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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  April 15, 2016 5:00pm-7:01pm EDT

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but really, it is not about the specific officials, it is about ur country in general. a country that will not toe the line for them, for the west. the country that refuses to bend down. but if our if our counterparts are prepared to treat us with respect, then we're always willing to come halfway to meet them and find a solution that will benefit and satisfy both parties. that is the only way to deal with this as an equal partner. >> who is worse, clinton or trump? for russia? president putin: we need to look for the best options. i can only respond in the same
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way that i answered the previous question. in our history of our bilateral relations with the u.s., there were moments when we worked closely side by side and we had very good results, both bilaterally and internationally. today we also have successful cases of such cooperation and collaboration. ranging from countering terrorism, addressing the iranian nuclear issue, the syrian chemical weapons combating terrorism in general, and there are many other examples. but our counterparts, like i said, it's not really about the specific leaders in the united states, but it's about the false premise of their ex clues ivity, of their special status that they presume and some special rights that they think
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they have. this is a basic mistake. we should look at the bottom line and they should not proceed from the premise of the imperial ambition and from a position of power. they must show respect in treating all of their international partners, including russia, without that a political relationship would .e impossible [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] >> our live coverage of the presidential race continues tuesday night for the new york state primary. join us at 9:00 eastern for election results, canleds date speeches and viewer reaction. taking you on the road to the white house on c-span, c-span radio and f. >> in the u.s. presidential campaign, donald trump wrote an op-ed published in the "wall street journal" on the delegate system. he writes, colorado voters were sidelined because the primary elections were there canceled. "politico" reported on the op-ed saying that donald trump also believes the delegate
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process is part of the same system that has, quote, rigged trade, economic and immigration policies that work against americans. the republican party responded sending out a memo from r.n.c. chief strategist saying, as a party they believe in the freedom of the states to make decisions on how they select delegates to the national convention. >> we'll hear detectly -- we'll hear directly from donald trump tonight at a rally in hartford, connecticut. that starting at 7:00 eastern time here on c-span. >> madam secretary! we proudly give 72 of our delegate votes to the next president of the united states.
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>> this month we showcase our student cam winners. c-span's annual video documentary competition for middle and high school students. this year's theme is road to the white house. and students were asked, what issues do you want presidential candidates to discuss? one of our second prize high school central winners is from chardon, ohio. a 12nd grader wants presidential candidates to discuss college affordability and alternatives to postsecondary education in his video, "the big decision."
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>> hey, my name's andrew. i'm a high school senior, so next year i'm going to college. i want the truth about college, but everyone has an opinion. a professor might say, you need a degree to be successful. or a friend might say, besides the partying and lack of adult supervision, why bother going into such deep, deep debt? to hear one answer to that question, i spoke with chandler, a soon to be freshman majoring in business and marketing at mercy hearst university. >> our society tells us that in order to get a good, well-paying jobs and be supportive with your family or what not, you have to go to college. >> and this is tori martin. instead of earning a traditional degree, she's moving to the big apple next year to pursue a career in cosmetology. tori still believes college is necessary for some fields.
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>> because i wouldn't want someone being my doctor and not knowing what they should be doing. >> but shockingly, more than half of today's degree holders are working jobs that don't actually require a degree. when asked about why she chose college, kendra, a 20-year-old dropout who financed her education by camming online, simply points her finger to following the crowd. >> i was always told what you're supposed to do after high school. and that it doesn't matter if you don't know what you want to do because you'll find out there. >> so if some students haven't yet decided their major, why are they willing to fork over so much dough? jeffrey is a director at the foundation for economic education in atlanta, georgia. he argues that parents are willing to take the financial risk for the opportunities provided by a degree. >> if that's going to be the decisive difference between whether their sons and daughter's lives are successful or not successful, they're
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going to take the risk. and pay the bill. >>istically the cost of public and private universities over the past 20 years is nearly -- has nearly doubled, even adjusting for inflation. >> when i went to college it was much cheaper. you could work your way through which i in fact did. that's inconceivable today. >> other students, like this senior, are choosing a different route. billy is taking a gap year between high school and college to hike the appalachian trail so that he can -- >> find out who i want to be. be in my own head, aside from outside influences for six months. and maybe i'll know. >> you've got to jump off the conveyer belt at some point. and the educational system is very much a conveyer belt that just kind of moves from you one stage to the next. >> isaac jumped off the conveyer belt at age 29. founding an online business apprenticeship program for young people called craxis. >> i think people are looking at it because they're bored and in cinder block cells all day with fluorescent lights,
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memorizing facts. and they want to get out and experience real life. >> college counselor rachel adds that entering the work force straight out of high school can help students develop their soft skills. >> you're going to learn about punctuality and timeliness and connecting with others and professionalism and those kinds of things that can't really be taught. you have to learn them straight away. >> another promising alternative to college is attending a trade school and working within the fields of stem. meaning science, technology, engineering and math. these jobs are expected to grow about 13% by 2022, which is why ohio representative joyce told me -- >> it's critical to invest in stem education and encourage students to pursue a field in hose fields so they can have a successful career. >> many reason students don't attend college is due to cost. but why is tuition so expensive to begin with? rachel is the author of "smart money, smart kids" and the daughter of financial radio host dave ramsey.
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she believes the cost of college is simply a matter of supply and demand. >> your choices are limited. there's only so many colleges you can go to. because of that, competition is fierce. they're going to raise prices. >> once you decide you've got to have a degree, it's a little bit like you have to drive across town. you're going to pay whatever is necessary to get the tank of gas. that's how it is with college. >> paul anderson a high school science teacher from montana. mr. anderson worries that some students and parents think that -- >> you know, everything has a value and i have to retrieve a certain amount of investment. the not a great way to look at education in general. >> but colleges no longer just is an educational experience. with universities locked in an amenities arms race over luxury apartments, lazy rivers and lobster dinners, the cost is only continuing to rise. because of this, presidential candidate bernie sanders is proposing the government make tuition free at public universities. >> it is counterproductive to
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the best interests of our country that hundreds of thousands of bright young people cannot afford to go to college and that millions of others leave school with a mountain of debt that burdens them for decades. >> everyone should definitely have access to education. >> i think the country spends so much on different things that are definitely not as important. by focusing on college, which can help improve all of us at home, it will be much more worthwhile in the long run. >> not everyone, however, agrees with senator sanders' tuition-free plan. >> in my personal opinion, i believe that college is a privilege. it is not an entitlement. just because you breathe air doesn't mean that you get free college, in my opinion. >> all colleges would be packed and you wouldn't get that kind of one-on-one experience with the teacher because the class would be completely full. >> so ultimately, as college a valuable investment in the future of america's youth or an
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unnecessary step for economic success? >> it's a difficult question to answer because it's truly dependent on each human being. and what they want out of life. >> if you decide what you absolutely love requires college, that it's the best or only way to get there, then by all means, do it. but then you're an informed customer and you know why you're there. >> do whatever the heck you want to do, no matter what it is, no matter what anyone says, no matter how crazy it seems. follow your dreams and at the end, if it doesn't work out, at least you can say that you tried your hardest. and no one can tell you that you didn't. >> to watch all of the prize winning documentaries in this year's student cam competition, isit >> president obama hosted the white house science fair this week saying, it's one of his favorite annual events. the white house recognized students for their wins in science, technology, engineering and math competitions from across the
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country. president obama made remarks and then took a tour of the science fair. president obama: hello, everybody. welcome to the white house. there are a lot of good things about being president. i get a chance to travel all across the country and meet people and see all the amazing things that are being done; being commander-in-chief of the greatest military the world has ever known and seeing the incredible service of our men and women in uniform -- air force one is very cool. [laughter] i dont have to take off my shoes before i get on an airplane.
