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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  December 31, 2013 4:45pm-6:01pm EST

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this legislation reopens the government and prevent a catastrophic default and credit downgrade that would spur another recession. i'm pleased that cooler heads have finally prevailed. however it is disappointing we are in the situation. after more than two weeks as the government shutdown and on the eve of default, we have reached an agreement. this legislation must be supported. it should not be celebrated. no high-fives or spiking of the football. it is a temporary bill. it is not a win for anyone. particularly the institution of congress or the presidency for that matter. the bill represents the conclusion of a difficult period from which i hope many can draw important lessons. i hope that this sad episode will help congress to make difficult decisions.
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we must keep the government functioning and address the out- of-control debt and the many challenges presented by the health care law, obamacare. for many months, and particularly the last two weeks i have worked tirelessly with , colleagues to find an agreement. i particularly want to thank are presented to ron kind, senators susan collins and joe manchin, and the many other members who participated in many discussions. this lays down a foundation to reach an agreement on issues that need to be addressed. i urge my colleagues to vote in favor of this legislation and to join with those of us who share an obligation to govern and seek bipartisan solutions. i yield back. >> the gentleman from kentucky reserves. the gentleman from new york is that gentlewoman from new york
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is recognized. >> i'm very pleased to yield one minute to the gentleman from pennsylvania a member of the appropriations committee. >> the gentleman is recognized for one minute. >> thank you, madam speaker. i rise to urge an expedited path. i join with the chairman and the ranking member of my committee and i agree with every word that has been stated by the majority chairman and the ranking member. this is critically important. this monday i was in a foreign country, i was in the state of israel and met with the president and with a whole group of brain researchers from around the world. they had difficulty understanding, given our nation's leadership, why several critical issues we could be in a paralyzed situation. i am happy that that the senate has acted in such an
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overwhelming way on this matter, with some 81 bipartisan votes. i would urge the house to act as i know we will. restore our government to pay our bills and to get on with our responsibilities as the most powerful nation in the world and the wealthiest country in the world. we can pay our bills and we can conduct the affairs of government in a way that gains us respect around the world rather than befuddlement. thank you very much. >> there has been a lot of discussion lately of the politics of the shutdown. let's be clear -- there are no winners here. these last few weeks have inflicted completely unnecessary damage on our economy. we do not know yet the full scope of the damage, but every analyst out there believes that families have gone without paychecks or services they depend upon. we know the potential home
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buyers about fewer mortgages and business loans have been put on small hold. -- small business loans have been put on hold. we know that consumers have cut hi back on spending and that haf of all ceos say that the shutdown and the threat of shutdown has set back their plans to hire over the next few months. we know that the threat of default of americans not paying all other bills that we owe on time increases borrowing costs which adds to our deficit. you know the american people's frustration with what goes on in this town has never been higher. that is not a surprise. american people are completely that the fed up with washington. a moment when our economic
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recovery demands more jobs, more momentum, we have got yet another self-inflicted crisis to set our economy back. for what? there was no economic rationale for all of this. >> as we wrap up our year in review series, a reminder that all of the programs we showed you in all of the video is available on our website at c- span.org. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] >> all this week, but tv is in prime time on c-span2, continuing tonight with memoirs and biographies, starting with malala yousafzai. -- yousef.
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and the life and opinions of gems for -- jane franklin. it is american, history tv, with 50th anniversary commemorations of three events. starting at 8:00 p.m. eastern, highlights from the august ceremony remembering the march on washington. after that, an event held in memory of 4 african-american the 16th street baptist church in birmingham, alabama. finally, we will take you to dealey plaza in dallas, for the anniversary of the assassination of john f. kennedy. the first lady's series continues tonight with a look at the life and career of pat nixon. she traveled abroad more than any other first lady before her, and led efforts to acquire more
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furniture, antiques, and art for the white house. she offered her husband's when the support watergate scandal broke. you can also listen on c-span radio. >> reporters in washington were recently given a tour of the u.s. capitol dome, which will soon undergo complete restoration. the outer iron shell has more than 1000 cracks caused by aging and whether. kevinl now hear from hildebrand about how the dome was built over the original dome that sat on top of the capitol building. this is half an hour. staircase wasar the original way to the first capitol dome, and continues to
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be the way we get to the walter dome. it was built in 1826. the original staircase was wooden. 1851, whenved in there was a fire in the library of congress. for fear that the fire would spread to the wooden dome, they cut it out. walter, when he did his changes, inserted a cast-iron staircase you see today. during the construction, when they were dismantling the original dome, they weighed every piece as it was coming down, so they could verify what the difference between the old and new dome was. it turned out, i think, the old dome was just under 12 million pounds. given how much larger the walter dome is, the fact it is only 20% more weight is amazing. it speaks to the nature of cast- iron, and the ability to build this large structure with
