. malcolm was in the capital hilton hotel at 16th and k. most of the march participant leaders stayed in that hotel, and he was in the lobby.another time, after the march -- he would argue with us, saying, why are you going to jail and getting arrested? but after he went to mecca and came back,
11:26 am
he was a changed man. he was trying to identify with the movement. and i believe it was march 14, 1965. he came to selma and we were all in jail and the local official would not allow him to visit us. and he spoke at the brown chapel. no, it was february 14.it was february 14. the same church that we marched from, to a group of high school students, with dr. martin luther king and coretta scott king. 17 days later, he was assassinated.it is my belief that if malcolm had lived, he would have been marching with us, believing
11:27 am
in the philosophy and the discipline of non-violence. he was beginning to change. i have taken the position some years ago that if i'm the last person to believe in the possibility, and the reality of a truly multiracial, democratic society living by the way of peace, love, and non-violence, then i would be that person. the philosophy of non-violence for me is one of thoseimmutable principles you cannot deviate from -- or turn away from.if you want to create a beautiful community, if that is the goal,
11:28 am
then the way must be looked -- must be one of love, one of peace, one of nonviolence. a community that respects the dignity and worth of every human being. that is the good society. it is a better society. the society at peace with itself. >> i wanted to thank you so much for being with us tonight, and thanks to you and the giants you have and have not mentioned tonight. we have, along way. i wonder where we still have to go. -- we have a long way to go. could you share your thoughts around the supreme court right
11:29 am
now, concerning the voting rights act air and the national registration act and how the constitutionality of those are in question? i was wondering what you think about that and where we still have to go with them, voting equality. >> you're going to get me in trouble. [laughter] >> i'm sorry. that is ok.it's all right. it is my hope that when the court makes its decision in the next few days that it will uphold the section 5 of the voting rights act of 1965. [applause] that is the heart and soul of the voting rights act. my view is that the vote is precious. it is almost sacred. it is the most powerful nonviolent tool or instrument
11:30 am
that we have in a democratic society. it does not matter whether you are rich, middle class, or low- income. we all have one vote. it should be easy. it should be simple. i think president carter said on one occasion, to be able to vote should be as simple as getting a glass of water. i take it personally, i really do. my own mother and father, my own grandparents when i was growing up could not register to vote. until after the voting rights act was passed and signed into law on march 7, 1965. my great great grandfather, who had been a slave, after the
11:31 am
emancipation proclamation one of the first things he did, he married a woman that he loved. and the second thing he did, he registered to vote. as i said to someone some time to, it must be in my dna fight for the right to register, the right to vote. makes aupreme court decision and goes the other way, it would be a major set act. setback. to open up america -- person at obama said about long lines, fix it. it does not make sense, in this day and age, with all of the new technology, for people to have
11:32 am
to stand in a long line, for people to say you got to have an id -- i.d. we can do better. and we must do it. it is the right thing to do. [applause] >> congressman lewis, thank you so much for everything. you spoke about the way of nonviolence. and it is a way of life. , in thosespeak about times where you are being asked by the police whether you want when your strength came out -- were there thoughts of turning to violence and turning to those ways? if not, where did that strength come from? i neverer contemplated,
11:33 am
considered, to lay down the way of peace, love, and nonviolence. it is, for me, a way of life. violence is not just striking someone. words can be very violent. even if you are contemplating or thinking, it may set you off in a different way. our thoughts, the way we live aren america, i think we free to say, i am sorry. excuse me. pardon me. you could be just a little more human. the right everybody way. respect me.
11:34 am
why do we have to be so mean to each other? sometimes, i think, in the congress, we need to conduct a nonviolent workshop. [applause] >> i think we can take another question. was a brief mention of your protest against apartheid in south africa. what parallels do you see between this country and what happen in south africa? >> i have been to south africa a few times. , remember going there, i guess in 1994. was it 1994? i do not know. >> we went together. >> that is right.
11:35 am
just before the election. before the election. a group of us went as a congress, men and women, democrats and republicans. we were in johannesburg. and meetupposed to go with a group of young people, and some violence broke out in the streets. was inretary of state the process of leaving and coming back. they suggested that we go to a hotel in downtown johannesburg to meet with a group of activists, a group of young people. they started telling their stories of protest through music, through drama. ,nd some of the words, phrases were so similar to the protests and words, music, that we had in
11:36 am
this country. these young people, the students, they were greatly influenced. i remembered, back in nashville, as a student, some of the african students were there, saying the whole of africa would be free before we were able to get a hamburger and soda at a lunch counter. "free by had a slogan, '63," the 100th anniversary of the immense patient proclamation. finishese young people their presentation, they asked these members of congress, emma kretz and republicans, men and women, to respond. we could not respond. we were so moved. it was overpowering. a young african playwright,
11:37 am
got up and recited a poem by a slave woman from georgia. andll stood together started singing "we shall overcome," and we cried together, and that was the end of that meeting. i remember meeting nelson mandela. he knew everything about me. knewng bishop tutu -- everything about the leaders. we hugged. we cried. the protest there was a very similar the protest here. but we had a creed. we had something to look forward to. in south africa, what happened in this country
11:38 am
i think we were moving together to create a new south africa and to create a new america. i am afraid we have reached the end of our scheduled time here. there will be an opportunity, i think, for people to be able to say hello to you. i think this is a once in a lifetime opportunity. [applause] >> thank you. [applause] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013]
11:39 am
click still to come, interviews with pulitzer prize winning photographers on their victors detailing the syrian civil war. after that, we will take a look at the origins of instagram. two stanford grads don't the video sharing app in weeks, eventually selling it to facebook for over a billion dollars. and a discussion of planning and persevering through natural disasters. tonight, a discussion on computer hacking and information activism. we will hear about online surveillance by the government and corporations, and why the government could be using a law from 1984 to prosecute whistleblowers. you can see that tonight at 8:00
11:40 am
eastern. the new president of the american medical association talks about implementing the health care act, and the role of doctors working with the obama administration. here is a quick look. >> many individuals in the administration -- about our goal as physicians and what we can help them do, and what we can do to help our patients get the type of information they need. we will continue to work with the administration and do whatever we can and our power to make this happen. >> what do you see as the role of doctors in the affordable care act? it is a polarizing law. i imagine you have membership that does not support it. what do you see as the role of physicians in doing outreach and enrollment for the administration, or partnership with the administration? our responsibility
11:41 am
as physicians will be to our patients. my job as a doctor will be to communicate with my patients and their families, going forward, as to what they can expect from the exchanges. physicians come together on many things. the american medical association has brought doctors together. we set policy. out of that body has come good work about outreach, good work about transparency, and good work about how we can help our patients access the care they deserve and need. physiciansadvice to that do not like the affordable care act a sickly, this is the law of the land, and they should do what they need to do to get people coverage? >> that is a very good point. onre was decision-making both sides. some supported it. some did not. at the end of the day, the american medical association,
11:42 am
and its policy body, the house of delegates, came together and support the affordable care act. it is the law now. there are things in play now which are helping the american public. our job as physicians is to get our patients the type of care they need at the right time, at the right place, why the right provider. of our program looking at the implementation of the healthcare law. you can see the entire event event sunday at 10:00 a.m., right here. >> one of the points we make in this is a perennial question. did it make any difference to have direct popular elections? we come down on the side that it made a difference. act likeors began to house numbers. newseumuseum --
11:43 am
recently hosted photographers. images ofs included the syrian civil war. we will hear more about the stories behind those picked yours. this is about 15 minutes. >> hello and welcome to the studio. i'm your host for this week's edition of inside media. this week's discussion will be with two pulitzer prize winning photographers from 2013. to my immediate left is roderigo three he began his career in his native argentina. since 2003, he's been a staff photographer for the associated press and covered a wide range of international stories, from the fighting in kabul, afghanistan, to political turmoil in bolivia in 2003 and haiti in 2004. he covered venezuela's presidential elections and found himself back in haiti in the aftermath of the earthquake in 2010.
11:44 am
in 2011, he was documenting the political strife in libya. and he was awarded the pulitzer for breaking news photography. also with us is javier manzano who put the -- he was the first freelance photographer to be awarded the award in 20 years. he was born in mexico and as an 18-year-old, much of his work has been based on cross-border issues that define our relationships for better or worse over the years. while he started his career shooting photos for newspapers, he has since expanded his portfolio to include television and the internet. he has covered the drug wars of mexico and fighting in that isstan in syria. where his pulitzer prize winning
11:45 am
image was captured. give a warm welcome to both of our photographers. [applause] it is always our custom to ask the audience to throw in their questions. i will give you that opportunity in just a while. we have two volunteers with microphones and i will give you the sign and you get one of them and get a microphone and jump in. we're going to start with the fun part because we want to get to the heavy issues soon enough. we always ask -- how did you know you want a tulips are? -- won a pulitzer? where were you, tell us the story. >> first, i didn't have any idea on the day the pulitzer prize was announced. i was in peru and they told me, my boss in mexico says you need to go to the office. we have some bureaucratic papers.
