tv C-SPAN Cities Tour in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania CSPAN December 9, 2016 5:25pm-7:01pm EST
victory over the japanese at the battle of midway. at noon we are live with the author of "eyewitness to infamy," giving an account of the japanese attack from his more than 200 interviews with veterans. and then the pearl harbor 75th anniversary ceremony from the national world war ii memorial with remarks from john mccain. saturday on american history tv on c-span3. for the next 90 minutes, an american history tv exclusive. our cities tour visits pittsburgh, pennsylvania. for five years we have traveled to cities across the united states to explore their historic sites, and you can watch more at www.c-span.org/citiestour.
>> andy warhol is one of the most prolific artists of the 20th century. all the way up until 1985, and he died at 1987, he was painting and north campuses. in a lot of work that had not been shown during his lifetime. he fell into a specific way of working and kept to that way of working. he expanded his practice, and opened up to technology, and that is why he remains so contemporary. he was born in pittsburgh in 1928. he was the eldest of three siblings.
his parents were immigrants and he grew up fairly religious. they were catholic, and he did not have a lot, but there was a of creative energy in his house. julia is known for her creativity. we have her drawings in the collection. herhad a funky spirit about and at one point he captured her humor. he had an illness at an early age and spent a lot of time at home. he and his mother had a special bond. that is where his creative energy began to form. , workss of his family from his years at carnegie tech, -mellon. now carnegie ki
we are looking at one of his paintings that he did for his canvasyear, this calledare one, why pick on me titledn mark and it is the lord gave me my face, but i can pick my nose. it is pretty provocative in subject matter. it is the portrait of a young man picking his nose. he submitted it to one of the most important shows of the year, and he was denied by the jury. warhol did not give up, and that summer he showed it again with a different title of why pick on me? had a little bit of autograph he is knownce, and for talking about and the philosophies of india warhol and
about how he did not like his mose, how his family called hi the red nosed wharhola. it points back to his biography and the person behind the work. warhol obviously had a certain charisma about him his entire life, and i think that also manifested in pittsburgh. i think it was probably ,onsidered to be a bit peculiar not like the average student at carnegie tech. his drawings show that in the college years. they are a bit surreal, almost, showing the body in darker ways, and he did what he wanted to do. he was irreverent from the beginning. in 1949 he went up to new york with a fellow classmate and they took the bus together, they were
in a tiny apartment together, and they tried to market themselves as commercial illustrators to get their foot into the door. they did a lot of commercial design. this is an important time for war all. he's formulating his own break hisnd trying to way into the art world. also a moment when he starts focusing on his own image. he eventually gets into the silver we get and i think 60 -- 1960's.ig in the he gets his nose altered. he is thinking of his own image and his body in that place. ae photo next to me is photograph and it shows him going in with a black marker to chisel out this perfect profile. there it is again, this little fixation on beauty and transformation. 's he started using
this technique, so he was able to make multiples of everything. it is almost a form of printing, because he would trace an image, use a piece of glassine paper, ink enough up, and remove it and you have almost a stand. he was able to make multiple versions of the drying which made all the editors very happy. women'sot his name in fashion with "glamour" magazine. he did a lot she illustrations. he did a lot of fashion and makeup, and also a leather goods company. he got his name started in commercial design and illustrated. one of the strongest in the museum has some of the earliest cleanings, showing the strength of warhol at this moment. a daring moment for him where he is still figuring out what his
signature style is going to be. one of the works in the gallery is the brand-new acquisition for -- it was a one painting in a small series of forks that we're based off of the paint by numbers box that every average american can buy. me is from anext year earlier from 1961, and it is part of the small collection of early paintings. i particularly love this painting. it was taken from the national rer, and it was a teeny ad that he blew up and transfer to the canvas threads rejecting process. it is interesting when he is doing the crayon, kind of markng with the idea of making an end asterisk way. also when you see the whole piece together as one, it reads like an american flag. you have this ideal of this male
