tv EPA Administrator Gina Mc Carthy Discusses Environmental Policy CSPAN November 22, 2016 8:19pm-9:21pm EST
powerful, especially folks like me. even after all of these years his tombstone should bear a single word that is often found in their reviews, uneven. [laughter] as a current u.s. senator would say, that is why people like you. he produced a senator also. that is pretty impressive. ellen degeneres has a way of making you laugh about something rather than at someone. except when i danced on her show. she laughed at me. but that is ok. but when to forget now we have come so far, where now marriage is equal under the law
just how much courage was required for allen to come out on the most public of stages almost 20 years ago. not how important it was just to the lgbt community but for all of us to see somebody to love kindness and light, somebody we liked so much, somebody who could be our neighbor or colleague or sister, challenge our own assumptions. remind us we have more in common than we realize, push our direction of justice. what an incredible burden that was to bear, to risk your career like that. people don't do that very often. and to the hopes of millions on your shoulders. ellen says, we all want a 20 use -- 14 chip that can support the weight of waccamaw lee.
-- guacamole. know what that means but i thought it would break the mood because i'm getting a little choked up. [laughter] and she did pay price. we don't remember this. i had not remembered it. she did for a long stretch of time. even in hollywood. , every day in ellenway allen -- counters the things that divide us with the things that inspire us to be better. racethe candidate wins his in the 1972 film of the same name which continues for those of you who have not seen it, and many of you are too young to be
perhaps the best movie about what politics is like ever, he famously asks his campaign questionhe revealing what do we do now? like the man he played in that movie, robert redford has figured it out and applied his talent and charm to achieve success. for hise bob not just remarkable acting but for having figured out what to do next. he created a platform for independent filmmakers with the sundance institute. he has supported our national parks and national resources as one of the foremost conservationists of our generation. he has given his charisma to unforgettable characters. entertaining us for more than half a century. as an actor, producer and advocate he has not stopped.
and drive so fast he had breakfast in napa and dinner in salt lake. at 80 years young robert redford has no plans to slow down. headline,to a recent the movie sully was the last straw. we should never travel with tom hanks. [laughter] you have highlights, prayed -- plane crashes, volcanoes. something happens with tom hanks. somehow we can't resist going where he wants to take us. he has been an accidental witness to history, a baseball manager, and every man who fell in love with meg ryan three times. ade it seem natural to have volleyball as a best friend.
from a philadelphia courtroom to normandy's beachheads, to the dark side of the moon he has introduced us to america's unassuming heroes. tom says he saw ordinary guys who did the right thing at the right time. it takes one to know one. america's dad has to do to cancer with his beloved wife, championed our veterans, supported space exploration, and has always saved his best roles for real life. he is a good man. which is the best title you can have. we have innovators, entertainers , three more folks live entertainment -- dedicated her life to public service. in the 1960's, thousands of cuban children fled to america seeking an education he would never get back home. one was a 15-year-old whose life changed when he enrolled at miami-dade college. that decision went to a bachelors degree, a masters
degree, a phd. he could go into corporate america or give back to his alma mater. miami-dade's president since 1995, he has built a dream factory for one of our nation's most diverse student bodies. when hundred 65,000 students and all. one of the world's preeminent education leaders. thinking out-of-the-box, supporting students throughout their lives, embodying the belief we are only as great as the doors we open. his example is one we can all follow. it champion of those who strive for this same american dream that drew him to our shores. koval followed a lie lawsuit, she did not set out to be a hero. she said i wanted to give people
-- i wanted to give justice to people who did not have it. address the mismanagement of indian lands, resources, trust funds wasn't about special treatment of equal treat at the heart of the american promise. she fought for 15 years across three presidents, 10 appearances before a federal appeals court, all the while she trouble telling the story of her people. this graduate of a one-room schoolhouse became the macarthur of the a proud daughter blackfeet nation, reached an historic victory for all native americans through sheer force of will and do believe that the truth will win out. she overcame the longest odds reminding us that fighting for what is right is always worth it. room,journalist in the
every media critic knows the phrase new men know coined -- new men know coined -- newt minnow coined. the vast wasteland. public interest has been the heartbeat of his life's work. advising a governor and supreme court justice, cementing presidential debates as our national institution, leading the fcc. when he have launch the first munication satellite making nationwide broadcasts possible, and gps possible, he predicted it would be more important than the moon landing. this will launch ideas into space he said. ideas last longer than people. onlyr as i know he is the one of today's honorees who was present on my first date with michelle. [laughter] sawine our surprise when we