11:46 am
i went to the office and you are going to receive a call at 1:30 in the afternoon. i received the call and it was the director of photography. i said i'm in trouble, this guy is calling me because my paper was a mess. so he said can you keep a secret for half an hour? [laughter] he said we won the pulitzer prize, you and another for photographers. i started laughing. another ap photographer jumped in, and i'm looking at my somebody was taking
11:47 am
pictures. it was a great surprise and great news. after working in syria and working in such difficult circumstances, it is a good thing.to receive recognition. is not because now we are is ar than before, but it good thing that somebody tells you, you were in the right way. continue working hard. it is good. >> you have a very different story. >> it's probably equally bizarre. i found out through facebook. [laughter] someone sent me a facebook message and said congratulations.i was not sure, when the results were coming out. i ignored the message and then people started tagging me and that's how i found out.
11:48 am
i was in my apartment in turkey and my roommate, he was in his room reading and i turned around and i knocked on his door and told them you are sharing quarters with a pulitzer prize winner. that's it? we went to bed before midnight. [laughter] there really was not much to do. >> and your fillets are was for feature photography. tell us how you happen to enter that image in the competition. >> i entered myself, so i'm not i knew -- itategory. was in the news, spot news, action combat photograph. i figured the most appropriate base would be features, because it was a slice of life, my photograph.
11:49 am
in my mind, that was the best spot to place it in. >> and this was all new to you. you had no other reason to make any other decision. this was her first time. think your instincts were right on the money. you are here representing your entire staff. i want to read their names out. they were all together with you in syria. of how the day today staffing went. in our a pulitzer film gallery, and one of the photographer said, you do not say, i think i will go out and shoot a pulitzer today.
11:50 am
how did you organize what you were going to do, day today? we covered the story all over the year in different moments. it was an interesting thing, because we have different moments of a story. i shot the stars of the year. my colleague shot during the summer, and another shot the end of the year. that was the power of the entrance, to have five in differentas moments, in different places. we never worked together. , we tried to cover it in the best way possible.
11:51 am
to coverlly difficult a story in syria. we arrived in syria in a tractor, in hiding, trying to arrive to the place where we can cover the story without being killed, basically. you decide things very quickly, every day. takinge to think about the best pictures to tell the story, but also coming back. we used satellite phones. to file six pictures, sometimes, you can spend six hours in winter. the assignment was not easy. you arrive in a plane, welcome, this is the hotel.
11:52 am
we tried to work in the moment. >> being a photographer, access is everything. being a journalist, access is everything. tell us a little bit about how you develop relationships so the people you are trying to cover develop trust? this side of the world, there is a lot of mysticism about covering the war. when you get there, you find it is fairly open and relatively easy to photograph. they liked the coverage, so you feel welcomed with your craft. it is kind of easy to photograph once you are inside. the larger issue is logistics. if you go to the west, you have to walk. , you can to a aleppo
11:53 am
catch essentially a taxi from the border. you cross the border into rebel control. other side, next to a desk, stands your passport in. a big surprise, how easy it is around,graph and move when people understand what you are doing. they want the coverage. >> you need to make difficult decisions. we were in turkey, waiting to enter syria. two days before the new york times, the reporter, died trying to come back to turkey. , twoay after that journalists were killed. one was a freelance photographer. you have to make these decisions.
11:54 am
there is what you want and what the agency thinks is appropriate. you cannot think about the story for the next two weeks. you have to, every day, make a decision. , the wholeyour team agency. ofi want to share some these images with our studio audience. is airst one, roderigo, photograph you took of a child crying at the end of a funeral ceremony. you know the picture. the audience can see it from the monitors. this is a child that is crying at the end of a funeral that was not what you expected. tell us the circumstances in terms of where the victims of the shooting were buried, and how you came to see this child.
11:55 am
>> we realized the situation was really changing in this city in because thatia, funeral was done in eight park where people used to go and drink tea, and children would play. people would converse and pray there. the cemetery was meters from the they could not do there are appropriate work. we realized one day before that there was a shooting, and four people were killed. we tried to organize the next day to cover the funeral. we walked with the people, with the population, for 20 blocks. we arrived in the park. i tried to make actors.
11:56 am
it was chaotic. people were crying, shouting, chanting slogans against the government. , and atto respect this the same time to have a good and respect the funeral, not to be so close. suddenly, i see this boy crying. centimeters next to where the father was buried. after that, i tried to ask the name of the boy, tried to ask more questions for the caption of the pic her. after that, trying to file that picture was really a nightmare. i spent like six hours in a room with a sat phone, trying to catch signal.
11:57 am
i was sending that picture again and again and again, probably 20 times by e-mail. the next day, i tried to check my e-mail, and i received incredible news that the publish -- that the picture was published in three major newspapers -- "the new york times," "the washington post," "the wall street journal." finally, we could show what was going on, the suffering of the civilians. that is my approach to the conflict, more than taking pictures of the combat and how brave the army is, and trying to figure out who is in the military.
11:58 am
am more concerned about these children, more concerned with how people try to survive, how people move to shelters, move from the front line with nothing, living in a public house. that was my concern. that was what we were trying to achieve. maybe we have to find all different kinds of actors, but i was concerned about that. feature, to give us a contrast, you have these young people burning photos of assad. once again, it takes you right back to the nature of the people involved, and how different the situation is from one location to another, how different the situation has been from one year to the next. >> it is true. when i was there in february and
11:59 am
march last year, it was totally different. we had a totally different idea of the conflict. people,ture reflects fathers, children, participating in civilian protests. there were a few old with short weapons, trying to stop the tanks of the syrian army. but it was mostly a civilian unrest. , witht turns military different weapons. , that is why i really liked to cover that story at that time, because you can show both sides, the civilians and the military. you see those pictures mostly of people.
12:00 pm
people that i see in the street. >> you were telling me that on the one hand, as you mentioned here, the civilian population welcomes you with open arms, as they respect the craft and want their story to be told. and yet you were starting to encounter a sense of media fatigue. >> there are dozens and dozens of journalists that going to the country and little has changed on the ground. they do sort of question why you are going there. unfortunately, typical of conflict after a certain amount .f time afghanistan is a good example. people do not really understand why the media is there because they do not really see any media impact on their lives. you cannot really say that the media will change things.
12:01 pm
there is the bare minimum that you can provide. informhope to be able to and the way that agreements are made. unfortunately at this time, there has not been any change on the ground. unfortunately, it is getting .orse and it is spreading more countries are engulfed in this. >> that is interesting. because people embrace me. like, hey, you are a hero. they say, stay with us. we need to you to help us with this fighting. so the situation changed a lot. >> even when i started going experiencedi still that. that sort of changed at the
12:02 pm
evening of last fall. in august, i went there, my second trip in syria, a city north of aleppo. it was a friday. there were friday protests right after friday prayers. it was in freedom square. they renamed the square to freedom square. i would say there were about 3000 people in this square, mainly teenagers, children, , civilians. i did not see any kalashnikovs. it was also millions. people were very welcoming. people are still very welcoming. the second day in syria, we were covering this protest. a lot of chanting, a lot of energy. people waving the pre-syrian flag which is a pre-baptist -- pre-baathist flag.
12:03 pm
people we were with told us to run. then we started seeing a plane going in circles. they shot onto an armed civilian. but i never really expected an albatross plane to drop four bombs on a square filled with civilians. so we got into a car and then i was surprised to see the plane diving and then to bombs came out. the blast was -- it threw me on the ground a little bit. all of the glass shattered. and then we kept running. that was my first syrian experience. to did a few circles and then it emptied a 50 caliber machine gun on the square. that was my second day in syria. that was pretty much very clear
12:04 pm
to me this was a different conflict than we have covered so and it booted example of what sort of messages are being -- >> there is a message in this next image. one of the most chilling photos, a man with a little boy, and a toy grenade launcher because the little boy is too small to handle the weight of an actual one. it seems he believed this little boy is going to need that skill when he is old enough. >> i took that picture at 10:00 in the morning. that was time for school, not for playing war. and the smile of the civilian, it makes you think it is the whole atmosphere of the place is a conflict.
12:05 pm
shops were closed, people were taking positions, children were playing with toys or walking with their mothers trying to find a place to shelter. the daily life of this people is totally transformed. aleppo used to be a really powerful city in terms of commercials and now it is a city that is gone basically. again, this is more comfortable. more comfortable shooting those pictures that show, i also think on what i'm going to show in the newspaper in the next day. some withering in the u.s. or europe or africa. you know, i do think they want
12:06 pm
to see all the time finding and fighters. they want to see how life is there. they want to think about how these people think about. that is why i try. sometimes i fail. most of the time i fail. sometimes you can take a picture that reflects the big picture. the big picture of what is going on. >> you took your camera inside a closed area. we can see some of these -- andans and of joining a up joining a militia, joining the resistance. they take up arms and do what they can. talk to us about how you get from where you woke up that morning into a place like this.
12:07 pm
who is with you? what is the strategy? what is going on from the inside of this sheltered place where the sunlight pierces through holes that have been made from previous battles. >> there are various ways on the front line. --rt of a behind the lyons lines headquarters for that, for the put tunes sized unit. so each unit, you could have various units covering a neighborhood. they always hold back to this main office. usually you get in there and you check in with them. there is somebody delivering ammunition or food for the fighters on the front line. and you typically run with them. you walk in with them. they walk in through the tunnels made from holes on the walls in that way the snipers from the
12:08 pm
regime, they do the same exact a strategy. sometimes you go in vehicles with the free syrian army as well. once you are there, this neighborhood where the photo was taken, there is only two sniper alleys. you do not run very much. it is from here to be first row. a few meters. you sprint across and then you go into another tunnel and you go to a warehouse where this unit was standing. you finally cross one last alley and you go to a small warehouse. i believe it used to be a shop. like many of the shops, it is very typical in those neighborhoods.