and female making want you gender norm happening and the star in the center and the way he removed all caps, he went in with a straight idea with the crayon. gender politics there. gay artist ing a 1950's, fascinating front of, and he would not get that way. we're standing in the screenprinted gallery which highlights the beginning screene of warhol's paintings, and you are looking 1 ofe paintings from 1962, the earliest batches of the screen-printed campuses. a beautiful selection of jackie kennedy paintings were all made in 1964, and he made these just after the asset estimation of jfk, and they show in a really betweenay this blur
death and smiling. there are moments of jackie when and this onefk, here just before the assessment, and then there are images from the funeral. it shows this idea of celebrity in the public eye and death and mourning in the public eye as well. his painting of jacqueline kennedy is also a part of beauty andxation on the media and death and the media, so in 1962 he did the marilyn monroe canvasses, which was just after her suicide, and then he selects jackie kennedy when she is going to this public loss. part of that focus is her face was everywhere. warhol said the same thing about marilyn monroe, and he said her face was all over the media and on the front page, all kinds of newspapers, to the same thing with jacqueline kennedy, the loss became very public. warhol in a way is really
feeling that moment in time and when we look at them now, we still have that very year he sense of morning to them. gallery on thext sixth floor of the museum, and looking at an array of pillboxes and a campbell soup box that warhol made in 1964, short of iconic works for i hauled -- four warhol. one of the ventures he took at the sculptor, and they're fascinating because they play with the idea of a ready-made, duchampian idea that a box is a sculpture in an of itself. more provocative because they are not true oxus, not the true object taken and reimagined. they are handmade. so he has been crafted by carpenters. these plywood boxes, and then he went in and hand stenciled and
then screenprinted overtop of them. the campbell's one is loving because you can see it in process. on one side it is not only finished. all of this is hand done done he did them with the promote that they were stacked utterly to the ceiling, like you were in a warehouse. he played with them in the way that viewers could navigate the space, maybe the visitor could go around them. and the idea of sculpture. at this moment warhol is making the boxes and doing screens, he moved into a larger studio space and this production way he was working with the brillo in a ended up working factory style, so the idea ended of translating to the name of his studio. he ended up calling his studio the factory, and ended up
calling it the silver factory. right now we are in a gallery that highlights warhol's first foray into filmmaking and his screen test from 1964. twom standing with screen tests, his duchamp screen test. the assistant was the one that seamlessly covered the factory in silver and where it got this iconic silver name from. he covered his own apartment in silver, aluminum foil, and sprayed point. warhol asked for him to do it to his studio. the screen tests are fascinating, a play with you. he uses 16-millimeter film. uses one reel of film for each
test to what would run after. the subject was in front of the camera for about four minutes and they were supposed to sit still and silent. very rarely works so it is incumbent will to sit in front of a camera for that long. there are all kinds of things that people do to break up at four minutes for it is their way to create an underground world, playing with the idea of hollywood and the screen tests of celebrities. we're standing in a gallery fortress, but this painting is a portrait of debbie harry. thise harry turned out to iconic image of a young, youthful woman, strong, fierce, rocker woman. so warhol was working with an doing portraits of and doing photographs of and it really captured this a really incredibly energetic, iconic
moment in her career and she has been frozen in time with these portraits of clever. people would commission him to do their portrait, but he also did certain celebrities, like of theger, iconic images youthful movement. he would make multiples. the ones we have left are in the thatm are the portraits the sitter to not want. he would always make a variety. people could pick the color they wanted. he would take these beautiful polaroids and turn them into silkscreened and into these large paintings. in a reallying amazing gallery in the museum that shows antiwar hall's -- andy warhol's paintings from 1974, and they are not restricted they showed scale in his work. they show this late resurgence of painting in his practice.