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relatively little weight. me, it is the merger of technology and the time. do many people who do not know architecture think -- would you describe why a cast-iron? >> i think walter's intent was that it look like masonry. he did not intend for this to be a modern structure. he intended it to be appropriate to the rest of the capital design. -- capitol design. because of the weight, it could not be built in masonry. walter had just finished the library of congress renovation. once it had been destroyed by fire, he went in with a fire crew to the interior structure, -- he went in with a fireproof interior structure, made of
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cast-iron. in building that, he proved the resilience and economy of cast- iron. you could make multiple pieces from a single mold. and was able to then create this dome without extensive cost, and aspectsugh light weight that it was possible. cracks -- >> much heavier wo od or a marble dome? >> it would not have been supported by the structure, so i think it was never calculated. the list to say, it would have been considerably higher than the 14 million pounds the dome and masonry additions were that was ultimately built. i think the point here is that the walls you are leaning against are the original for the original
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dome of the capitol. everything that walter added was above portis level at this edge. this would have been originally exposed to view from the east and west front. you can see overhead how did racquets extend out to pick up the columns. half the columns are drainage columns home and the other half are ventilation columns. and it would have been very odd to leave that cantilever condition exposed to view. so walter created a skirt of iron work that makes that transition from the cantilevered skirt out to the rest of the roof of the capitol. you can see the great condition we have been able to achieve with the restoration at this point. the skirt has been completely restored. the ironwork was repaired. the new paint system was
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installed. that, we cleaned and conserved and repainted the original bulfinch stonewalls. and this ring of masonry that is seven feet thick that is the foundation for the ironwork that extends above. these brackets -- we only see eight feet of them now. there is an additional seven feet embedded into the masonry work. that acts as a huge foundation that supports the weight of the dome and transfers them evenly onto the stonewalls below. here, you get a good sense for the bracket cantilever the on the old stone walls of the , and howdrum alternating columns are used for drainage columns. the others provide passive ventilation. how,an see to your left
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when it was installed, some of the chimneys of the capital were captured within the footprint. he used the hollow columns as a way to get the smoke exhaust out to the outside. i have seen a couple of photographs of the smoke billowing out of the ballast ron -- ballustrade. it is the chimney smoke coming out. you get to really appreciate the beauty of the rotunda, and the accomplishment of adding this additional height to the space. the actual interior coffered dome is not much larger than what bulfinch would have had here, and his dome would have rested on the stonework down , where you see a projecting cornice and a band of stone just above it. that is where the initial dome would have sprung.
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we are almost at the apex over the bulfinch dome would have ended. walter has listed -- lifted that on additional drums to give height and light into the rotunda. so here you can -- everything above the sandstone is what was added as part of walter's addition. for him the top of the sandstone to the balustrade we are standing on, it is predominantly masonry with some cast-iron elements. the coffers are cast-iron. the cornice below the freeze -- frieze is cast-iron. and below the ballast ron is cast-iron. everything else is masonry with a plaster coating. of, i woulde range say, close to 100 feet.
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at this level, you can also the frieze, the national frieze. he envisioned completing the death work but his early precluded him from finishing. workagini carried the forward to the california gold rush and when she gets the california gold rush, his work worksnd alan cox's
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continue to conclude the civil war and the birth of flight which takes us back to the discovery of america by christopher columbus where bermidi started his work. as you look across their attendant, you can see evidence of some water leaks that have occurred over time. the streaking below the lowest band of ornamentation on the copper dome, some of the staining on the sides of the blasters -- pilasters. and you can see on the evidence. some they were multiple tiers of gas jets that occurred, one above the stone cornice where you see light fixtures. one at the base of the balustrade work where you see remnants of an earlier lighting scheme, the conduit with sockets. there was a string of lights at the base of the kubla -- cupola
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and at the underside there was a ring of gas jets. they were over 1000 gas jets that would eliminate instantly with the click of a switch from a battery in the lower levels of the capital. you can imagine that night that must have been quite a dramatic all eliminatethis and once. as electricity was introduced to the building at the turn of the 20th century, this fixtures were replaced with electrical incandescent lighting and now we are using a more modern system. to eliminate the rotunda. engineers for the project, he had all of the lower-level pieces stamped with his name. you look at some of the nuts and bolts, it will say his name. sure you heard about the
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controversy between two competing a goes. walter being a phenomenal engineer. they both wanted credit for creating the dome. without either of them he could not have happened but it was the merging of their talents that allowed it to come into being. perfect building to deal with egos. >> exactly. let me show you this while we are here. we are passing through the boilerplate plan them -- plenum. we are on top of the colonnade. there is about any we do not public because it is fairly large and hard to control groups on. it does offer us an opportunity to show you graphically how thin the cast iron shell of the dome really is. justl lift this coffer
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enough so you can see the thin edge, 3/8 of an inch which is what the exterior shell of the dome is made of and the interior shell that you see the -- from the rotunda floor. ironically, this is also how you would get outside to change the light fixtures on that cornice. anymore thanksat to modern lighting technology. we do not get out there. it is always impressive to me to look through this thin layer and see for the first time just how the dome is constructed. let me know when you're done. >> how heavy is that? >> very. it is supported by the hinge.