newt at the movie theater. do the right thing. he has also been vital to my personal life. finally, we honor five of the all-time greats in sports and music. the game of baseball as a handful of signatures. you hear the crack of the bat. the crowd singing. the seventh inning stretch. you have the voice of vince scully. most fans listen to a broadcast when they cannot be at the ballpark. generations of dodgers fans brought their radios into the stands because you did not want stories.ne of vince's most partner with an analyst to chat about the action. talked justone and with us. since jackie robbins started at
second base, vince taught us the game and introduced us to its players. he narrated the improbable years , the impossible heroics. dishonoreard about his , are you sure? i am just an old baseball announcer. we had to inform him, that to americans of all ages you are an old friend. i thought about him doing all of these citations which would have been very cool -- but. [laughter] himought we should make missing for his supper like that. [laughter] up next. [laughter]
here is how great kareem abdul-jabbar was, he spent a decade dominating basketball. bans the dunk. they did not say it was about kareem, but it was about kareem. changesport makes -- it its rules just to make the sport harder for you, you are really good. [laughter] [applause] pres. obama: yet, despite the role change, he was the sports most unstoppable force. the title he would hold for two decades, winning nba finals, mvps, a staggering 14 years apart. as a surprisingly similar looking copilot, roger murdock
once said in the movie "airplane." [laughter] we have some great actors here. all while dragging others up for 48 minutes. the reason we honor kareem is more than just a pair of goggles and the skyhook. he stood up for his muslim faith when it was not easy or popular. years of comfortable sparring with bruce lee as he is orocating on capitol hill, writing with extraordinary eloquence about patriotism. physically, intellectually, airitually, kareem is one-of-a-kind. he illuminates our most basic freedoms and highest aspirations. old,he was five years michael jordan nearly cut off his big tell with an ax. [laughter] pres. obama: back then, his
handle needed a little work. but think, if things had gone , air jordan's might never have taken flight. you do not want to buy issue missing.ot -- toe we may not have seen him drop 63 in the garden, or hit the shot three different times over georgetown, heathrow, russell. we might not have seen him take or lift up the sport globally, along with the dream team. is more than those moments, more than just the best greatest teamswo of all time, the dream team and the 1996 chicago bulls.
he is more than just a logo, more than just an internet meme. [laughter] more than just a charitable donor or business owner. there is a reason you call somebody the michael jordan of. the michael jordan of , the michael jordan of canoeing. they know what you are talking about. because michael jordan is the michael jordan of greatness. of somebodyfinition so good at what they do, that everybody recognizes it. that is pretty great. ross loved diana singing and dancing for family friends, but not for free. [laughter] pres. obama: she was a smart enough to pass of the hat.
later, at a housing project she ,et mary wilson and florence her neighbor, smokey robinson put them in front of barry gordon, and the rest was magic. musical history. the supremes earned a permanent place in the american soundtrack. voice and her honeyed soulful sensibility, diana ross exuded glamour and grace and helped to shape the sound of motown. on top of becoming one of the most successful recording artists of all time, and raising five kids, somehow found time to earn an oscar nomination for acting. hip-hop artist to sample her, to those inspired by her, to the audiences who still cannot get enough of her, diana ross's influence is as inescapable as ever. a cage outung from
on highway nine. [laughter] pres. obama: a quiet kid from jersey, trying to make sense of dreams and the mysteries that dotted his hometown, pool halls, cars, girls, altars, assembly lines. for decades, bruce springsteen has brought us all along on a with theconsumed bargains between ambitious and injustice, and pleasure and pain. the simple glories and scattered heartbreak of everyday life in america. to create one of his biggest hits, he once said, i wanted to craft a record that sounded like the last record on earth. the last one you would ever need to hear. then, the apocalypse. every restless kid in america was given a score, born to run. he did not stop there. told us about himself he
told us about everybody else. steelworkers in youngstown, the vietnam vet in born to run, born in the usa. told us about himself he told us about everybody else. the sick and marginalized on the streets of philadelphia. the firefighters carrying the weight of a nation. the young soldier reckoning with devils and dust in iraq. the communities knocked down by recklessness and greed. all of us with our faults and failings, every color and class onecreed, bound together by defiance, restless train rolling toward the town of hope. these are all anthems of our america. the reality of who we are and the reverie of who we want to be. the hallmark of a rock 'n roll band, bruce springsteen once said, is that the narrative you tell together is bigger than any one could have told on your own. for decades, alongside the big a jersey girl named patty,
