tv President-elect Donald Trump Holds Rally in Des Moines Iowa CSPAN December 9, 2016 2:09am-3:02am EST
when we build a wall, we will, and there will be big, beautiful doors. we will have people coming in to our country, but they will come in with a process, they will come in legally, and we will see that these people have true capability to love us, not to hate us, to love us. [applause] donald trump: earlier today i visited the campus of ohio state university, great am a great place. to meet with victims of the attack that occurred only days ago with one man that saved a lot of lives. our whole nation extends our prayers. that man was a young guy give him applause, come on. [applause]
donald trump: he might be watching. donald trump: our whole nation extends our prayers and support. we will be solid, we will be together, we will be a strong, strong together nation. i was lucky enough to receive year." e person of the they can't do it anymore. they want to be politically correct. they talked about a divided nation on the cover. then they have to go a little bit -- a divided nation. i said, i haven't been president, what are you saying that for? but we are going to bring the nation together. we are going to bring the nation together. [applause] donald trump: we are not going to have a divided nation.
and i want to applaud the university leadership and students for their response in the attack and their police department really has done a terrific job. it is swift, lifesaving work. they were great people. this horrific thing is you one more reminder that immigration security is now national security. no more games, folks. no more games. [applause] donald trump: a trump administration will always put the safety and security of the american people first. it has not been that way. [applause] donald trump: it hasn't been that way. when i look at trade deals i have been studying the much over the last few weeks, i think they meant to make them good for other nations, or maybe that was
the concept, because i say, how can the agreement be so bad? is it possible to be so bad? i believe they meant to make it good, maybe to help the other nations, but they are killing us. are we tired of this? we will change them around, get it going. you see what is going on, you see what is going on on wall street. it is a beautiful thing. all over the world they are talking about our country, and we haven't even started yet. wait till we start. such potential. [applause] >> usa, usa, usa. donald trump: thank you. we want to see apple, and we want to see these great companies building plants in the united states, that is what i want to see, their biggest plants. ethics reform will be a crucial part as well. we are going to drain the swamp of corruption in washington, dc.
on,y how that term caught isn't it? i tell them, i hated it, drain the swamp, i said that is so hokey. that is so terrible. all right, i will try it. so like a month ago i said, drain the swamp, the place went crazy. then i said it again, then i said it like i meant it. and then i said it, i started loving it. let's drain the swamp, and it is true. drain the swamp. i will oppose the five-year ban on the executive branch official becoming lobbyists and the lifetime ban on officials becoming lobbyists for a foreign government. can't do it, can't do it. not going to help. we have faced many challenges,
but this is truly an exciting time to be alive. the script is not yet written. we do not know what the page will read tomorrow, but for the first time in a long time, what we do know is that the pages will be authored by each and every one of you. [applause] [cheers] donald trump: you, the american people, will be in charge. your voice, your desires, your hopes and aspirations will never again fall on deaf ears. he will be the captain of your own destiny. that is what happened during this election. people came down, and people came out, great americans, they love the country or than anyone,
but they have not voted in 20 or 30 years, some of them have never voted at all. they came and stood in line for four hours and five hours, and all of these geniuses said, where did these people come from? where did they come from? oh, where did they come from? where, where, where? we did not know they existed. where did they come from? now they know, right? [applause] donald trump: together we will raise incomes and create millions and millions of new jobs. we will lower taxes, unleash american energy, and bring thousands of new companies to our shores, and we won't let our companies leave. we will reestablish the rule of law and appoint justices to the united states supreme court who will uphold and defend the constitution of the united states. [applause] [cheers] donald trump: so important. you don't know what you did when
you put me in this position, because now, we are going to have just that one subject was so important. if nothing else, supreme court. i used to say, if nothing else, you know they have the never trumps right, the never trumpers -- they are on respirators right now. for the most part, they are gone. we had a few never trump, and now they call themselves only trump, right? but i used to go into a room early on, and i had some never trumpers in there. if no other reason, the supreme court of the united states -- forget about everything else. she knows. we will fight for the great schools and save neighborhoods, we will return respect for americans and the american flag. we will heal divisions and unify our country.