moccasinsake large and mop on paint and screen overtop it warhol it's back into working with his hands and canvasses in this period thinking.of warhol and portraiture, he's ultimate alternates -- portrait of death in the school. used a polaroid at the beginning, of a human skull, and turned it into a large screen, and then this really beautiful campus. was shot multiple times by someone who is trying to the around the factory and be in more of warhol's zone. she felt rejected when he decided not to work on one of her films. he was shot, nearly died, but it really changed his work and his life and the way he worked physically could he went from an
open door policy to a closed-door policy, building more of a warhol enterprises is this my to practice. our thinking like this should his ability to gravitate towards very iconic imagery, so the idea and heh is very human, captures it here in almost this portrait way. the scale is also really great because it is dwarfed under the skull, and there's a hint of cynicism or humor like the skull is smiling. -- died in 1987, unexpectedly after routine call ladder surgery. he is buried in pittsburgh. this is his great. you can see a live feed of his grave in our lobby with the webcam, and 24-hour webcam on his grave, and it has the same it's testing this quote -- no
name, no date. so we are in the archive studies center at the antiwar -- andy warhol using. we have all of warhol's personal collections, including decorative art objects, posters, photographs, clothing, scrapbooks, source material every that you can imagine man collected. archives part of the is the time capsule collection, which is a set of 610 cardboard boxes you can see covering the walls around you. one of the earliest items that warhol collected as a young boy were movie star images that he would send away for. probably one of his favorites was this one from shirley temple that she sent to him when he was still andy warhola. it did not stop there. we have a whole photo album
filled with celebrity photographs. you can see the companies between the celebration of the celebrity and the constant collecting. pittsburgh,oy in who is also very ill and a lot of the times, this is a perfect outlet for him to reach out to these people that were so glamorous and beautiful to him while he was still stuck at home. one of the strengths of our archives is the deep amount of source material that we have for all of warhol's projects. in front of you you have the very famous marilyn source material, a promotional still for one of her movies. you can see that crop lines that he added in himself. he also took his source materials from different types of materials so this is a book, and you can see this page where he has cut out jackie's face for
part of the jackie series. and of course the famous funeral scene of jackie in morning. in keeping with warhol's fascination with celebrity and for autographs, this is the autograph book from the factory itself, that when people would come by and visit warhol, he would have them signed the street we have phyllis diller on kitt on the right. people left lengthy notes. some people do their own artwork. favorite is the peter beard's signature, which is quite unlike any others in the book. peter beard is a photographer. he was a good friend of warhol. he did a lot of work in africa. he discovered the model iman, an artist -- so he is in his own right. he would do a lot of our
on hiss -- of drawings progress. in addition to his handprint, we have one that is signed sheryl teague, who he was dating at the time. one of the great things about having candid stock of warhol is you see the man at ease and he let his guard down. it led to great photos of warhol with his friends, nick jager, jerry hall, and that is joan quinn in the background. you can tell he is loving every minute of this, and it is such a great from the very composed, the masonic image he would put out there. this is my favorite item. wrapped in ae plush snake, alluding to the brooke shields with the snake wrapped around her. it is a little snapshot, and then on the back a little note that says, andy, thanks so much wall of hundred do not forget i
would love something from you. this is a trait. thanks again. call me in l.a. we have some the processes. eventually he would get into photography. we have these big shot cameras, which are forward. a lot of assortments of these other cameras. i have a sample film reel here. man."lm is "i am a collection of some of his early works. this is one of the earlier heeens that he made which experimented in smaller screens before he went larger. and the same with stamps. this is an early process where he would actually handcarved these steps. we have a large collections of anti-'s clothing. clothing. this is a typical outfit.
the interesting about the leather jacket, this is the jacket he wore on his way to the hospital in 1987. we found in the pocket the receipt to the cap that he took to the hospital. we ended up lending this coat to start davidwhich bowie as andy warhol, and david wore one of this coat -- wore one of these coats. we try to create a little the absoluteng breadth and with of the types of materials we have a collection -- we have the collection. i like to show warhol's wigs. we have at least 60 catalog. yet more that have not been processed yet. they are all handmade by the same wiki maker. maker. these ones were very unceremoniously just stuffed
into envelopes. he started wearing wigs by the new york, andto he suffered from male pattern baldness. he was self-conscious about it. it was insight into how self-conscious antiwar hall was. -- andy warhol was. he was cool and aloof, but it came with a lot of work. he would talk about getting up in the morning and putting himself together. he would put on his wigs, makeup, take all kinds of firemen's. later -- vitamins. later in his life he had to tie himself together with these rsetses after he was -- co after he was shot. it was more that he was focused on his acne, and towards later in life, he became interested in holistic health.
