tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN March 7, 2016 10:00am-12:01pm EST
a livable wage of $15 per hour, that will bankrupt every taco bell is. will be back tomorrow morning at 7:00 a.m. have a good day. ♪ [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2015] >> michigan primary is tomorrow with 140 77 delegates are at stake. 2:00 -- 2:30rts at p.m. eastern and you can watch that on c-span as our road to
the white house coverage. at 7:40 five eastern, hillary clinton will campaign in detroit and that will be live on c-span. after the presidential louisiana,contest in kansas, andky, nebraska, hillary clinton maintains her lead over bernie 498ers, 1129 delegates to for senator sanders. side, 1200 37can delegates are needed to win and donald trump remains a leader with 384 delegates followed by ted cruz with 300, marco rubio with 150 one, and john kasich with 37. >> during campaign 2016, c-span takes you on the road to the white house. as we follow the candidates on c-span, c-span radio, and
>> good afternoon. after school all-stars saved my life. i joined in sixth grade. i grew up in a single-parent home, and watched my older brother struggle with gang activity after school hours. after my brother was shot, and -- i knew i needed to choose another path. all-stars was that path and it changed my life. i am now in my first year of college, and i'm very grateful for the organization that was founded by arnold schwarzenegger. [applause] >> it is my honor to introduce to you governor arnold schwarzenegger. [applause] gov. schwarzenegger: thank you very much. thank you. thank you very much for the wonderful introduction. i am so proud of you.
you chose the right path. [applause] it is the only way that our kids can choose the right path, to give them the opportunity. this is why we started after school programs nationwide more than 20 years ago, and i feel very passionate about that because he gives kids a chance to have adult supervision after school gets out. more than 70% of the kids come from homes where both of the parents are working, so there is no one there to tutor them to take them to storms and train -- sports and train them and help them with their homework. this is why afterschool programs are so important. you are in college from your studying business, and you're going to be a genius. we love you. let's give him a big hand. [applause] gov. schwarzenegger: i love ohio. [applause] i love ohio.
it is such a wonderful statement -- estate, i remember in 1970, my love affair began here. but before that, i want to say briefly, and recognize that passing of nancy reagan today. she was one of the greatest first ladies, an extraordinary human being. such a wonderful partner to her husband, the president, reagan, and who was without doubt one of the greatest presidents of the history of the united states. [applause] and i know she would join him in heaven, and this love affair would start all over again. let's please have a moment of silence for nancy.
thank you. let me talk to you about my love affair with ohio. in 1970, jim, right of your, -- right over here, come over here, it is very important that you see the person that is really responsible for my love affair. give him a big hand. [applause] he ran the world championships in weightlifting and bodybuilding in 1970, and i won that competition. and i told him that competition was so well run, that i would come back after i retired from bodybuilding, and he would be my partner, and we would be running the world championships in columbus, ohio. that is exactly what happened. on, for water -- four
decades we have been running every year the world championships and bodybuilding right here in columbus, ohio. [applause] i just came from there, because this weekend was the fitness festival. it has grown to the biggest event in the world. 200,000 people are going through there and watching those events. we have 56 different sports, and we almost 20,000 athletes participating. the olympics have 12,000 athletes, and we have almost 20,000 athletes participating. this is the highest success when it comes to sports, fitness, and the promotion of health and fitness. this is what it is all about. the only way to connect on it is just the only way we could have done it is -- the passion of the people of ohio, and specifically of columbus. a big hand to all the people that work so hard to make this happen. [applause]
now one day, my friend said to me you are coming for the classic, and for sports and fitness festival, i want you to meet a guy by the name of john kasich, who was running for congress. this was back in the 1980's. i said i am coming. i came to the event, i listened to john kasich. and it was extraordinary, what he said. and from that point on, i was campaigning for him, and i was in fundraisers for him, and let me tell you something -- when he went to washington, he kicked some serious thought. -- butt. [laughter] he was in action hero when he went to washington. [applause] as the chairman of the house budget committee, he pushed through the first balanced budget. the first balanced budget since
man walked on the moon. think about that for a second. [applause] so he showed real action. then when he ran for governor, i said to him, i will be back. [laughter] and he ran, and i was there again, and his fundraisers, and his offense committed -- events and everything. and then he became governor of the great state of ohio. and once again he was the action hero. he went in there, there was an $8 billion budget deficit. now there is a $2 million surplus. [applause] and not only that, you did this without raising taxes. he did the opposite. he reduced taxes by $5 billion. think about that. by $5 billion he reduced the taxes. [applause] and at the same time, he created
more than 300,000 jobs. we always talk about those numbers, 300,000, with the percentage is that all of those things. it does not mean that much, but each person goes home, and says i can provide for my family. i have a job. i am somebody. it makes you feel good when you have a job, when you feel wanted, needed, that it is what it means for each person, each of those 300,000. you have done such an extraordinary job, and in so -- it means so much when those people go to work. this is the kind of action hero he is. he will be like that if he will be in washington, because right now we need leadership like that. there are some that were pennies -- there is so much work that needs to be done. [applause] i tell you, i am an immigrant, i came here in 1968 with
absolutely nothing, but i was full of dreams. and because this is the land of opportunity, because of america, i could make all of my dreams become a reality. through hard work and dedication, i was successful in bodybuilding, in show business, i became governor of the state of california, i made a lot of money, all because of america. this is the land of opportunity, it is the greatest nation in the world, no matter what anyone says out there. [applause] and we need john kasich to now take charge and be at the white house. this is why i endorse john kasich, our great governor. [cheers] to be our republican nominee, and to be the next president of
the united states of america, the greatest country in the world. ladies and gentlemen welcome a very good friend, governor john kasich. [applause] governor kasich: thank you. thank you everybody. well, let me just say to begin, that is the case express. -- the case sick express -- kas8ich express. i want to say word about nancy reagan, because today my wife is going with me for a couple of days on the trail. i am thrilled that she is going to be with me. my staff is thrilled because they say she keeps me in line. i have a sense that was a little bit that way with nancy reagan and her husband, and she looked out for him every step of the way. and she made sure that the people who were -- [laughter]
governor kasich: she didn't do that. [laughter] she made sure the people who were around him, were committed to what he believed in. she was an incredible lady. she was very strong, and a total class act. i have to tell you, she is now with her ronnie and with the lord, and it is great. god bless them, and god bless america for what ronald reagan and nancy reagan did for this country. [applause] i do not know how much you really know about arnold. you know about him as the terminator, you know him as a big action hero. he's going to be on this new great show, celebrity apprentice.