when you americans are unified, there is nothing we cannot do. no task is too great, no dream too large, no goal beyond our reach. [applause] [cheers] donald trump: my message tonight is for all americans, from all parties, all beliefs, all walks of life. no matter your age, your income, your background, i am asking you to join this incredible movement. i am asking you to dream big and bold and daring things for your country. i am asking you to believe in yourself, and i am asking you to believe again in america. it is going to be great, it is going to be great. [applause] [cheers]
donald trump: and if we do that, then altogether, we will make america strong again. we will make america rich again. we will make america safe again. and we will make america great again. thank you, iowa. thank you, thank you very much, god bless you, iowa. god bless you. [applause] [cheers] ♪ >> ♪ you can't always get what you want you can't always get what you want you can't always get what you
want you can't always get what you want you can't always get what you want but if you try sometimes well, you might find you get what you need ♪ i went down to the demonstration to get my fair share of abuse ♪ [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> donald trump will continue to hold rallies in states where he won. we will have live coverage at 7:00 p.m. eastern here on c-span.
abigail fillmore was the first first lady to work outside the home teaching in a private school. mimi eisenhower's hairstyle and love of pink created fashion sensations. main -- mimi pink was marketed as a color. wasueline kennedy responsible for the creation of the white house historical association and nancy reagan as an actress so her name on the blacklist of suspected communist sympathizers in the late 1940's. she appealed to screen actors guild president ronald reagan for help. she later became his wife. these stories are featured in the book, first lady's. the book makes a great gift. a look into the personal lives of every first lady, stories of fascinating women and how their legacies resonate today. share the stories of america's first ladies for the holidays.
first ladies, and paperback is now at your favorite bookseller and as an e-book. and former astronaut and senator john glenn died. president obama said with his passing, the nation lost an icon . on behalf of a grateful nation, god speed, john glenn. paul ryan says may his memory live on as a look at the stars. he was the first american to orbit the earth. here is a look back.
♪ narrator: five hours before he is going to take a stride into history, john h. glenn's queezes into his space suit this morning, the weather over cape canaveral is better, and there is an air of optimism as the colonel goes up the elevator. he prepares to go to the 11th deck as clocks point to 6:00 a.m. eastern standard time. the schools are beginning to lighten, and a cool north wind blows across the cape. ♪ narrator: the colonel's date with destiny comes less than a year after alan shepard blazed a suborbital trail. the eyes of the world turn to cape canaveral. russian orbits were in a thick fog of secrecy. the united states is a white-hot player of world publicity. atop this missile, the colonel
will be strapped to a couch, that the mercury is tilted. the astronaut will ride backwards. a second take off as the rendezvous approaches. and then millions are moved to silent prayer. ♪ narrator: everything is go. the takeoff of the mercury blast -- takeoff of the atlas blasts .ff 360,000 pounds of thrust carries the mercury gracefully skyward. the friendship seven climbing out of the atmosphere exerts a pressure of six times the force of gravity on the astronaut. loud and clear he reports back to mercury control, reading off his instruments, commenting on his reactions, all as coolly and
calmly as if he was commuting on the 827. now comes the moment when the mercury is turned so glenn will be seated facing backwards. he ejects with ground control. >> i feel fine. capsule is turning around. oh, the view is tremendous. roger, seven has started. i can see the booster during turnarounds, a couple of hundred yards behind me, it is beautiful. >> roger, seven, you have a go. >> roger, understand go for at least seven orbits. narrator: actual pictures of glenn in the capsule will give scientists the opportunity to study his reactions as he passes over the canary islands, africa, the indian ocean, australia, back across the pacific and over the united states. he speeds at 17,500 miles an hour, reaching a high point of
160 miles and a low altitude of 399 miles. each of the three orbits takes 90 minutes. he sees the sun rise within and 62iod of four hours minutes. three times around the globe for a trip of 81,000 miles before he reenters the earth's atmosphere, a shield protecting the astronaut from the intense heat. ♪ narrator: the carrier randolph is the command ship in the pickup area. but glenn, instructed not to jettison is landing rockets, lands short of the carrier. the heat shield was loose, and he was instructed to hold on to his rocket bank to hold the shield in place. right at hand is the destroyer know what, and she speeds -- noah and she speeds to the capsule to take him aboard. despite a few shaky moments among ground control personnel, glenn is down with a pencil like
crane will lift the friendship seven aboard. ♪ narrator: the end of a saga. the now famous friendship 7 is latched to the deck of the destroyer and the crew prepares to help glenn from the capsule. ♪ narrator: first they attempt to help the colonel from his complex prism through the upper exit in the mouth. they encounter difficulties, and so it is decided to blow off the escape hatch cover. first glimpse of the conquering hero, colonel john h. glenn. he left his footprints among the stars. he has a grin as wide as the path he blazed as he rests briefly before being flown to the carrier randolph by helicopter. he's lifted aboard in a maneuver that looks more dangerous than the flight itself. ♪
