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tv   First Ladies Influence Image  CSPAN  December 3, 2013 12:00am-2:01am EST

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there. more this weekend as book tv and american history tv history and literary 'alene, koeur d asks daho, >> being lady like does not require silence. why should my husband's job or yours prevent us from being ourselves? i do not believe that being first lady should prevent me rom expressing my ideas.
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[applause] >> betty ford spoke her mind profment choice and a supporter of the equal rights aamendment. she and gerald ford openly discussed her experience with breast cancer. for much of her family's public life she struggled with alcohol and drug dependency and confronting it defined her post white house years. >> welcome to first ladies influence and image. tonight we'll tell you the story of elizabeth ford, the wife of president gerald ford. here to tell her story is richard nort on the smith. you know him, he's one of our academic advisors for the whole project. he's helped launch a number of presidential libraries among them the jarled r. ford library in michigan. you developed a relationship with the fords so you bring that to the table. >> sure. i try to be as objective as possible. but i was very fournt to become
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a good friends of both of the fords. >> we want to start tonight where we left off which is in august of 1974 when the fords learned they were going to be in the white house. how much of a surprise was it for them when they heard the news? >> this is one of the things i find astonnishing almost 40 years later. i recently took part in a his trip project which included about 150 of the ford's associates including all their children. and you would think every other american household the summer of 1974 at some point sat around the dinner table discussing what was happening and what might happen in the white house. the only dinner table in america where that discussion apparently never took place was the ford's. for mrs. ford, i think it really was a case of denial in a lot of ways.
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he said august 9, 1974 was the saddest day of her life. i think in part she felt badly for the country but even more andfelt badly for pat nixon e nixon family who were good friends. he had never aspired to the presidency and she was more reluctant of going and she didn't find out until about a week before it happened. >> among the video pieces you'll see tonight are some clips with the ford family children. the first one up is steve ford. we talked to him a year ago at a conference on first ladies and we'll include some of the pieces of that interview tonight. as we begin tonight is on the family's transition in august from their home in virginia and the vice president si to the white house. let's listen. >> mrs. ford has hoped you would get out of politics. what is her reaction to the
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heavy response 1234b89 >> she's doing her best and we'll wait and see about the other. >> first of all, you have to remember after dad got swoorn in, the day nixon resigned and everybody remembers the image of nixon's helicopter and him saying good buy to his staff and family and friend. helicopter leaves. we go into the east room of the white house where dad puts his hand on the bible. mom hold it is bible oath of office. we're sitting there. we go take a family portrait in the oval office. nixon cleared off his desk. what people don't remember is we didn't get to move in the white house. because we lived in our own little home back in virginia, a little four bedroom house and because nixon resigned so quickly they weren't able to pack up all their belongings so they left their daughter and
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son-in-law to pack up all their belongings. it took seven or eight days. so we went back to our little house in virginia. dad has just become president of the united states. and we're eating dinner around the table. mom was cooking dinner and she looks at my dad and she goes jerry, something is wrong here. you just became president of the united states and i'm still cooking. that was our reality for the next setch or eight days before we moved into the white house. >> but when they transitioned to the white house, it was that basic american normal family that really got so much coverage. i remember and you probably do news reports of the president toasting his own -- >> the fact is mrs. ford was never a morning person. i suspect he had been toasting his own english muffins for many years. the idea was even more than
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that. edwin remembers those famous pictures of richard nixon at the helicopter. what they don't know is what president ford, soon to be president ford said to his wife on the way back into the white house because he realized his job was to reassure the country. and if he couldn't reassure his wife, he couldn't reassure the country. and he whissered in her ear we can do it. and it was just the right thing to say. he said a lot of right things that day. there were a lot of problems and continue verse sis that ensued. but you're right, there is a sense that it's as if the country had been building up to this thunderstorm and the storm raged for a while and then ddenly the clouds parted and
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it was normal again. thrmp people in the -- there were people in the white house we could recognize and relate to. you have to remember this was like going to live on another planet for these people. the first days she actually lived in the white house, she didn't understand. she would walk through the halls and say hello to people when she saw them. secret service agents. household personnel, whatever, that was her nature. and no one spoke back to her. and she finally went to the legendary curate or the and said am i doing something wrong, do they dislike us for being here? no, the nix exons who were more formal had established that practice and so word went out to the white house staff it's okay to talk to the first family. and before long the stories
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about president ford and the butler about whom the movie was made recently comparing football scores. they became old shoe almost over night. >> what's been so enjoyable about this series is your involvement all along the way. and tonight is no different. we're going to have our phone ines open and you can call us. andcan also send us a tweet join our facebook conversation. you can see there is a large picture of betty ford and a robust conversation already under way. we said at the out set that her comments were often controversial and it's interesting to see to this day she remains controversial. i loved her, i couldn't stand
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her. what made her so controversial? >> well, a number of things. first of all, she spoke her mind. and in part the very fact that she would address subjects. quite frankly, you can understand a lot of the criticism of people who were acustomed for lack of a better word more traditional approach to the job. first ladies were not overtly political. first ladies did not wade into intensely debated moral issues like abortion for example. first ladies certainly did not discuss whether their children had used marijuana or whether their daughter might have an affair. part of what was different was for the first time she was being asked questions that no one orld have put to a pat nixon
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johnson. the difference is she was willing to respond. >> mayor on facebook said mrs. ford was an inspiration perfect for the times. one of the things we've followed this year is the changing role of women in society and how the first lady often is a benchmark for that. >> and i think that is where she connected with millions of women. she was candid about her personal struggles. she was -- a lot of people didn't realize when she became first lady that she had been married before. i think time magazine asked her about that and why people didn't know about it which no one had asked her about it before. in 1957, i remember the first time her name appeared in the washington post and it was about her passion sensibility and it talked about her taste for quiet
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hats and slightly more talkive suits. in 1957 that was fine. that was one culture. a lot of people looked at betty ford, this cub scout den mother, this sunday schoolteacher and they labeled her. they wrote her off in effect. and then they discovered no, actually this is a woman with views of her own this. is a woman who has had a lot of challenges in her life and a lot of those challenges bonded her with millions of other women who entertained similar doubts and uncertainties as she did. >> you reference her first marriage. let's go in time and learn her roots. where was she born and when? >> she was born in chicago. her parents are fascinating contrast. her mother clearly is the dominating defining figure in
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her life. who are tense who i've thought of as a character out of tennessee williams. she came from a prosperous family. status meant a lot to her mother. she insisted for example that betty wear white bloves when she went shopping. she was a perfectionist to end all perfectionist. betty was a child that was prone to overeat who responded by hanging a sign over her daughter's neck saying please don't feed this child. hortense was a form dabble figure. her father, talk about patterns. her father was a traveling salesman and an alcoholic who
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amidst mysterious circumstances and it was one of those deaths that was never fully discussed. in fact, it was only then that betty learned that her father was an alcoholic and that those trips that her mother had made from time to time to be with him on the road were a consequence of his illness. it was a house where secrets frurrished. she had two brothers, one of whom was an alcoholic. so in many ways she was genetically or culturely programmed for the disease that she would have later on. ut hortense is a larger than life figure. she was president of the
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hospital in grand rapids for crippled children. she wanted betty to join the junior league at an early age and rise up the ladder. she had problems with a daughter who had a mind of her own who for example wanted to pursue a career as a dancer. >> she did. studied to new york and dance and was accepted which was quite an accomplishment. >> she did. she spent a couple of years in vermont associated with the program there and then she joined the martha gram company. she never made the first ranks. she was very modest in later years. but it is a key to her personality. she was a natural performer. she was comfortable being on the stage. and in some ways that came back to her to aid her when she became first lady.