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i am supporting it. please be careful when you come through. there is a window that sets into the staircase a bit and you need to watch her shoulder. you can also begin to appreciate here the structure and design of the dome with these enormous rib tresses, 36 in total that create structure and there are outriggers i go out and pick up the exterior skin and noticed that when you go through that the interior shell is not matching and aligning with the superstructure. it is suspended from it and the exterior shell is projecting eyond it. >> [inaudible] >> keep in mind when the dome
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was finished this wall would not have been here. this wall and window was added in the 1940's when air- conditioning was introduced into the capital. that is why you have a second railing on the interior side. people often wonder why this balcony needs to railings. this is why. you would have that view on the backside of the shell which would have allowed much more light to come through and through this balcony level. we are a considerable distance apart. you should be able to hear me pretty clearly. i think this is an amazing space. you have to be very careful what you saying when you're up here. anyone on the opposite side can hear you. the [inaudible] >> 12 of these windows will be removed and if you look above the pavilion winter tour you will see there is a bracket that extends out. during that phase we left that
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in place to be used as a lifting hoist for the 11 brackets that will be lifted. the 12 brackets will extend out over this railing and the system will beg suspended over the rotunda. the purpose of that knitting is twofold. it provides protection to the visitors so the rotunda can remain open while we are doing our work but it has a decorative drapery on the underside so that forooks appropriate ceremonial dance that can occur or for the visitors visiting the capital. we did not want it to look like an industrial safety netting.
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>> [inaudible] rather than replacing it we will be repairing it with any proxy system much like you would repair your windshield on your car if you had a crack. you use a heat and vacuum to infuse it with anti-proxy -- an epoxy binder. that is why the login stitch technique that we are using is so important to our restoration efforts. we want to save as much of the historic artifact as we can. >> [inaudible] >> unfortunately, all of them that were completed as part of the project have been overpa inted. that is the beauty is that you do not see them when they are
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complete. notice that we are over the painting and there is a tinned canopy on top acting as an umbrella to assure that if there is a leak in the exterior skin that it is caught and drained away so it does not affect the painting. at the level. as you go through. it is very low. the last thing you want to do is hit your head on this sharp edge. be careful and dock as you go through the doorway. duck as you go through the doorway. the capital is the focal point of washington. , marylandf the mall
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avenue, pennsylvania avenue radiating from the central point. the beauty of the city opens before you when you stand at this level. if you look at the top plate there are a series of through vaults that hold this together. as rest has developed and this railing has been pushed up by the pressure of the rust, the that isst crack and relieving the stress that is in the ironwork. what it also does is compromised the structural integrity of that particular piece. we are not concerned about it because there is a much redundancy in the ironwork design but we have put this here
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as a measure to ensure that until this work is repaired during this phase, we do not forcesy issues with any against the railing. to me it is symbolic of the joining of both parties in congress to come together to fund an effort that is incredibly important to our country and preserving the is not a question for discussion. it is something that has to happen. there is no more recognizable theol of the country than capitol dome. another good example of the thinness of the shell. it tells people how the structure works. the exterior skin of the dome and cast ironwork.
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>> [inaudible] >> i can tell you that i removed 180,000 pounds of lead based paint from the attic during our first phase so this should not weigh more than the amount of lead paint i have taken off. just as when you came out, watch your head as you come through the doorway. that is the convene light that is on at night when congress is in session. it is not one ball but four that is lit butulb that four. no person ise,
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permitted above this platform under any circumstance. make sure there is someone in front of you. if there is someone in front of you you can focus on it is easier. >> how far are we going down? >> we will stop here. let's stop here. one of the things i wanted to point out to you here as you are coming down the steps, you will 36's rib tresses that form the superstructure convergent -- converge at this level and go to support the statue of freedom. as you can imagine trying to merge 36 items into such a small space at the top was too great truss is the one
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that continues forward and the two that flank it merge into it for buttressing support. what you also see here is the enormous superstructure has very down tobands that reach suspend the shell below. and it has a very thin element that reaches out to the shape of the exterior dome. the brilliant thing about this design is that the dome is exposed to very harsh conditions on the outside, very cold in the winter of extra my hot in the summertime under direct sun. some plates may approach 130 degrees fahrenheit. because they are held away from the superstructure, that heat dissipates in the ironwork before it gets to the superstructure. tresses see very little temperature swing during the course of the year which helps to maintain the structural integrity of the dome. it does not move that much.