12:09 pm
and so the tynwald was peppered was pepperedrtain with shrapnel and bulletholes. the sunlight was coming through, creating these photographic, photogenic pictures. i positioned myself in the middle so the perspective would draw the reader back into the subject. >> in the meantime, so we understand, there is a cat and mouse between these two sides in what used to be a residential area. people shooting from shelter from both sides. >> yes. some apartments are still inhabited, some are not. that neighborhood was largely abandoned and almost completely destroyed.
12:10 pm
so you can have a neighborhood --d sustainable bard meant for that has sustained aerial bombardment for two months and you would still see some structures. talking about six-story buildings. this neighborhood was smaller, two or three story buildings. after four months it was completely decimated.the locals call it the little stalingrad. like i said, largely the civilians have fled. you are walking through these tunnels and you see how people left and you realize they left in a hurry. everything is -- you can see homework on a desk. you can see photographs because you can tell they went through some personal photographs and picked the ones that mattered to them most and then they fled very fast. >> how do you feel being and then enclosed area, and not with
12:11 pm
a weapon but a camera, as the fighting goes on? >> as long as i have cover, i feel safe. i may be simplifying this. i have answered that many times. you are very close to the opposition, in this case the army. the closer you are and in some cases you can hear their steps under broken glass. sometimes it is only a wall. that separates you from the government facilities. [no audio]
12:12 pm
[inaudible] [inaudible] >> i used a very wide [laughter]] >> rodrigo, as you go throughout the city, what array of
12:13 pm
equipment do you carry? what is the strategy before what kind of cameras you have and what kind? >> when you are going to enter-- we knew we were going to enter in a trap door, andwhen you walk a lot in the mountains, sometimes to reach the places we thought that the best idea was to go with a very light gear, light equipment. so i carried a couple of cameras, small lenses, something light.liked.-- really and last night for example we walked six hours in a field. we put on all of our gear with a sleeping bag. we could not have big equipment. the first reason is you have to walk with all of it. the second is because all of the pictures were really near s.--
12:14 pm
subjects were near us. we did not need big lenses, heavy gear. but the idea was to be really light just in case we have to run, just in case we have to move from one place. for example we changed locations four times in one week. we started sleeping in one house day and now, trying to avoid the attack of the army. you need to be like really quick. and fit.[laughter] >> i do not know if we have a microphone in the audience bid i but i am going to move, we have a request for one.
12:15 pm
i am going to move to your next image. it is another intimate look, it is a woman with her hands over her face. you talked about how you were trying to tell the story of the people within this conflict. tell us about this woman. >> we were covering the army and we took some pictures and then we realized the more important inace was the red cross. idlib. so we'd stayed outside of the clinic where the wounded civilians were coming. after taking some pictures outside, it was really chaotic. few doctors. no gear. it was really setting chaotic to see that clinic. we went into a room and we saw that woman crying, full of blood.
12:16 pm
next to her three daughters. they were in two separate beds, all of them crying. so we took some pictures. the relatives were there. some doctors were there. and with the camera guy, who covered three weeks of the syrian conflict with me, we checked what happened. what happened that day. one of the relatives said don't ask her anything because she did not know at the time her husband and two of her sons were killed in the attack. so she was in complete shock. it was a really sad moment. again, civilians, the most
12:17 pm
vulnerable people in this conflict and all of the wars in history. and this woman was crying, i received so many e-mails of people like, but looking at this picture, i think it is a very direct image. it's only her eyes and face. i tried to reflect that panic in her face. and i wonder what is the life of this woman now? i wonder, i tried to find out what was going on with the family.
12:18 pm
where they are now? because i do not think they stayed in that city anymore. >> let's go to our audience. >> hello. thank you first of all for your candor and for your tragic but interesting stories. you are obviously very fine photographers and you probably take more than a few pictures of an event. when you get back to your studio or wherever, how do you decide, what do you look for in a photo to make a prize worthy? what do you see and what kind of shots -- i know people but will kind of shots was make you say, >> do youis the best? want to take it? [laughter]
12:19 pm
>> there is a lot of discussion, most of you like photography. we have discussions about photoshop and technique issues. what i think is important for us when we choose a picture, that we use a technique in a way that we can transmit the idea of what we think about the conflict in the most powerful way. whether in black-and-white or in color or with more or less contrast and with photoshop, i don't care. we need to select the picture that can show and attract people to look at the picture and to ask questions and to think about
12:20 pm
the issue. to have a reflection, when they look at the picture. to have any fueling after that -- to have any feeling after that image. so i tried to think about that. i tried to think about pictures that tell the story in the most honest and powerful way. >> i think the answer for me would be you have the subject matter and you have the technical aspect. the tech glass back, our job is -- the technical aspect, our job is to stare at people for hours. for many days, four years.-- for years. we stare at people. after a while you get good at predict in reactions to certain situations. you try to position yourself in
12:21 pm
something that is going to yield the best framing and tell the whole story. it is all about information in one frame. what frame should tell the story? that is what we strike for.-- that is what we all strive for. number one is going to be a photograph. you work on the aesthetics of the photograph. the information needs to be there. as far as the subject matter, you try to cover as broad of photographs you can. syria, you can't cover both sides. you can't go into damascus and -- andd yourself with embed yourself withgovernments troops because they will not give you a visa. unfortunately it is one side of
12:22 pm
the conflict. other people are trying to cover it as best as they can, the site of the government. in conjunction, a newspaper should give you a fair and balanced story. for the most part, in my mind, syria is civilian casualties, civilian casualties, and then there is a revolution going on. the people that lose the most at the end of the day are civilians. they did not choose any sides. they are just getting bob.-- they are just getting bombed. by both sides now. both sides are killing each other. the numbers in the opposition are the ones being punished the most. >> this last image we are going to look at shows you the moment where those civilians where the fighting has come to their
12:23 pm
neighborhood. we have families and you can see them about to flee. tell us about this picture. >> i tried to explain this conflict, there is little organization. people react very quickly. there are really calm days where nothing is going on. nothing is going to happen. there are some negotiations in the europe and the u.s. and russia. people continue to live in the same apartment and suddenly, very quickly, things change. very quickly. in one morning. it is really chaotic. these families were taking
12:24 pm
whatever they can take to run. they were bombing their houses. if you see the smoke in the picture, it was really near. they were fighting in the corner. they did not know where to go basically. the rebels organized some kind of shelter but there was nothing for all of the civilians. so everybody was running and trying to take cover basically, without any organization. that is why so many civilians are killed because the rebels fight among the civilians. you have to understand here is a phone line, here is where they fight, like a conventional war. it is not like that. civilians are fighting next to these people.
12:25 pm
and the army is coming here. so that was another picture that was important to find. if then they are iconic or not, we tried to show, we try to select the pictures that tell the story. i do not know where the families go. and some of the guys say, where am i going? i will stay here. this is my house. i have nowhere to go. my brother was killed yesterday and i am going to stay here in till the end. it was really strong to see people that were basically waiting to die. that was every day. >> you talked about that also. a fundamental loss of human dignity where you have to flee your home but you don't know what is going to happen. >> absolutely. some of the flareups and the
12:26 pm
meeting points were opposition soldiers.-- where opposition oldiers meet regime soldiers, there are civilians there. they do not want to leave. they are not going to leave, the shelling is so bad they have to. their apartment might be hit two or three times.and they are still going to stay. so unless the apartment building is completely destroyed, they are not going to leave. they tried to go to and family apartment block. and once that is shelter bomb,-- once that gets shelled or bombed , then essentially they are refugees. and then they go to the border. they go to the border with turkey and some of them apply. most people i know do not want
12:27 pm
to leave syria. syria is their home. they do not want to live in turkey.they do not speak turkish. it is a different country. i do not want to go to jordan. they can't stay. for them, it is a tremendous loss of dignity because they see their family living in a refugee camp. this is a society that is conservative. very little privacy. it is a huge loss of dignity. as i said earlier today, in refugee camps. you go inside of a tent and it is clean. they clean their tents. they wash their clothes. they tried to keep as much dignity as they can. in a place that, in a country that robbed them of many they are homeless,
12:28 pm
essentially. >> it is a really tough decision. it is the u.s. trying to help us to find out -- we are talking, come with us. come with us to turkey.there is nothing to do here. but my mother is going to turkey. my girlfriend is here. if they get killed i am in turkey, how can i leave? how can i be in that situation. they ask these questions every day. >> where are the men of fighting age? they joined the opposition. they did not want to maybe, they did not want to fight, they did
12:29 pm
not like both sides. aleppo was not joining the fight, for example, until the fight came aleppo. once you lose everything, you see your mother and your father, in a refugee camp, living with very little dignity, then your choices are very clear. and most likely you lost family members. that would turn anybody into -- >> it is important to take pictures of the complexity of the situation. it is not the good and the bad. it is everything is really complicated. there were engineers, somebody give me a a bomb.
12:30 pm
kalashnikov and i go to the front line. because you want revenge but you are not politically involved in the rebels. so for me, those complex pictures tell the story in a different way and show that confusion because the war is confusion. it is not good and bad. >> it is never black and white. you are not my enemy, i am not your enemy. it is always a shade of gray. i met this young 20-year-old through this place. i met him at the border. his father lost his legs in artillery. a mortar shell fell inside their living room. the mother was blind, by the same shell. and they lost a sister and a brother. they were still in shock, figuring out what they're going to do.