narrator: the helicopter takes him to the randolph for a debriefing and examinations by medical men. the copter notes in her touches down on deck than glenn gets a preview of the congratulations that are still to come. on every hand there is jubilation. on every side, smiles and cheers. he signs over his precious log and instruments to the national space administration. from here, he goes to grand turk island for further rest before the deluge, a deluge of honors, a proud country waits to bestow on a brave man. ♪ ♪ announcer 2: former astronaut and senator john glenn spoke at
an event in 2002, marking the 40th anniversary of being the first american to orbit the earth. he reflected on the space program and his life. john glenn died on thursday. he was 95 years old. [applause] john dailey: good evening, ladies and gentlemen, i am john dailey, and is my privilege to welcome you for a special evening. i wanted to thank the boeing company represented here tonight by the vice chairman, mr. henry stonecipher. you have got a good seat. i'm glad to see you are doing well. [laughter]
>> ok, terrific. and to thank all of you for coming to support this program. anniversary in the museum, and we worked very hard to make this a special year. you can see tonight's event is truly indicative of that. we have tried to make it as personal as possible. i am without fear of contradiction, and we have done a perfect job here tonight. please join me in welcoming any glenn. annie glenn. [applause] >> thank you very much. thank you. thank you.
40 years, it is hard to believe. last flight, i have told more people i lost 12 pounds. i mean, the first flight i lost 12 pounds, because i was really scared. last flight i put all of them back on again. they were so different. he for we begin, my introduction, i would like to, for you will to get to see our kids. they are grown up now. back then, glenn was in ninth grade when john was lost, and dave was in fifth grade. they both came back for this special 40th anniversary. she is from minnesota, right
here. [applause] glenn: and our son david , dr.is wonderful wife karen peggy strong, and our son david they are back from california. would you please welcome them? [applause] annie glenn: and there is another gentleman here tonight, heeral tom miller retired, and his family live next door to us when we were living in arlington at the time of his flight. my two kids and the miller family helped me through an awful, awful loss. it was, john was our teacher.
he took us to different places , and we was in training learned so much of what to expect. he helped us to understand what .e was going to be doing even then, i was scared. so my job is very special. ohio state university present dr. kirwan is a leader in higher education. osu, he leads one of the nation's largest distinguished universities with 19 colleges and for regional campuses all dedicated to teaching, research and service. planning -- proud to have the john glenn public policy as a part of the ohio state university family. and this has been a key factor
in making that happen. it is off to a wonderfully exciting, great start. four values guide his presidency, pursuing academic excellence, student experiences, making diverse city and international reality -- an international reality, expanding outreach for not only ohio but beyond. a great educator, a great university president. he and his wife patty are very, very good friends of ours, and is my honor to introduce to you. dr. brit kirwan. [applause]
dr. kirwan: annie, thank you very much. among the most -- most pleasant and rewarding tasks i have at your -- at the university is working with john and annie glenn. i should refer to annie as professor glenn because she is the adjunct faculty member in our department of speech and hearing sciences. she delivered the keynote address at that department's annual john black symposium 18 months ago. as many of you know, annie has been honored nationally for her work on communicative disorders and for her lifelong efforts on behalf of children, the elderly, and the handicapped. andy, we at ohio state are blessed to be able to call you one of our very own. [applause]
dr. kirwan: the other half of this remarkable couple is of course tonight's distinguished speaker. all of you are well aware of just how highly the american people regard senator glenn. he is deservedly recognized as one of our nation's foremost public servants. indeed for tens of millions of americans he is the , quintessential american hero. so you can imagine the special pride we in ohio have for this native son of the buckeye state. how appropriate it was that the senator was asked to carry the american flag in this winter's a -- olympic games. [applause] dr. kirwan: as annie mentioned,
we at ohio state are blessed to be the home of the john glenn institute for public service and public policy and the john glenn archives. the distinguished director of the john glenn institute is with us this evening, professor deborah merritt. deborah, would you please stand ? thank you. [applause] dr. kirwan: inspired by john glenn's career and his vision of -- vision the institute as , having a major impact on our students, faculty, and programs. just ask the students from the institutes of washington internship program. we are here with the 40th anniversary of his historic flight to hear this distinguished american deliver -- 2002 very broad broad werner von braun memorial lecture. many of you will recall as i do