this is a selection of antiwar warhol's time capsules we have on display. he moved studios, and one of his assistants planted in his mind that the contents you fill up in these boxes is a complete snapshot of your life at that time. even after the initial move, warhol kept a box although it up until his death. we have 610 time capsules. post of them are in these cardboard boxes. we have a collection in filing cabinet drawers and one steamer trunk. this is a collection to give you an idea of what is in them. much like the artwork, the time capsules themselves and a high and low things together. we have a letter from the busy modern art from tynecastle 12. it was sent in october 1966. it was informing or all thanks
for the drawing, but they were not needed. it is from the director of the museum collections of the museum of modern art. we also have different ephemera from all the times from the 1960's. like this radio. whiche this airplane lamp could have been something that warhol picked up at a free market or an anti-dealer, that he had just thrown in a time capsule. we also have strange easter eggs, hand blown eggs that word time and may be given to him as a gift. a lot of the items we do not know why they are in the boxes or where they came from. we have things like comic books, receiptsl,s, bil and he did not pay a lot of his bills, so we have a lot of overdue notices.
the capsules have not been fully catalogue to, but we have a basic inventory. it depends. 522,re one time capsule, that has a bunch of artwork. it has a really interesting clothing. it seems that everything in that box is something interesting. we have some time capsules that just mail.ly those are much more boring. a lot of the early boxes have some of his early illustrations, .hich are very important it depends. each capsule is different. a lot of the personal office we had came from his home, that, at the time of his death in most of the rooms were so packed with items they were unusable. here is we inherited the result of a 10-day sale at sotheby's.
we only have a fraction of what was actually collected. i think what is really nice about working with warhol's collection is that it really offers kind of this stripped down view of the man. warhol was famous for curating his aura, percent. he put out a lot of false information famously. and when you are working with a time capsules, you see an honest representation of oral desktop warhol. -- warhol. i think he comes across as quite funny. it kind of shows that he was a sensitive person. we have all these letters back home. he was close to his family, mother, and religious. they think of studio 54 and -- brities and nick jager
mick jagger, so this shows a quiet, since the part of the man. -- sensitive part of the man. >> when you think of catch, you youk of heinz, and when think of heinz, you think of pittsburgh. we are going to take a tour of the heinz exhibit. h.j. heinz was only 10 when he sold his first product. his mother made horseradish in their basement in sharpsburg, a few miles up the allegheny river from downtown pittsburgh. nz put the product in a wheelbarrow and rolled them into downtown pittsburgh and sold them on the street. people loved the product. he ran home and said, mom, what else can we sell? and she made bottled,
jarred other things. pittsburgh and heinz went hand came thend find the largest food purveyor in the world. heinz's first product was horseradish, and in 1869 he started the business for real. yet a partner named noble. that partnership to not work out so well. so he brought a brother in, frederick. j. heinz.and he figured he could make it out einzis own, and the h.j. h company became a legend. one story goes in the early days nz was on a railroad car in new york city. he saw a billboard that caught his eye. 21 styles of shoes, it said. he thought about that for a minute.
21 stylus. that is kind of impressive that they have that many different styles. i wonder how many products i have. on the back of an envelope, he counted them up, 54, 55, 86, 57. if the seven. he liked the sound of it. he liked the look of that number heand when he got home figured out yet many more products than that, he stuck with a 57, 57 varieties. he put it on every bottle. he put it on hillsides. he put it on billboards. branding,as his first and it was a success. in 1893, he went to the columbian exposition in chicago. it was a world's fair celebrating the 400 anniversary of columbus' discovery of the new world. he was on the third floor of the exhibit hall, and nobody was climbing the 125 steps up to the third floor. he was dying up there with his
pyramids of horseradish and pickles and catch up. he came up with an idea on the fly. he printed up little luggage tags. this one right here, in fact. it looked like it was made of gold. it had brass foil on it, and he hired street urchins, out of work boys, to throw these little luggage tags around on the first floor of the exhibit hall. people would be walking along arm in arm, they would catch the glint of gold out of the corner of their eye. they would bend down and pick up that tank and say, look, honey, to the heinz floor on the fourth floor for a free price. let's go see. stairsy trooped up the by the hundreds, by the thousands. by the hundreds of thousands, he found the pyramids of horseradish, canceled, and pickles. it was a huge success. it was such a success that other
exhibitors said you saved our lives. what can we do? printsught him a silver -- punch bowl? prize?s the it was a pickle charm. it is just compressed cellulose on it, andheinz" that symbol became the heinz logo. and people to this day still collect these little pins. heinz wanted people to see his products. his salesman went all over the world. he could not always bring the real thing. les.e designed tin pick they have numbers on them. 1800, 3400. that is how many pickles you would get in each barrel.