he's filming another terminator. he's taken the arnold classic term -- global. it's just amazing what he's been able to do. he's a great businessman, all of that, but this young man who was here, i don't know if you heard what he was saying. he knew he needed to change his life, because he knew she did -- if he did not change his life, he would probably lose his life. it was a number of years ago when arnold created the afterschool all-stars. this is a program that takes kids who could very easily join a gang, find themselves in drugs, totally isolated from everyone, without being able to realize their god-given potential. this afterschool all-stars is an incredible program, and it is growing. i went to california back when i
was in television, and i went to where arnold was going to be a nd i said have you ever seen arnold here? they said he is here all the time. he is here with the kids, he gives 100% of himself. because of his commitment to afterschool all-stars, and what they have done for children who need to find their way, we are now running one of the biggest afterschool all-star programs in any state outside of the state of california. it has been his leadership that inspired me to make sure that this program is funded, and has strong support. [applause] arnold came, he and i have been friends for a long time. he came here in 2010. governor california, he flew all the way in, did a fundraiser, flew all the way back, had a
terrible schedule, and said i want to help you. but when he came and after that long flight, i was whining to him about the negative campaigning that was going on in ohio. i said this is really not fair, this is not fun. he looked at me and some of the best advice i have ever received. he said john, love the beatings. love them. [laughter] and i have been loving them ever sense. this is like moguls. then when i won, he gave me this jacket. i don't know if you can see it, but i officially am the governor -- terminator two. how about that. [laughter] the first months i slept in the jacket with dreams of grander.
i want to thank you all for coming. when i talk about that kasich express that just keeps chugging along. back in 1977, when i was running, we had a newsletter called the kasich express. and it just keeps chugging along. i got into this race with my team, because you do not do anything without a team. because the country really needs help. the country really needs leadership. i think the reason why arnold and i are friends is because we both admire great leadership. we talked about ronald reagan. ronald reagan enabled people to play at a much higher level than they would normally play. when we think about great leaders like winston churchill, those people over there, every nice they were bombed, every -- every night they were bombed, there was rubble in the streets and he went on to say we we , would never give in.
these kinds of leaders allow us to perform and to be able to accomplish real things in our lifetime. when i think about ronald reagan i think about the resurgence of america. but i also think about that night when we all watched that berlin wall, and people who jumped on that wall with their little hammers, and i'm not sure what they were pounding, maybe they were pounding out their hopes, and their dreams, and their spite at those security guards that try to deny them their god-given potential. but leadership can bring about great things. do we have challenges and problems today? yes, we do. there's a lot of people who are worried that their job will be there anymore. that's some crazy trade deal
will hit them and somebody will walk in and say you are out of work. and you are 52 and don't know what the future is. these are people who put their money in the bank expecting to get interest and over the last few years, they got zero. they watched a lot of people that had wealth be able to buy into the stock market and do well and they were stuck. wages were not moving. how about the mom and dad that had hopes and dreams like we did for our daughters? what happens is they are living in the basement after ringing up a big college debt. and not having any sense of the future. for the senior who worries about their social security. am i going to get it? and the young people who believe they will see a ufo before a
social security check. and those who wonder can we be safe and america? are we a leader of the world anymore? these are real issues. you know how i understand them? i grew up in that town. i saw that if the wind blew the wrong way, people were out of luck and out of work. many of you have been with me for many years. i have never lost in my minds eye, i have never lost the sense that people sometime feel powerless, who feel they have no one to represent them, that feel that nobody stands out for them. that is what i have been dedicated to. creating economic security, opportunity, giving you a voice. people who sometimes feel that no one is listening. i know that i can go to washington and pull this together. i know that i can go to washington --
[applause] i know how to balance budgets. i know how to build a team of people that are willing to give us a strong fiscal track. why do we want that? because our job creators do not feel like they can trust the future and sit on their wallets. we will not get the jobs we want. i know how to deal with regulation where we have lost common sense. and i know this, i have no problem with people who work in the government. i just know if they want to make all the laws, they should run for public office, not just sit behind a desk where they don't deal with the reality of how we create jobs in this country. [applause] and we know how to cut taxes. we cut taxes more than any governor in america by $5 billion.