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>> and she came back to grand rapids and can you tell us about her first marriage and what happened to snit >> she came back to grand rapids and taught dance. she worked as a fashion coordinator in a local department store. and she by her own acknowledgment was a party girl who met a party boy. actually she had known him since she was 12 years old, bill warren who was himself a traveling salesman. and he was an alcoholic. they were married. he was i think 24. and she had almost overnight embraced a whole different set of values. she was ready to settle down and be a wife and have children. and that was not necessarily the same agenda that he had. the interesting thing is she made the decision after about three years to divorce him.
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and then he went into a diabetic comma and she spent the next two years nursing him back to health. and then she filed for divorce. >> 1947. >> so al together five years. >> she called it her five year misunderstanding. >> i want to get to the story how she met and married gerald ford. but let me take a call and we'll learn more about how that match was made. first up is susan who is watching us in texas. you are on the air as we discuss betty ford. >> caller: i have thuroughly enjoyed the whole series. it's been wonderful. and i love the way this is being done. i just love it. and my question is did betty ford support her husband gerald ford when he wanted to run for the presidency? he became president by i guess
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just being the vice president but when he wanted to run for president, did she support him in this? >> good question. she supported him very vigorously. both of the fords -- it's interesting people forget now. president ford right at the beginning of his presidency had let it be known he would not be a candidate in 1976. and i think henry kissinger helped persuade him that would undermine his presidency from the out set. but both fords decide they kind of liked life in the white house. for ms. ford it was a great improvement. her husband as house leader was on the road 250 flights a year. she actually spent more time with him once they were in the white house. they were both determined to do
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their best to extend the ford presidency and i think for him particularly to have the mandate of a popular election as the only appointed president, almost a president with an asterisk next to his name. >> she may have supported his bid for the white house but when they first met she didn't know she was getting a politician. is that true? >> that's what she says. it's hard for me to believe she was totally naive. jerry ford was the big man on campus. the local hero from high school days playing football. it's not terribly surprising he should decide to go into public life. but there is no doubt she was surprised. they were married in october 1948. >> and on twitter did the ford's schedule their wedding for october 15 after the republican
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congressional primary and why? >> the simple answer is yes. have you to know west michigan to appreciate. west michigan more than now was a very culturally conservative place. a place where the dutch reform church held sway. a ford who was certainly conservative ff nevertheless was running against an entrenched republican encome bent who opposed the mar alcohol plan. he was one of those returning veterans who had seen the consequences of american isolationism and went into politics with an idea which was that america would have to play on a continuing role, a significant leadership role in the world. and ford was a divorceee the concern was he told her who
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he proposed he wanted to get married but he couldn't tell her when and he couldn't tell her why he couldn't tell her. the fact of the matter is his political advisors were very concerned that west michigan -- he was already facing an uphill campaign that having a divorced woman in the family might lengthen those odds even more. so but october 15, about three weeks before the election, he showed up at the rehearsal dinner late. showed up in time for dessert at the rehearsal dinner. he was late for the wedding. he showed up in brown shoes and they were muddy because he had been out campaigning. the honeymoon consisted of over night in michigan sitting outdoors listening to the
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favorite son and then a football game in ann arbor, his blovered university of michigan. she stayed in the hotel. he went to the game. they went back to grand rapids on monday and he said he had to campaign that evening. could she make him a sandwich. he said a number of times she never let him hear the end of it. i think they took a number of second honeymoons to compensate. >> there are a lot of women thinking he ode her one big after that. michael in 1950. jack born in 1952. stephen in 1956 and susan born in 1957. going to return to steve ford talking about their congressional years because in fact the politician won that race for the house of representatives and spend the
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next 25 years as a member of congress. let's hear steve ford talking about that life. >> dad was on the road maybe 200 nights a year sometimes out campaigning for other republicans trying to get a majority in congress. he wanted to be speaker of the house. and mom to her credit was the one like many wives of congressmen back home making sure we got to the dentist and got our home work done and to football practice and those kind of things and the glue that they would kid together while dad was out public servant. so it was later in the presidency that she finally had a chance to i would say blossom or shine and get her chance in the spotlight. but during dad's 26 years of being a congressman she was the one that kept the family. it's interesting because every family there would be some blowup and one of us would get
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in trouble and it would be wait until your father gets home. and we knew by the time dad got home the storm was gone and he wanted to come home and be the good guy anyway. my heart really went out to mom because she was the one that had to keep the whole ship pointed in the right direction. >> we are going to take a call but keeping the ship together also starts another very important chapter of her life. let's listen to michael from atlanta. you are on the air. caller: my question is what opinion or influence did mrs. ford have in president ford's decision to pardon richard nixon sm >> that is a great question and it is one of the elusive areas. she said very little about the pardon. she thought it was necessary. she thought it was an act of
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courage. she said what you would expect her to say. i will say this, i do know when the end of his life the joskjosk library chose to give him the courage award specifically for the nixon pardon, he was initially reluct go ght go -- reluctant to all the way across the country. he didn't see the emotional significance of this and it was mrs. ford who convinced him this is the greatest honor that has been bespowed on you since leaving office. years after that for 20 everybody asked him about the burden and after that award people stopped asking.