12:31 pm
two months later i met that young man again on the front lines and he had been fighting a week after i had met him. he joined a group and started fighting. i think anybody would do that. >> you are involved in journalistic photography, which, at a risk of your own lives, and and now you have won a pulitzer. what impact is going to have on your career and how you are perceived by your colleagues, on what you think as you go out the door for your next assignment? >> rodrigo said it well. i am flattered and i am honored to receive this award. it does not make it any better than our colleagues.
12:32 pm
a lot of my friends i have a lot of respect for that worked in many other places. it does not have to be conflict. it could be the olympics, whatever you want. it does not make you a better photographer. it is really nice when somebody points the finger at you and says, well done. but it does not make you any better. it is important to keep your feet on the ground. for the pulitzer, specifically for some reason people listen to what you have to say more than they used to. [laughter] i don't know why. nothing has changed. i am the same guy. but now for some reason people listen to you. >> even relatives. [laughter] they did not call you in 20 years.
12:33 pm
oh, your son is on tv, the say to my mother. >> for all of the people, you are never going to amount to anything. >> human nature.facebook requests. >>javier manzano, rodrigo abd, thank you for your photography, your courage, your dedication and commitment. i appreciate you giving us insight on what it means to be a freshly crowned pulitzer winner. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013] [captioning performed by ational captioning institute] >> next, a look at the origins of instagram after two stanford graduates built the video and photo sharinga pp and only eight weeks before selling it to facebook for $1 billion. later, bill clinton and chris christie talk about planning and
12:34 pm
persevering through natural disasters. then part of this years table show with education secretary arnie duncan, on the impact of technology and education, along with entertainer and are for lopez on her new cable network target the latino americans. tonight, discussion on computer hacking and information activism. we will hear about online surveillance by the government and corporations. and why the government could be using a law from 1984 to prosecute whistleblowers. here is a portion. seeing is that there is increasing government surveillance of us, people, and there is increasing corporate surveillance of us. and at the same time, people exposing this are being war and are heavily prosecuted. that point cannot be underscored enough. i wanted to talk about that. and how people are being prosecuted is that the
12:35 pm
government is using this law called the cfaa, the computer fraud and abuse act. it was written in 1980 four, unbelievably. which is ironic for all the reasons why you would imagine, and if you think about it, it was written at a time before there were really computers the way they are today. the law is a critically rough. it is frightening, really. amost anyone that touches computer could be prosecuted under this law. so whenever you come to a new website, a facebook page, and you clickt the little terms of service agreement that is 45 pages long that you did not read and you do not obey those exact terms -- again, you probably have no idea what they are, and you are in violation of the computer fraud and abuse act, and you face five years in prison for that. if you made a fake myspace
12:36 pm
account for your dog, if you share a netflix password, if you look at your friend's hbogo account. you face five years for every time you have done that. any of us could probably be prosecuted under this act, and we are not. who is prosecuted under the cfaa ? more and more, the government is using the cfaa to prosecute whistleblowers, activist, leakers, hackers. it is being used against information activists. >> a portion of a discussion that happened during the annual left forum conference purdue can see the entire event tonight at 8:00 eastern here on c-span or you can watch it anytime online at c-span.org. book tv in prime time continues tonight as we interview two nonfiction authors could beginning at 8:00, wendy lower
12:37 pm
discusses her book. 8:20, remarksat, from a pulitzer prize winner who has written several books on world war ii. tonight on c-span2. if kern county were a state, it would be in the top five oil producers in the nation. to put this in a little more oilext, 75% of all of reduction into california is done in kern county, and over 50% of the natural gas is produced in california which is right here in kern county. so we're really looking at at, when you are in this county, oil , along with agriculture. they are the two largest industries that we have, and it really churns the economy. >> explore the history and literary life of bakersfield am
12:38 pm
a california this weekend on book tv on c-span2 and american history tv on c-span3. a look now at the origins of instagram and its possible future. two stanford graduates built the application in only eight weeks, eventually selling it for $1 billion to facebook and you will hear more about the story during this event held by the commonwealth club of california. it is about one hour 10 minutes. [applause] >> awesome. popcorn. this was my request, popcorn and a comfy couch. welcome. so, i'm excited to be here. how many instagram fans are there out there?[applause] that's awesome. we are going to be recording
12:39 pm
this for radio. i should bang this thing three times. are you ready to start?let's go. [applause] good evening and welcome to the commonwealth club. you can find us online and watch our videos. you can join the community at instagram. i am the general partner at google ventures. tonight, we're are hosting a conversation with the founders of instagram.kevin systrom and mike krieger. kevin is a cofounder of instagram. he started as an intern. he spent two years at google, before cofounding instagram. he was on times list of the 100 most influential people.pretty awesome.
12:40 pm
mike krieger moved from california to brazil in 2004. he is the secret man behind all things scaling on instagram. you guys are now at 100 million users, does that shock you? are you like, how in the hell did we get here? >> i don't know how big this is going to get, but i know i know we created something that is going to take off.that was week one. i was like, i do not know. i still have that fear that people will stop using it. it is incredible. >> let's start at the beginning. talk about how you first got started in tact. -- in tech.
12:41 pm
>> i graduated stanford in 2009. i started out studying user experiences. i was frustrated on how hard it was to use computers.my original inspiration was watching people -- i used to tutor basic computer skills. it was so hard for people to understand why you click this thing and double-click that quacks like trying to teach your parents computers. >> yeah, it was way harder than it needed to be. i thought, this has to be easier. but, yeah, i went to stanford and met kevin at a coffee shop said, i am going to do this full-time and raise money are you in? >> it is interesting, you guys started bourbon first. you create a program that was
12:42 pm
nothing like what instagram became.walk is up speed on how you got into creating urban. bourbon. >> early on, or my uncle gave me this laptop, i got -- not a lot people will remember when laptops had two colors.it was green and black. it had a couple of games on it. that is all it really took me to get hooked. he told me that you can create these things with code. he taught me a few commands and then i started programming. and i programmed on the side. i got into trouble making programs that kicked my friends off-line on aol and prodigy.that was in high school. i got a family account deleted one time.all of that led to
12:43 pm
college where i wento stanford as well. i took a computer science class my first quarter. i got into my class and i looked around. i said, i'm going to do this and do this really well. it was the hardest lesson i have ever taken in my entire life. i got a c on my first assignment. i thought, what has the world decided i did not want to do computer science anymore because i wanted to do things really well. i switched to product design and a different major. i got the equivalent of a business degree as an undergrad. that hopping around, and realizing that coating was not-- forte, isn't my realized that i want to do lots of different things. when i left my day job and worked on the project that would become bourbon, my one regret was not sticking through the
12:44 pm
tough times in college. focusing on that was a lot of fun. mike was one of the first users. when he joined, i said, welcome to the team and we are going to work on something completely different. he said, you're telling me we're going to work on something different? >> talk about bourbon. what were you trying to create? -- our homepage says -- it's it said on bourbon.com, a new to communicate and share in the real world. we wanted to take communication from your mobile
12:45 pm
phone and reinvent it through check-in's. you could check-in if you are at a restaurant. it let you share your location with friends. part of that was being part -- being able to share an image with your check in. it turns out that the people who use bourbon the most loved the part where you could share an i was on this vacation said,y girlfriend and she you know, i love the posts with photos, but i do not feel like they take photos that are nearly as good as your friend greg. i said that is because he uses hipstamatic and other filters for photos. she was like, wait, i can take photos like that? the key for her -- there were two keys, photography
12:46 pm
was the key and we had to make it accessible. through doing that, the rest is history. we came back from our vacation and we put instagram together in eight weeks. >> yes, two months. >> who came up with the name? >> good question. it was my job to research the name. like a ceo, i spent one week trying to research a day. >> it was codenamed for a long time. >> we did not want to use his did notto be upset.we want the users to be upset that we were working on something else. when they found out, they were like, we're never going to use that. we were sitting with a big list on paper and we were crossing things off. we're down to two things.i do not remember what the other one was. we said instagram and that was it. things clicked. it was the combination of
12:47 pm
instant and telegram.it was the idea that you could take a moment in time and you could capture it and send it out and broadcast it with the entire world. >> what was it like on launch day? you had integration with twitter right off the bat.you could share photos out socially. was it tremendous growth from day one? did it take a few weeks?>> it was insane. e were going to get the press lined up and hope that no one it can take aly. couple hours to get your app out. it safe and to play hit the button at midnight. kevin hit the button at his house. we immediately had people signing up. we were building up interest and
12:48 pm
we let all the testers share it on twitter, instead of keeping we let our beta testers share to twitter. we had a great group of testers who were silicon valley designers and engineers. people we knew from florida. they were drumming up interest. there have been pent-up interest in it. we had a sign up within one minute. i biked at 6:00 a.m. and it was reezing.i was shaking because i was so nervous. sure enough, the sign-ups started coming in.neither of us had any experience dealing websites and many people using
12:49 pm
it. we look back. that first day, we were beginners. we made business mistakes. john gruber said that it was an interesting app, but, he would not use it.he ended up using it. he said it is ok, nice design. but then there would be an update about the site is down and i do not think they know what they are doing. an incredible day. i called our hosting company at the time. we were hosted in a single machine that was about as powerful as our laptops are. i asked for more machines and more capacity. they said, it will be like four days. i said, we need it right now. two days later, we decide to switch to amazon's clouds service. when memorial day hit, we added it rightwe could do
12:50 pm
then and there. >> one of the things that you guys, it seems, in retrospect, that you guys were slow to hire. engineers -- i remember when i met you guys, maybe you had one other person working with you. six months later, when you had grown, why had you only acquisitioned seven people? >> i spent the majority of my time now recruiting, hiring, and talking to people.when we joined facebook, we were 16 people, and now we're well over 34. ite doubling happened quickly. was over the course of a handful of months. we were slow to grow. we felt handcuffed to our computers keeping this site up. not a lot of people understand how hard it was to make instagram solvent in the we missed birthdays.