you think about this. you remember the first year that i was in you all had a get a , seat held because you fall out of your chair with everything that was happening. we have reduced taxes, and we killed the death tax. a small business person could pass it on to their kids of kids -- kids and they could be successful. now we're working on killing death. we have not done well enough, but we are working at it. over 400,000 jobs, a balanced budget, same thing in washington. i take orders from you. i do not take orders from the people who are connected, the vested interest. and my wife, she knows it, and she has become a wonderful partner. the only one i take orders from his her. but she understands the stakes are. let me say a couple more things. i want to shift a lot of power back to where we live.
i want us to have the programs to run our schools, our school boards, not some faraway place in washington. [applause] i want to send welfare back here, so it is not a way of life, but a way of getting out of the ditch. [applause] we are doing that in ohio and i want to send those programs back. and i want to send the programs of health care for the poor, because we know we can do a better job, if we were set free. and send back job training, and send back transportation. so i'm going to send these programs all within the first 100 days. but i want to tell you something that i really believe, coming from that little town in pittsburgh. you got it. that little town, our hero was
roberto clemente. he was the great athlete. he performed like we all dreamt that we could. i do not see my mother cry a lot, but i remember the morning she walked in my room in tears because she said roberto clemente had lost his life, flying to help people in nicaragua who had been hit by an earthquake. you see in that little town, we did not wait for any president to come galloping into our town. we do not wait for some politician to come in and solve our problems. the spirit of america, in my opinion, does not rest in politicians. we need to do our job to get things fixed where we are expected to do our job, what we are paid for. but the spirit of our country rests in you.
it does not rest in a faraway city for a faraway place. [applause] i was in mississippi, hurricane katrina came in and level the entire town, and nothing left. a couple of safes from the bank were left. they put all the cash in a winnebago, and the sound card -- set card tables up in front of the winnebago and people got , cash they needed to survive. they wrote them ious, and when all was said and done, and they lost about $300. when regulators showed up to look at the winnebago bank, they were told to get back in their cars and get out of here, because we know what we are doing.
these stories are all over the country of people across the country, standing up, fixing things. the last thing i want to tell you is this -- do you all understand that you are made special? do you know that the lord has never made anybody like you, and will never make any money like you again? you have a purpose. part of your purpose was to be here today. did you ever think you would be doing something like that in front of governor schwarzenegger and all these people? but you are reaching down. and will have to discover our god-given purpose. i believe that when we work together, we are a great, beautiful mosaic. and we do not discover our purpose, the mosaic is incomplete. i think when we work together, we need to live a life bigger than ourselves to help heal this world.
let me give you a couple of examples. you are a nurse, you are done at 10:00 p.m. tonight, you are dead tired. but you walk into the room or that family is sitting on the edge of their chairs, worried about their loved ones. you take a few more minutes toas to say it's going to be ok. give you are a teacher and a big salaries because you believe you are changing the lives of young people, that you have found your purpose, and if you are a physician and call the patient at 11:30 at night because you cannot sleep, you are living your purpose. sometimes it is not even that complicated. how about the widow married for 52 years -- no one calls her anymore.
on thursday, she goes and gets her hair done. pick heray, when you up, she puts on the dress she hadn't worn in six months. did you change the world? i think you did. i will take care of these things in washington. if i need help, i will call you. back here, we need to pull our communities together and we need to destroy the curse of drugs. that is where america lives in our neighborhood and in our community. [applause] so we are coming up to an election.
i asked herman meyer to lay down. we are going to do well. then we are coming here. we are coming here. [applause] i think it is important that in ohio we not only send a message to the country, but we send a that noto the world name-calling, sliming, or big suggestions on how you're going to fix things, that a positive message and raising the bar for our kids will when in this country and will move america forward. thank you all very much and god bless you all. [applause]
>> during campaign 2016, c-span takes you on the road to the white house as we follow the candidates on c-span, c-span radio, and c-span.org. >> we have more to -- more on the road to the white house coverage today and the michigan primaries tomorrow. there are 147 democratic delegates at stake. arnie sanders will be in rally at 2:30 eastern and then at 7:45 eastern, hillary clinton
campaigns in detroit and that will also be live here on c-span. >> tonight on "the communicators is quote we will examine the tele-communications act with two of its chief officers. edward markey, who is on the subcommittee for information technology will discuss whether the act is outdated and should be rewritten. >> words like google and hulu and youtube were part of the culture today but they were impossible to be created before the act. we got a lot right. nothing is perfect, but one thing we did do was move not only our own country, but the world from analog to digital. away thewas to take byes of demarcation and unleashing the competitive forces, it created the investment needed to bring us to
this world today. >> watch "the communicators" tonight on c-span two. >> nancy reagan passed away on sunday at her home in bel air, california. she was 94. in 1999, she took c-span on a of the ronald reagan presidential library in simi valley, california. his is about one hour. -- this is about one hour.
>> for somebody who has not been to this library, how do you get here, where is it? mrs. reagan: it sits high on 100 acres. it is not too far from los angeles. we can leave our house and be here in 45 minutes. it is beautiful. everybody should come to see it. >> one of the things that struck me after being at the ranch was the winding roads, the hills. did you think about that? mrs. reagan: ronnie always liked to be high. shining city on the hill. our house in bellaire is high.
the ranch is high. this is high. that always appealed to him. he could never live in the valley. >> when you thought about this library, what was your objective? mrs. reagan: our objective was to have his legacy here. he wanted very much to have everything here so that people could see and read all of his papers and see the history of him and me, but mostly him. it is here for everybody. >> when you see the early years, what comes to mind? mrs. reagan: this is where ronnie was born. he was born above the store.