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>> robert in chicago. you're on the air. caller: thank you very much for your time. i understand two presidents, kennedy and hoover never received an income as president. did mrs. ford receive any kind of income after president ford passed away? >> first of all, you are right about hoover and j.f.k.. and in fact they rejected federal salaries as president. in hoover's case he never accepted payment for any of his various positions whether secretary of commerce or the oover commissions or whatever. the question about whether mrs. ford -- >> did she get a widow's pension? do you get compensation if your husband dies and he served as president? >> i don't believe you do. i don't think so. so back to the amount of time --
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> no, in terms of a payment or pension, no. there is an office of course, the president's office remained in operation and she had the frappinging privilege . >> what is the franking privilege? >> it is basically free postage and of course the secret service protection until the end of her life. >> did the public pay for that office? >> so there were benefits not salary? >> abs luletly. >> steve ford talked about his dad being on the road sometimes 250 days a year. that's a lot of time. what were his aspirations? kind of a here was youth movement among republicans who were really tired of being
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in the minority and there was kind of an uprising and ford was catapulted into the number three position in the leadership at that time. in 1964 came the gold water debacle and in the gipping of 1965 ford's hat was thrown in the ring to become house republican leader. he ran against a name who had himself staged an uprising against joseph martin his predecessor. this was not ideological, it was generational. it was the young turks and people who ran ford's campaign but the two people who were most instrument until his victory by three votes over charlie, one was a young congressman from illinois named donald rumsfeld and another from kansas named
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bob dole. what that election really significance any fide was the republican party was moving -- the center of gravity was moving away from the eastern establishment. at that point it was in the midwest but there are beginning to be a significant number of republicans in the south in both houses of congress, a trend that would accelerate. and 40 years later you could argue that the midwestern party has become allied with the southern and western party. >> on twitter this question aside from her predisposition did her being alone to raise the kids contribute to her drippinging? i'm going to let her own words answer that. she wrote two memoirs and here is some of what she writes. i hated feeling crippled so i
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took more pills. now i know some of the pain i was trying to wipe out was emotional. jerry became minority leader of the house but i was feeling sorry for myself. she goes on to write in 1965 about a year after i began mixing pain medication with alcohol i snapped. i packed my bag one afternoon and decided to ride to the beach and take susan with me and let my whole ungrateful family worry about where i was and if i was ever coming home. >> in 1965, that's the year her husband became house republican leader. >> over the years between his election to congress and their vice presidential pick, talk about her drug and alcohol use and what she has written about it and what people should know about how big a problem that had become? >> i think it became a real problem in the 1960's. first of all, there were a . mber of contributing factors
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she had developed arthritis and she had a pinched nerve which may or may not have been the result of reaching up to raise a window. whatever it was, she had a pinched nerve that was very painful. and i think it became easy. frankly she had pills prescribed for her and the pills made her feel better and the alcohol made her feel better still. one of the things that you rels as we went through this history project i just mentioned, although we weren't particularly looking for this information, people volunteered, talk about a culechurel change. it's remarkable how much more people drank. how routinely people drank to excess in washington 40 combreers ago.
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and the argument -- years ago. and the argument can be made it lub bring kated culture. from the job of house minority leader, how was he richard nixon's pick for vice president? >> he had been considered in 1968 as a possible nixon running mate. he wasn't interested in the executive branch. he loved congress and he wanted very much to be the first republican speaker in a very long time. that was his goal. nixon aurguably the presidency while water gate is unfolding, the -- it becomes apparent that vice president is also under investigation for unrelated offenses, many of them
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stemming if his time as governor of maryland. to make a long story short, he resigns the office in october of 1973 and the 25th amendment which has never been applied until now is applied. richard nixon has to find a vice president but critically he needs to find a vice president who can be confirmed. and in the political climate of that time there were very few people. if he had left to his drethers he would have picked john conley but he could not have been confirmed. negotiate could ronald reagan or richard nixon. and democrats on the hill, the speaker and majority leader told the white house if you want
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someone who can be confirmed easily pick jerry ford. and that's what the president did. >> their time as vice presidential couple was very short. december of 1973 until that day in august 1974 when president nixon resigned and they moved to the white house. much of that time, the country was consumed with the unfolding water gate scandal so the fords didn't do much. >> he hit the road. he got out of town. >> what did she do? >> she was back at the house? >> she was back at the house but she had for the first time now, she relsed for the first time in her life she had to be on time. that was a life long issue. she was not the most punks you'll of people. there are those who think it was a passive aggressive. it was one of the few things in their marriage she could
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control. but in any event all that changed once she became the vice president's wife. she also had causes she was involved with. she had been involved from an early age with disabled children, the washington children's hospital was something she was involved with. she addition to that, also had a vice presidential residence that had never been occupied before that had to be decorated. >> and they never got to it. >> two days -- what was it? a few days before richard nixon resigned, the vice president agreed to ackny his wife to the house that he by then knew they were never going to live in because if he didn't the press would have sensed that we're in the end game and he didn't want to give that away.
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>> he finally said no her betty we're never going to make it to that vice presidential house. >> they we want to a dinner party and august 1, he had been told by decwren hague, the white house chief of staff about what became known as the smoking gun tape. and it was pretty clear what the consequences of that would be. after midnight that night he said betty, we're never going to live in that house. >> let's reason to robert from florida for our next question. caller: enjoying everything. betty ford wrote wonderful ought doe biographies and are they in print p. are they in print? >> we'll show them both on screen. the first was betty ford the times of my life which was co-written with chris chase. and the second was the one we
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showed earlier, betty a glad awakening. are they still available? >> i think a glad awakening is. i don't think the first volume is and sadly chris chase who worked on both of those volumes sadly passed away within the last month. >> which is the better of the two? >> a glad awakening is a very candid sometimes almost painfully candid but it's much more mrs. ford. there is also this wonderful dry sense of humor and you can in print. her rebirth >> we're going to listen to betty ford herself just one month after they were sworn in as first couple. she held a news conference at the white house. we're going to listen to one question that was asked of her and her response.