12:51 pm
weekends with friends and girlfriends, it was always something different. whether it was japan waking up in us having to make sure that we had to keep the site up, we would be like, all japan is waking up. the server a large to be going-- the server alarms are going off. we do not take the time to find --ople who could guess out of get us out of that rut. that was a working mistake. at the same time, this site and service it would not be there without hiring the best team that technology is ever seen. mike is able to understand exactly what is going on by touching the servers. pretty amazing. like, you know, shane, one of
12:52 pm
our early engineers, help us-- relentless at figuring out the problems inside the servers. you can put computers on your we'reand they just work. not talking about servers lighting on fire. we're talking too many people act axis in a computer at one time. figuring out how to get around that is not easy. mike was doing statistics and graphical work. i was doing marketing. we had to figure this stuff out from scratch. hiring was one of the keeping -- onee get along the way. of the key things we learned along the way. finding the right people and building the core team was instrumental. >> what people do not realize about hiring is, by the time you need to hire people, it is too late. talking to people today, they'll
12:53 pm
tell you know, and then they will say, i am rated talk. >> there's a couple of months ramping up. >> we did not realize that. >> in the first version of instagram, there were issues around tagging. hastags have been big for you guys.the eggs lower functionality -- the explorer functionality. #dog --a .6 million photos. #fashion has 22 million photos. even knitting. are crazy. sweaters
12:54 pm
>> did you anticipate people tagging their photos and creating communities? do you plan on expanding these features? >> early on, we were a small group of 100 people. one of the things we imagined was -- i'll take it back to my days at odio -- a colleague said, sunday, everyone is going tosomeday, everyone is going use twitter. i said, that is weird. there are 80 of us using it right now. there was a moment in time when google had a couple of users. there is a moment of time when facebook was college-only. one of the things we have done well is defining our vision. continuously challenging ourselves to define our mission.
12:55 pm
part of it is enabling people to use visual media as the most rich expression of what they want to get out in the world. whether it is communicating about activism or how to cook a meal, we believe that visual media is a way to do it. we think that hashtags organically gather it together. >> you mentioned how to cook a meal. the tool is pretty straightforward right now. you can tag cooking or pot roast. --w do the tools involved evolved and become richer? where does this go? >> not enough people know what hashtags are.people take it for that could -- for granted
12:56 pm
it is a way of categorizing your post. you tag it with a word. the key word was the photo and it will of other photos similarly tagged. you can type in any keyword on our service. you can see all the cooking images. it is a great way to discover. is a great way to discover new users, new content. things that you would never have expected on instagram. people submitting a pot roast. it forms communities around things. you see communities gather around surfing and actual and allowing people to find each other is the key to instagram. #'s -- we introduced cantags so early on, we
12:57 pm
continue to grow in the future. >> the clicking, for example, is typically someone saying "look but really there were 15 steps, 15 photos and creating that. is it something that will eventually create groups are collections of images? >> one of the earliest things we sketched out was every page of we sketched out. every page of the app. groups was one of the pages that we built on paper and never ended up implementing. i could see as building richer tools for people to come together. i think that instagram's mission is to capture and share the world's moments. if we can build the tools that allow you to capture and share those moments with the right people at the right time, i think we will have succeeded. i think a lot can go into that that does not stay in with the
12:58 pm
current version of instagram is. >> hashtags came out of us seeing what people do.they wanted to run things like photo contests. they came up with the craziest -- like, i created the second account. if you mention this account, i will watch for that to be mentioned and then will collect them. people really wanted this feature. we watched them misuse our product for so long, that we decided it would be a great area to take advantage of.we want people all the time and say how is somebody like jamie oliver who has a ton of cooking books and a huge audience, how does he expect his recipes -- how is he talking about food? >> one of our product philosophies from the very beginning am i read this book in high school called "chaos" that talks about the chaos theory. it talks about simple rules, when put into large systems, can create really beautiful patterns.
12:59 pm
able toules like being location tag and share with your friends might all seem very basic, but when put together, really beautiful patterns can emerge within communities. even causes. i figure a lot of people have used instagram to get out the word about their causes. --hink those simple rules keeping it simple is one of our values, some blue city first. it means that instagram can be extremely powerful -- implicit he first. it means that instagram can be extremely powerful. >> would you add functionality like vine and videos? is an interesting evolution of mobile video. people might not know what it is. it is a lot like instagram that captures video instead. missionaid instagram's is to capture and share the world's moments, i did not say that it is for the world's
1:00 pm
photography. we have always been really interested in video. vine has done that very well. but i think it is about the right time, right place, right tools, right technology. how many people have thought about the times they pulled out their phone and can barely get an image to load? i think that video in general, aside, video faces an extreme challenge and that you're trying to put over the wire the equivalent of 30 pictures per second to a given person. who ever achieves success in video in mobile, will make it fast, beautiful, and fun. >> do you have full control over the product? do you decide what features are built and like a photo tagging? >> we have a backlog of a road
1:01 pm
map. we know what we have wanted to work on for a long time. we're just constrained by only having five engineers and now we have 16. it is not huge but -- >> or 100 million users. >> six people for that many. we have all the autonomy to say which of these next things we want to tackle. it is a great position to look at that list of things. what are we working on for the next three-six months? wide, wef going really could of added bells and whistles but we think how we can make this experience better or go deeper. we took time and made our whole camera and sharing experience better. the one that we have works fine but it could be better. if you make that a little better, that is a happen this
1:02 pm
level multiplied every time you use the product. we still have a ton of autonomy and it feels good to. >> how do you feel about taking instagram and import to get? and dried, google glass - would you go into those worlds? >> instagram never be confined to a single platform or device. it just so happens that a mobile phone is the right way to use instagram today. i don't know where devices will go. i. google glass interesting but i don't know how widely adopted it will be in the next year but we are excited about the fact that technology is changing. stickrath can be there to be the place you can capture ensure the world's moments. we were on ios is apple devices for a long time.
1:03 pm
-- how many people here are on the android? raise your hands. i would say almost half. think that was half. i think you looked at 10 people. [laughter] the check isgei, in the mel. >> i am fired now. >> for everybody on radio, >> way to go. they are going to edit that out. [laughter] i have to count backwards. put it this way, what percentage of our users -- about half. of all instagram users, they are about half so i was guessing. the truth comes out.
1:04 pm
now i lost my train of thought. speaks to our company with is you have to be ok -- that risk that mike might annoy or make users angry. we lost two of our most passionate urban users because they were on and dried. they said thanks a lot. >> we have 99.9 million -- -- what wet know why were given up for. we were two guys and we focused on something specific like ios. i felt -- i felt something similar when we went and tried. -- android. some people get upset and vocal and you have to take a step back and ask if you are listening to the majority or a vocal minority. that was the case when the launched an droid.