a small little room. he and his brother, there were very close in age, two years apart. and his mother and father. two years apart. and his mother and father. >> have you been there? mrs. reagan: yes. >> and over here? the eureka sweater. mrs. reagan: his mother and father, his brother. that is at school. >> grade school? mrs. reagan: yes. there is ronnie putting his hand up to his chin.
that little girl down there, he had a crush on that little girl. he asked me, which girl do you think i had a crush on? i said that one. he could not remember her name. >> when he was growing up in illinois, you grew up how far from the dixon area? mrs. reagan: i grew up in chicago. he loved those summers when he life guarded. he always said that he did not have to worry about money because he could not spend the money. he would go into the
early-morning and work until late at night. he never had a chance to spend the money. >> did you know his parents? mrs. reagan: i knew his mother. his father died very young, 58. it was before i knew ronnie. >> anything you see here from these early years, just holler. we're going over to the hollywood years. mrs. reagan: there has been so much talk about this movie. i thought the movie was funny. i thought it was cute. "bedtime for bonzo." >> what year was it? mrs. reagan: i do not know. >> what was his first year for acting? what was your first year? mrs. reagan: to ask me years is fatal. my first year was, had to be 49.
i had been in theater before in new york. >> what was it that got you interested in movies and acting? mrs. reagan: my mother was an actress. i had gone to college and graduated and had not found the man i wanted to marry. i did not want to sit in chicago and do nothing. i became an actress. >> any picture your favorite? mrs. reagan: this is our first visit to new york after we were married.
i was so excited. >> did he change from that day as he got older? mrs. reagan: never. ronnie stayed the same all the time. he never changed. >> how many movies? mrs. reagan: 11. >> did you act together? mrs. reagan: once. it was fun except there was a scene, he played a man in service and i played a navy nurse. there was a scene where he was supposed to be telling me goodbye. we had not been married too long. i took it all very seriously. i started to cry. they had to keep reshooting it.
>> there is a picture want to ask you about. you've got to president reagan here, jack benny, george burns -- did you know all these folks? mrs. reagan: i did not know al jolson. i knew jack benny, george burns, and ronald reagan. i did not know what this was. >> right over here -- mrs. reagan: this was a favorite picture of mine. clover cleveland. i love that picture. >> i want to ask you about this picture with president truman. mrs. reagan: he was a big fan of truman. >> are people surprised when they find out?
mrs. reagan: yes. >> what did he like about him? mrs. reagan: he thought he was strong and direct. he just liked him. >> were you interested in politics? mrs. reagan: i was not. i knew nothing about politics. >> were your mother and father political? mrs. reagan: not really. >> do you remember the first time you got interested? mrs. reagan: after i married ronnie. he was always involved in politics. he would always go out and campaigned for whoever. in those days, he would get in a car and drive to wherever the event was. never occurred to him to ask for gasoline money.
>> right behind you, pictures of your husband with a lot of leading ladies. is it hard to watch your spouse in some of these scenes? mrs. reagan: no. yes and no. no. he always talked about the actress who would get leading lady-itis. this is taking out our marriage license. >> how many years ago? mrs. reagan: 47. it will be 48 in march. >> let's move over to the inauguration years.
before we get there, let's go to the governor's time. the years you're in sacramento, what were they? mrs. reagan: eight years. they were wonderful years. they were wonderful and they were difficult because that was during the 1960's and berkeley and there were difficult years. pat brown wanted ronnie to win the primary because he thought he would be easiest to defeat. it turned out to not be so. >> these are the p.o.w. bracelets. that is lieutenant commander john mccain. >> when they first came back, we
had dinners for the first ones to arrive back. i had some wonderful presence they would give me. some brought me the tin cups they ate from or a package of cigarettes. to hear their stories, you cannot believe what they went through. unbelievable. he thought to yourself, you wondered if you would be in the same spot, if you could withstand that. i do not know. >> let's go on to the inauguration.
1981, you remember what you felt like standing there? mrs. reagan: an emotional moment for me. it was like we got married. i remember very little. i did not even remember when the man said i pronounced him man and wife. i wish we could run it all over again. can we do it all over again? >> do you feel the sense of the reins being passed on when you are standing there? mrs. reagan: i do not think it hits you until after the parade and you walked into the white house for the first time and then it hits you.
>> what kind of things would he talk about? at the beginning of all of this. was he excited about it? mrs. reagan: he was excited, yes, of course. the parade and seeing people, the groups that were in the parade. our friends all being there. they're only 39 people who had never done that. >> there is a button right over here that has to do with the hostages that day. mrs. reagan: yes. the hostages were released. he did not announce it until we went in for lunch because he
wanted them to get out of the iranian airspace. >> when did you know that was going to happen? mrs. reagan: we did not know until -- it was after the swearing-in. he could not announce it, did not want to announce it until they were out of iranian airspace. >> when people come to the library, is there one or two things they find to be their favorite? mrs. reagan: you would have to ask them. i think they are always curious about the berlin wall. the whole thing is so -- it is all here. everything in his life is here. it would be hard for me to say which one they would choose.