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but some of the best moments hat ive had as president have involved science and our annual science fair. i mean, i have shot a marshmallow out of a cannon directly under lincolns portrait. ive learned about prototypes from 6-year-old girl scouts who built a page-turning machine out of legos for people who might be disabled -- there they are. ood to see you guys. i should add, by the way, that i took a picture with them with one of their tiaras on, which i think is still floating around the internet. most importantly, ive just been able to see the unbelievable ingenuity and assion and curiosity and brain
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power of americas next generation, and all the cool things that they do. ive also, by the way, had a chance to see an alarming number of robots. [laughter] none have caused me any harm up until now. theyve startled me a little bit. i understand today that we have a live chicken here, which im sure the white house staff is thrilled about. [laughter] but this is fun. more importantly, it speaks to what makes america the greatest country on earth. i want to publicly thank some of the people who helped make today possible. also because i want you to know who to blame if something explodes. weve got some members of congress in the house who have been highly supportive of all our science and basic research efforts. weve got my science advisor,
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john holdren, who is here. give john a big round of applause. [applause] we have my chief technology officer megan smith in the house. [applause] we have some guests who are eally helping to lift up the importance of science, like -- this is not a typical combination -- supermodel and super coder karlie kloss is here. [applause] weve got actress and science enthusiast yara shahidi. there she is. good to see you. [applause] weve got xkcd comic creator randall munroe is here. give him a big round of applause. [applause]
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were joined by some of the past participants of our science fairs, including elana simon, who studied her own cancer and started coming up with some cures. i remember meeting you last year. how is harvard going? so far, so good? she was a senior last year, ust started. so this is an eclectic and diverse bunch. but what they all share is this love of science and love of technology, and a belief that our youngest innovators can change the world. and theres nothing that makes me more hopeful about the future than seeing young people like the ones who are here -- and they come from all over the country, they come in all hapes and sizes. all of you are showing the rest of us that its never too early in life to make a difference. you teach us about the power of reason and logic, and trying things and figuring out whether
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they work, and if they dont, learning from that and trying something new. and you remind us that, together, through science, we can tackle some of the biggest challenges that we face. whether youre fighting cancer or combating climate change, feeding the world, writing code that leads to social change, you are sharing in this essential spirit of discovery hat america is built on. john holdren helpfully reminded me that today happens to be the 273rd birthday of thomas jefferson. and thomas jefferson was obviously a pretty good writer. the declaration of independence turned out pretty well. he was a great political thinker and a great president. but he was also a scientist.
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and that was true of most of our founders -- they were children of the enlightenment. they had come of age when all the old dogmas were being challenged. and they had this incredible faith, this belief in the human mind, and our ability to figure stuff out. and whether it was benjamin franklin or thomas jefferson, or all the others who were nvolved in the founding of our country, one of the essential elements that is embedded in our constitution and the design of this democracy is this belief that the power of the human brain, when applied to the world us, can do amazing, remarkable things. and it also requires, as we're seeing from these outstanding
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teams, not just constant inquiry, but also strong teamwork and dogged perseverance. nd by following the trail of your curiosity wherever it takes you, you are continually adding to this body of knowledge that helps make us a more secure, more prosperous, and more hopeful society. science has always been the hallmark of american progress. its the key to our economic success. i cant think of a more exciting time for american science than right now, because we are busy reigniting that spirit of innovation to meet so many challenges. just give you a couple examples. were on the cusp of a new era of medicine that accounts for peoples individual genes. and ive been doing a lot of work with francis collins, the head of n.i.h., around how we take the human genome that we've mapped, in part thanks to the good work of francis and others, so that we are able to
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not just cure diseases generally, but figure out what exactly do you in your particular body need in order to keep it running well. were harnessing technology to develop cleaner sources of energy, and save our planet in the process. were unraveling the mysteries of the human brain, unlocking secrets of the universe. in fact, just last month, commander scott kelly returned from an almost a year-long stay on the international space station. some of you may have read about that. he conducted countless experiments, and he also served as an experiment himself. his identical twin brother, mark, who is an astronaut, as well -- mark stayed home during this entire time that scott was up in the air, and that meant that nasa could study the two of them side by side to gain insights into how a long-term occupation in space changes your body and your operating systems.
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it turned out, initially, it makes you two inches taller. but i saw mark just two weekends ago. apparently you shrink back really quickly. it makes your head bigger too. [laughter] but i don't know how big. america has also got a selfie-taking rover thats instagramming from mars. the international space station just got its first inflatable abitat for astronauts. spacex, on the commercial, private venture side of space, just landed a returning rocket on a drone ship in the middle of the ocean. and that's opening up the possibility of reusing our rockets instead of just throwing them away once they have launched. so the progress were seeing across the board is extraordinary, and its just the beginning. the rest is going to be up to you, the next generation.
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somewhere in your generation, maybe in this room, are pioneers who are going to be the first to set their foot on mars -- the first humans, anyway. i don't know about other life forms. and i know what youre capable of because i just had a chance to see some of the exhibits, and we had some of the press pool follow. if you were not blown away from some of the young people that we just had a chance to meet, then you had too big of a lunch and you were falling asleep, because if you were paying attention it was unbelievable. weve got maya varma, who is a senior from san jose, california. where is maya? yay, theres maya. maya is using a low-cost microcontroller, software freely available on the internet, and a smartphone, and she designed a tool that allows people with asthma and other lung diseases to diagnose and monitor their own symptoms. so her goal was to use smartphone technology to make diagnostic tests for all kinds
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of diseases a lot cheaper. my aspiration is not only to create the next big thing in my field one day, maya says, but also to make it accessible to more than a privileged few in the world. so give maya a big round of applause. [applause] i do have to say -- this is just an aside -- the only problem with the science fair is it makes me feel a little inadequate. [laughter] because i think back to my high school, and, first of all, i didn't have a field. maya talked about her field. i don't know exactly what my field of study was at that time, but it wasnt that. we also have 9-year-old jacob leggette from baltimore. where is jacob? there you go, in the bowtie. [applause]
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so jacob loved programming ever since the age of 2 when he nearly wiped clean his grandmas computer -- which im sure she was thrilled with. but dont worry, jacob fixed it. last summer, this young maker wrote to a company that anufacturers 3-d printers, asked them if he could have one of the 3-d printers in exchange for feedback on whether their printers are kid-friendly. so clearly hes a good negotiator and business person. and today, jacob is churning out toys and games for himself and his little sister, and he dreams one day of making artificial organs for people. i should add, by the way, jacob, john, had a very good idea, which is that we should have -- in addition to our pcast, which is my science advisory group, all these scientists and leaders in various fields, we should have a kids advisory group that starts explaining to us whats interesting to them and whats
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working, and could help us shape advances in stem education. anyway, that was jacobs idea. so way to go, jacob. we're going to follow up on that. give jacob a round of applause. [applause] we have 16-year-old anarudh ganesan. where is anarudh? there he is, right there. [applause] so when anarudh was little, his grandparents walked him 10 miles to a remote clinic in his native india for vaccinations, only to find out that the vaccines had spoiled in the heat. though he eventually got the shots that he needed, he thought, well, this is a problem, and wanted to prevent other children from facing the same risk. so he developed what he calls the vaxxwagon, and its a refrigerator on wheels that transports vaccines to remote destinations. that's the kind of innovation
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and compassion that we're seeing from so many of these young people. so give anarudh a big round of applause. [applause] and we have olivia hallisey, a high school senior from greenwich, connecticut. where is olivia? there she is. hi, olivia. now, think about this -- so olivia swept the google science fair. she read about the ebola epidemic in the news. she decides, i want to make a faster, less-expensive test for the disease, as opposed to a lot of adults who were just thinking, how do i avoid getting ebola? [laughter] she decides, well, im going to fix this. so she wants a faster, less-expensive test. an old test cost $1,000, took up to 12 hours to conduct.