the enormous sense of national pride we felt 40 years ago today as we sat glued to our television sets to watch after not john glenn to lift off the face of the earth, circumnavigate the globe, and land safely in the ocean. he became of course an instant national hero. few if any have ever carried universal acclaim and hero status with such grace and humility. you're all familiar with the mile post along his illustrious career path. his service as a decorated marine corps pilot and record-breaking test pilot. his service as a mercury astronaut. his successful career in business and his work to protect the environment. is distinguished year career in the united states senate, making him the first ohio in --
ohioan to serve four consecutive sit -- terms. and his return to space at, dare i say it, age 77 on nasa shuttle discovery mission. a little over three years ago. what an extraordinary man. what an extraordinary career. join me in welcoming a national hero in 1962 and still a national hero in 2002. senator john glenn. [applause] john glenn: thank you. [applause] john glenn: thank you, thank you all very much. thank you. thank you all. [applause] ladiesenn: thank you,
and gentlemen. thank you, brit, very much. sound system, how is it up there? can you hear all right? ok good. brit of course is no stranger to washington. he was president of the university of maryland for about nine years i think it was. and the did a great job there such a great job that we promoted him to ohio state. [laughter] john glenn: i thought i would get some boos out of this crowd on not around this particular area here, but you know host director of the air and space museum general jack daly who i have known in the marine corps and nasa days and now here at the air and space museum. i don't know what his problem was i think he probably got so excited about the olympics he tried to play 20-year-old again, and it didn't work. [laughter] jack we wish you a speedy , recovery. i know that's a painful thing to have happen your achilles tendon go out for you then a verse or a hard to believe. from a 9 -- i guess the other
factors involved there were brought home to me a short time ago when i got a letter from a young man nine years of age in illinois. and i won't give you his exact name, but this is actual letter it's not a not something i made up. it said it said dear mr glenn. , hi i'm andrew and i won't give his last name i am. and nine years old i'm in the third grade at lyons school. i wish you could come. just recently i had to do a biographer you report and i picked you because i wanted to learn about the first american to orbit the earth. i loved reading about your life . when i had to do my presentation, i made a poster and dressed up like an astronaut. i have a question for what it was like to be shot at in a plane and what are you working on now. this is the part that i liked. i'm glad you're still alive because a lot of my classmates' biography choices are already dead. i hope you write back. [laughter] [applause] john glenn: that letter got the most prompt reply my office ever sent out, i guarantee it. [laughter] john glenn: it just seems like 40 days instead of 40 years ago,
and it has been vividly impressed on me from back at the time of the flight but also been recalled so often since that is remain just very fresh in my mind remembering how things felt and looked and so on. but when i talk with jack about what we might speak about tonight, he suggested we do sort of a retrospective here on some things that maybe have not been as much in the public press as some of the other factors like you've seen on the screen here when we came in the saving and things like that. so i won't go back on that kind of a thing, but i do want to bring out some of the things i hope our little more unusual with regard to our training, our selection, our training, and so on, but first i'd like to just pause for a moment here to help us all understand the mood of those days back in the early 1960's and why some of those decisions were made. and for an international backdrop, it goes something like this. we came out of world war ii, and our peace at that time was very
short-lived. we went into the korean war. and worldwide communism was on the march. it was the days of joe mccarthy, and i have here in my pocket the name of 200 communists in the state department. some of your old enough to remember those days. hollywood writers were being blacklisted. soviet military equipment was going to third world countries , and senate hearings were prolific about not only mccarthy but what was happening to us. the soviets had already taken let via, lithuania, estonia, parts of poland, finland, romania. they controlled the governments of both radio, czechoslovakia, east germany, hungary, poland, romania and north korea. and they were local communist governments had taken over and yugoslavia, albania, north vietnam. they were very strong communist parties in france and italy. china had already gone communist before 1989 with 20% of the human race. and lest we doubted their sincerity about what they were
trying to do, the soviets crushed revolts in east germany in 1956.d in hungary now with that background we had , always considered ourselves to be a leader in the world in science and technology and we were. we were recognized forthose areas. but now the soviets claim to that was their technical superiority in the world should follow their. their lead. and they were making hay with this. and they were taking students by -- by thends thousands and taking them to russia and moscow and training them and bringing them back to their countries. their international trade fairs kroos jeff was saying we will bury you. and it wasn't long after all this before the bay of pigs disaster. so the soviets had gained tremendous credibility. no longer looked at as those crazy bolsheviks over there at each other. this was something a very very serious for the united states, and there were many in this country that, for the long-term know whether we could be certain , didn't know whether we could be certain of just exactly what was going to happen. now, that is the time in which