1:05 pm
there are other people. the >> people in this room will come after you. week launched and there was a multitude of people being upset and people use both devices and that pattern is repeated so you have to be ok with saying we have an opinion. we may not always be right that we are not confused. we said let's do android and learn what we learn. theet's talk about acquisition days. >> day? >> it was a couple of days. >> who reached out? did they ring the doorbell? >> was sunday morning and i was eating eggs and i woke up --
1:06 pm
marisa miers was in my living room. it's a great question. it is a hard one to answer. mark and i met in 2005. it was my junior year in college. he was in a dorm room in my fraternity hanging at with this guy who knew about attack. -- tech. i said nice to me to and the guy in the room said he made to facebook. that was a cool thing. >> he just as a guy that stands next to him? >> that would be amazing. met then hire -- and i remember this guy is interesting and is working on a school project. long story short, there was a
1:07 pm
time when i was thinking of leaving school and working at facebook early on. i decided to stick through school and we just kept in touch. i think that relationship meant that we had a continuing conversation. about a lotcares of fun to bernard fried he will reach out to folks starting an interesting companies. it is part of his philosophy of continuing to learn about what is out in the world and how people are thinking about emerging technologies. mike and i had that relationship -- it was less of the one call than an evolving relationship that no. >> when did the topic comes up? were you hanging out for having coffee? [laughter] >> actually, yes. it was a lot like that. -- it was less ofi cannot remet words for it is kind of like dating. i can see the headlines now -- [laughter]
1:08 pm
does anyone have a shovel? i'm never going to get through this. out and iere hanging remember him saying would you ever imagine a world where facebook and instagram were combined. that took a while to have an honest answer to. i think that was the beginning of a couple of conversations that eventually bled to us combining forces and creating an awesome partnership. we have been able to grow from a tiny team of 16 at the time to well over 34. people supported instagram stuff and a daily basis. today innot be here the form we are without facebook. i think that is a testament to
1:09 pm
how committed they have been to help us grow independently. >> he must of saw you as a threat. >> that's because i am really tall. >> we never talked about threats. we talked about how our two products shared with each other. one of the features on instagram as you can take a photo and share it to>> he must of saw yoa threat. multiple services. questions we got early on is why would i use instagram if i could just use facebook or twitter. our answer was that you can take a photo and beam to all these places at once and that was a key feature from early on that made people excited about using instagram. when mark and i talked about what we could create in the future together, it was very much about how these integrations go even deeper. how does it sharing become more of a thing and what other integrations can we do going forward that we would not have done a separate companies? that really drove it and honestly, there are a lot of
1:10 pm
people that use instagram and facebook. it is like a portfolio theory of grabbing banks that are awesome and putting them together and creating a menu of options for your consumers. questions we got earlyfacebook is 89 years old. they don't feel like a hot new cool start up. or 9 years old. why is it that they are no longer hip. you guys are the hot thing. why does that change over time? >> early on, it is people who are fresh and join with you. it is your most current friends. your parents joined and people you knew one year ago. from the beginning, and instagram, you follow other people and they can follow you back. you don't have to follow the
1:11 pm
people who follow you. that means you can curate your experience. if one year later, kevin takes good photos but my friend jim kind of sucks now. that is fine. it is a two-way relationship on facebook. >> we try to keep it simple. that is the key three years to -- from now. >> and is reinvent themselves. companies to reinvent themselves. they are not new because they have been around for nine years and that happens to every network. every single star of goes through the honeymoon phase of the most exciting new thing. i meet people will literally love instagram and are
1:12 pm
passionate and it is about the motion. that gets me up every morning. the fact that i could wake up and commute to menlo park in one hour thinking about going to -- you do it, too -- the fact that i can go down and work with a team that is working on a product that inspire so many people -- that's what gets them out of bed in the morning. i love working on it and thinking that we have a canvas of well over 100 million users that use this every single month that are causing real change in the world. every day brings new challenges and i think that's what keeps it interesting for us. we are two really happy guys who love working on a product that many people love and that is part of what comes through in our brand and how we act. and the silicon valley, people have heard of instagram. generally know what it is
1:13 pm
now. we have had this international growth over the last six months. russia has really taken off. some people have heard of it but have never used it and it's like they are discovering it for the first time. you are new to somebody every day. you are part of facebook that makes money but one point, you said instagram will become a sustainable business on its own. what would that look like and when will that happen? obviously, when we went to venture-capital list, the folks to give you checks early on to start a company, we made a promise that instagram would become a self sustaining business. that promise still holds true today. facebook paid quite a bit of money to have instagram come in. that is not really make sense if you think this thing will never make money. we have always had plans. it is about when and how.
1:14 pm
obviously, whenmike and i caret community and how the product works. we want to make sure that the experience, whether we are introducing a new feature or introducing some form of advertising, that it feels right and feels right to the community and feels right to the app and does not fundamentally change your experience. we all love instagram so much and want to make sure that experience echoes that feeling and it feels at home. at the same time, i think there are ways -- think about the magazine "vogue." how many times do people open up the magazine and have the pages are advertising. >> we are going to be just like that than of people in some ways, if done correctly, can think advertising is compelling. there are certain examples in the world of companies and publications and media channels that do very well and are very thoughtful about it. that's what we are here to do.
1:15 pm
forced and foremost, we are here to make of some products. supports theimply ability for us to be a business in the long run the gets to achieve that mission of capturing and sharing the world's moments. to be around for many years. orders do that, we need to support our endeavors. >> yahoo last week with their photo app announced accounts with more storage capabilities, high resolution photos. do you have any kind of pro account where people pay? >> flickr has had pro accounts. i was a user for a while. >> then they reconfigured it. >> we are not in the business of charging folks a subscription. people ask about premium filters, and it is not what gets me up in the morning to build a big business. aboutnd diary passionate building a business that is sustainable and brings in real
1:16 pm
revenue. we haven't seen that be true with a lot of these subscription models, especially around services -- instagram is unique in that it is very community, and that is our greatest asset. we want to make sure our community feel loved and feel like they do not have to pay to access the features that we want to build. >> when was the last time you launch the new filter? >> three or four months ago. >> is that something you plan on constantly tweaking and rolling out new filters over time? >> i will say something to this room that i think will surprise you. it is that instagram is not a photography company. i said this the first day i went to facebook, and people said i'm a actually it is a photography company. it is not. it is a communications company. it is about communicating a moment and sending it to people in real time.
1:17 pm
theust so happens that message happens to be an image. the more we think about instagram as photography, of course in our dna, we are about photography. we believe in photographers and photographers rights. it is something more than that. it is about communicating a message. we dialed it down to the point where we realize the features we work on are going to be about community and communication. we do not wake up in the morning thinking about what four filters can we add it tomorrow, because frankly that is driving straight into photography. what we would rather see his other apps innovate and make awesome filters. there are a ton out there that i use on a daily basis, and i bring my photos and stu instagram. we want innovation to happen there. we want to focus on the network and the communication. instagramthink
1:18 pm
becomes more of a news outlet in the way that twitter is? you go to twitter and you see trending topics, breaking news. i saw a bunch of different photos on instagram during the things that happened in boston. do you see it as becoming this real-time platform for people saying, i just caught something amazing, and i want to share that. >> we had a moment two weeks ago. this is an amazing thing with working with facebook. you have a whole department that helps you out. our community team, our very first higher was josh. theas about contracting in community, sourcing great contact. we have a great blog. they are constantly playing cnn, cnbc, news channels 24/7. when they spot interesting
1:19 pm
things going on around the world, be it happy news, a riot, the stuff in boston, they turn to the community and say, can we source human stories happening on instagram? if you look at these photos that happen, the explosion in texas a couple of months ago, i went on and i was looking at the hastag. -- hashtag. almost every picture had a comment on it from a person from cnn a.m., wow, can i use a photo in the broadcast? people are looking at instagram as a source and saying, what are real people experiencing? >> they are doing that through hashtags? >> also location tags. oft are people taking photos right here and now? >> one of the things -- i was watching the giants play in the
1:20 pm
ballpark, and i pulled up the stadium, and i was watching the photos coming in -- they were not real-time. will you provide more tools run that so people can see and explore something like that, an event happening in real time? muchght now, we are very about the latest photos. we have often talked about serving the most interesting photos or a mix of live in the best. it is often we turn to it and say, it is version one. recent photos of a hashtag. one thing that gets me excited, we have great photos and content. how can we service that in a more fascinating way? we have 5 billion photos printed that gets overwhelming. there is no way we can sift through all of that. >> will you eventually get into the search game? i know you have search within the app, but is that something you will get into on the desktop side so people can say, this window of time, this
1:21 pm
location, show me the photos? >> i think search is interesting for instagram and a different way than it is for google or yahoo. the cool part about instagram large is that the majority of them are produced in the moment live. they are basically a real-time view into the world. you have to ask yourselves -- one of our product philosophies at the beginning was to solve problems -- we believe every problem we have will solve a user's problem. when we tackle search -- why do you want to search, and how are you going to use search, and what problem is this search going to sell? large majority of them are producedse, but what problem will it solve? i can imagine going down the street and saying, is that breakfast place and a good? i want to support that behavior.
1:22 pm
i think there's something to location and topic and people. like mike said, i think we have the version 1.0s of that. one of our visions is a real- time view into the world. whether it is something as meaningful as this one user syrian developer, who takes pictures about the conflict happening in real time, everything from buildings two explosions, to a family friend that lives on the east coast that i keep in touch with through instagram -- it gives me a real-time view into everybody's world. that is super powerful. it is almost like searches happening for you in that it is present in the contact to you that you did not know you were looking for. >> real quick, i want to announce to the audience we will be taking questions in a few minutes. if you have any questions,
1:23 pm
write your name on the card come or you can tweet your questions. outside of instagram, what are your favorite apps? what are you really liking? what is on your home screen? >> i am dealing with the google reader death process right now, trying to find a substitute. i am playing with a lot of different news apps and saying, i'm using this app called newsler. i like what he is doing good he is servicing good recommendations based on what you already like. this news article, i want to see more of this. can we train an algorithm to be better about it? that is my main thing. honestly, i often get home, and i will play with instagram and do some work and then turn the phone off as much as possible. >> i am inspired by music. i listen to music all day.
1:24 pm
one of my favorite radio stations is in santa monica. it is kcrw. they play independent music. early on, we get to visit their studio and take some photos. they actually have an app. it lets me listen to radio that is not accessible where i live, otherwise it is on your mobile phone. that got me into spotify, which they have an app for. i create playlists grade i discover other people's playlists. pandora, which helps me randomly walk the web of music. those three apps are probably my most used apps on my phone. i think there is going to be a revolution in music and mobile. it is a combination of all three of those. local access to content, but on demand streaming and discovery. those three apps together are my favorites.
1:25 pm
>> i've got a few questions from the audience. did you guys have full-time jobs when you build instagram, and is it possible to be a successful entrepreneur with a full-time job? weneither of us did when launched instagram, but the things that went into instagram were driven over a long time. i knew how to code ios development. i would go to this coffee shop in san francisco. i built an app that was about seeing crimes in san francisco. the san francisco government has a huge data open said. you can say, give me all the crimes that happened over this time? what is the most interest part? i used to go to the bayview and there was so much crime so it would crash the app. there was arson everywhere. [laughter] there was a good time when i would spend the weekend -- i was
1:26 pm
going to say, it was not the most social thing, but it really was, because often a community of people were interested in building. that is how i ran into kevin for the first time since we graduated. he was working on some things there. to answer the question directly, i think to do what we did requires full-time attention, but the ideas and knowledge and skills come from a lot of years, and you can develop those while you have a full-time job. >> the next question from karen -- what is your ultimate goal? >> i think i said a couple of times, but i will repeat it, that our mission is to capture and share the world's moments. success to us in the future is where everyone in the world has the instagram app that lets them share what is happening in their lives as it happens with whomever they want. i think why that is important is because part of our human nature is staying in touch.