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using silk as a base instead, olivia made the test cost $5, without requiring refrigeration, with results that are available in under 30 minutes. what were you doing in high school? [laughter] give olivia a big round of pplause. [applause] so this is just a small sample of the incredible talent that is on display at this science fair. and we couldnt be prouder. to all the students, to all the young people, we could not be prouder of you. i want to thank the parents and the teachers and mentors who stood behind these young people, encouraged them to pursue their dreams. i asked all the young people ho i had a chance to meet, how did you get interested in this? and there were a couple whose
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parents were in the sciences, but for the majority of them, there was a teacher, a mentor, a program, something that just got them hooked. and its a reminder that science is not something that is out of reach, its not just for the few, its for the many, as long as its something that we're weaving into our curriculum and its something that we're valuing as a society. and so i hope that every company and every college and every community and every parent and every teacher joins us in encouraging this next eneration of students to actively engage and pursue science and push the boundaries of whats possible. weve got to give all of our young people the tools that they need to explore and discover, and to dig their hands in stuff, and experiment,
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and invent, and uncover something new, and try things, and see hypotheses or experiments fail, and then learn how to extract some knowledge from things that didn't work as well as things that worked. that's another theme that came out of a lot of the conversations i had with young people. and thats why were building on our efforts to bring hands-on computer science learning, for example, to all students. as ive said before, in the new economy, computer science isnt optional, its a basic skill, along with the three rs. so were issuing new guidance to school districts for how they can better support computer science education. oracle will invest in getting 125,000 more students into computer science classes. give oracle a big round of applause for that. we appreciate that. [applause] weve got more than 500 schools that are committing to expand access to computer science. and this is just a sample of the things that we've been putting together over the last several years to try to expand opportunity for the kind of brilliant work that's being
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done by these students. and were seeing entire states take action. for example, last month, rhode island got on a path to bring computer science to every school within two years. so were going to build on this progress. we want to make sure every single one of our students no matter where theyre from, what income their parents bring in, regardless of their backgrounds -- we want to make sure that theyve got access to hands-on science, technology, engineering, and math education thats going to set them up for success and keep our nation competitive in the 21st century. that includes, by the way, working through some of the structural biases that exist in science. some of them -- a lot of them are unconscious. but the fact is, is that we've got to get more of our young women and minorities into science and technology, engineering and math, and computer science. ive been really pleased to see the number of young women who
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have gotten more and more involved in our science fairs over the course of these last several years. and as i said to a group that i had a chance to meet with outside, we're not going to succeed if we got half the team on the bench, especially when its the smarter half of the eam. [laughter] our diversity is a strength. and we've got to leverage all of our talent in order to make ourselves as creative and solve as many problems as we can be. and one of the things i find so inspiring about these young thinkers and makers is that they look at all these seemingly intractable problems as something that we can solve. there is a confidence when you are pursuing science. they don't consider age a barrier. they don't think, well, that's just the way things are. they're not afraid to try things and ask tough questions. and above all, what weve seen today is that they feel an obligation to use their gifts
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to do something not just for themselves but for other people as well. olivia said after she was working on this ebola diagnostic tool, my generation has been raised with an awareness that we're part of a global community. its everybodys responsibility to take a proactive approach and think of solutions. she is right. i want you to call up congress and tell them your thinking on that. [laughter] that was just a joke. maybe not. [laughter] [laughter] but its all up to us to work together with our youngest talent leading the way. a century ago, albert einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves. this year, a team of scientists finally proved him right. this was very cool, by the way. i don't know -- those of you guys who had a chance to read about this -- the way they measured it was the building
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got a little longer. the building that -- from which they were measuring this gravitational wave grew, like, little bit. [laughter] and then it kind of shrank back, which is really weird and really interesting. [laughter] and thats the thing about science -- you dont always cross the finish line yourself. you may have a hypothesis, a theory, and then people build off of it, and its like youre running a race and youre passing a baton. everything that were working with today is based on some young person like you 10 years ago, 50 years ago, 100 or 300 years ago, who were asking themselves the same question. and while even einstein didnt
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see all the fruits of his labor, because he went as far as his curiosity and hard work would take him, generations of scientists continue to build on his progress. so thats what were going to need from all of you. we are counting on all of you to help build a brighter future, and for you to use your talents to help your communities and your country and the world. we will be with you every step of the way. and i will be keenly following your progress so that when you invent some cancer cure or find some new source of cheap, clean energy, i will take some of the credit. [laughter] ill say, if it hadnt been for the white house science fair, who knows what might have happened -- even though it wont really be my credit to take. so im just teasing, guys. thank you very much, everybody. proud of you. good job. [applause]
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[captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] [captions copyright national able satellite corp. 2016] president obama: keep it up. you guys don't have to be quiet here on out. good to see you guys. keep it up. thank you. proud of you. thank you. thank you. thank you. good to see you. thank you. thank you. >> thank you. >> thank you. president obama: all right. see ya.
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president obama: hello, everybody. how are you? what's your name? >> i'm haba -- hanna. i'm from boca are a to en, florida. president obama: it's wonderful to see you. first of all, you should know that this is one of my favorite things. i love my science fares. seeing all the exhibits. what frayed are you in? >> ninth grade. president obama: so a freshman. what do we have here? i see a robot and a big display. >> i created several differents i rates -- iterations of an ocean energy propose type to provide stable access to
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electricity. president obama: when did you start pen paling? >> i was in fourth grade when we first started exchanging letters but i received these news letters when i was in seventh grade andtarted my research. president obama: that's great. so the idea was, he lives in a village where a where there's not consistent electric -- electricityity which is true in much of sub-saharan africa. you thought, maybe this is something i can figure out. what did did you figure out? >> i created three different prototypes. it's hand held. i found that it generated quite a bit of electricity. however, i realized that it wasn't exactly practical for ru's situation because she is she need as primary source of power and holding electricity isn't really practical. so instead of supplying it to her i'm working to develop kits to cultivate stem learning here in the united states. these are going to classrooms arm the nation. president obama: there you go.