the space race was born, and khrushchev, when they had made their first successful launch, we had failed to do the same thing, said that with their new boosters, he quoted socialism has triumphed not only fully but irreversibly. so that's where the space race started. the soviets were going to space to prove their superiority. and they said so. we were trying, and too often we were failing. and that was too bad also. they had orbited sputnik, the orbital vehicle around the earth first which the model of which is up in the hall at that center hall outside there if you look up toward the balcony area. the exact model of it. went up on the fourth of october beeping its way around the 1957, world, and khrushchev once again said the u.s. now sleeps under a soviet moon. we tried to counter just a few months later in december with vanguard, and it blew up after a forefoot lift off the pad. and we remember some of those
pictures very, very well. so with that background enter , the manned program. so its tensions were brought to a new level. lines were drawn. and the space race was underway. the media concentrated mainly on the race aspects of it. i always thought that it was something after people had looked up for tens of thousands of years and wondered what was up there was something that once we develop the capability to do this it would have happened some , time anyway, but the impetus for it back at that time was certainly the space race. now we had the ability to learn know, and it was going to be of great, great value space race or , not. president was kennedy looked at as a space president, still is because of his decision to send the people to the moon. but i think many have overlooked some of the role that, part of the role the general that president eisenhower played because he made some very key decisions. he originally had not been much impressed with sputnik, thought it was a stunt or than anything else, and really amount of a
whole lot and said so publicly. but it was his decision then when he reversed his mind on this and decided this was very important, the change of the naca became the old -- the old national advisory committee for aeronautics became the new national aeronautics and space administration. and he wanted a manned program. he didn't want to be a military one to contrast it with the soviets wanted to be an open , program. didn't want to be the program of the air force had proposed out , of edwards air force base the old misprogrammed man in space soonest. he went with mercury and nasa mainly because it could be done sooner. because time was of the essence back in those days. and instead of setting out a group of people from which the astronauts would be selected out of a group of perhaps divers and parachutists, racers, explorers, submarines daredevils of one , kind or another, you decide -- he decided the military test pilots were qualified to do the job since it operated in small cockpits and high speeds and so on. there are about people qualified 110 to meet the conditions that
were set down. 32 were selected for a physical and selection process. out of that process came the seven mercury astronauts now. some of these things we went through back then i thought might be of interest and a little more detail. but the physical out of loveless was very mundane. it was what you would expect out of any physical except it was the most extensive physical. as far as we knew that had ever been given to any group like that. blood samples, urine, body fat, barium, exercise, balance, spirometer, it i, year, nose, throat. you ever tried to blow water in the air? i remember that one very vividly. cold water in the air, long enough, you fill your vestibular negative zone. and there are different temperatures in different parts, you get stagnant so bad, the an
ability -- the inability to focus your eye on any one thing. you become very, very dizzy. they time you how long it took you to settle down from that. [laughter] john glenn: another one i have never seen any where done before or since is, we went to wright-patterson, wright-patterson air force base for additional checks they wanted to run on us. they did anthropomorphic studies. human beings had different body types. some of you are doctors can give me a verse on that, but ectomorph and mesomorph are the three different. basic body types which are slender, sort of average, and tending to be overweight. well, measures in these areas, and i never did know why this was of value, they had a stand like this with our legs apart like this arms out like this and , stand very still. they took pictures from every angle you can consist of from right between our feet straight
up to head down, right and left, forward and backward. now i thought those may be interesting for somebody in the archives some time to look at but i was brought home to me , that this was not something i should have taken so lightly. when at a political rally in the dayton area, not too long after i had been in the senate a woman , came up to me and said i probably know more about you the -- then you know about yourself. she was one charged with making all the measurements of those pictures that we had sent in. i immediately left her, haven't seen her since, don't want to see her since. [laughter] john glenn: at wright-patterson we went through some additional , checks that nobody goes through now, and isolation chamber and an echo chamber. in a chamber without telling us how long we're going to be in there, separately one at a time with the skin sensors on alert , you are going to be or how long you're going to be and.