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a lot of the damage we are addressing are in the shells and that is exposed to wide temperature swings, a lot of expansion, and when the rest develops between the plates it removing andte's that creates enormous pressures in the ironwork that relieve itself by cracking. most of the work we will be doing in this phase will be addressing those cracks in the exterior shell. piecesge erector of coming from a remote foundry, they had to mark each piece of the installers knew where at what level of the dome each piece was to go. you seee surprised if these marks on every piece as you go down. there was a clear pattern that was made for each location and it was important that a go in at a certain spot and they use those marks to make sure the installers knew where to place it. there is the acorn finial that
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had cracked and had to be removed. there are a series of bolts i go through that plate above the octagonal window. there is a large ornamental piece that crests that window. that is where the acorn finial is from. >> [inaudible] all of that will be preserved. our goal is to keep as much of the historic fabric as possible. it is going to be repaired. yes. there will be 12 of these operators that go out to support the netting system that is suspended above the floor. >> is it a net?
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rex it is a multilayered netting that is meant to capture a load of 500 pounds and more. we start with a very large net and a layer of slightly smaller netting and a very tightknit to catch any small objects. all of that is concealed from view from the rotunda side i a -- by a decorative scrim. >> is there the worry that hammering will shake something loose? >> if a net word to fall or if there was a broken piece of protect thet to -- public. make sure there is ample construction barriers there to preclude anything from happening. we are expecting it to happen, we want to ensure that it does not.
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everything, the brackets, the columns, and the superstructure behind the skin plates was created in a foundry in pool and hunt.d once they finished their work up balcony, from that point forward, all the work was done by james kirkland out of new york. >> what are the wires? >> the wires are part of a he fun to bird proofing system. we will remove those as part of the work and install a netting system, passive netting system to keep smaller birds from nesting. project,tarted this there was a major water event in the fall of 1990 that deposited a large amount of water on the floor of the rotunda. it was through our investigations that we discovered bird nesting
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materials and debris from meeting on the dome -- eating on to dome that cause the water back up and cascade onto the rotunda. we have taken this on a series of projects to ensure that that drainage system is never compromised again by debris. developmento the of the master plan and the study of the ironwork and to the project that we are getting completed in the next two years. >> today, an encore presentation q&a" with cathy lanier. more from that interview now. >> a lot of things have happened. i think the initial decline of the 500 down to the 200 range,
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that drop or decline over 10 out of thehe burning crack cocaine epidemic. that was a run of sheer hell for most cities. the violence associated with crack cocaine markets, we had 200 open-air markets in the city. when shootings would happen they would be drive-bys. as the crack cocaine epidemic started to wane, we drop down to 200, 250 and we stayed there for some time. >> why did it wane? >> that is -- if you look at drug patterns, drugs tend to spike in popularity and they remain there about 15 or 16 years and they run like 20 or cycles and they go down. the crack cocaine epidemic is no more. there are people who use cocaine and there are some people who use crack cocaine but it is
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nowhere near it used to be. with the absence of that driving the violence i think that drop is down in the 200 range but we got stuck there for a long time. even when i took it over in 2007 169 in 2006, 181 and 200 -- in 2000. with gangrsistent violence and gang violence was born at accelerated during the crack cocaine epidemic. even when crack cocaine went away, the gangs did not. coming down from 186 to where we are now, in four years, a 54% drop in murders, it has been in constant focus on our gangs, the illegal gun offenders, and really staying focused on those two things and bringing in the community to work with us. that has been key.
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>> you can see the entire program today at 7 p.m. eastern here on c-span. seriess first lady continues tonight with pat nixon. she traveled abroad more than any other first lady before her. she also allowed more public offereduse tours and her husband steadfast support when the watergate scandal broke. the life and times of pat nixon tonight at 9:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. you can listen on c-span radio. last month the university of akron hosted its seventh state of the parties conference. this panel focused on the history and future of the tea party and its effect on the
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republican party. we will hear from political scientists and authors at this hour and 35 minute event. >> hello. hello, that -- everybody. for the local reporter akron beacon journal which is the newspaper here in town and i know john well. he was quoted on the front page in a story that i wrote looking at how poorly incumbents did in yesterday's election. we had 18 incumbents who lost in our county. that was quite a few. i am happy to be here. the tea party is definitely an interesting issue and i plan to start out with a joke but none of the reporters in the newsroom beingagree on anything funny or not funny so i will not start with that. with that i will introduce our first panelist here. to have brief
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presentations from each of them and then we will open up for questions. i know that you will have some good ones. first we have ronald rappaport from the college of william and mary. and walter stone from the university of california davis. they wrote about the tea party and the 2012 elections. rappaport from the college of william and mary. i am the second shortest percent you know walt stone. this project really comes out of our interest in understanding the tea party at both the mass level and at the activist double. we were struck by what we felt gap in the --
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there is little done at the activist level study. most has been going around to different serving people in a haphazard way. these are parallel samples of tea party supporters in the mass public as well as republican non-tea party supporters and tea party supporters of the activist level. this study is based really on these two sets of surveys. there are many common questions, that is one of the real strengths but we are able to compare them activist to the mass space. -- ourour mass survey mass survey is based on this -- on a survey.