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so a byproduct. this wasn't ideal for ru but you figured out a good way to use it anyway. >> then i went on to develop 2.0. and this is the final iteration of the 2.0 and you would attach a rope to this product and then hold it or tie it to a tree and it would generate electricity for you. president obama: scribe for me the science -- describe for me the science in which electricity is generated. water is flowing through sneer >> no. these are sealed off. they're used as buoyancy president obama: this is just keeping it afloat. and this is a classic water wheel. >> yes. attached to an a.c. generator. a.c. is alternating currents. the electrons are arranged in a cloud and they're changing orientation several times per second. i needed to take that crazy cloud and convert is into direct current which is a straight line of electron -- electrons and in order to do that i installed an electrifier which is that block box in there and that has transsifters
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inside which takes the electrons into d.c. president obama: have we tested this? >> yes, sir, and this demonstration -- this string is energy. if would you do me the honor. president obama: you want me to pull this. >> we can watch those lights light up. president obama: slowly or fast? >> kind of hard. now we can watch those lights light up as a result of power exchanges. president obama: so the string simulates the movement of water. >> yes, sir. president obama: and we can see that the lights lit up. >> in the future i'm going to replace those lights with batteries so ru can have charged batteries to study by at night or use for medical supplies, generate freshwater. anything you can imagine. president obama: excellent. now, have you always been a science buff? >> no. in seventh grade my parents dropped me off at this summer engineering catch and at first i didn't want to be there. president obama: you weren't into it at all. >>. no i was the only girl in the program. i got there and i didn't really want to be there. but after just a few days of
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building robots i was really interested in science and then it led to this. president obama: it turns out you have a gift. >> thank you. president obama: one of the lessons we can learn from this, in addition to our basic energy science, is sometimes your parents know what they're talking about. >> yes, sir. president obama: i've been trying to explain this to malia and sasha for quite some time. even if you don't initially think we have a good idea, it might turn out fine. >> yes. president obama: we're so proud of you. where's pete? let's get a good picture. congratulations. we're going to have a lot of work to do in trying to come up with clean energy sources. what state are you from? >> kentucky. president obama: louisville? >> yes. president obama: excellent. what do we have here? first of all, actually what year are you in school? >> a senior in high school. president obama: and what have we got? >> hi, mr. president. i did this project back in nye appreciateman year.
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the space around my school was in the top 2% of worst air in the country. proin president obama: that's not good. >> no. it signaled to me that my community was facing an environmental problem and that's when i started researching environmental pollutants. so i selected the pollutant because it's produced through cigarette smoke, car exhaust fumes and smoke released from factories, especially those involved in the plastic industry. i focused on how it affected our kidneys. one of the kidney's main roles is to filter out toxins from our body. in my research i saw that it is modifying the he can special of this protein differently within the cell versus outside the cell and that was causing the development of kidney fibrosis which is scar tissue in the kidney that impedes function and inflammation. once i identified the problem, i devised a two-pronged treatment approach in which we can correct for these affects. so, using small molecules or gene therapy, i would increase it within the cell and that blocksify bro sills. for the second prong i'd use an
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ant body and it binds to this protein outside the cell, blocking its function. so this therapeutic option is very important for a couple of reasons. for one, it will stop region fibrosis before it progresses all the way to end stage region disease or esrt. that's important because we only have two main streement or -- treatment or management options for that right now. there's dialysis, very painful, not to mention long-term and there's also kidney transplantation but right now, over 0% of people waiting for an organ are waiting for a kidney and so 13 americans die every day while waiting for that life-saving kidney transplant. even treating patients costs the united states government upwards of $30 billion every year. so that's one avenue. another avenue i saw is that the chemical i've been studying metabolit ex of many chemotherapies. it increased the curate of
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testicular cancer from 10% to over 80% now, so what they found is it builds up in the kidneys and urine of patients who are experiencing kidney damage while receiving these drugs. so the second avenue i'm exploring is using a combined therapy. get it in its full, most efficient dose, while utilizing the pro-pronged approach. giving them the protection around the kidneys and patients aren't diing from kidney failure instead of their cancer. president obama: i've got a couple of questions. e is, have we confirmed that fibrotic nce of are s and the ailments occurring at a higher rate? >> yes. president obama: where there's pollution? >> yes. definitely. president obama: so that's not just -- so, we know that for a
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fact. >> definitely. that's recent really. after 9/11. most people focused on the effects that the pollution was having on lungs. but now 10 years later, there's studies done on first responders, showing many of them suffer from end-stage region disease. there's more and more -- renal disease. there's more and more connections between environmental plunalts and kidneys. -- pollutants and kidneys. president obama: the second question, is have you had the opportunity to present your therapy ideas so that they actually could be pursued in research? >> yes. i'm actually here because of the foundation. i entered a national competition and that gave me the primary platform in which i could talk about my research and i've been to the intel international fair and met a lot of scientists through that. it's definitely great to meet all these scientists and get new ideas for my research. and then this. president obama: are we going to have a situation where you can connect up with some research labs and start testing
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out these propositions? >> hopefully. i'm open. president obama: ok. did you have a chance to meet our new f.d.a. director? >> briefly and then he was taken away. president obama: i'll have him circle back. >> definitely. thank you. president obama: who knows? you might have come up with something that could end up being really significant. have you always been interested in science? >> science, yes. i loved science ever since i was a kid. i've -- i didn't really know what i liked, what science, i was curious about everything. and my dad does computer stuff. my mom is a researcher. in a different field. i've been exposed to science from a young age. but it's really my teachers. i've had really great teachers. my science teacher at school is phenomenal. president obama: let's give him a shoutout. just wanted you to know your student here is shining and she's given you props. >> my science teachers have done a lot for me and encouraged me. if i didn't have that kind of
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support structure and known that you can make something out of science and it's very important. president obama: do you want to pursue research or medical school? >> both. i'm trying to see -- i'm interested in a lot of things. definitely medicine. but i don't want to close the door on research right now. president obama: my only concern is that you may have trouble getting into college. [laughter] has anybody like shown a willingness to accept you? >> somehow. i'm hoping. just waiting. president obama: i'm sure your s.a.t.'s were shabby. maybe if you need a recommendation from me, i'll help you out. >> thank you, sir. president obama: let's get a ood picture. what's your name? >> wendy. >> stephen. >> amaro. president obama: where are you from? >> new york city. president obama: where is that? >> manhattan. president obama: whoa.
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careful now. secret service might jump on you. i'm teasing. what year are you guys in school? >> i'm a junior. >> i'm alumni. a freshman in college. >> senior. president obama: so what do we have here? >> as students of new york city, we experience a problem with train delays. upon investigating the problem, we found that it is caused by the accumulation of trash and here's is a prototype of a semi-automatic vacuum cleaner. president obama: i heard about this. this is to take the trash out f the -- there you go. go ahead. i didn't mean to steal your thunder. >> it's all good. the his runs through stations and vacuum up all the trash for us. president obama: have we tested
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this yet? >> not yet. we've only been able to do a simulation test like this. which allows us to simulate. president obama: are we thinking about going for the ping pong ball? >> yeah in a second. president obama: do you feel confident about? >> yeah. i can turn it on for you right now. president obama: let's do it. >> we want to you turn it on because it's very, very easy to turn on. president obama: i don't want to break it. >> you won't. don't worry. just move it up. president obama: move it this way? all right. et's try it. >> click the end right here. president obama: you could also use this for power ball at the same time. [laughter]
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>> we also have these cool things here that detect the ambient lighting inside a station, so when the vacuum enters the station it will detect that level amount of light and turn it on automatically. once it cleans and enters the tunnel it will turn off. president obama: excellent. >> also ultrasound sensers in the chamber. what they do is detect how much trash there is. so once you reach a certain amount, it will stop working, it can't take anymore. it turns off. >> you can turn it on, put your hand on it. these are sensors. i'll turn it on. [inaudible] president obama: that's. it i don't want to touch that. >> we also have an air system that lets us remove trash inside the chamber. so we're going to demonstrate that as well.
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>> you can help us with that too. we're going to start by sliding the vacuum mr. upton:. president obama: am i getting paid for this? -- vacuum up. president obama: am i getting paid for this? we're going to open the door. his one. finally we're going to lift. president obama: look at that. >> to close it up we're going to hit the door. . e lift closes both the slide >> thank you, mr. president. president obama: how long did you take you guys to put this all together? >> last year when we first came upon the grant, that's when we started building from scratch, building prototypes, testing exactly how we want it to be. then this year these students helped us improve it and made the remote system. president obama: excellent.