no light no sound. there you sat on a chair at a --, and that was it. that is you are supposed to stay alert. but i did i thought that's what they wanted us to do, although i didn't say. they just want to see the reaction you got they got on that when i went down through a desk drawer a found what i thought was a pad of paper leaf through it. and i thought there was a blank page and sat there with a pencil , i happened to have in my pocket doing a little dog , poetry. which was a good exercise because you had to remember what went before to make it rhyme. and did that and i have they found it took me out after about four and a half hours, but the the poetry was never published a year. heat chamber running body , temperature up. sound chamber, they could change frequency, all kinds of different strength of sound. you actually would get a get aic on a bone,
harmonic on the bone length to wear your bone sort of tickled, and they had sound running on it. you were getting a reaction to where it reverberated inside pulse,dy -- light certain light sensitivities of some people would -- if you had a certain strobe, a certain number of cycles per some people second, would be particularly sensitive to different frequencies and it might , interfere with their whole nervous system. so we were put in this where they could have light pulses that were dimmer -- be dimmer or stronger. they would run the frequency up and down and did us at 10 cycles per second. seemed to be debilitating to some people they'd run a lot of tests on this. and some people really would sort of phase out a little bit and their abilities at 10 cps. i found 10 cps sort of more irritating than the others, but fortunately i didn't really phase out.
and then we were introduced to there for the first time was the centrifuge, they had a 25 foot human centrifuge. that would be what is expected for launch and reentry on project mercury. pressure chamber run but this , was done differently. pressure chamber run was done where you go up in normal pressure chamber you go up until you are in space or high-altitude, breathing oxygen of course, but instead of letting it down gently as they normally do they brought it down , at approximately the same rate as though you were coming back in from space. and you were supposed to vent out your ears as a pressure built up, of course, and this was important for this reason. when you make your reentry from in, asas you come back we were to come back in in that mercury spacecraft you would be , going straight down once you had decelerated and you were falling into the bigger part of the atmosphere. if you are going supersonic,
straight down with a helmet on, and you couldn't get in a twitch your nose to nose, it's just you couldn't get into it. so you are there doing like we all do in airliners with making your chin go and making your and go back and forth trying to make pressure go back into your years. that was a different one than we had ever had before. psychological tests are interesting too, and they want to do those because. i think it was a good reason for that because it had some indications from submariners and from people in the antarctic on some projects down there of when , you're in isolation for a maythy period of time, you have enough sensory deprivation that you develop anxiety depression, even psychosis. and they didn't want anyone up in a spacecraft with psychosis. so they gave us all sorts of tests. the first we know was just a plain iq test, and it remained a secret to what was good or bad.
then there were multiple questionnaires, teams of psychiatrists doing this. i don't know how many rorschach inkblot tests we went through but there were dozens of them at , different times, what do you think this looks like? to me they always looked like birds or butterflies one of the , other. but i think i was reminded of a joke that was going around back at that time. that a psychiatrist who had a patient, he showed them some of these were start inkblots -- rorschach ink, afghan what he thought of that. and the patient launched into the most lurid details of pornographic activity like you wouldn't believe. and on and on and on and on not -- he finally got a fellow stopped and he showed him the same picture, he goes into the pornographic thing again. away they go. this went on about 10 times. finally the psychiatrist is getting a little disgusted. after all this at he end seen anything except all this pornographic things that he had described in great detail.