>> right over here is march 30, 1981. where were you when you heard the president was shot? mrs. reagan: i was at a luncheon, at an art gallery luncheon. for some reason, this never has happened to me before, and god willing will not happen to me again, i suddenly had the feeling i had to go. i do not know what it was. i had the feeling i had to get back to the white house. and i did. i went up to the solarium.
the head of my detail -- there was a ramp up to the solarium and he came to me and he beckoned to me to come down. he said there has been a shooting. by that time, i am on my way to the elevator. we went down, he has not been hurt. we got downstairs. i am going to the hospital and he said, it is not necessary. he has not been hurt. i said, george, either get the car or i'm going to walk. we got to the hospital.
there were police all around and a lot of noise and they put me in a small room. there was one desk and one chair. they kept saying, he is all right, but you cannot see him. if he is all right, why can't i see him? finally, they let me see him. he was lying there with a thing on his face to help him breathe.
he said, honey, i forgot to duck. >> did you talk about the danger that you face? mrs. reagan: we never thought about it. you do not think about that. maybe your husband might get sick, but you never think he will be shot. ever. >> you have the actual x-ray. what was the decision? mrs. reagan: the bullet ended up an inch or two from his heart. they could not find it. they would think they had it and it would slip away from them. by that time, they moved me up
to a room of the above. they kept telling me what was happening and the progress. we cannot seem to get it we might have to leave it in there. finally, this wonderful doctor who had been up all night found it and got it out. we almost lost him. >> we were at the ranch yesterday. one of the things that hit me comment talking to the secret service, any time you are at a
little house, there were 54 secret service members. it seems to me you would feel very funny. mrs. reagan: you were not aware of it at all. the house did not seem so little to us. it seemed wonderful to us. we did not want a great big house. we wanted to vacation, ronnie always liked to be outdoors. we made a lot of changes in the house. we replaced the porch. it was heaven for us. >> it can be very cold in that
practice of giving gifts between heads of state? mrs. reagan: it was very nice but for us, it was embarrassing because you were limited. i think it was $100. they gave us beautiful things and he felt a little self-conscious. >> did you get involved in giving the gifts yourself? yes. i don't remember. i just remember it was hard. >> what is this big photograph? mrs. reagan: it was an arrival ceremony.
there i was. yes, it was fun. >> did you do your own briefing to get up to speed on who they were? mrs. reagan: well, somebody. then after, normally, the man would go with ronnie to the oval office and women would go with me upstairs and have some coffee and sit and talk. interesting and wonderful. mrs. reagan: yes, i do. yes, i do. i did it because it was the
first time there had been a meeting between us. but then when we got over there, and the meeting started, the press could not get into the meeting, could not talk to my husband, and so they concentrated on the more than i thought was necessary. it was not really final what i had on or what she had on. important decisions to make there. >> when you look back on these days, what are positive moments you remember? what kinds of days are the most fun for you? mrs. reagan: when you are in the
white house, there are so many highs and lows. the lowest day was when ronnie was shot. that is an easy one. but it is hard to pick a day. >> you get tired? mrs. reagan: sure. i was doing the just say no program. you get tired. i was reading my diaries and i thought, how did i ever do all of this? i do not know how i did all that. >> did you write a diary every day? mrs. reagan: nighttime. sometimes, we would be so tired
that we would put it off until the next morning and rely on our memory. >> will that be public someday? did you write it as if the whole thing would be public? mrs. reagan: when you write it, i am not thinking about it being public. >> available for anyone to look at. we go from the gift area appeared any other gifts you want to mention? mrs. reagan: cincinnati, wonderful set. they are all -- >> you have more stored somewhere else? mrs. reagan: 100,000. can you imagine? you want everybody to see them
all. beautiful. >> when someone gives you a gift, is it yours or the people's gift? mrs. reagan: unless you want to buy it. there were a couple of things we bought. a cigarette box the queen and prince philip gave us when we celebrated our 30th wedding anniversary with them. on the top it says to mrs. reagan, on their anniversary, from queen elizabeth and prince phillips, it gives a date, the whole thing to you think, what would that mean to anyone but us? i do not remember.
i don't. >> we will go from peace to war. you have got a big missile here. i walk over this way. what is this doing here? mrs. reagan: this is the missile ronnie was so proud of. that he got rid of. >> when you are in the white house, did you all talk much about the military side of things? mrs. reagan: he did. i was aware of it, certainly. when he signed the treaty, i was very proud of him and he was
very proud of it. >> we will go next to the first lady. this is your area. the first lady area. mrs. reagan: these had heart problems and they could not operate on them in korea. i put them on the plane and brought them here. they were operating on and they recovered. there was a problem about, should they go back to korea or should they not? families wanted them to stay here because they could not support them. they had many children and and i have the money to support them. they are very happy.
>> how old are they now? at least 16. mrs. reagan: i saw them after the operation. they created quite a stir on the plane coming back here. >> adopted by american citizens? mrs. reagan: i imagine so. >> when you put together this area, what was your mission? mrs. reagan: to show what my life was like. this was a big turning point for me. >> for those who have never been at a gridiron dinner, what is it? mrs. reagan: held yearly in washington. a very select group of
journalists and important people in washington. the image that had been created about me, i do not know whether it was helen thomas or sharon that suggested i do this. they wanted me to make fun of the press and i said no, i will not make fun of the press. i will make fun of myself. which i did. ronnie did not know i would do this. he thought it was going to the restroom or something. i came out on the stage. he was so surprised. i was so nervous i thought i would die. it all came off well. i sang.