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>> how would you like to be remembered, for what? >> i'd like to be remembered in a very kind way. of a a cructive wife president. i don't expect to come anywhere near living up to those first ladies who have gone before me. they've all done a great job and i admire them a great deal and it's only my ambition to come close to it. >> out of the blue we were talking and she said to me i don't even know what prompted it but she said i don't know why everyone thought it was a bad thing i admired eller nor roosevelt. eleanor roosevelt was one of her heroes. i don't think it was her life in
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the white house as it was the private challenge that is eleanor roosevelt confronted along the way in bocing eleanor roosevelt. but she was a role model. and lady bird johnson was a very good friend and a role model for mrs. ford. >> the ford presidency was 865 days but this was a difficult time in our country's history. we chose a few events of the ford years beginning with the pardon of richard nixon. 1976 the country celebrated buy centennial. rising inflation was the hall mark of his years in office. and the veelt name war ended with the fall of saigon and you remember the scenes of the helicopters leaving the embassy as the city fell. >> history accelerated in those
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two and a half years and all of it by no means pleasant. >> just a couple of months after they came into office mrs. ford discovered she had breast cancer. >> this was the indelible moment she first impressed herself on the american people or maybe the whole ford family. it is really hard 40 years late tore conceive of the degree to which people didn't talk about this disease. i mean umpire misms were plode. even obituaries people didn't die of cancer, they died of a wasting illness. what mrs. ford did was to bring his out into the open and over night transform the way women in particular looked at this
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disease. for her it was also a lesson. it was her first baby and most important lesson in the influence that a first lady could have by being herself, by shining the light on a dark corner, by educating the public. >> next up we'll listen to president ford himself announcing the results of her surgery. >> i just returned from the hospital where i saw betty as she came from the operating room . the doctor assured me that she came through the operation all right. [applause]
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it's been a difficult 36 hours which our faith will sustain us and betty would expect me to be here. >> in a few weeks i will complete my chemotherapy treatments and that will be another milestone for me. since that first year i have not talked much about the difference of my experience with cancer. and t the my mast tecttoim the mastectomy and the discussion about it i was glad to see it because it prompted a large number of women to go and get checkups in their local communities. it made my recup relation easier because i knew that i was
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helping others. i make this progress report to help cheer up those who have just had an operation for cancer and to encourage them to keep up their good spirit. part of the battle against cancer is to fight the fear that ack anies the disease. >> and of course one of those women who was inspired by her example was happy rockefeller the wife of the vice president who two week es after mrs. ford's surgery was diagnosed herself with the disease and went on to have surgery of her own . >> when you see president ford making the announcement you can see his lips quivering. terribly emotional for the family. >> he said that night when he
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went home alone to the white house the night before that was the loneliest night of his life. >> gary on twitter wants to know what it was result of her candor, was there anything else, more people got checkups, anything about the way we treat people with breast cancer in this country? >> i think it initiated what had been missing. it initiated a national conversation among women and between women and their doctors. when it comes to women's health issues, literally history is divided into two periods before betty and after betty. >> we have a photograph of the fords in her hospital room looking at a card from get well wishes from across the country as she begins her recuperation. >> next is james. >> caller: i grate you on a
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wonderful series i've been watching since mrs. jackson and it is wonderful. president ford was a member of the warren commission and i was wondering what mrs. ford thought of his involvement on that commission and the results and the continue verse sis that have since occurred about the commission results. >> that's a great question. i'm sorry to say i wish i had but i never had a conversation with her. i never heard her discuss it. -- he was y strongly once trapped on an earp -- i shouldn't tell this but i will. the movie was john f. kennedy and he was not happy. he really worried that young people, people who were not alive at the time of the assasination would see this and
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it was in fact history. we had a number of conversations about the warren commission. and his congressional members, remember dick was on bonds. the members of congress who were on that commission were very careful in the language that they chose. they rewrote as i understand it the staff's initial report to say we have found no evidence of a conspiracy which is a little bit different in a subtle way from saying flat out there was no conspiracy. >> speaking of assasinations gerald ford had two attempts on his life in short order. is he the only president to have assasination attempts carried out by women? >> that's a good question.
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>> i can't think of any. >> i think you're right. >> the first was la net. >> it's a classic instance of the times. swig gi who was a member of the man son family and sara moore who was a bay area housewife on the fringes of radical politics. only in the 1970's would either of those characters have emerged in public. >> and what about the ford family's reaction to these assasination attempts and how did the president take it? did security increase? were they greatly concerned about his life? >> i think the secret service did change things there after. he wore a bullet proof vest. the day in zach, he was there among other things to meet with
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governor jerry brown who is still governor jerry brown today. and the remarkable thing and this is so typical of jerry ford. he went in and had his meeting with governor brown and never mentioned what happened outside. he thought it would be ungracious to tell the governor well some lady tried to shoot me in your front yard. >> there we have the photograph of him being escorted by the secret service agents away from the scene. >> today with twitter and the instant news he couldn't have kept it from the sitting governor as he did then. >> that is true but it's unlikely he would be out strolling through the grounds as they decided on the spur of the moment that morning in september 1975. >> tim in denver. what's your question?
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caller: hi. this is a very good film. and ford campaign in 1976 one asked what are you for and he said may the best team win. i hear the relations between the rds and reagans were [indiscernible] >> let me answer that this way. certainly in 1976 there were rather frosty. they were running a very intense, very close really uncertain battle for the republican no, ma'am flation. i think -- nomination. i think the ford white house underestimated ronald reagan and almost paid the ultimate price for doing so.
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years, act in later n 1980 it sounds president reagan very seriously thought about having gerald ford on his ticket as his running meat and i also know that in the 1990's particularly after president reagan wrote his letter to the american people revealing his alzheimer's, i know president ford visited him more than once after that. and whatever old animosities there may have been were long since evaporated. of course even more so with jimmy carter. about heroing to talk interest in issues. was she simply a supporter of her husband's beliefs and
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values? >> publicly she was aurguably the most political first lady since eleanor roosevelt. she was the most outspoken advocate. she publicly disagreed with her wade case the row v. which she decussd on the 60 minutes interview and other venues. so she was very much an independent force. and initially that terrified people in the white house. after the 60 minutes interview, the president said jokingly you've lost me 20 million votes. it was only a few days later when the first polls came in and the people in the white house were astonnished that in fact
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there was an overwhelming 70% of those whomp polled simp -- who were polled similar pothiesed with the first lady's candor and views. >> here is her talking about the equal rights amendment. >> the equal rights amendment when at fide will not be an instant solution to women's problems, it will not alter the fabric of the constitution or force women away from their families. it will help knock down those restrictions that have locked women in to the old stereo types of behavior and opportunity. it will help open up more options for women. but it is only a beginning. the debate over era has become
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too emotional because of the fears of some both men and women about the changes already taking place in america. >> within the republican party itself, this party that had had bare gold water and the early 1960's and there was the split that was developing in the party, how did the republicans feel about betty ford's public statement on these and abortion rights issues and the like? was it going over well within the base? >> there is no doubt she was a polarizing figure. when i said 70% voiced approval, that meant 30% disapproved. you can be sure that that 30% was disproportionately the republican base, certainly conservative republicans, traditionalist if you will.