and all the men and women of the e street band, bruce springsteen has been tearing us on his journey, asking us all, what is the work for us to do in our short time here? i am the president, he is the boss. [laughter] pres. obama: pushing 70, he is still laying down for our live sets. he is working. i am the president, he is the boss. [laughter] rock 'n roll. i thought twice about giving him a medal named for freedom because we hope he remains in his words, a prisoner of rock 'n roll for years to come. [laughter] pres. obama: i told you, this is like a really good class. ladies and gentlemen, i want you all to give it up for the recipients of the 2016 presidential medal of freedom. [applause]
>> and iconic basketball player, who revolutionized the sport with his all-around play and signature skyhook, remember to park is a 19 time all-star, six-time world champion, and the leading scorer in nba history. adding to his achievements on the court, he also left his mark off it, advocating for civil rights, cancer research, science education, and social justice. in doing so, kareem abdul-jabbar leaves behind a towering legacy of compassion, faith, and service to others. a legacy based on the strength and great -- grace of his athleticism, but also the size and strength of his heart. [applause]
excepting the, medal in honor of his mother, elouise cobell. [applause] of the blackfeet nation, elouise cobell spent her time to find a odds and working on behalf of our people. as a young woman, she was told she was not capable of understanding accounting. so she mastered the field and user expertise to champion a lawsuit whose historic settlement has helped restore tribal home and -- homeland to her beloved tribe and others. her unwavering spirit lives on in the thousands of people and hundreds of tribes for whom she thought, and all those she taught to believe it is never too late to right the wrongs of the past and help shape a better future. [applause]
>> ellen degeneres. [applause] [laughter] >> and a career spanning three decades, ellen degeneres has lifted our spirits and brought joy to our lives as a standup comic, actor, and television star. in every role, she reminds us to be kind to one another and treat people as each of us wants to be treated. as a pivotal moment, her courage accelerate our nation's constant drive toward
equality and acceptance for all. again and again, ellen degeneres has shown us that a single individual to make the world a more fun, more open, more loving place, so long as we just keep swimming. [applause] >> robert de niro. [applause] >> for over 50 years, robert de niro has delivered some of the screen's most memorable performances, cementing his place as one of the most gifted actors in a generation.
tom "the godfather part two" he iseer hunter," relentlessly dedicated to his craft, embodies his characters, creates rich, nuanced portraits that reflect the heart of the human experience. regardless of genre or eric, robert continues to demonstrate that extraordinary skill that has made him one of america's most revered artists. [applause] >> richard l. [applause]
>> one of the most renowned of time, dr. richard darwin has answered the call to solve some of society's most challenging problems, he has given technologies that underscore the importance of humanity to control the spread of nuclear arms. through his advice to democratic s sinceublican eisenhower, his inventions have powered technology for our modern world. he is not only contributed to this nation's security, but quality of life for people all over the world. [applause]
>> william h. gates the third and melinda french gates. [applause] >> few people have had the profound impact of bill and melinda gates. through their work through their foundation, they have demonstrated how the most capable and fortunate among us have the responsibility to use their talents and resources to tackle the wor's greatest challenges, from helping women and girls lifted themselves and their families out of poverty, to empowering and minds across america, they have transformed countless lives with their generosity and innovation. bill and litigates continue to inspire us with their optimism that together we can remake the world as it should be. [applause]
>> frank gehry. [applause] >> never limited by conventional materials, style, or processes, his bold and thoughtful structures show architectures ability to revitalize communities. a creative mind from an early age, he began his career by building imaginary homes and cities from scrap material from his grandfather's hardware
store. he balances between experimentation and functionality, and is great as some of our most iconic buildings. for ms. pioneering use of technology from inspiring sites that they are his signature style come into his public service as a signature artist through his work with turnaround arts, frank gary has proven himself -- gehry has proven himself an exemplary person. [applause] >> margaret hayfield hamilton. [applause] >> a pioneering technology,
hamilton helped launch an industry that would forever change human history. her software architecture led to giant leaps for human kind, writing the code that helped america step foot on the moon. she broke barriers in founding her own software businesses, revolutionizing an industry and inspiring countless women to participate in stem fields. her love of exploration and innovation are the source code of the americans there it. her genius has inspired generations to reach for the stars. [applause] >> thomas j. hanks.