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respondent, 700 party-- had rated the tea very positively in 300 had not done so. the survey was done in december of 2011 at the beginning of the high mary. is based on ae survey of freedom works supporters. it is a tea party group which as we found out is the largest tea party membership group in the country. 12,000 ofsurvey of them which was a nice n and we did that in december of 2011 and we follow that up in march, surveyingtwo a 13, re-
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2600 of them. there is very little bias even though the response rate was around 25% or so. this project was undertaken with walt stone and with meredith who will present it. she has been involved since she was a sophomore at william and mary. he graduated in may. she is with the education advisory board after a stint as an intern where she was the resident expert on the tea party for the pew center and people in the press. meredith is going to take this and go with it and make it sound far more intelligent than i could. >> thank you. to give you an idea of what is coming to my we will look at divisions within the local party and then we will compare rank- and-file republicans to tea
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party activists using that freedom works sample. once again looking at issues and political style. finally we look at the response of the tea party to the 2012 elections including perceptions of why may romney lost, change over time, and willingness to compromise, and evaluation of the republican party and its leaders. we begin by examining the actual conflict between tea party republicans and on-tea party republicans focusing on issue, positions, and priority using the sample. the first slide shows percentage of respondents taking the most conservative positions on various issues. striking differences between tea party republicans and non-tea party republicans. for example, 76% of tea party republicans took the most conservative positions on abolishing the department of education whereas 10% of non-tea party republicans did so. of tea0 five percent party republicans took the most
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conservative positions on repealing obamacare compared with only 59% of non-tea party republicans. are looking at the top priority issue of respondents. seeing striking differences between tea party republicans and non-tea party republicans in the mass sample. in fact, you can see that with the two issues, repealing obamacare and shrinking government, almost 40% of tea party republicans chose either one of those issues as their top priorities while less than five percent of non-tea party republicans did so. so now we are going to turn to political style. we asked respondents to agree or disagree with the statement when we feel strongly about political issues, we should not be willing to compromise and we found that 23% of tea party republicans said that they strongly agree with the statement uses four percent -- 4% when you combine do agree.gree and
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when you comply -- when you combine the responses, that difference is even greater. only 32% of non-tea party republicans saying so. this is not surprising. when we consider that recent role of the tea party with the government shutdown. we will continue -- return to the freedom works sample. the percentagews of respondents taking the most roost -- conservative positions on issues but we are looking at tea party republicans from the sample and freedom works tea party activists. we would expect at the wrists to be slightly more extreme or even dramatically more extreme than just regular supporters. this is not the case here. these groups look very similar.
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there is little to no difference between them. the is true when we look at priority issues. once again, the group looks very similar. with as the exception group whose top priority was to shrink government was at 17% from the tea party republicans whereas it is 31% of the freedom we havepporters. and so shown the divisions in the republican party really exist between the non-tea party republicans and tea party republicans. as opposed to the tea party republicans and the tea party activists. turning to the 2012 election and the tea party's negativity toward the republican party, we would expect to see after any major election that the party that loses is pointing fingers at people and the reasons why they lost and how they avoid -- they can avoid that in the next
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major election and 2012 was no exception. in fact a report was commissioned that blamed third- party groups such as the tea party and the republican lack of andal to minorities, use, women along with other reasons for the 2012 losses. we surveyed freedomworks activists. these are the percentage of tea respondentsmworks ranking each of these reasons is very important as a cause of the romney-ryan loss. 54% of respondents ranked romney as being too moderate as an important reason for the loss compared with only five percent of respondents who thought romney was too conservative. when you add up all the reasons why romney lost such as the lack of minority outreach, and the
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association with the tea party, only 52% of race bond and selected any of those four items which is still less than 54% of respondents who said that romney was too moderate. so looking again at the question about political style and comfort mice we find that in december 2011, 32% of freedom work respondents agreed that --y should not compromise by and in the spring this percentage increased to 45%. now we look at the decline in ratings for the republican party and john boehner over the same time from 2011 through 2013. we can see that significantly more tea party activists who rated the republican party and john boehner below average in 2013 as compared with 2011. his below average ratings more than doubled to 57% in 2013
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compared to 27% in 2011. on the side we show a factor analysis of republican congressional leaders in -- and candidates using the freedomworks data. this resulted in two factors. factor an establishment and the other was the tea party factor. those numbers that you see in parentheses are the net favorability ratings where the red dots represent a net negative rating and the green represent ant -- net positive reading. you can see that we find the republican party along with republican congressional leaders such as aynor and cantor -- john .oehner and cantor in addition, most of these people in the upper left-hand corner have negative ratings. hand cornerr right- we found the tea party and the tea party candidates such as ted