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so there was a legitimate debate. it's interesting, i would recommend to readers john robert green who wrote a book on the ford presidency as part of the university of kansas series also did a book on mrs. ford. it's very well reserged and really a great read. and he makes the case stronger than i would that she was on balance debt trimental to her husband's reelection prospects. particularly within the republican party but not exclusively within the republican party. >> you've mentioned this 60 minutes interview, how significant was her sitting down with the most popular news and public affairs program to the public view of her and the party's view of her? >> i think it defind her for millions and millions of people who first of all was the first
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time they had seen her in that kind of setting. but i also think for millions -- remember how americans were acustomed to seeing their first ladies on television. we had seen mrs. kennedy's unforgettable white house tour but it was a very orchestrated presentation. people were not acustomed to a first lady being asked or answering as i say the kinds of questions -- her view was people are talking about these around their dinner tables all over america. why shouldn't the first family have the same privilege. >> and they covered issues such as divorce, use of marijuana. her daughter's dating and sex before marriage, things of that nature. >> she also talked about her use of pillow talk to get a woman in
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the cabinet. she menged she was working on getting a woman on the supreme court. john paul stevens is safe to say probably would not have been her first choice but she wasn't doing the choosing. >> you're on the air. caller: thank you very much. i love this show. i read somewhere that mrs. ford was older than president ford and i wonder if that was true. >> no, actually he was five years her senior. >> we've talked in the series about the use of the white house for entertaining but that entertaining has hey political purpose. to start that we're going to go to the ford museum in grand rapids where there are elements of her style and how she approached that aspect of her job. let's watch. >> havend in hand with mrs. ford's love for dance was her
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love for design and fashion as well. particularly she wanted to promote american fashion. these are some of her dresses and gowns from her first ladies period this. is a gown that she wore to her first head of state event. king hussein of jordan. it was designed by a lady named frankie welch who had a boutique in virginia. this also next one also is a welch dress and this she wore for her official portrait as first lady. this is a dress that next one that some people right recognize. vezz and she wore this gown for a portrait that was taken of the family and featured on the cover of time magazine. but she loved practical design
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as well. and a fellow from new york designed a number of dresses and gowns for her, very practical and inexpensive but for her very functional. she would wear these out fits both of which are albert pieces to arrival ceremonies for dignitaries and to the hair dresser and church, on trips for campaign events. they were the ones she could get the most comfortable n. this is a piece that she wore for the 60 minutes interview and so she faced morely while wearing this dress as she fielded his many questions. we know a lot of this because one of the things mrs. ford was careful about as organized as she was is she kept secretary cards for each of these dresses
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and there would be notations on where she wore them and when she wore them and she wore many of them multiple times. some of this is in her handwriting herself and many of these extend beyond the first ladies period into her post first lady ship. she would wear these into the early 10eu's. and her love for design, her promotion of american fashion theto in 1976 her receiving parsons school of design award. and this is the accolade she received for her promotion of american designers in fashion. >> do have you a comment? >> she loved clothes and people forget she had been a model in her early days. one of the ways she supported herself in new york was as a
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professional model. >> back to twitter. bettys a question how did ford balance being first lady and being a mother? >> she said -- it's funny -- one reason why i said that i thought lady bird swron son was a role model is mrs. johnson is exhibit a in exactly how to do that. mrs. ford said she thought that being a good housewife and mother was a much tougher job than going to the office and getting paid for it. so she was both a traditionlist and a trail blazer. as we've already said she had not only balanced the job but before they were in the white house she was in a sense mother and father. >> during that very brief presidency they hosted 33 state visits.
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>> the reason it was so by entrated is it was the centennial year. in addition to being this hotly contested republican relation and then of course the fall campaign, it played out against the backdrop when steve talked about her blossoming, and this is what he meant. this is a woman who was accustomed to being on the stage. as first lady, she was back on the stage. entertaining.oyed the entertainments were really personalized. the president of egypt was a great fan of the american west. she rounded up original sculptures to decorate every
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table in the dining room. bailey became a great favorite as an entertainer. marietta georgia, you are up next. how did you feel when [inaudible] the betty ford center? >> you sound like you're one of our younger viewers. how old are you? >> eight years old. >> why are you watching our program tonight? >> my family is really interested in the president's.
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>> are you interested, too? >> yes to. >> do you have a favorite president or a favorite first led -- first lady? >> my favorite first lady is michelle obama. have you ever been to warm springs, georgia? >> yes. impressed. there are people who still remember, he lost his voice at the very end of the campaign. lady toeft to the first , thethe concession telegram of congratulations that had been sent to president elect . he promisedtime,
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her long before watergate that they would retire in 1976. once he concluded that he would never be speaker of the house, she exacted a promise. after 1970 six, they would leave washington and go back to grand rapids. he would have to slaw -- he would practice law. intervening events played havoc with that. in the end, they still left washington, but they went to a different destination. wrote duringat she the white house years. my pills were always with me. i did not drink alcohol in the white house.
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she said the pills were always with me. how big a problem was this for her? >> i do not know how to answer that. there is anecdotal evidence to she is a- circumstantial alcoholic, if there is such a thing. mentioned 33 state dinners. -- she wasll of them at all of them. i am not sure the problem really erupted when they left washington. it was a significant problem before the presidency and it was almost gleeful problem after. those 2.5 years in the white
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house, i think it was much less of a problem. the fourth welcomed queen elizabeth during the bicentennial. ford's welcomed queen elizabeth during the bicentennial. >> this was the dress that mrs. ford was wearing at the swearing and ceremony -- swearing in ceremony. abouts less than excited coming first lady, but president ford encouraged her. it and the fun doing fun started almost immediately within 10 days, she had a state dinner to entertain king hussein of georgia. running.he ground she had a number of opportunities to entertain because the administration overlapped the bicentennial.