[applause] >> throughout a distinguished film career, tom hanks has revealed the character of america, as well as his own, for training war heroes and after not, as ship captain, a cartoon cowboy, a young man growing up too fast and dozens of others, he has allowed us to see ourselves as we are and as we aspire to be. on screens and off, he has honor the sacrifices of those who would served our nation, called on us all to believe and inspire a new generation of young people to reach for the sky. [applause]
>> debra murray excepting on behalf of her great aunt grace hopper. [applause] >> as a child who loved disassembling, rear admiral grace murray hopper found her calling early, with a phd from -- known today as the queen of code, grace hopper's work helps make coding language more accessible and practical. she invented the first compiler or translator, a fundamental aspect of our digital world. amazing grace made the language of commuter programming -- computer programming more accessible.
there was a sense of possibility she inspired and millions of young people. [applause] >> michael j. jordan. [applause] >> powered by a drive to compete that earned him every major award in basketball, including six nba champions, five most valuable player awards, and gold medals, michael jordan's name has become synonymous with excellence. redefininging dunks
>> boldly challenging our understanding of the world, maya lin's designs have brought people of all walks of life together in spirits of remembrance, introspection, and humility. the manipulation of natural terrain and topography within her works inspires us to bridge our differences and recognize the gravity of our collective existence. her pieces have changed the landscape of our country and influenced the dialogue of our society, never more profoundly than with her tribute to the americans who fell in vietnam, by cutting a wound into the earth to create a sacred place of healing in our nation's capital. [applause] >> lorne michaels.
[applause] >> one of the most transformative entertainment figures of our time, lorne michaels followed his dreams to new york city, where he created a sketch show that brought satire, wits, and modern comedy to homes around the world. under his meticulous command as executive producer, "saturday night live" has entertained audiences across generations, reflecting and shaping critical elements of our cultural, political, and national life. lorne michaels' creative legacy stretches into late-night television, sitcoms, and the big screen, making us laugh, challenging us to think, and raising the bar for those who follow. as one of his show's signature characters would say, well, isn't that special? [applause]
newton n. minow. [applause] >> as a soldier, counsel to the governor of illinois, chairman of the federal communications commission, and law clerk to the chief justice of the supreme court, newton minow's career has been defined by his devotion to others. deeply committed to his family, the law, and the american people, his dedication to serving and empowering the public is reflected in his efforts to ensure that broadcast media educates and provides opportunity for all. challenging the media to better serve their viewers, his staunch commitment to the power of ideas and information has transformed telecommunications and its influential role in our society. [applause]
>> dr. eduardo j. padron. [applause] >> as a teenage refugee from cuba, eduardo padron came to the united states to pursue the american dream, and he has spent his life making that dream real for others. as president of the community college he once attended, his thoughtful leadership and commitment to education have transformed miami-dade college into one of the premier learning institutions in the country, earning him praise around the world. his personal story and lasting professional influence prove that success need not be determined by our background,
but by our dedication to others, our passion for creating an america that is as inclusive as it is prosperous. [applause] >> robert redford. [applause] >> robert redford has captivated audiences from both sides of the camera through entertaining motion pictures that often explore vital social, political, and historical themes. his lifelong advocacy on behalf of preserving our environment will prove as an enduring legacy as will his award-winning films, as will his pioneering support for independent filmmakers across america.
his art and activism continue to shape our nation's cultural heritage, inspiring millions to laugh, cry, think, and change. [applause] >> diana ross. [applause] >> a daughter -- [laughter] >> a daughter of detroit, diana ross helped create the sound of motown with her iconic voice. from her groundbreaking work with the supremes, to a solo
career that has spanned decades, she has influenced generations of young artists and shaped our nation's musical landscape. in addition to a grammy lifetime achievement award and countless musical accolades, diana ross has distinguished herself as an actor, earning an oscar nomination and a golden globe award. with over 25 albums, unforgettable hit singles, and live performances that continue to captivate audiences around the world, diana ross still reigns supreme. [applause] >> next up, vin scully.