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so the idea, if we were to fully develop this, would be could you actually have this set on the tracks and it would be timeed properly so it didn't run into a train and it would go up and down and make sure that we cleared off the tracks, which would make for a safer and more consistent ride. >> yes. >> our vision was to attach it to the bed of a work train at the very end so that while the work train is moving, doing the work it's doing, it can vacuum -- vacuum. we have the light sensors. most of the trash is in the station and thus we want the vacuum to turn on and actually puck the trash. it does that -- pick up the trash. it does. that then once it gets into the tunnel, the vacuum stops working, thus conserving energy. president obama: brilliant. very proud of you guys. come on. let's move over here so we can get a good picture. all right. look over at pete.
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it's so nice to meet you, rebecca. are you guys sisters? i thought you might be sisters. i see a little sibling similarity. where are you guys from? >> seattle, washington. president obama: it is a beautiful city. it rains sometimes. >> yes. president obama: which is ok. what do you guys have here? >> we built a spacecraft and we sent it up to 78,000 feet. president obama: that's crazy. this thing right here? 78 -- how much? >> 78,000 feet. president obama: 78,000 feet. is that it right there? >> yes. this is maybe 60,000 feet or so. president obama: it went even higher than that. it was in space. it was almost in space. right at the edge there. >> yeah. president obama: so in the superman movies, when he flies and it starts getting colder. your gizmo was that high? how did you do that and why did you do that?
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>> well, it's powered by a weather balloon filled with helium. and then -- president obama: where do you get that? >> we went to a welding -- >> we got helium from a welding store. you can buy weather balloons on a website. president obama: really? >> we got the char chutes and our -- parachutes and our flight computer. president obama: so you can get it back. otherwise it would just float away. >> no. because of the lack of pressure up in space, the air molecules inside get so far apart that the balloon pops. then it comes back down with the help of our parachute. president obama: your attitude was, we're just going to send it up and have it deep on going until the balloon pops? see how high you can the question it. >> we thought it would be around 20,000, 30,000 feet. president obama: it just kept going. that's unbelievable. so why did you want to do this? just to see what would happen or did you have some objective involved? in the launch?
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>> we did want to see what happened. but we also wanted to see -- have the go pro images catch the blackness of space. which we have. president obama: do that again. so they get a good picture. >> then they also have it -- president obama: you guys are adorable. >> we also wanted to retreeven data from our flight computer which records lang tude, speed, temperature and direction. we put them together for graphs. these are our two favorite graphs that we made. >> one of the things we learned from them is here is the altitude versus temperature. in the first layer of the atmosphere, it got a lot colder. and then when it went through the second lairer, the stratosphere, it got warmer. which was surprising to us. we thought it would just get colder and colder and colder. and then it got warmer and colder again.
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president obama: why is that? >> we don't know. we think it might be a change in temperature -- it's definitely a change in the atmosphere, it could be because of different gravity or different tensions in the atmosphere. >> but we did a little bit more research and we scoofered -- discovered that some sites said that when we went into the third layer, it would get colder again and the fourth layer, the they were sphere, would get warmer again. it would keep on rotating. sproib that affected at all because of the atmosphere is capturing some radiation, as you go past it? >> maybe. >> we don't know. >> we're not sure. president obama: you guys are working on some high pogget these seast. >> yeah. hopefully we'll do a second launch sometime soon. we might put a solar panel sensor and see through the different layers of the atmosphere, whether there's more power in one layer or not. r hypothesis is that there
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will be more as we get closer to the sun but we're not sure. president obama: when did you launch? >> labor day weekend. please stand by. how -- president obama: how long did it take before it reached its pinnacle? >> three hours up and one hour down. president obama: one hour down. >> even with the parachute. it was really fast. n fact, going down, through an area in between the stratosphere and the troposphere, there's very little air resistance so it went 110 kilometers demeanor kilometers per hour. even with the char pute -- parachute. proip president obama: did the cat hang on or get blown off? it's still there. there it is. >> it used to be screwed on. it fell off during impact. landing was too much for a pop cycle stick. president obama: landing is too
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much for a popsicle stick. which makes sense to me. one last question. so you sent it up. and the balloon, there must have been some movement, right? and you've got some sort of tracking device. but how far did it land from where you launched? >> 51 miles. president obama: wow. were you -- mom and dad were like driving and tracking it? >> we were tracking it with the g.p.s. device. we just stopped and watched it. and then when we got the signal it landed, we drove there. it was maybe 30 minutes to walk there from the street. president obama: where did it land? in the middle of nowhere? >> it was in a cow field and there was cow poop right there. president obama: there was cow poop right there? but cow poop didn't get on this? >> no. president obama: you're sure? >> right in between it. >> we checked.
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president obama: you guys are amazing. i'm so proud of you. come on. let's take a good picture. should we hold it up so people can see it properly? i'll hold it because i'm taller. popsicle nd the pop stick. look at this guy right here. i know your parents must be very proud. how are you? what's your name? >> sydney. president obama: good to see you. nice to see you. where are you guys from? missouri, i just saw the sign. >> st. louis. president obama: st. louis. and so you guys are part of the
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girl scout troop. >> yes. president obama: fantastic. what do we have here? tell me about what you guys have been doing. >> we're >> we have blockheads. >> and we did it and made a product. president obama: let's hold this up. originally your goal was to figure out how to break it down so you didn't have this crumby stuff sitting in dumpsters and landfills. how did you decide how to break it down? >> a retirement community in st. louis and we asked them what their biggest problem with trash and they said styrofoam and we wanted to help them. >> every month they throw away
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20,000 styrofoam cups. it takes over 500 years to decompose. it tookto a landful and up so much space and took so long to decompose. >> we tried to reduce the amount of styrofoam. found a video online said a nontoxic chemical can be used to dissolve stire row foam. d took 6 by 6 by 3 and dissolved it into two cups. president obama: able to compress it that much. how long did it take to break down? >> 30 minutes to dissolve. >> the ecobin is we can supply
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to homes and businesses. and it mixes with water which makes it most effective and people can put the styrofoam in the ecobin and we can collect leftovers. >> we thought we were done but the residue left over from dissolving the stire row foam can be used as a glue. we glued these materials on this body and it is completely nontoxic. president obama: you now have a ew outstanding glue. ecoglue. should we glue something? what do we have to glue? ete, how about your tie? one of your cards so we can test he glue.
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we are going to test this out nd make sure it works. there you go. let's put a small dab there. this is outstanding. how did you -- so you put it in the bin. it melted down and see this scum gooey bottom and it is and yucky. and how did you decide it might be a glue. did you put your hands in there or something? >> we were experimenting with it d sticky and while we were mixing. first we glued two screws together and it worked really ell.
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president obama: we might be on to something here. it's working just fine. this is outstanding. it has to dry. now i notice the consistency don't look the same between hose bottles of ecoglue. have we figured out maybe how to expand what you discovered so landfills around the country and individuals as well can start getting rid of styrofoam? >> yeah. e talked to our art teacher.
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and to the girl scouts. president obama: outstanding. let's take a group picture. we have to hold up one of our ecoglues. >> what's your name? jacob. where are you from? >> baltimore. president obama: what grade are you in? >> third. president obama: looks like you have an entire product line. explain what it is you have been doing. [indiscernible] gelatin and here's hat it comes out with.