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some of the most coveted events helde white house were during that year and people want to these invitations. whenis for the 1976 event they entertained the president of france. there were a number of notable people who came to the white house. japanthem, the emperor of . this is a letter received from him in appreciation for hosting .im in 1975 the first time in emperor had leather -- had ever left japan. here are some of the invitations, dinner menus. the biggest of them was when we in julyueen elizabeth of 1976. this is the gift the queen
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to theth presented people of the united states. -- it is a hand- painted image of the white house. it was the official gift of great britain to the united states celebrating the 200th anniversary of the united states. to wrote a nice letter back the fords thanking them for their hospitality and for their friendship they extended to the queen and to the people of england. in this letter, the queen rights to the president and mrs. ford, it was the greatest pleasure for us to visit the united states and to be able to join in the bicentennial celebrations. -- warmour warm great wishes to you and mrs. ford. your sincere friend, elizabeth.
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trees, please comment on any other significant gift still in the white house. what gets -- what gifts during her trips to the white house from foreign dignitaries? >> i am not sure when the law changed that made all gifts federal property. if you go to the woodrow wilson house, you can see all sorts of gorgeous things that president wilson was given on his european travels. begins with the kennedy presidency.
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>> did betty start any white house traditions? you are thinking hard there. >> i know. it is interesting. she broke the mold more than she started traditions. progressed ine terms of -- regressed in terms of what we expect a first lady to a dress. what issues, controversies and the like. that is a tradition -- how did the ford white house differ from previous administrations? >> in a number of ways. some of them are purely social. she restored the roundtables at dinner. she thought it was a much more informal conversation.
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she did not do a lot of decorating, but there is a must second floor a private family dining room. mrs. kennedy had located some spectacular and historically invaluable french wallpaper portraying the american revolution and graphic military terms. who had the utmost respect for mrs. kennedy's taste, said i cannot sit there battlefieldsple on . she had the paper removed. they lived in colorado for a while.
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alexandria, virginia, washington, d.c., grand rapids, and palm springs. >> by the time the president passed away, when we were planning his funeral, there were a number of term -- number of personal touches. drawn was no horse- procession through the streets of washington. droved, the hearse through their old neighborhoods in alexandria. large crowds turned out and i stopped at the world war ii memorial to recognize the service. >> 1976, the bicentennial and a hotly contested presidential election. the campaign included a slogan, vote for betty's husband. >> some controversy about that. people think that she was misused, overused, that she was
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. fragile figure she was certainly very active in the primary candidate in the ford-reagan race. convention, the dueling candidates. the entrance of mrs. reagan, the convention hall entrance of mrs. ford. she was introduced by terry grant -- cary grant. campaign, there was the school of thought that she was not used as well as she might've been. appreciate -- the museum in grand rapids, i have been there a couple of times that it is a
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great place. their post white house years, how much time did they spend in rand rapids? -- grand rapids? been out to the area around palm springs in the past. they vacationed out there. the weather was perfect for her health, her arthritis, which was a significant issue. they decided, they change their plans, which envisioned going back to grand rapids. the president came back to grand rapids very often. i was director at the library.
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every year at christmas time, he would come back and turn on the christmas tree. the 20 fifthes for anniversary of his inauguration and we had john paul stevens and alan greenspan and he would fly from california to introduce those people. he felt so honored that he would make that effort. gag, they running divided the country in half for fund-raising purposes. he had america east of the river -- mississippi. he had -- she had the united states west of the mississippi. but aj is in alexandria. curious if there is a specific reason why the first lady invited king hussein for the first dinner. -- the president became
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president august 9. , by the way,med you do know that king hussein is coming in a week's time. something that had been arranged during the nixon administration and within her first 24 hours, she was thrown in sink or swim. >> 1976 campaign, a big challenge from ronald reagan. a lot of work during the primary when president ford had the nomination. by the time election night came and the fords lost, president ford lost his speech. the president asked me to that he telephoned
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president elect carter a short time ago and he congratulated him on his victory. all of thosehank thousands of people who worked and youon his behalf supported him with their votes. it has been the greatest honor of my husband's life to have served his fellow americans during two of the most difficult years in our history. the president urges all givingns to join him in your united support to president-elect carter as he prepares to assume his new responsibilities. it was tough.
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.hey come from so far behind every candidate believes they will win, but he had never lost an election. you can see the look on the kids face. in americanperson history to serve both as vice president and president without ever having face the public and won the electoral vote. we will listen to steve ford tell the story about the intervention as the family realize the extent of betty ford's problem with alcohol and with drugs. >> i think we sensed something during the presidency because fromad legitimate pain several pinched nerves and she was getting medication. what we did not know was the combination of alcohol and those
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medications produce that cocktail that took away some of her sharpness. out.ually, it had to play it had to get to the other side of the presidency where it created a time for mom after the notidency where she was first lady. she was out in california. they were building a new home and the kids were all gone. over months, she developed a melancholy that turned into depression, pulled back from life and started canceling appointments and not showing up. that takes months and we did not know what we were looking at. we were like millions of other families. it was not the education about alcoholism and drug dependency that there is now.
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dad search through several doctors before he finally found a doctor that have the courage to say, i think your wife's an alcoholic. that was not the image anybody excepted. finally found the right doctor, dad had the courage to say, we will do this intervention. we did the intervention with mom. at that time, i had never heard the word intervention. shows. have tv it was a different time. dad led the intervention. clear.ry of that is very we walked in the door that morning with all of the kids and dad surprised mom. he took her hand and said that he, we are here because we love you. the kids want their mother back and i want my wife back. those interventions are tough.
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crying, tears, a lot of a lot of raised voices. a lot of send more hugs and denial. .ad never gave up betty, we love you, trust us. we woke her up and she did the work. >> as many of you probably know, 16 years ago, i participated in a treatment program for prescription drugs and alcohol dependence. today i am a very grateful recovering alcoholic. i know firsthand that treatment does work. >> we see her talking about her successful treatment. of speechmaking is markedly different.
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>> one thing that might surprise , she had butterflies before she went on stage. she was terrified. part of that is the perfectionism. ,ne thing we do not talk about we talked about a genetic disposition to alcohol. sometimes there is an emotional disposition as well. she writes about the emptiness and the low self-esteem. she was very sensitive about the fact that she did not have a college degree. career washusband's taking off. by the time they came back to
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southern california, it was out , almost as often as he had been before. and now the kids were gone. everything.s became it was easier for her to slip habits.o the old >> what you just heard was richard cell phone going off. >> after the intervention in 1978, she was checked into long beach hospital. it should not be romanticized. it was a very gritty, very demanding, somewhat risky.
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be there,t want to she made it very clear that she did not want to share a room with three other patients. she raised the statement that said she was there because she was overmedicated, which was true, but far from the whole truth. they had to push her to reveal the whole truth that she had an alcohol problem. andire detoxified that was not pleasant. toastingweek, she was with prune juice. it was the beginning of a whole new life.