>> when you look back, what is your attitude about the press? mrs. reagan: i think they got to know me better. it is a learning process that goes on. >> are they too rough on people? mrs. reagan: i do not pretend to know about today. >> this is part of your life over here? mrs. reagan: i saved everything. everybody teased me about that. when it came time for the library, then. that is my wedding suit. >> where they your best friend back then?
mrs. reagan: yes. when did he die? mrs. reagan: oh gosh. >> a long time ago. mrs. reagan: he died alone, which is too bad. he fell and hit his head. nobody found him until the next day. >> her parents are here. right there. mrs. reagan: my wonderful mother and father. they seemed to be completely opposites. i guess they were. they broke the mold after they made my mother. my mother had the greatest sense of humor. my mother knew everybody in chicago.
she knew the taxi drivers, the doorman, and on up. she used to tell stories. my father was the first neurosurgeon in chicago. he was the complete opposite. each was what the other needed. >> how did they get along with the president? mrs. reagan: they were in love with him. i introduced them on the phone. pretty soon, the phone conversations became more ronnie and my mother then me and my mother or father. they were telling stories. you've got pictures on the walls here of your kids. two right here, michael.
mrs. reagan: yes. >> this picture at the ranch. what do you think of all of the press, all of the analysis of your family and your relationships? have they been hard to deal with? mrs. reagan: they will write what they will want to write. >> did you read it? mrs. reagan: not all the time. with my mother and father, i had a wonderful relationship that i'm very grateful i had. >> over here, something we were talking about yesterday, the canoe. what is the story of the canoe? mrs. reagan: you will laugh when i tell you. in today's world, it is so corny.
i always thought if someone wanted you to marry them, they took you up in a canoe and played a ukulele to you and you sat there and drag your hand in the water. that is pretty silly. but that is what i thought. for our 25th wedding anniversary, i was down by the lake and i see ronnie walking down the hill with his canoe that he had written in -- ridden in. and a wonderful man who is no longer with us. ronnie took me out in the canoe
and said, i have not got a ukulele, but i can hum. >> a picture of you sitting on the dock. mrs. reagan: he built that dock. >> what did you do up there? mrs. reagan: a lot of things. i just loved being there. i loved it. >> right in front of you, behind our camera, october, 1986 schedule of the white house. what is the reason for putting that there? mrs. reagan: to show how full the day was. >> did you have a schedule to
it was his doing i did not. he insisted that along the stage, there be a rough and some plants. the poor man who had set these chairs, on stage for us to sit. we had a discussion and sat on the end one. i went in first and the poor man who set up the chairs set this one chair close to the very edge of the stage. all i did was to turn mike this
to close my legs and i fell over. if it was not for him, i would have hurt myself. and ronnie, everybody rushed forward and said, i told you not to do that unless there was a problem. i said, i just thought we would live things up a little bit. >> what is the best training for a first lady? mrs. reagan: i do not know that there is any. even being first lady california for years, at the white house, it is different. >> a look at something not easy to talk about, the alzheimer's letter. when was that picture taken?
mrs. reagan: i don't know. i do not know why it was taken. when did you first notice the president was having a memory problem? >> i forget, you forget. don't you? he might not be able to remember somebody's name, but i cannot remember people's names. i did not notice anything. we went for a checkup in august of that year that he was diagnosed. >> this letter was written. is that the actual letter? november 5, 1994.
how did you decide to do that? mrs. reagan: we had always gone public. i had cancer, he had operations. thinking it would help people. we both went public with it. in each case, it did. he felt a very strongly about it. people were very embarrassed and self-conscious about alzheimer's. they did not know that it was a disease, like any other disease. there was an embarrassment about it. and there should not have been. now it is amazing how many
people come up and say to me their mother or father, someone in their family has alzheimer's. now they feel free to talk about it. he did a great thing. >> what have you learned? mrs. reagan: it is probably the worst disease you can never have. you lose contact and you are not able to share all those wonderful memories. we had a wonderful life. >> can you have a conversation? mrs. reagan: not now. >> the letter itself, what were the circumstances in which he wrote the letter?
>> the letter itself, what were the circumstances in which he wrote the letter? are you with him? nancy reagan: we were in the library, i was with him and we were in the library. he sat down and wrote it. that was it. >> first draft? nancy reagan: first draft. he crossed out one or two words in there. i think it was one or two. i don't know what that was. but only ronnie could write a letter like that. at some point after, the last
five years. mrs. reagan: he hasn't seen george in a long time. >> the question i want to ask you is -- letter is a the very nice, sweet letter. he is referring to ronnie's letter and how devastated he was to hear of his development. it's a very nice letter. as you go through this disease and you lose contact, how have you dealt with it when people come to visit and he doesn't recognize them. mrs. reagan: we don't have visitors. >> was it tough on you? mrs. reagan: we never let that happen. the other thing we learned about is you have been the caregiver. what do you tell people that are watching you as an example of this?
how do you do it from day to day? they say it's tougher on the caregiver. mrs. reagan: it is. yes, it is tougher. that he would do the same thing for me. i know that. i'm not the only person. many many people out there are caregivers. watchery difficult to somebody you love. mrs. reagan: what kind of shape -- >> what kind of shape as the president in now? mrs. reagan: john was referring year.o another he doesn't go for walks. he doesn't swim anymore. those were things that john was
talking about. john did come to see him last august i think it was. they were going to a baseball game. i think ronnie recognized him. he doesn't do any of those other things john is talking about. >> what have you learned about dealing with illness? how did you deal with it when it was in the white house itself? you have a technique or advice you can give others? mrs. reagan: you just do it. you take each day as it comes. you put one foot in front of the other. i don't know. you love. our trip is the oval office. there, pointed you
build in oval office? havereagan: he wanted to hit the exact size of his office. everything that was in his office he wanted in this office. they've done it. >> let's take a look. mrs. reagan, what do you think the traction -- attraction is in this country to the oval office. so few people see it. people can take a tour through the white house, but they don't get to the oval office. this is an exact replica. everything that ronnie had, the ,ictures, the saddles , this is thehe rug rug that we had. everything is the same. >> is this the exact rug?