so the grocer could say i like the big ones. i will take one barrel of the 1500 pickle size. he invented a sorting machine, a patented machine, that look like a big drunk and would sort pickles to different sizes. his salesforce went around the --ld with their 10 pickles tin pickles and colored pictures of their products. heinz knew if people tasted his product, it was a short sale. he -- sure sale. he came up with all specialty equipment, simmons, forks, dishes. he would set up little samples in grocery stores all over the country. people would try his product and say, hey, that is what i want, and they would ask for it whining. pure food wasa --
a really big part of the heinz brand. in 1906 h.j. heinz testified before congress for the pure food and drug act. he was one of the experiments. he knew that his product could pass the test, or other competitors' could not. it was not only the right thing to do, that it was good for business, too. i order to provide pure food, needed to start with his workforce. many of the workers, most of the workers, were women. women from poor families that did not have any running water, to have indoor plumbing in their houses here in pittsburgh. so when they got to work for heinz, he outfitted them completely and in uniforms that were cleaned daily. the first thing they did was they had a manicure. and here is an image of one of the women workers getting her daily manicure. they also had showers.
so heinz started with his workers, but then it went through every aspect of his operation, from sterilizing bottles and jars. he even made his own bottles and the stoppers were important, whether they were corks in the early days, or caps in 19 three, to more sophisticated closures that we use today. in 1890 patented his ketchup bottles. that octagonal shape with the narrow neck. we do not think of it today, but it was an innovative design.
first up, his competitors were using dark green or black in glass bottles and you could not see the product inside. heinz is that if people could see his product they were more likely to buy it and they could tell it was fresh. he used to clear glass. he made his own bottles. that ensured of vertical integration of his whole industry. not only did he make his own glass bottles, but he developed his own seed stock, he owned the farms, he made sure everything got from the farm to the factory in 24 hours. he wanted it to be fresh from farm to factory. then, he ensured that with the farms, he made sure everything got from the farm to the factory in 24 hours. proper temperatures and bacteria and safety inspections that every product was safe. then, he got them into the grocer's stores and consumers hands as quickly as he could. hj heinz and his son and his son ran the company for 100 years. at that point they were got an outsider to run the company. hj heinz the third entered
in 1971. he was no longer running the ketchup is this. he was interested in changing people's lives for the better. he went to congress, became a senator, senator john heinz was an advocate for the downtrodden. he was an advocate for the environment, arts and culture. especially, he was the guy who helped pull pittsburgh up by its bootstraps when the steel industry was going down. heinz hall, heinz field, heinz chapel, these are some of the many legacies of the heinz family. hj heinz, the man for whom this museum is named, has left a huge empire. today, it is co-headquartered in pittsburgh and chicago. it is still the fifth largest food company in the world.
>> we are in pittsburgh, pennsylvania. this town was a frontier town. a fort, settled by the french. along came a young major in the virginia militia with a mission of saying --, this is land that great britain wants. and thus began the french-indian or, fought over who would control the confluence at pittsburgh. 's name was george washington. -- in the process discovering america. the idea that it would be a sea.ry from sea to they looked over their shoulder
wondering who would build the country and it was pittsburgh. at first it was glass, and then iron, and then steal and aluminum. and in the process, we built the country. if you were to ask what makes pittsburgh, pittsburgh. i would say it is resilience. back in the day, like a lot of cities, we burnt to the ground during the 1920's and 1930's. the city was also flooded. we also created disparity between he will like my grandfathers who worked in the mills versus those that owned them. we were able to overcome that and build a city that became the third-largest corporate center in the u.s. in the 1970's. in 1979, we died. and we had to come back again and really identify ourselves from economic collapse. in the 1980's, deal died. -- steal died.