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cruz who were low on the establishment factor in high and the tea patty -- tea party factor. they had very high net favorability ratings. what might be most interesting is in the middle we find ryan and rubio who have net favorability ratings at least 81% for each of them. and they have almost as high favorability ratings as the tea party candidates in the lower right-hand corner. we would expect rubio and ryan to be in a really good position for the 2012 election at least when we are looking at tea party supporters. see that the tea party is very negative toward the republican party in its candidates, we find that they were still very active for romney in 2012. as you can see, regardless of
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who they supported in the primary, they still rallied around romney and were very active for his campaign. you can see that first bar, 86% of tea party supporters who supported romney in the primary were active for his campaign in the general election. you compare that with supporters and 75% wereperry active for romney. the one outlier might be ron paul on the very end. a majority of his supporters ended up doing activities for the romney campaign. we looked at the data from 2008 .nd this can be said the same true as well that tea party supporters who preferred a candidate other than mccain were still extremely active for him in the general election. as you can see, there is still a
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lot of unresolved conflict within the republican party. the government shutdown is one reason -- recent example. looking forward to 2016 we expect to see tea party supporters similarly active in the primaries, supporting a candidate who might not be all that electable or having a chance of gaining the nomination but they are in alignment with their issue priorities. the republican nominee is chosen, most supporters will likely rallied behind that candidate and be very active. that is more due to the antipathy toward the republican party. that is all. thank you. >> next we will have peter francia and jonathan morris from east carolina in diversity. they will talk about their paper, "the divided republicans."
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>> let me begin by thanking john green and everyone here at the university of akron. steph has been wonderful. i certainly speak for my co- author. wonderful.s been this is one of the most stimulating academic conferences that we get to attend so we are pleased to be here. you can see by the title of our paper, it is a little bit of overlap with the previous paper. it is always nice to see and you will get a chance to see this in a minute. even though we have used different data sets and looked at some slightly different questions, some of our conclusions are very similar. let's jump ahead, then. so, we are primarily again interested in intraparty divisions. partyvide between tea republicans and establishment republicans has come into full
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public view recently. any, political party loses an election, there is a little bit of that soul-searching that we all hear about. and so republicans were talking about what went wrong in 2012. there was the defeat not only at the presidential level but indiana and missouri, those look easy victories at least for time and they turned into defeats. karl rove get, we get who makes an announcement in 2013 that his super pack, american crossroads is going to support the conservative victory project. and for the purpose of the conservative victory project was to get involved in republican primaries and try to oust tea party republicans who were seen as costing the republicans some of those easy victories that i talked about. that was followed up by -- with tea party darling who need --
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needs no introduction, sarah palin is funding, "of these experts who keeps losing elections and keep getting rehired and getting millions, if they feel that strong about who gets to run in this party, then they should buck up or stay in the truck." i am sure you all remember that. karl rove was not going to stay silent. he came back shortly after that hean interview and said that would serve out his term and he would not leave office midterm. speck between the karl rove and sarah palin. an illustration of these growing divisions between the tea party wing and what we might call the establishment wing. in fact it prompted this question. , it wass dispute illustrative of a larger civil war within the gop. is a term i am using, that term that a whole bunch of headlines have used.
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you pick up the new york times, they described this as a civil war within the republican party. we think this is an interesting question because previous accounts of parties have long described republicans a bit differently. republicans if you go back to the 1980's, joe freeman did a study and talked about the culture of the two major parties and talked about how the republican party was one and had a culture of being closed, quiet, and consensual. if you look into the 1990s, another study describes the arty , to this --has a homogeneous membership. wrote a book, "the divided democrats," an important book and one we were thinking about when we were doing this research.
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even more recently, the divided democrats book, howard dean when he was running for president which is within the last 10 years. he said that he represented the democratic wing of the democratic party. that is a reference to this ideological split them between the moderate democrats and more liberal faction of the political -- to credit party. it is the democrats who have been long divided. in light of the recent developments where we have been talking about republican divisions more so perhaps of the democratic visions we wanted to ask a few questions. our republicans pacific league tea party and establishment republicans, if they are divided, how deep are the divisions and what other issues divide the gop factions? debarred --also how how divided our they do. -- compared to democrats?
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do tea party republicans go out and grab political information from different sources than establishment republicans? i will get into some of those numbers in a minute. we were primarily interested in that question because we wanted to begin to try and answer if there are divisions are they just fleeting, are they going to go away? this is a temporary blip on the map or are these divisions likely to persist and so there is this literature out there that says when you only hear like-minded ideas, all the time, when you live in this echo chamber, your ideas get reinforced and people begin to he come more polarized. weooking at media sources were hoping -- by looking at media sources we were hoping to project that perhaps if there are divisions, they would persist if there are these divisions in media sources so that is the second thing.