1:27 pm
it is why we have cables during holidays and we go around the table and have a meal. he stay in touch around these moments. i think that instagram connects people in ways that i haven't seen anything else connect them, through moments in our lives that is everything from a baby's first step to a graduation party to a grandmother and a daughter walking down the street. i have seen all of this on instagram. the ultimate goal is to make that ubiquitous. there are more cell phones and the world, or there will be very soon, then computers. places like brazil, mike is like result, and he goes home and sees more people using cell phones that are connected to the internet on computers. that amount of conductivity with a mobile phone means that instagram can be the key to making sure that we realize the mission. >> this question has been asked a couple of times. joe and david want to know, what does your favorite filter and least favorite filter?
1:28 pm
>> we've got to say toaster. [laughter] you may or may not know, kevin has his dog toaster, an adorable dog. a celebrity dog. we have a filter named after him. i will be diplomatic with that. >> do not answer the other part of the question. i wonder if ours line-up. my favorite filter is rise. not many people know that the reason why it is called rise, it was made by one of our users. he is a very talented photographer that we met in very early on and the beta app to. i remember him using it and turning to us and saying, this is going to be big some day. we thought he was crazy. he believed in us in the beginning. we worked with them around creating some filters. if he had some of most beautiful photography on his account, which is @fullrise.
1:29 pm
it means the world to me that he was able to create a filter for us to chip in a mize his photography is about. i least favorite is kelvin. there is a reason is as all the way in the right hand side. there are people that make these decisions on purpose. if we got rid of it, i would have a riot on my hands. honestly, we got rid of two. we had a couple other ones, gotham was one. apollo was another one we got rid of, the lost filters. i will go to a conference, and they will say, you are kevin from instagram. they will say, bring back awesome. now. >> if 1% of people use it now, that is like one million people. that is a lot of people to the [laughter]
1:30 pm
thehy the square format on photos? thinkingly on were about photography, and we wanted to make it easy to compose photos. it turns out when you do not have a square, you have to think about the two thirds rule and, how does this work? with a square photo, it is easy and simple to take a photo and make it look beautiful. another reason was in college, i took a photography class, and they handed me a camera that took square photos, and i was always attracted to that. the real answer is that it is easy to show square photos in a feed because if you have long photos, it takes up little space, but if you have tall photos, it takes up a lot of space. we wanted something that felt adjustable. all three of those are reasons. >> what about the iphone
1:31 pm
panoramic mode where you can take these beautiful landscape photos? would you ever add support for that where you could zoom in, or will it always be square? bea lot of the app could built for square, but it could be other ways as well. to go back, what problem is that solving? maybe the problem is you want to see more of what is going on. we're definitely open to it. >> i think we are always open to new technologies and new formats. i think it is about, what problem does it solve and when? >> nicole asks, holler back is called the new instagram create what are your thoughts? >> i am obviously tooled because i do not know what it is. >> half of the audience knows what it is. [laughter] i'm kidding.
1:32 pm
>> a video messaging app. >> is that the ceo of holler back? [laughter] [applause] >> i love it. >> we just got you like 20 downloads. [laughter] >> christina says, i see that people love making instagram photos -- have you ever thought of making a partnership with a company like shutterfly not only for hosting instagram photos but creating an instagram product line? >> we have stayed out of the physical good space because we said we are not a photography company. whatever we do, we are not making mousepads. we are not making mugs. that is not the business model. it is about the depths of what we want to create with
1:33 pm
communication and that network. partnering with is a more formal term, but we built the api which is a wave or third- party developers to build products that plug into instagram and let you export your photos to those services. i do not think we are ever going to necessarily build one ourselves, but we would rather partner with others who are doing that. >> people will create instagram printers that will print any photo taken at your event. what my favorite restaurants in san francisco is called nova. on what the walls, they have a a collage of hundreds of instagram photos taken there. we do not know about that product, but somebody created it because we opened it up. >> caroline writes and, do you take all of your own photos, or is it the communications teams? >> i definitely take all my own photos.
1:34 pm
i'm glad they think they are good enough. mike and i take a lot of our own photos. if you scroll back all the way in history, a lot are close-ups of sandwiches and not that pretty. i feel a lot of pressure to take beautiful photographs. there are so many beautiful photographers. i have thought of taking a photography class. >> i will say to that question, part of what makes people love following people like jamie oliver, justin bieber who are celebrities is that you can tell in almost every case it is then taking the photos. onre is no way of uploading your computer. it is less of a team upload. it is like selfie in the mirror. >> for the longest time, all the photos were of dogs. we were like, wait a second. >> mike, you mention no way to upload photos on your computer.
1:35 pm
this guy writes in and says, as a prototype or for, i post both iphone actors and dlr photos to instagram. and you intend for all mediums to be shared? >> one decision we had to make early on was, do people upload from their cameras? some people take it seriously and say, it is cheating if you take it from a digital camera. you define your own rules on instagram. you can have fun and constrain yourself. one of our earliest hires was jessica -- she had a stream where she posted photos with a single filter for a year and a half. that is the game you play. it is all about creating your own rules. peoplely quick, for the in the audience that are just joining us, this is a commonwealth club inforum --
1:36 pm
please visit facebook.com/inforumsf. tonight we are hosting a conversation with the founders of instagram kevin systrom and mike krieger. two more questions for you guys. how do you feel about latergramming? >> let's explain it really quick -- everybody is scratching their heads. latergramming is the idea of taking a photo with your camera at one time and then uploading it many hours, perhaps many days later. if you are at a party and you snap a photo and you decide you do not want to upload it at that moment, but you imported from your camera and share it a day later, that is a latergram. i do not think there is an issue with it. as long as you sure that photo
1:37 pm
with the world, it is ok. the one thing i will say, the reason we do not have web uploading is we want photos to be of real life, and we want them to be of the moment as much as possible. it is all about defaults. latergramming is fine because sometimes what i will do is take a bunch of photos, and only after a few hours, i will decide which one i really like. then i will share it. it is a controversial practice. [laughter] >> there are some apps out there like timehop, does take you back in time one or two years back. is that something you would ever get into on instagram, helping to resurface some great moments you have had in the past? >> some of the things we have launched have what you do that. one thing we added six months ago was the ability to explore your photos on a photo map. we realize that the current way that you could browse history was purely chronological. i took of trip to france the
1:38 pm
year and a half ago, and if i want to get photos, i probably took 1000 photos -- it would be a long time scrolling. on the photo map, it would say, you took four photos in paris. even if you do not use that feature everyday, there are sometimes it is perfect. we also launched photos of you recently. the idea was, sometimes people take a photo and you are in the photo at a beach or something, and being able to go back to those photos and saying, i was in that photo -- it is figuring out the ways to slice the information. right said hiring the people was one of the key factors of your success. what skills are you looking for? >> we will do a duo answer. i look for entrepreneurs from a look for entrepreneurs, not just in the traditional sense of people starting in their own companies, but people who go out of their way to find novel solutions to problems, people who love exploring problems
1:39 pm
just for the sake of solving them. what are it is figuring out how to build a model car or somebody who figures out how to build an app to solve a problem that they have an daily life, entrepreneurs that take resources, gather them, and build solutions in the world. >> to me, i looked around -- i will take our infrastructure example -- we have not hired based on degrees. we hire almost exclusively college dropouts made our first engineering higher -- >> if you want to work at instagram -- >> [laughter] >> our first hire dropped out of high school. we have two phds. finishede who never high school or college. then two people out of college. it is all over the place. the key thing for me is that curiosity and the ability to pick things up. our humble moderator -- do not
1:40 pm
hire people who know how to do one thing. hire people who are willing to learn. maybe you'll start coding in python and you later need to code and something else. i love people who have always been this way -- when we wanted to make our filters 10 times faster, we do not say, you need to hire the one person who knows what to do -- it was kevin and shane sitting in the coffee shop saying, we are going to figure this out. and you do it. it is magical. you figure it out. >> this is an anonymous question. ohs are always the worst. i heard instagram "owns" all posted photos. is that true? >> absolutely not. >> the real question is, does instagram claim ownership over your photos as a photographer? absolutely not.
1:41 pm
never ever would we take any rights that mean we can sell your photos or do anything to your photos that are weird. i will be honest, there was a time in december or early january when we rewrote our terms of service as a part of joining facebook. frankly legal language is really confusing and can be interpreted in many different ways, so much so that the guys in charge of instagram read it one way, and a reporter from another publication reads it another way and decides to say that instagram wants to sell your photos. we never wanted to sell anybody's photos. you own your photos. we are there to facilitate sharing your photos with the world in a way that you want to. >> what changes if any would you make to the popular page to showcase better images?