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and right here. president obama: so these are all your designs here. and the question is, how did you et into the 3-d printing business? summer to a show and they helped me make this. and cookie cutter. president obama: that was the start of it all. >> yes, sir. i gave a company and
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them. president obama: part of what they wanted to find out how well kids could use their 3-d printers? and you were testing things out and giving them recommendations. >> yes, sir. president obama: what did you figure out? >> sometimes the printer jams inside. president obama: not as reliable. and every time you take it apart. president obama: taking some of your suggestions. in the meantime you took advantage of the 3-d printer to do all this stuff. >> yes, sir. president obama: are you designing these things and connects to the 3-d printer. a sketch and rite
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transfer it to the computer. president obama: these are some of your original designs ended up drawing on the computer and transmitting to the 3-d printer. >> yes, sir. president obama: do you want to try one. president obama: why don't we get bubbles going on here. soapy water. which one do you think works better. which end should i use? >> this one. president obama: let's test it out. president obama: been a while since i did this, so let's test t out. there you go. kind of fun.
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i think i blew too hard. oh! you know what? clearly i'm out of practice, but i did get one. i want to make sure. you think you are going to be continuing this business as you go on? >> yes, sir. president obama: something that you decided you are interested in? >> yes, sir. i have to question to ask you. do you have child science advisers? president obama: do you think you should be in that. a child science adviser can give you feedback on how kids like science. president obama: that's a great
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idea. how we put together a child advisory committee so as opposed to one child, because that would put a lot of pressure on one person, they have school, homework, but we ought to get a little committee together? >> yes, sir. president obama: i think that's a great idea. >> that's a great idea. ook at pete. >> one of our class nates said we should make one for our veterans. we compiled the data and we started talking to him and asking him what he would rather
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have in a prosthetic. and that is the design. and we started researching. so at this point how much of how much was cut off or lost. this is organic. and all ied full leg the parts. president obama: you got an understanding of the basic of an organic and artificial leg. i researched different parts of what et particulars others might want that kyle that
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isn't existing in the current prosthetics. >> the current one was the incision. cut the back of his leg. around and he fell. president obama: that's terrible. >> so our group designed a lot f prosthetics. president obama: did you use a 3-d printer? complicated very parts of the body and you have to learn about balance and motion and the foot keeps a lot of balance while you are
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walking. this, we have little ridges here which will actually go -- president obama: are these plible? does it move? in terms of ultimately if you esign one. there would be joints. >> we were going to make this a rubber toe. but stress test -- president obama: didn't hold up. you went through these prototypes and arrived at a particular conclusion or in the middle of your inquiry. >> we are pretty close because kyle is in and out of the hospital. silicon sock he has
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to wear. remaining part of that bone and stands on that bone all day long. so we completely got rid of meanshooks and straps and this will have another sleeve that goes inside of this, a andcon sock and memory foam all these pieces come apart if he wants to change them according to what he is doing him walk. >> one of the groups started foam from scratch. and we made an attachment.
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and came around and it was this spring right here. and pressure, spring comes back up. >> that's the scientific method, you test things out, some work and some don't. >> in this class, we have 35 other people working on this project. president obama: great job. inspire you guys to go into engineering or medicine. > opened up ideas for me and esign these. president obama: i couldn't be prouder of you guys. come on.
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let's get a good picture. come on. . re we go president obama: where are you guys from? san diego. >> what grade are you in? >> all seniors. and what do we have here? app called ct is an spectrum. spectrum seeks to build bridges within the community and gives them accesses to resources. president obama: and in terms of the app, is it -- i don't know, sir i download the app, am i now in a place where i'm
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communicating with my peers or just giving me resources that i can plug into or what is it? >> would you like to see the design. >> it is a social media app. and resources. so you can have a profile. and you can connect with people in your area. so it is specialized for location. these are people are also users and within our general area. not very specific to protect users. but there are functions like you can put in your location and health care or youth group activities and events that you might otherwise miss from smaller or less well known centers or organizations. president obama: what's involved
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in creating an app? did you write the code for it and put it together for yourselves? >> we started making this app a ear ago. the research in m.i.t. applications and turning the android and upload it to the google play store and use on phones and tablets.
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[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] >> presidents giving their last speeches at the white house correspondents dinner, one of the key events each year in washington. >> i had time to watch the oscars. i was a little disappointed in that movie, the last emperor. i thought it was going to be about done reagan. [laughter] >> george bush has a brand spanking new campaign strategy and moving towards the political center, distancing himself from his own party, stealing ideas from the other party. i'm so glad dick morris has finally found work again. >> we'll talk with senior white house correspondent, past president of the white house correspondents soirks. join us saturday night at 10:00
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and live coverage of this year's dinner on saturday april 30, starting at 6:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. trumpublican presidential is in heart forward, connecticut. scheduled to begin at 7:00 eastern time here on c-span. and vermont sander and democratic presidential candidate is off the campaign trail and out of the country today and arrived at the vatican to speak at a conference of social, economic and environmental issues. the guardian reports senator sanders launched one of the most powerful indictments of modern capitalism of the campaign. here's the senator's arifle.
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>> bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie! [speaking italian] senator sanders: in my country and around the world, we have seen a handful of very, very wealthy people become wealthier while most people are becoming poor. in fact, the top 1% of people on
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this planet now own more wealth than the bottom 99%. that to me is unacceptable. it is unsustainable. it is immoral and together we have got to change that. and i have been enormously impressed by pope francis speaking out and his visionary views about creating a moral economy, an economy that works for all people, not just the people on top. and what he has said over and over again, we cannot allow the market just do what the market does. that's not acceptable. we have got to engrain moral principles into our economy, and there is no area where that is clearer than in the area of climate change. the greed of the fossil fuel industry is literally destroying
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our planet. the scientists are virtually unanimous. climate change is real and it is caused by human activity. it is already causing devastating problems all over this planet. and whether the fossil fuel industry likes it or not, we have got to transform our energy system away from fossil fuel to energy efficiency and sustainable energy. and what pope francis has told us over and over again is we have the wealth to do that. we have the technology to do that. we have the know-how to do that, but we have got -- but what we have to confront is the greed, people concerned more about their billions than the future of the children and the future of our planet. so i am just so excited to be here, so proud to be here with other like-minded people who are trying to do our best to create
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a moral economy. inaudible] >> senator, when you see the pope -- > i just want to say how thilled the participants are -- thrilled the participants are today at the pontifical social sciences to hear senator sanders and his powerful remarks today. all day we've been discussing the enormous crisis of inequality of income, the injustice of the world economy because we've been reflecting on -- on his 20th anniversary where pope john paul ii warned us of these things. greed and power is let out of moral control, we lose. senator sanders has been making
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this point again and again. every part of my country and around the world. i can tell you because i've been ith the participants how thrilled the -- many of the leaders of his church and many participants around the world are thrilled to welcome senator sanders here. inaudible] >> what do you seek to accomplish here? senator sanders: i believe that the pope has played an historical and incredible role in trying to create a new world economy and a new vision for the people of our planet. we cannot continue to go forward when so few have so much, and when greed is such a destructive part of not only in the united states but also around this world.