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-- the second thing that we looked at. final question which i think was probably the more -- most challenging part of the project which was we wanted to specifically look at social media as well. social media, the reason we wanted to focus on that specific question was that the tea party has made really effective use according to some accounts of social media. so we were curious to see if the comments made on social media venues like twitter were significantly different between establishment republicans and your tea party republicans and that required getting twitter data and doing some content analysis. my co-author will talk about that in a minute. to get at the first two questions, we looked at the 2012 studies and to give you a sense of what we were using as our definitions, tea party republicans, it is based on two questions. questions.e party id
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anyone who is self identified republican or an independent who leaned republican, we included the leaners. if anyone wants to know why i will be happy to explain. it is pretty much in agreement ers -- leaners should be included. establishment republicans were self identified or those republican leaders but they were neutral or opposed to the tea party. for purposes of comparison we democratic categories. very similar to the republicans, self identified or independents who leaned democrat create moderate democrats, the same thing. we used the ideology question to break them apart. if you are liberal to extremely liberal than you were in that category. if you were slightly liberal or moderate you are in that category.
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we had the pure independents. let's get to the results. at the first look question, there are the standard seven point scale questions that nes has looked at for quite a while. we looked at all of them. i will not show you every single one but we did look at every single once i picked the most interesting for time reasons. you can see that it is the tea party republicans who answer in the most extreme categories. 31% in the one category and if you add the one and two, you are looking at 68%. the most extreme categories. it was eye-popping to see that that many fell into the most extreme category. it is interesting when compared against the establishment republican category. democrats are a bit divided as well. if you look at certainly the six category and you would add the six and seven, there are some divisions but the republican divisions do stand out. this was one that i thought was
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fascinating. nes asked for seven point question about whether the government should provide assistance to african americans and on the seven point african americans, should help themselves. that is amazing when we saw that. 51% answered in the most extreme category at number seven versus 36% of the establishment republicans. we were really amazed to see if you add the six and the seven together, you're talking about a huge number of tea party republicans. if you look at the health care law, this is unbelievable, right? not that terribly surprising given that there was so much frustration from the tea party rank-and-file over the health care law. law, 70%10 health care of tea party republicans fallen that most extreme category. by comparison again, the establishment republicans only 35%. i do not mean to be glossing
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over the democratic members but since that is not our focus we will focus on the republicans. the democrats have some healthy divisions as well. to be crystal clear here, we are not arguing that democrats are still divided, too but the republicans are very much divided as well. on the environment, you can see again some divisions but i put this one up to show you that the democrats, there is quite a bit of division in the extreme category. if you go to the number one on the seven point scale which is response.he role a lot of liberal democrats in that category, a much smaller percentage. if you look at the number seven, no regulation at all, 18% of tea party republicans versus only 4% of establishment republicans. again, pretty big difference is there. you look at other questions, president obama's handling of the economy. i could give you the establishment republican numbers . i wanted to give you the tea party numbers here. just to make the point.
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in the disapprove strongly, this is the most extreme category you can get, 92% disapprove strongly of his job is resident. 93% disapprove of his handling of the economy. 90% disapprove strongly of his handling of health care. 87% disapprove strongly of his handling of foreign relations. even on the afghanistan war you thought maybe there could be some disagreement. 63% disapprove strongly on that particular question. almost across the board on all the obama questions, we had a feelingnch of thermometer questions. obama, 16 from the tea party on that 0-100 gale, zero being the coolest and 100 being the warmest. you can see very low ratings. this number stood out so i had to put this one up. michelle obama, for crying out partyand 28 from tea
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republicans. even the first lady who is not even controversial, she cannot even break 30 with the tea party republicans and that compares to 45 for those establishment republicans. tea party republicans were, however, favorable toward mitt romney. 77. alright at 79. even george w. bush, 72. than themore favorable establishment republicans. this is consistent with the last paper. when they had to rally about their candidate, the feeling thermometer questions indicate that perhaps they did that. whether those divisions will persist is when we look at the media question so let's turn it over to jay morris. >> it is clear there is a division on several issue positions and on how tea party versus establishment republicans view certain candidates, certain issues. do they get the news from different sources? we are ready know through the
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research on partisan media that democrats, republicans, liberals, conservatives come and get their news from different sources in today's fragmented media environment. at teau look here just party versus establishment republicans and where they get their news regularly, we can look at these several shows from fox news. we can see a dramatic difference. versusparty republicans establishment republicans, and whether or not they watch these fox news programs and these are four of several fox news programs. the division is clear there. talk radio, nobody is surprised i do not think. look at the bottom. one part about the democrats, the democrats also have their divisions. i am surprised that there is