1:42 pm
>> a lot. [laughter] rightrrent popular page now, it is may be version 1.1. it is something we have looked at for a while. we purposefully put that tab in the application as explore. we offer some light ways of exploring -- >> a lot of selfies. >> it is a photo of yourself. [laughter] >> we are on the radio here. >> it gets me excited to think about different ways in which we can personalize that more and say, maybe it is more about where you live and what you are interested in, what your friends are doing. i think there is potential there. what excites me is that the to- do list for instagram is infinite. we get to pick. >> have you sliced data like that to see what it looks like? twitter allows you to do trending topics based on san francisco. have you looked at in the city, what are the most popular images today?
1:43 pm
is it interesting data? >> that was going to be my point. the explore page is currently a single prescription to everyone. i think that is one of its weaknesses, that if you are somebody who really loves justin bieber and taylor swift, you might want to see a lot of justin bieber and taylor swift content, but if you are a photographer, you might want to see beautiful sunset, landscapes. us figuring out how to tailor the explore page to what you are interested in either it is based on your location or interest or hashtags, we have to figure that out. i think the explore page goes to the core of what i was saying, when we want to be a real-time view into the world. we need to make that page that vision. if there were any tab and our app that really needs to live up to what we said we want to be, it is that app. >> that is coming next then? [laughter]
1:44 pm
sounds like a yes. ofthere have been a couple events in the last year, what are our people sharing on instagram? around major events, we always see these interesting updates. for thanksgiving, we set up a tracker that tracked turkey, turkey day, family. anyway, it was really cool to see the spike of photos that talked about turkeys and thanksgiving. it was huge. you could tell people were not sharing random content. they were sharing the moment. the same with the super bowl. hurricane sandy was another one. use optical anticipating -- one of the most correlated words was bored. here is a selfie of me preparing for a storm. it is very real-time. >> we have time for one more question, and it is uninformed
1:45 pm
tradition to ask all of our speakers of the following -- kevin and mike, what are your 60 second ideas to change the world? incrediblein this time where people around the world -- you require some research to get something out there -- you can build something, an app something that can be used by some in the next day. at no point can you build or construct something that can touch somebody all around the world. we are just two people. one of the most beautiful moments early on when smart phones were coming out, it was and youthe early apps could play york ocarina and you would see on the globe another ocarina player and that was so
1:46 pm
moving. my 60- spiel is that we live in a time where you can create those connections in the world and the tools are making it possible to be able to do that and are becoming more affordable. >> we talked a little bit about not hiring on degrees. that does not mean we do not think education is important one of the single most influential factors in founding instagram was the access to educational content on line. i believe that if we take it just from being a college class is on line to high-school class is online to even elementary school class is on line, we can give people around the school -- around the world access to content that allows them to learn new skills and new trade whether it is ios programming or history. it gives access to create new jobs and learn new things. it gives them access to parts of the world you would not have access to otherwise. i think that is a big part of
1:47 pm
what made instagram possible. educational content online for everyone everywhere in the world and free is the future i think will solve the world's problems. [applause] >> thank you guys for being on the show. let's give a break round of applause. [applause] this meeting of inform is adjourned. [applause] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013]
1:48 pm
>> the associated press reports u.s. employers added 195,000 jobs last month and many more in april and made a previous -- than previously thought. many new jobs are part-time. the unemployment number remained un changed at 7.6% for the jobs numbers were released this morning and several house members weighed in with statements. john boehner said there is good news in this report that economic growth is still tepid. if the employment rate is too high and the president continues to promote policies that undermine robust job creation. there is no legislative business on capitol hill again today with members continuing their for the
1:49 pm
july break. the house will be back next week with work to consider immigration legislation on the house floor and house republicans are scheduled to meet behind closed doors july 10 to map out the plan. the senate is expected to take up the issue of student loan rates which doubled on july 1 to 6.8%. progress of the month, the house and senate will likely devote itself to the annual spending bills that fund the government and the agricultural spending bill is ready and the preparations committee has completed work on four of the 12 bills for both chambers return for legislative work monday at 2:00 p.m. eastern. of the dr. ernest hoven american medical association talks about implicating -- implementing the american health care act. >> the ama recently classified obesity as a disease, recognizing it as a disease.
1:50 pm
that will make the insurance company more open for covering this? >> i would think so. clearly, in going forward, the ama has said this is something we want to deal with and escalate the conversation about this problem to a significant level. we're going to look at the things that we must change to make things get better around obesity, around hypertension or what ever we choose to study. i believe the insurers, the payors be part of this because they want to see healthier patients as well. they want to help us eliminate so much disease, so much suffering and help reduce the cost them what was the debate among your membership that led to that decision? >> people united around that decision or was there disagreement? >> this is a discussion that the
1:51 pm
ama has been having for some years as you are well aware clearly, as we have seen over the last couple of years, as we have recognized the issues around obesity, we recognize that clearly everybody recognizes that it is a problem, we need to do something about it, but nothing has happened. the discussion and debate had to do with elevating the concept of diabetes being a disease so that we can begin to manage this complex problem in a more meaningful way by the medical community. the debate is lively. was important. the house of delegates supported this position. is it a perfect answer for everything? probably not, but we know that we have to do something about it. >> that club as a part of this fork's "is makers"program
1:52 pm
you can see the entire event sunday at 10:00 a.m. and again at 6:00 p.m. to hear on c-span. up next, former president bill clinton and new jersey governor chris christie discuss planning and persevering through natural disasters. they gave advice to u.s. government on ways to plan for future events and what the federal government can do to help. it was held by the clinton global initiative in chicago. this is 45 minutes. >> now we're going to have some fun. i remember the first time i talked to him, this is going to wreck this guy's career. he will -- they will see
1:53 pm
pictures of him talking to me and maybe he can get elected in new jersey but everyone else d- he'sid ,"oh my go consorting with a leper." he never blinked and we talked basketball. i am honored he has joined us today. i want to say in the interest of my commitment to keep cg completei nonpartisan, we invited my governor and governor cuomo to join us but they could not be here today. we will talk about something that is really important -- that is what happens when the cameras go home after a disaster. this is so important. to set this up, when i was president, i went to california 29 times in four years and part of it was the one natural disaster ever after another. they had everything except a
1:54 pm
plague of locusts. the man had a 500-year flood in the mississippi river and to rebuild all the communities, it was impractical for some because they were within the 100-year flood plain. all these other things happened. then we come to sandy. and ithorrible tornadoes leveled the area and it has now struck in oklahoma. had tornadoes as far north as massachusetts and new york city last year. to give more thought to the responsibilities of leadership and how to plan for what happens after the disaster. mayor bloomberg, as i mentioned earlier in the conference, just last week, revealed a $20 billion plan to try to make new york city resilience in the face
1:55 pm
of what is almost certainly going to be rising water levels in the years ahead. it is a big challenge. governor christie received an enormous amount of publicity entirely well-deserved and his passionate advocacy for the people of new jersey and the work he did in the immediate aftermath of sandy. now there are no cameras there. there are a lot of people still in trouble and he is still doing that work. that's what i want all the to think about because many of you live in communities that are vulnerable to one or another kind of natural disaster. we need to think about what happens when the worst is over and you have to plan for tomorrow. please join me in welcoming the governor of new jersey, governor chris christie. [applause]
1:56 pm
[applause] >> so - even as effective as you are, as i once was, we could not stop the big east from dissolving. >> no. you get rid of this resilience think, want to figure out how television revenues for can stop short of dissolving the greatest basketball conference in american history. it was really sad. >> what we will do next spring as the next -- question. >> watch a lot of television. thank you for coming. thank you for bringing your family, your wife and son are here. somewhere -- where are they? stand up. [applause]
1:57 pm
the christie's son is a student at princeton where he plays baseball. he is ok with the big east dissolving. once you got through that terrible emergency period and all the gripping pictures of what did you do next? what have you done from that time to this day from the time the emergency ended tuesday -- ended to this day? me now to lookor back and pinpoint when the emergency ended. it is what you get into the
1:58 pm
immediate aftermath of a situation like this -- the first thing you had to do was to return people to normalcy. we define normalcy in five ways, get the power back on, get the water treatment and waste water plaques -- plants working again, get the gas stations reopened, get the state high was reopened, and get the kids back to school. we knew if we got those five things done, probably 90% of the stake would be back to a sense of normalcy i would date it from there. about three weeks out, we had most of that under control. as you move forward from there, you realize that this is going to be a years-long enterprise. jersey alone, 355,000 homes were severely damaged or destroyed. 365,000. what you are looking at is how
1:59 pm
you get the people -- did this people a sense of hope and also doing it in a smart way. the first thing we did was sit down with the mayor's in the most we want you to think about this. it is very much a home-rule states of the control of their lolg they had to be full partne. we had to bring the mayors and and we met with them one on one to have an honest conversation. we are willing to ask the federal government to partner with us on a buyout program to buy out homes and properties that could no longer be standing because they have been so perpetually flooded over time. i'm not going to force people out. i want to start having that conversation. and then in the places, how we will -- will we protect these areas and we came up with three ways to go about protecting them.
2:00 pm
first, in the jersey shore communities, not all of our shore communities had the army corps of engineers designing systems. there is a lot of debate about this in new jersey. sandy settled the score as to whether they were worth it. in the towns that townsdune systems, the ones that didn't, the damage was completes of there is no longer a debate in new jersey about whether we should now there is no longer a debate in new jersey about whether we should have them as a safety precaution. that is number one. i pitched to president obama that that is one of the things that had to be included in the aid package, the ability to complete the dune system along the entire 130-mile-long atlantic coast of new jersey. congress agreed. we have the money to do that. that is what we are working on now to do that. [applause]

170 Views

info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on