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i have long been a supporter of the economic vision of pope francis, his views on climate change have played a profound role -- let me tell you. i'm a member of the senate committee on the environment. pope francis' played a profound role in turning many people's minds around [inaudible] so when i received this invitation -- i know it's taking me away from the campaign trail for a day, but when i received this information it was so moving to me that it was something that i could simply not -- [inaudible] >> thank you, everybody. cheers and applause]
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[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] >> new york state primary on tuesday. join us at 9:00 eastern for candidate results and viewers reaction taking you to the road to the white house on c-span, c-span radio and c-span organize. maryland president'sal primary is tuesday, june 26, hillary linton and bernie sanders that invoke the deaths of americans in police custody. here's a look at some of the ads running in maryland. >> he says we should punish congresswomen who have abortions. mexicans who come to america are rapists and that we should ban muslims from coming here at all. >> donald trump says we can
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solve america's problems by turning against each other. it's wrong and it goes against everything new york and americans stand for. >> with so much stake she is the one tough enough to stop trump. >> i'm hillary clinton and i approve this message. >> new york. what makes it go bolder, push for a living wage that is higher, tuition free college and middle class that must be saved. you do. values forged in new york. brooklyn-born, native son who knows what we know. we're all in this together. >> i'm bernie sanders and i approve this message. >> madam secretary, we proudly give 72 of our delegate votes to
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the next president of the united .tates trump in nald hartford, connecticut. scheduled to start at 7:00. here's a look at our discussion about the book "political animals" and the author's take of the 2016 campaign. this is the author of
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recent book, "political animals." do shark attacks affect elections? nk do shark att ks affect elections? guest: 100 years ago in 1916, the worst fear of shark attacks struck southern new jersey. that everyones" had seen was based on the story of what happened then. weeks, four people were killed in shark attacks. what does that have to do with politics? woodrow wilson was up for reelection. but in thejersey, small beach towns devastated by the shark attacks, people heard "shark" and everyone went home.
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he was a devastating economic development for that area. , the peoplee vote in those towns voted against woodrow wilson in overwhelming numbers. in the same proportion that those people voted against herbert hoover at the height of the great depression. why? woodrow wilson could not have done anything to help those people solve their shark problem . that was beyond the powers of the president. people are irrational when they vote. particularly, political scientists have found, when bad things happen to them they take angst on the incumbent party whether they are responsible or not. the book is about how our brain works. 40 years ago we did not have an idea of how the brain works. today we do because of nero silence -- numeral science -- neuroscience, anthropology,
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and that changes how we think our brain operates on politics. host: what do you mean by stone age brain? a lesser for 2.5 million years. the human brain mainly involved. it evolved to help hunter problems address the that they faced as hunter gatherers. evolve to help us in the 21st century address problems that we are facing. our problems are different. and you live in a small community of 150 people, you know and work with everyone. you know your leaders. you are living with them. today, there are millions and billions of people. we do not meet our leaders. we see them on tv. we often read them wrong and do not understand when they are
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lying or manipulating. the book is about how you have to protect your self against your own brain. it will trick you into thinking you're living in a small community and you know these people. you don't. host: in the introduction you write that i'm going to tell you the stories of people that have been paid in ways that seem absurd. beingcus on behavior disengaged from politics and apathetic. not correctly sizing up our leaders, punishing politicians that tell us hard truths, and not showing empathy in circumstances that cry out for it. , is there a general impression that you can give of what voters are like in america? guest: i don't know what to do with that question. give me more. host: are voters curious?
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guest: good. voters are curious about what is happening in their immediate circumstances. that is what the human brain is designed to do, be curious about things that you can see. half of the brain is devoted to visual tasks. we are responsive to what we can see and what we can feel. when you're in a group of people, you can size them up, read their body language, get a sense of who they are. the ability to have an assess that of who they are and what they are like. you cannot do it in the modern political world, because most of the time you see them on tv. not coming system is into play and you are not focused. if you cannot see someone's eyes and how they are really looking at you, it is hard to read them. in any case, our brain is
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playing a trick on us. in the stone age, when we read people's emotions -- if you are going on a hunt and you wanted to look toward the leader, you could tell in a particular moment if he was feeling courageous or frozen by fear. you could read that a motion. you had a deeper understanding of that person because you lived and worked with them. in the modern world, we do not have that personal experience with our leaders, but our brain makes us think that we know them. are we curious? there has never been an example of hunter gatherers not curious about who was leading them. what the human beings do all day? we gossip. who'sps us to understand up, down, if someone has made a mistake.
6:37 pm about their we are engaged as human beings in our local politics. in the multicultural world that we live in with millions of people, we do not have that natural nervous system reaction to people that live far away from us. you are in washington the c, -- washington, d.c. i live in seattle. that is far away from washington. and things happen there, it is hard for me in seattle to get excited. do he hadandidates out in a political debate, i can get excited momentarily, but that feeling quickly evaporates. i am a political junkie, so i am paying attention. most americans are not paying that much attention.
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they seem to display in difference and a lack of curiosity. that is because of the way the human brain works. it is an indictment of human beings. our brain was not devised for television politics. it was devised for small intimate groups. we are good at those politics, not so good about things happening a long way away. host: should we trust our instincts when it comes to politics? caller: no. that is the main part of the book. in our daily lives we trust our instincts because they prove they are good. if you are walking on the tireslk and you hear screech, your instinct is to look around and pull back to make sure you are not about to get run over. that is the same as if you were a hunter gatherer 100,000 years
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ago and you heard a tiger in the woods. he would have a flight or flight response. in our personal lives, often, our instincts work. argue, you can almost never unquestionably go with your instincts, because they are not suited to the problems that we face in the modern world. host: you look at the work of psychologist drew weston. you write about some of his work . here is his explanation of what goes on in our brain when we turn a blind eye toward explanation we find objectionable. when confronted with potentially troubling political information, a network of neuron's becomes active that registers the conflict between data and desire and searches for ways to shirt off this big it of
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unpleasant emotion. notice what we do not do. we do not expend cognitive energy to digest the information . we immediately try to reconcile partisanur preferences. can you give an example? guest: let's take the example of what drew weston was talking about. in 2000 four, john kerry versus george w. bush. he put kerry voters in an mri and told them information about john kerry that was not laddering. -- was not flattering. what happened? they briefly registered a reaction that was shock and disfavor with what they were hearing. immediately, their brain shut off that information and the neurons went quiet. the same thing happened when you mri.ush voters in the
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they had an initial reaction then went quiet. scientistst social refer to as our immune system. we do not like to find out that a belief that we hold about someone that we like -- it turns out that here is contrary information to what we believe. .hat creates dissonant it makes us feel anxious and bad. it quickly tries to figure out a way to get rid of the information. it does it by closing the door on the information so that the .eurons go quiet our psychological immune system improves and we restore our feeling of well-being. when you're talking about trump voters, donald trump has been
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called out by politico and all of these other fact checking organizations for telling one lie after another. like, when he debuted his campaign and started talking about how thousands of muslims were dancing on the rooftops of apartment buildings in new jersey as they watched the twin towers fall. that was not true. what did trump voters make of that? their brain, just like other voters -- it is true of all of us, we do not want to hear bad information. they ignored it. their brain shut off the information. this is how the human brain works. that is what drew weston's research shows. host: " political animals: how our stone-age brain gets in the " is themart politics
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book. the numbers are on the screen. democrats, (202) 748-8000, republicans (202) 748-8001, independents (202) 748-8002. you can dial in and we will take your calls. you can participate on social on twitter.panwj let's begin with robert from massachusetts. he is on the democrats line. caller: i do not know at this guys talking about, but the average person does not know. politicians know that the average person is almost ignorant. tide commercial on tv, and it says it will take the ring off of your husband's neck, the next day that same woman will buy that because of that powerful commercial.
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people are not voting with their heart. they are voting with their head. you have to put them together. you have to have a head and heart. when you let the politicians speak on the pulpit, that is the sentence. never let a politician walk into your church and speak on the pulpit. this is for all of you black people from down south. host: let's get a response. rick shenkman waited to hear? guest: the cholerae is right that the american people do not know a lot of fat -- the caller is right here that the american people do not know a lot of facts. we have 100now that u.s. senators. the majority of the american people do not know that we have .hree branches of government a lot of them believe on the eve of the iraq war that saddam
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hussein was behind 9/11. that the reason we were invading iraq was to take revenge for him having destroyed the world trade center and attacking the pentagon. are a low information voter, which is unfortunately the majority of the american voters low information are more easily manipulated because they do not know enough. if a politician is articulate, enthusiastic, can make a case and connect with you as one person to another person looking through a tv camera -- if i'm excited, passionate, and you are impressed with my passionate enthusiasm, and what i'm saying makes sense, you do not have the toependent basis evaluate my argument and information. you are going with your gut.