so he finally said, why do you respond that way? and the patient said, don't blame me doc, you're the one , showing the dirty pictures. [laughter] john glenn: there were some other ones that were interesting too. when you go home, take out a piece of paper and write down the answer 20 times two who am i? you will find you can do a lot of things at that time like i am a husband, i am a father, i am a marine, i am a pilot, i am a so, i am a so-and-so, i am a member of something else. and you get up to about fifteen or 16 times, it is hard to get those last four or five. we met through all of these things. and there were pictures of, they would say draw picture of your choosing that would illustrate truth or honesty. that is good and abstract. and karen who's a clinical , psychologist may make
something out of this, but those were things that we didn't know how to analyze at that time so , you just went along and did the best job you could. now one of -- pete conrad, some of you know him here pete was a , great guy and one of the finest astronauts we ever had. he was just, had just an irrepressible attitude and sense of humor. that was great and this actually happened with pete. and he was in with one of the psychiatrist one day and the psychiatrist put out a plain white piece of paper just like that across to pete and said, what do you see? and that pete looked at it and said, well the first thing i see , is you got it upside down. [laughter] john glenn: that could have had something with pete not being selected in the first group. [laughter] john glenn: but he was selected in the next group that went through and eventually wound up going to the moon, and had a great flight there. after all of these tests, we
were selected and announced in april 1959, announced the seven. spacecraft was still being defined, and i think some of that is interesting. in our ability to go into space. we were behindin our ability to go into space. -- we were behind in our ability to go into space. because we were better than the soviets were technically. sounds backwards. sounds very backwards except you have to remember that the boosters we were using were ones designed for nuclear weapons. we had been able to miniaturize nuclear weapons at that time or make them much smaller because we were better technically. they had not been able to do that. they had still had nuclear weapons weighing in the thousands of pounds. of thousands -- thousands of pounds, so they had to develop a larger booster. now when the space program turn. came around to where we're going to send manned spacecraft up. they had an advantage they could , practically put their house up if they wanted to at that time while we could just get up a little bit over 4000 pounds and , that was the max. so to do that the mercury spacecraft such as you see out there, friendship seven out in
the hall outside we were trying , to save every single pound that we possibly could, and it was only a one person spacecraft . it was a light structure. they even went with 100% oxygen environment, because that give you the same oxygen absorption at 27,000 feet with only five psi inside. with lower pressure, 100% oxygen, like you have the same oxygen intake that we have here on earth. that way, you could build a lighter spacecraft, did not need the structure because it was only five psi incident of the higher pressure you would want out there in the vacuum of space. the original spacecraft had no window except for a little port hole way over here on the left . you can just tell whether it was light or dark out of that. early on, the powers that be and nasa and people running the program agreed that we should
put in a window, so they put a window in that came right up over the astronauts's head. they used to call it a capsule. i have referred to that already a couple of times here we later. -- of times here. we later came around to describing it as a spacecraft. bob hope said it was the first time in history a capsule had taken a man. [laughter] john glenn: another thing that people were surprised about is originally nasa had a rule that prohibited any camera from being on board. it could be automatic, but they were very much afraid if you had a handheld camera that it might distract you enough that you wouldn't pay attention to what you were supposed to be paying attention to. i thought that was a little bit ridiculous because, if we are going to be that bad, badly bent out of shape psychologically, we probably shouldn't go up there to begin with. so he finally agreed also that
we have to take a camera, and so we're searching for a camera one that would we could make a a pistol grip on that could you could trigger and use that motion to advance the film. we hadn't settled on a camera yet. wantedas a leica that we , and i was downtown in cocoa beach one day, at a drugstore, happened to see on the drugstore camera a brand-new new type camera with automatic exposure which was brand new at that time little minolta camera. ,and it was one that looks like we could probably use for a handgrip, so i bought it for $45 and took it out. we adapted it in the machine shop. nasa did not have a photo shop at that time. adapted it, and that was the, that was the little camera that took what i believe are the handheld pictures ever taken of space. the ones that you have seen probably of north africa with mountains