mrs. reagan: the exact rug. this is the dust that john kennedy had been -- had. desk?this the exact mrs. reagan: it's a copy. >> how often did you come to the overall office -- oval office? mrs. reagan: only when i asked. >> did the two of you ever sit in the oval office and talk? no. reagan: that was his business. when he was through in the oval office, he came home. would heime of day normally get back? every day was a little different. around 6:00.
when he was president, we used to do programs with him and 45 high school students. he did them when he was governor and did them with c-span in the white house. one time we came back to the family quarters. did you ever see that? the reason i bring it up, it i amd like he was saying going to call that colin show. he watch much information television? oh sure, when we had an evening free. we had dinner entrees in the library and watched television. >> did you follow the news much? mrs. reagan: yes. to you when it do
you see yourself on television like that all the time? is it a good idea to watch yourself? mrs. reagan: i thought so. ronnie was serious about how something was covered. >> sometimes they say it's not to get mad. he was serious. >> there is a tiny plaque that you hear a lot about on that desk. i'm going to read it. there is no limit to what a man can do or where he can go if he doesn't mind who gets the credit. that was in sacramento. he had that on his desk in sacramento. he firmly believes that. it didn't matter to him who took the credit. ever. did you follow the sign?
did you feel the same? mrs. reagan: i was with the drug program. >> looking back on the drug program, did it work? mrs. reagan: yes. it did. i am sorry that it didn't continue. it was a good program. no, a lot of people that was handed to me by an agency or something. it happened by accident. oakland a school in talking to fifth-graders. one little girl raised her hand , mrs. reagan what do you do when somebody offers you drugs? well, just say no. it became a rallying point.
that wasn't the whole answer. it was good. it got the attention. the expression is used today. >> how do you think president reagan is doing today in history? he's doing: i think very well. i think a lot of people are taking another look at him. things that they didn't see before perhaps. i think he is doing very well. >> what did you think of the book "dutch." i was disappointed. i am not going to get into that. >> looking back on that
experience, would you advise anybody in the future to have somebody come in the middle of an administration like that as a biographer? mrs. reagan: i'm sure it can be useful. it depends. >> what is there to be written from what you know of what's available here? mrs. reagan: there are a lot of books as i understand it he written about ronnie. until thiseld back book came out. there are a lot that are in the process of being written. ronnie's book that he wrote is a very good book called "an american life" is being
reissued. i know of two or three other people who are writing books about him. what do you want your own history to say? i would like them to talk about the drug program. that was probably my finest hour. the fact that i tried to make the white house more livable and attractive and fix it up. : if you takeion ,or granted you spent your life do you agree that's something
you did a lot of? how hard is that to do? how did you do it? i think i had little antennas that went up and told me when somebody had the wrong agenda and not ronnie's agenda. i would tell them. he didn't always agree with me, but i would tell him. what was the first thing you70 had their own agenda? you just know. >> thank you. mrs. reagan: you're welcome.
>> at the white house today, president obama ordered the flags flown until half-staff until nancy reagan is buried. piece ofthat it is a respect for nancy reagan. the president order applies not only to the white house to all federal government holdings, military facilities, and u.s. embassies abroad. c-span takes you on the road to the white house. we talked to the candidates on c-span, c-span radio.
>> we have more road to the white house coverage coming up today. michigan's primary is tomorrow and there are 147 delegates at stake. bernie sanders will be in dearborn, michigan. it you will be able to watch that live on c-span. hillary clinton is campaigning in detroit. that is live here on c-span. >> this week, robert kaplan. he discusses his book, "in europe's shadow: two cold wars and a thirty-year journey through romania and beyond."
brian: robert kaplan and your new book -- you started by talking about books. why? robert: i think the ultimate goal of travel is to create a geography. beautiful landscapes and treating landscapes of you do to books about them to explain their past. those books be due to other books. often very obscure ones. we travel to learn and we can only learn by reading. the relationship between travel and good books is inextricable. brian: why a book about romania? robert: i have had a third of a century long obsession with romania because it is where essentially i started my professional life. where i realized i was finally doing what i wanted.
brian: 1973? robert: my first visit was in 1973 as a backpack after college. i stayed in youth hostels from east germany down to bulgaria. that journey taught me that all these countries were the same. what i found in 1973 was at they were all extremely different from each other because even communism could not erase their ethnic histories, geographies, cultures. that trip did not really start my session with romania. that happened later. it happened in 1981. in the fall. i was getting out of the israeli defense forces. i was in jerusalem. i found a book, a seemingly
obscure book by a canadian author and expert on central and eastern europe. he talked about all of the countries of the region the way i had experienced it. an idea came into my mind that i would travel through central and eastern europe but israel only had direct flights to bucharest, the capital of romania. that was the only country it had diplomatic relations with. i bought a one-way ticket. i had little money. i had a few phone numbers. i left for the black-and-white engraving of november. i did it because in the middle east, there were hundreds upon hundreds of journalists all
covering the same story, which was the subsidiary of the cold war. when i got to romania, there were no journalists covering the main story of the second half of the 20th century, which was the cold war itself. brian: i have to ask you about being a member of the israeli defense force. you were not born in israel. how long were you in? robert: i travel through the middle east in the 1970's. i arrived in israel with little money. i liked the country immensely. i stayed. i was drafted into the military but over time, i did not -- my liking for israel did not dissipate but i did not want to spend my life there. i had wanderlust. i wanted to see other things. brian: what did you do? robert: nothing particularly interesting. for one year. brian: the fact that you are
jewish means you can serve automatically? robert: yes. i left in 1981. later, i renounced my citizenship in order to serve in government. brian: in the united states. where were you born? robert: new york city, 1952. brian: you were here for book notes in 1996. i want to run a clip from that and see what you think about your prediction back then. [begin video clip] >> for most of the people in the world, things have gradually been getting better. one of the messages of this book is that a critical mass of third world inhabitants, things are going to get tumultuous environment over the next 20-30 years.