[applause] >> with a voice that transcended a sport and transformed a profession, vin scully narrated america's pastime for generations of fans. known to millions as the soundtrack of summer, he found time to teach us about life and love while chronicling routine plays and historic heroics. in victory and in defeat, his colorful accounts reverberated through the bleachers, across the airwaves, and into our homes and imaginations. he is an american treasure and a beloved storyteller, and our country's gratitude for vin scully is as profound as his love for the game. [applause]
>> bruce f. springsteen. [applause] as a songwriter, humanitarian, america's rock 'n' roll laureate, and new jersey's greatest ambassador, bruce springsteen is quite simply the boss. through stories about ordinary people, from vietnam veterans to steelworkers, his songs captured the pain and the promise of the american experience. with his legendary e street band, bruce springsteen leaves everything onstage in epic, communal live performances that have rocked audiences for decades.
>> for 60 years, cicely tyson has graced the screen and the stage, enlightening us with her groundbreaking characters and calls to conscious humility and hope. her achievements as an actor, her devotion to her faith, and her commitment to advancing equality for all americans, especially women of color, have touched audiences of multiple generations. from "the autobiography of miss jane pittman" to "sounder" to "the trip to bountiful," cicely tyson's performances illuminate the character of our people and the extraordinary possibilities of america. [applause] [cheers]
president obama: so just on a personal note, part of the reason that these events are so speciato me is because everybody on this stage has touched me in a very powerful, personal way, in ways they probably could not imagine, whether it was having been inspired by a song or a game or a story or a film or a monument or in the case of newt minow, introducing me to michelle, these are folks who have helped
make me who i am and think about my presidency. and what also makes it special is this is america. and it is useful when you think about this incredible collection of people to realize that this is what makes us the greatest nation on earth, not because of what we -- [applause] president obama: not because of our differences, but because in our difference, we find something common to share. and what a glorious thing that is, what a great gift that is to america. so i want all of you to enjoy the wonderful reception that will be taking place afterwards. michelle and i have to get back
to work, unfortunately, but i hear the food is pretty good. and would like all of you to give one big rousing round of applause to our 2016 honorees for the presidential medal of freedom. give it up. [cheers and applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org]
interest in the environment become your passion? had a mildas a kid i case of polio when i was 11 years old. i was in bed for two weeks. when i got out my mother wanted to reward me. she took me to a national park. that was in the late 1940's. when i saw that park, everything changed for me. i felt that i had witnessed something so powerful i said, i do not want to look at this, i want to be a part of this. it made that strong an impact on me. from that point on, i decided whatever i did in my life, it would be celebrating that. >> do think you made a difference? robert: probably some small difference. littleh, but i think a bit. i do not know if it is lasting or not. >> what went through europe mind as a president awarded you the highest civilian honor? my parents were
alive. i don't think anybody saw this coming. >> thank you very much. tom: man oh man, this is like the golden globes. mom, dad, do not fight. the moste one of versatile actors, do you have a favorite character or role? tom: they all overtake. there were favorite jobs. apollo 13, kevin bacon, bill paxton, stuck in their hours a day, the conversation got randy in a good way. we had a lot of time to say funny things. >> what was going through your mind today? tom: god bless america, how did this happen to me.
i was up for a role in the spring play, and here a.m., instead. there are big moments, one is the phone call when you're invited, and that when you find out who else is invited. i am sitting next to grace hopper's great-niece and people who made all the equipment you guys are carrying possible, it is a humbling moment. >> in two months there will be another new occupant of the white house. tom: i know that, i read the results. >> and? tom: is there a question of there, other than a statement? this is america, this is the way it works. we will see how things go. if the next new administration d to deny totewar save america, should, i will vote for his reelection. if not, we will see what happens. >> thank you. tom: my pleasure. the msnbc come alive.