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namedighbor was a man leonard firestone. well. an alcoholic as about a year off to her -- after they staged one with the firestone's. he decided -- they decided to gather to go to the eisenhower medical center with the idea for what became the betty ford center. it was cofounded in 1982. how long did she serve as chair? , i want to say, 2005. she was an active chairperson? >> very active. she said her friends hated to see her coming. she was a phenomenally successful fundraiser. >> do you have any sense about
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how many people have been treated? -- the used to have president was so proud. about 10 years ago, when history books are written, her contribution would be considered greater than his own. >> eugene, oregon. susie, are you there? we will move on. samuel in virginia. >> hi, professor smith. i've enjoyed your class a lot this semester. aboutsor, you talked
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president ford and president carter became friends in 1981. bettyd not talk about how ford and rosalyn carter became friends. this unlikely friendship developed, mrs. ford and rosalyn carter decided they had a lot in common. they teamed up to become a pair. formidable lobbying funding mental health programs and for the work that mrs. ford alcohol and drug dependency. >> what kind of relationship to the fords have with the nixons? >> perfectly friendly.
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you could not go through affectte and have it not the kind of old casual friendship that they had enjoyed . i ran bursting them together while the nixon library was dedicated in 1990. -- i remember them together while the nixon library was dedicated in 1990. >> he is the longest american president to the state. >> we have some video of his funeral. can you talk about -- there is mrs. ford. can you talk about her role in planning the funeral services? >> we had a number of meetings that began several years out. it involved a military district
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in washington. he was adamant that he did not -- she kept drowned saying, keep it simple. think of the kids. -- thisthis was partly was first and foremost a family event. >> did any of the four children entertained political careers themselves? how long after her husband died did that he ford herself die? >> she do lie -- she died on july 8, 2008. 4.5 years. being 93.f
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>> we have photographs of their gravesites. >> this was something that was -- the ford museum is located on the banks of the grand river in downtown grand rapids. from the beginning, it it was planned. , thatecent presidents they would be interned at the sites of their libraries or museums. it is a really pretty lot. they chose the words themselves. president --he , there were all of
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trees out in front and for christmas, they put white lights .n the trees she left them on that year passed the christmas season and someone asked her why. she went out every year and lights.n the >> both of them living to 90 three years old. she was a widow for the last five years of her life. we are going to put it in the words of another president. in 1999, the fords received the congressional gold medal. president bill clinton spoke about betty ford's legacy. >> perhaps no first lady in our history with a possible selection -- exception of eleanor roosevelt has touched us
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in such a personal way. because i lost my mother to breast cancer, betty ford is a heroine to me. i know what it is like to see good people stare into the abyss of their own personal despair. i will be forever grateful for the betty ford clinic and for the millions of other people whose lives have literally been turned around and often saved. they went somewhere because she showed them it was not wrong for a good person and a strong person to be imperfect and ask for help. you gave us a gift and we thank you. [applause]
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[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] >> next monday, rosalyn carter,
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a highly involved first lady --y, she did the cabin and she attended cabinet meetings and hard-working lunches with the president. she also worked with her own causes. her in her ownom words. she spoke with c-span recently in atlanta, georgia, about the 1976 campaign. next mondayt lady's live at 9:00 eastern. we are offering a special edition of the book. presenting a biography and a portrait of each first lady and
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comments from noted historians. it is available for the discounted price of $12.95. it is our website has more about the first lady, including a special section. chronicles life in the executive mansion during the tenure of the first lady's. ladies. >> we bring events from washington directly to you. gavel tocomplete a gavel coverage of the u.s. house all as a public service of private industry. created by the cable tv industry 34 years ago and funded by your local satellite provider. administrator talks about
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working with china. trade representatives discussed .he u.s. trade policy that is followed by elena kagan on the workings of the court. dan malloy outlined his state's effort to close the education achievement gap. he was part of a discussion hosted by the american enterprise institute. this is just over an hour. >> good afternoon, everyone. startedgo ahead and get
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. how are you doing this afternoon? director of education policy studies at the american enterprise institute. happy to welcome all of you for an intriguing conversation with connecticut governor dan malloy. i am delighted to have you here with us and those of you watching at home the live stream or on c-span 2. we are going to be going for an hour. the format will be pretty straightforward. been, the governor has kind enough to agree to share some thoughts on the do's and don'ts of school reform in connecticut. what are some of the lessons they have learned?
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i will have an opportunity to chat with the governor for 15 or 20 minutes. we will open it up for conversation and q&a. governor malloy was first elected in 2010. took office in january of 2011. he is connecticut's first democratic governor in 20 years. he faced the largest per capita deficit in the country. pointdebt of about three $5 billion. he did several terms of -- as mayor of stamford, connecticut. make 2012 the year of education in connecticut, he tackled a reform agenda in a state that has long been known for one of the nation's widest racial achievement gaps.
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the governor took the lead in passing one of the nations more dramatic education bills. act -- some of the required a new teacher evaluation pilot in which 45% will be based on student learning. the governor's package created a commissioners network similar to the recovery school district and we see hannah. it has the ability to take authority over 25 of the state's lowest performing schools. an increased charter school funding. the figure will go to 11,500 i fiscal 2015. -- 20 fiend
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you. is great to be with i appreciate the opportunity to speak about an issue that is very dear to my heart. i like to talk about what really needs to happen in the united states and put it into an appropriate context. we have been at the business of educating on a public basis for a long time. if you look at the rhetoric that is frequently used around education issues, it is old revenue -- rhetoric. the distribution of opportunity is what we usually measure our success by.
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would you hold ?ourself as successful a substantial percentage for .eople in education, we had this idea that we need to operate -- offer the opportunity to all of our students to learn. tot did not pay attention the deficits that they might did come to school with, not take into consideration issues like poverty, family alignment. we kept merrily going down the same road. ,n comparison to test scores
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all of a sudden, we found out that not only are we not leading, we are far behind. that will have a long-term .mpact on the economy this believe that we have to get out of opportunity sharing into success sharing that has driven much of what i talk about on education. if you start to think about that, it changes your whole view of education. situation with a one of the largest achievement gaps along racial lines. that is the reality in connecticut. we have high highs and very low lows. needed to do something about that. we need to hold ourselves
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accountable for what we are doing. by the political leaders -- i have to say that i am envious of teachers. , the ability to impact isng people and the families this unbelievable gift that many have accepted as their calling. none of us are perfect, the reality is the state of connecticut is filled with teachers working very hard to get it right. they are demonstrating a , alingness to change
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beingental change embraced in the state of connecticut. we have to realize that teachers need the resources to be ready to do what they have to do. we are asking a lot more of them and it is one of the reasons why in the state of connecticut, we have gone in a different direction than many states across the country. we are adding funds to education. the 30 lowest performing school districts are getting the bulk of the money. it is by agreement on how that money is going to be spent.