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that is what i argue in my book is a mistake. host: tweeting to you that i respectfully disagree. you cannot read politicians from watching them on tv body language is all telling. guest: body language is important. no question. how fast do we make evaluations of candidates? eyesight in the book -- i site in the book that we make up our minds about politicians and anyone we encounter in 167 milliseconds. faster than you can blink your eyes. if you give people more time to make an evaluation, they double initialtheir impression. your brain is playing a trick on you. in the stone age, when we were making superfast evaluations, it was important.
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if you encountered a stranger you had to quickly size them up. most of the time, that meant this was a person that was a hostile threat to your life. that you should probably run or kill they guy. for a hunter gatherers and their communities sizing people up, it was not on the basis of body language or facial expression -- it was on the basis of deep knowledge. you are living and working with them. you have an overreliance on body language and you think you can tell if someone is lying to you or telling the truth based on body language, you are deceiving yourself. i may go one step further. when a politician is telling you something, and they believe it you -- you're
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cheater that connecting system doesn't work. it only works if those telling the lie think they are buying. politicians are like used car salesman. there good at telling you something. in that moment they can convince themselves that they believe it. you cannot rely on body language. if they are sincere, and politicians are always sincere, your detection system doesn't work. democrat,ara, martha's vineyard. caller: thank you. this is the best news ever. the first day of the new era, which i am christening paleo politics. there's is our brain on the
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drugs of politics we don't understand how the brain works. i have a home rigged assignment. -- a homework assignment. you need to assemble evolutionary biology and psychology, get them together with richard, and you assemble them at a book fair somewhere. .his is the story the other thing to do, i want to look back at an e-mail i sent her democrats only in the last segment. it has no text, only visuals. the subject line is "just vote blue." this is my message to how the democrats have to unify. it has a visual pun that i want to see if richard config throughout. this man is walking the walk and talking the talk. last thing, keep using the
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emphasis you are using. just like i'm deliberately using it now. there is a penetrative quality .o assertion we are not thinking or hypothesizing, this is the dawn of the new age. host: thank you. rick shenkman, in a response to barbara? caller: well. she was very complimentary and i will not disagree. let's talk about another aspect of how our brain works. neuroscience we have learned that we have two ways of digesting information. system one and system to areas with system one you are taking in information. your matching it with other information that you already have. if there is a close match, your brain doesn't think hard, it
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just thinks the new information is like the old information and is treated the same way. system to is higher-order cognitive thinking. guess what we want to do with politics. politicians do not want you to use system to, higher order cognitive thinking. wordsill use red meat that will get your system one juices flowing, so you are not thinking just reacting. republican audience, they will see they -- they will say things like "scary muslim terrorists." orn you are acting fearful angry. you're not thinking, just reacting. democrats do the same thing. story to tell a sob get you to feel empathetic to go with their program. you are not thinking about it. you are reacting.
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what i am arguing in the book is that the only way to safeguard yourself against manipulation by politicians is to always second-guessed your automatic reaction. you have to second-guess your automatic reaction. do not trust yourself in politics. that goes against what we learned in the 1960's when it yourself." and personal life, trust yourself. in politics, and don't. connecticut on our democrats line. what is the name of your town? connecticut.ic, i wanted to call and say that i called the debate. i don't think that there should be any more debates. i hate to see things deteriorate
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to the level of a gop side. i was very proud of her performance. i think senator sanders did very well also. i hate to see them hurt each primary.the i'm disappointed in senator sanders. i think that him running as a continues tohe criticize hillary to the extent, or each other, that it could hurt us in the long run in a general election. host: let's leave it there. rick shenkman, given that there
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was a debate last night, i don't know if you watched it but i know that you have watched some, how would your book guest: let me tell you what i recommend in the book, which is when you are sitting and watching a political debate, basically you are in the same role as somebody who goes and attends a broadway show. what you wind up doing is evaluating the performance of the candidates who are arguing with each other. i do not think that is terribly helpful. what is helpful -- even if you are not a political junkie like most americans, you do other things so you're not really following politics all that closely. you can still gain tremendous, real insight into what is going on in these candidates's campaigns by monitoring your own emotional reaction.
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pull out a pen and paper when you are about to sit down and watch one of these debates. every time you feel a strong emotion of some kind -- fear, anger, enthusiasm, patriotism, whatever you are feeling. jot it down next to the candidates name. the debate,f instead of evaluating their performances, look at how you emotionally reacted to what they were saying and you will now have a roadmap to these candidates's campaigns. you will understand how they are trying to manipulate you by the emotional buttons they were trying to push during the debate. it is no accident when they take a certain line at the debate. they have a lot of advisors ahead of that debate telling them that if you say this, the voters will have this reaction. if you say this, the voters will have this reaction. study yourself and you will have a very keen understanding of what the politician's campaigns are about.
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it is much more helpful than sitting back like you are at a broadway show and saying this person did well in this person didn't. we play the game, but it is not very helpful. this approach that i'm outlining is more helpful. host: springfield on the republican line, go ahead with your question or comment calle.: caller: i have a comment the guest something made about donald trump saying he saw muslims dancing in the street after 9/11. he is not lying. i have seen this with my own eyes. host: mr. shankman? guest: you did see it with your own wise, because in the middle east, they were dancing and there is videotaped. after 9/11 muslims in the middle east and other parts of the world, people were happy to see the united states, the big, bad superpower, as it is
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viewed in some parts of the world, getting knocked down a little bit. people were dancing in the streets, but it was not muslims in america and it was not american muslims doing this, but our brain confuses visual information that it is taking in. at that time, you are seeing this, a registered powerfully on your brain. one of the big shocks on 9/11 besides the attacks themselves, the other big shock was that people hate us to the point where they are happy to see us killed by the thousands. impression powerful on your mind, but you do not see american muslims dancing in the streets. that did not happen. host: pardon me. the next call for rick shenkman comes from suzanne on the independent line. go ahead, suzanne. caller: hey, rick.
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what you just said about the politicians'advisors telling them how to go ahead and say what they are supposed to say instead of really answering the question -- that sort of not really in the stone age. everybody is in the reality tv age. what the advisers are telling them to do is how to get the out of theesponse viewers. aboutd of really thinking what the politicians are saying on all these different programs, we are being taken to the reality tv world where everybody kind of floats along and we
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don't care about real stuff. we just care about what we think is happening. i don't think the stone ages here. we have progressed a lot from the stone age because we are at the state where we can sit there with a completely empty mind. host: all right, let us get a response from mr. shenkman. guest: we are not living in the stone age. we do have the stone age brain on our shoulders. really very good at helping us understand the problems that we are facing. daily, onee, almost of the political problems that we will face involves the faith of millions of people, whether we are talking about tax policy or whether we should go to war against terrorism. it is always a policy involving millions of people.
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designed brain was not to address the problems of millions of people have i. >> donald trump speaking at a rally with his supporters. ♪ mr. trump: hello, folks. hello. [applause] amazing. loves hartford, connecticut? everybody. thank you, everybody. it is an honor to be here. a lot of people. people pouring in from outside. it is gr


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