a long-range future may be dry but the next 20-30 years and a significant part of the globe may be very bloody. it is not because of poverty so much. people do not go to war because they are poor. these places are rapidly changing and developing and developing is always violent and uneven and painful and cruel. [end video clip] brian: how did you do? robert: i think i did fairly well. i like the way i look then better than now. a journalists cannot predict the near-term future. silly decisions are made and it is figuring world wind of human passion and individual action. journalists cannot predict the long-range future because who knows what the world will be and 50-70 five years? the best in journalist can do is to make us a bit less surprised and shocked by what is going to happen in the near term.
in the middle term future -- i should say. five years. if a news story or a book makes you a bit less surprised about development in a given country 5-10 years out that is the best a journalist can do. brian: you told us to had been to 75 countries. how many more since then? robert: i have stopped counting, i have stopped counting but i never really covered latin america much. never really covered many of the pacific islands much. there are places i have never been. i have never been to st. petersburg. there are other places. there are holes. what you travel alone? brian: robert: you want to be face-to-face with the landscape
you do not want your ideas and reactions condition by somebody with you. because once somebody is with you you will enter into a relationship with them and that will act as a block to the landscape your do you do not want to have your ideas and opinions conditioned by others however, you cannot completely travel alone. often you need a translator, someone to make arrangements for you especially as i get older. but the idea, the goal is to be as abundant as you possibly can. brian: 1973 you are in romania. robert: i stayed 10 days and those with a 10 days that changed me. made me think differently about a lot of things. from there i went to bulgaria, kosovo, which was then part of
yugoslavia. i went to the kosovo, serbian, and croatian parts of yugoslavia, into hungry, into czechoslovakia and east germany. brian: how many times have you been there since? robert: i went back to romania in 1982, 1983, 1984. after 1984i published an essay in the new republic called romanian gymnastics, why it is like stalin's russia. i was no longer even a visa after that. so i did not go back until 1990, four months after the 1989 revolution.
i spent two months in the country in 1990. then i was back for another month in 1998 for another book. then i went back for an extended visit in 2013. i made four extended visits in 2013 and 2014. brian: i want to run some video from 1989. we will have you explain what this is. [begin video clip] [crowd chanting] [speaking foreign language] [crowd chanting]
[end video clip] brian: who was he? robert: nicolae ceau?escu had been in power since 1965. he replaced the previous dictator. the previous dictator brought stalinism to romania. he was a brutal tyrant. what nicolae ceau?escu did was to add the north korean element to romanian stalinism in terms of the pageantry, the personality called.
went to north korea and most people were shocked -- but they were impressed. they said, we can do this in romania. that was the moment when the crowd turned against the dictator and the facade of dictatorship collapsed and from then on, a helicopter took him from the top of that building to an area north of bucharest. it was there a few days later where he was executed. brian: and his wife? robert: his wife was executed. the decision was made by several reform communists who were fallen into disfavor. among them was a man who had worked for -- a stalinist in his
youth, who worked for nicolae ceau?escu until 1987. talked to him about the decision to have him executed. he told me, we decided that they both had to be executed or else they could have gathered the security and intelligence around them and we might have had bloodshed going on for months. we had to stop the chaos. then i asked a naive question, did you have to execute her? and he looked at me like i was a fool and he said he was almost more important to execute her then to execute him. brian: what impact did that assassination have on romania? robert: it called things down.
people knew that they had turned a corner. the violence stopped. order was restored under officially a democracy but in fact it was reform communist who took power. they ruled in what you would call officially a democracy that really a gorbachev-style reformed communism until the mid-1990's when full democracy finally came to romania. brian: in the middle of your writing this book, there had been major corruption trials. some people say it was the most corruption in the world. explain that. robert: it is a good thing that it is being exposed. romania was endemically corrupt. this is nothing new. the romanian population has grown up and become more sophisticated and is demanding clean government.
it is its number one demand. klaus iohannis was elected on the pledge that i will move closer to the west and i would develop clean institutions as humanly possible. brian: who had they been trying and convicting? what kind of people? robert: often people in business. i am not sure about the exact people but basically, what was going on is a lesson is the old way of doing things will no longer work because we are going after you. brian: when did you finish this book? robert: i finished at the end of 2014 which was about 15 months ago. brian: what you want somebody wandering in a bookstore seeing your book to know about this book? why you would read it if you don't know anything about
romania? robert: it is a deep vertical dive. so many of my former books were horizontal studies. here, i look at one country in death and i use it to explore great themes, the holocaust, the cold war, the challenge of vladimir putin. romanian speaking moldova have a longer border with ukraine and poland. the challenge and also about empire, the cause is where the austro-hungarian -- the habsburg empire overlapped with czars to russian empires, the soviet empire, the turkish empire, the byzantine empire. to study romania is to study the legacy of empires.