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seven percent of tea party republicans who listen to "all things considered." more number so if you want some we have got them. >> we looked at new media as well. social --e advantage advanced of social networking -- advent of social networking platforms has allowed the rank- and-file members of the tea party to express themselves, the wayof one may -- era of one mass media is over. that allows the tea party to voice their opinion. -- how the tea party did they make their views known in the twitterverse? is already passé, as my
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students tell me. we wanted to look at tweets from aning posters.eadin we did a content analysis, about a quarter million tweets with the following hash tags that you see at the bottom. from october 1 through october 24, we searched every tweet that mentioned the terms. manageable to a quarter million. we looked at the sample we had over time. can see that our content analysis which is looking at positive versus negative ratio
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in terms of the comments made on individual tweets, you can see is thee top line positive and negative ratio for mitt romney and the bottom is barack obama. the mentions of either one of these candidates. you can see that barack obama does not vary too much. it is much lower than that romney. you can see with a positive comments, the positive sentiments spiked. after that first debate, you can see that conservative leaning twitter posters, they were excited. and they were posting positive things and it dropped off but you can see it's bike again with the debates. we are not interested in the overall trend of how conservative toasters posted. we wanted to look at tea party versus gop and here is where our findings overlap with that of the previous discussion. if you look in the far right comment -- column, the ratio of
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positive to negative tweets, tea party versus gop, they were equally as negative toward brock obama. it did not matter if you hash tagged gop or teaparty. same thing with mitt romney. exact same thing, the positive to negative ratio. positive statements to negative statements. if you look at this that you can see a bit of a division. tea party members were more critical of both parties compared to establishment republicans. what does that mean? it means we have a invited reprint -- divided republican party when you look at issue positions and attitudes toward -- candidates come part comparing tea partiers to establishment republicans. media habits clearly differ. we did not show you all our findings but fox and talk radio, it is clear. ofthe end, in the month
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october at least in 2012, when it came to posts on twitter, the posters for the tea party, the gop, the people who has party and gop, they rallied around their candidates. maybe more significantly, they rallied against the opposition. that is what we show here. divided in some ways but rally affected -- the rally effect at the end is still there. >> thank you. next we will have william miller flagler college and i call john burton from ohio university. enemies?" "who needs >> thank you. always appreciate the state of the parties conference.
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it is interesting to pat -- point out that if we go back to the 2009 state of the parties, i remember one conversation about the tea party. it was at lunch and it was not very kind. it was much more of a they will have these nice little rallies and dress up and be gone in a few months. a few months later we started to see the idea that robert boatwright talked about, or individual elected officials being primary within their own party and the effects that could have. what we are going to talk about today is a little bit different than looking at actually speaking with activists or tracking money back to causes. instead we want to discuss the intellectual history of the tea party and how what we're seeing today and hearing about today is not necessarily new to the conservative discourse but it is being presented in a new way with a little more organization than previously. and again, focusing on the fact that when the tea party came into existence, it was using the already.ax enough
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it was an economic movement. that implied if the economy improves the tea party will disappear. they are not the johnny one note but found a consistent theme that allows them to apply the same principles to issues that are not directly economically related. so what we want to do first of all is laced the tea party into the intellectual history of american conservatism. folks -- focusing on modern beliefs and looking at how what we see became cemented under reagan has only altered since. illustrating the idea of this unifying concept of constitutional liberty. allowing us to talk about the economy, abortion, and drones and be using kind of the same language among the same in the visuals to bring that to the forefront of american politics. strategicow you the position of traditionalism and libertarianism in the gop.
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the movement is competing with the more pragmatic wing of the republican party and pretty much every battle that comes through for congress. the major claim being that the intellectual history and strategic position of the tea party movement is going to allow it to have an enduring place in american politics as long as it does not self-destruct. look at the reagan coalition and the republican party in what he was able to do, he was able to bring three rather diverse groups together or a lecture again. obviously focusing on the christian conservatives, the free market, and also the more republican leaning pragmatists, moderate in their views but willing to negotiate and product -- compromise as necessary to advance their causes. what we will start by arguing is that what -- this is what we see today. the first panel, we talked about rand paul. and how some identify him as a libertarian, some identify him as a traditionalist, and at the end of the day what we say is
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that there is a middle ground where he can be both. and still fit into the overall picture of the tea party. it is not simply beginning with the decline of right it is him. whether through polarization, redistricting, whatever cause you want to attribute it to, the modern republican party appears to be less pragmatic. we see more ted cruises and rick perry's been john boehner's and mitch mcconnell's. the moderation we used to see is being replaced and as a direct result the middling area become smaller and smaller. it impacts republican and national policy. most importantly, the traditionalists and over terry and have blown -- grown closer together.

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