now you have a lot of time to kill, i understand. quiet, everybody, quiet. >> that is a nice piece of bling you have there. tom: not bad. i was told i was getting a shield, so i am a little disappointed. this is a great, incredible moment for all of the hanks family. >> i was watching your family. your wife, rita wilson videotaped the president's entire speech about you, they are awfully proud. tom: they are, indeed. it means a great deal to the whole family. they are used to me going away for a long time and cranking out these movies. and coming back with odd facial hair. were, maybe they do not. but to be up here with them --
in my own field with the like of mr. redford and cicely tyson and robert de niro, their work means all the world to me. i cannot quite fathom subjectively or objectively what my contribution is to all of this. but the cinematic arts are important. i think i have done just enough for a free tour of the white house. but i am going home with a little bit better than a coffee cup from the gift shop. so i'm a very happy man. hug tow you give a margaret hamilton, the woman who helped put man on the moon. tom: how about that. she said on the morning of apollo 13 she was woken up at to work on the software. and i said, why could we not know that in the movie? we would've made sure we had that moment. you never know who you will meet at the white house. >> the president has said this is very personal to him. his staff said he was involved
in the selection from start to finish. these are people he admired and felt should be honored. what does that mean to you? tom: it is intimidating. but, it is not unlike moments i have had where people from all walks of life who have sidled over to me and explained in a timent words, that at they really need a time they really needed decent company i was there in their living room on some video they had seen. or at the time they were growing up, had someone tell me they did not have a positive male influence in their life. through vh tapes and a couple things on hbo now and then, i was. i know how powerful that bond is youeen a viewer and what are seeing, i understand how that investment can pay off. and the fact that the president of the united states on occasion has been involved and become invested in the story that i was
helping telling, that is a testament to this great business into a long time ago. all i can say is god bless america. it happened to a white boy from oakland, i will take it. thank you so much. into a long time ago. all i can say>> are we live? last one. how did it make you feel? tom: honored. he is a busy man. the checkered career we all have in our business, i have provided him a couple moments of both solace and inspiration, or pure escapism, i will take any one of the three. congratulations. question, you
mentioned margaret. all these wonderful stories, it you're an icon. tom: i think there was a tidal wave of diversity coming down because of the amount of work that is done in television, is divided up and there is that artificial barrier between motion pictures and television. pictures have to make money, there is a massive economic aspect to it. it is hard to find people that want to pay for product. television on the other hand, they are clamoring for product. usually lot of people would not get a shot or chance to prove themselves are getting it, even right now. they have to dig deeply to find women, the great diversity that exists. if it is on the screen, it is filmmaking, period, the end. there will be more coming down the pipe.
>> thank you. >> one question for you. tom: which camera is the bbc? >> abc news. tom: i am sorry. >> in forest gump, didn't you win the medal of honor? front was awarded that in of a fake blue screen on a soundstage at paramount studios. so it is a little different. different presidents, too. when you are actually here in , abigail adams hung her sheets right there, that alters the stakes of the reach of why you are here. >> what does it mean to you to receive this at the end of the obama administration? tom: it is astounding.
a lot of history for the family when we come here. next january, someone else will be an, it will be a different administration. all i can hope is that their stewardship for what america is is as fine as the man we are saying goodbye to. thank you. three more questions? >> if you missed any of this event, you can watch it again in its entirety on our website, www.c-span.org. coming up here on c-span, a look at the challenges with technology firm's legal department. it then, conversation with some of the federal government's top technology officers. later, another chance to see the white house medal of freedom
ceremony. >> c-span's washington journal, live every day with news and policy issues that impact you. coming up wednesday morning, an analysis of president-elect donald trump's infrastructure proposals. its challenges, and the current state of the u.s. infrastructure. with the brookings institute. in washington examiner national security and defense reporter jamie mcintyre on president-elect trump's national security agenda and his decision to choose michael flynn as national security advisor. be sure to watch c-span's washington journal, live at 7:00 a.m. eastern wednesday morning. join the discussion. >> wednesday, i discussion on the history of school segregation. an investigative journalist writes about racial segregation
in the united states. that is at 8:00 p.m. eastern here on c-span. >> here are some of our featured programs thursday. thanksgiving day on c-span. just after 11:00 a.m., nebraska senator ben sasse on american values, the founding fathers, and the purpose of government. huge civic a mindedness in american history, but it is not compelled by the government. john harkinsator on healthy food and a rise of childhood obesity in the u.s.. >> everything from monster calories,, with 1421 pepsi's,ce coke's and 10 to 15 teaspoons of sugar, feeding an epidemic of child obesity. >> and then, at 3:30, wikipedia