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i'm also fond of saying that this is very much about changing our habits. only sat down and looked at all of our school districts and looked at those low performing districts, in almost every one of those, there was at least one outstanding school. outstandinghem schools. we are more likely to repeat our failures than we are our successes. we are more likely to explain ofy our successes as a way adding some psychological support. that is a mindset that has to change. we are doing that. ,ot only do we have an alliance but we also found that a
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commissioners network where we are empowered to work with that 25 lowest performing schools. they are applying because we .ave interventions different styles of turnaround. we have a school in new haven which is run by the teachers. a new experimental model which is showing great success. we have another school in bridgeport with a different model of operations. a great degree of involvement by its teachers union. it is not a one-size-fits-all assumption when it comes to turning around the low performing schools. it is a lot of attention, a little bit of handholding and
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getting people on board and bringing them along. what you find out if people really do want to do better. they have not necessarily seen the road that will allow them to do that. once you give them the ability to lift their head and see at target and to make progress and measure that rock rest, it is engaged in by more people than you might otherwise assume. this cannot be viewed simply as a pre-k problem. it is a pre-k issue and it is also a college issue. we have failed to properly afraid -- prepare. fasteriring machinist than we are creating personnel for those operations. you have to make a significant change.
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k, k-12, higher education, things we are spending a lot of our time on trying to turn around and make work. in by allto get a buy- of the stakeholders. that includes teachers. to raise the next generation, but we also need parent buy- in's. i am also fond of saying that you are not going to get as much , who you havents poorly educated yourself. that is a certain reality.
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giving parents new tools to change their behaviors is very important. it is true that we have to work with the teachers. of evaluation is now being implemented in the state of connecticut. that does not happen easily, it is not an easy thing to get done. already begun. that was actively participated in administrators. that does not make a rollout any easier. i had a discussion with my sister and one of my sister-in- law's yesterday and she was complaining that to get all of her data onto the system took her about three hours to do. i reminded her, once that is in,
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it it is in. three hours is a lot of time to spend, but once we start this program, it it will be the new way of doing things. what is so very important is that we win teachers over. i believe that we are making progress. discussion very important with respect to what is going on. embracing the kind of change that we have to embrace. -- above and beyond, we are investing $24 million additionally in technology. me of the things that amazes about education and government
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our underinvestment in technology cripples us. common core was decided on before i was governor of the state of connecticut. i was not one of the founders of the concept. i embrace it. poll -- 72%olastic of teachers embrace it. the remaining folks are undecided about the issue. those teachers who have thought about it and studied it and have been doing their preparatory do believe that
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concentrating on fewer things, but going deeper is the right way to go. you have the legislative package. you have a new evaluation system. it is not easy. .hat has to be made clear once we get through this, we are going to have a clear road to higher achievement in our schools. we will get away from this concept that we have an obligation to distribute opportunity. hold ourselves responsible. our lowest performing school districts, we need to hold ourselves, the governor,
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the mayors, the parents, the teachers, and to hold ourselves accountable for what is going on in our schools. we need to hold ourselves accountable and that is what i am trying to do. think we will sit down and take some questions. [applause] >> [inaudible] you may -- stephanie simon wrote a much discussed .tory the obama administration has supported teacher evaluation.
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points thatrticular have been surprising or more severe? >> there is a reality. articles, he came to some of the same conclusions. it is hard. it is hard in a state like connecticut that had taken a backseat on reform for a long period of time. massachusetts had been on school reform for about -- their graduation rate went up at a time when ours went down by one 1.8%. we have turned that around already on the graduation rate. they have implemented a lot of
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things. when it comes to doing common core and making adjustments to , theyf the improvements have an easier life than we do. we are trying to do a lot more shorter period of time. --is not complicated because itnot coming to the table, is rather like freaking out on the garden hose. you want to hold people accountable. -- you want to institute, core. that is a hard job.
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>> there is tension over nude teachers systems evaluations. metrics was a factor. i am curious how that has played out. where do you have questions about how effectively this is being done? fox there are some concerns. maybe take some additional time. having said that, we have studied a lot of these changes in other states. that first year is always difficult. board, theyget on
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understand it is not a risk for them. the vast majority of our teachers and school systems are doing a great job. we need to hold ourselves accountable. do that is tos to measure student achievement. to use that as a tool to understand how we are doing. would ask people how he was doing. we did not do that in education. to teachersou say this is distorting the ?urpose of schooling >> i have probably used to some of that rhetoric myself over the past 18 years. there is nobody teaching third
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grade spelling without doing a test every friday. nobody is teaching mathematics without holding a kid accountable for doing a test every wednesday. what we are really talking about is using tests for different purposes. for alike using a test mirror. you need to work with your stakeholders, your teachers, representatives, administrators. working on what that would look like. one called for immediate implementation of the system even before we started the
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process. in education, whether it is on the political side, on , haveion representation to speak about this a little bit more clearly. frankhave an honest and conversation about what we are getting at and we have to make sure that we do not simply teach the test. thinkingis on critical is so very important. >> in light of thinking about the role of the test, the president of the american federation of teachers has expressed concern that in new they are ruling out teacher of valuation systems that teachers will wind up being -- i am curious how you think of that challenge. do you think it is a real concern.
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i think all of those things are true. i cannot remember which one, they talked about how many teachers they have counseled out of teaching. the overt time making people understand where they fit in the world -- they have worked on making people understand where they fit in the world. if connecticut had done some of these things years before, what you describe would not be so difficult. we are giving people time. this will not change overnight. the mechanics of what we are doing change, but we are giving people time to used to the new system. options to our school system about what tests they want to offer this year.
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hey, you want to use kinetic its standard tests, you can use those. the protocol,e use that. oso make a choice.make they are ready for it. school boards are ready for it. that doesn't believe you are not afraid. it means you have more dialogue and work on it closely together. far better a caret than a stick. nationally has -- >> they have commended the new haven teacher agreement.


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