more people than new orleans did after katrina and they never came back. even our city government operating with a debt that was greater than new york city's one it went bankrupt. but just like all of the other times it with challenges, we know how to do things really well in pittsburgh and one is to work hard and the other is to innovate. we ended up with some forward thinking people that set back in the 1970's, let us create a robotics center. the first phd in robotics and then let us start to helpit an industry with advanced manufacturing and to maintain manufacturing here. seeds that were planted in the 1980's, have now taken hold. have taken us into a brand-new economy. an economy based on engineering
and technology. we stand here today as a new city, again. >> today, we are at the from slavery to freedom exhibit. the exhibition covers roughly from 17th century west africa to 21st century pittsburgh. thet now, we are in transatlantic slave trade allergy. there are a number of different features. forof the a -- objectives the exhibition is that we wanted visitors be immersed in the environment. this is a slave ship environment. as you can see, one of the captives on the slave ship, a young man roughly round 17 years of age. the platform he is sitting on actually has statistics from different sections of west africa. is actually cut out
in the shape of west africa's atlantic coast. you can see from sierra leone over to angola. we have what are roughly the estimated numbers of captives taken from africa for the slave trade for roughly the 15th through the 19th centuries. this case has a number of different artifacts. madeistol is a portuguese firearm. roughly from the 18th century. -- a typicalpical type of firearms that slave ship crew members would carry during their voyages across the atlantic. shells are bought up today as decorative objects but they were used as currency in some west african societies during this time period. the shackles below are the type of shackles that would be worn by children mostly and they have
rattles inside of them. enslaversrity for the so they can know and be able to locate people who are in waived. call theion is what we slave economy. our objective is to talk about slavery in the americas, not solely as a part of labor but slavery in the americas in terms of the economic impact on world society. in the exhibit, we refer to "king cotton" because of the importance it held in the domestic economy as well as the overall economy of america. cotton has a connection to pittsburgh. before you had steel mills in pittsburgh, you had cotton mills. one of those mills was the eagle cotton works which was located in allegheny city which today, the north side of pittsburgh. the owners of the eagle cotton
and avery.arbuckle charles avery, the noted abolitionist. pittsburgh imported 5000 tons of cotton from mississippi and other southern states per year. that is a tremendous amount of cotton that fed into the textile mills and at the beginning of the civil war, there were some of the western pennsylvania textile mill owners who sided with the confederacy primarily because they had an economic interest with the confederacy seeing that cotton was the raw material that said there mills and produced their wealth and so forth. for many freedom seekers, the question about who do you take with you? who you leave behind? which direction would you go? who do you trust?
who do you not trust? all of these questions came to play in the story of william and his family. william was a very well known, philadelphia and anti-slavery activist who interviewed runaway slaves when they came to philadelphia and came to the anti-slavery offices. one day, a gentleman came in to his office who was a runaway from mississippi. he said he was looking for his family and he knew that his family at one time was enslaved in maryland. he had two sisters and a mother. they had escaped. and he and his brother were left behind. and so, he came into philadelphia looking for his family to see if anyone in philadelphia about his family who would probably be residing
in southern new jersey. as william began to interview this man, he began to find commonalities in his own family history and the gentleman's family history to the degree that they begin to realize that they are actually brothers. who hadther charity already passed away by the time these men had met, had four children. she escaped-- slavery in maryland. the first time she was captured. she had all four children with her. the second time she decided to leave the boys behind and take the girls for which she was successful in achieving freedom in new jersey. sold down thethen river as they say to a mississippi cotton plantation whichich peter -- from peter was able to escape and make his way to philadelphia where he met the brother william and they realized that they were
actually brothers and this was decades later. a very powerful family story. only therates, not decision process for freedom seekers but it also talks about the desperation that took place among african-americans. were enslaved, you still had loved ones and family. history, the underground railroad and the abolitionist movement, martin delaney is a prominent individual. researcher,riter, a he published a newspaper. he attended medical school at arvard and he was known as very determined abolitionist leader in pittsburgh. this figure of delaney is during a speech he was giving in september, 1850 shortly after the passage of the fugitive slave act. it was at an allegheny city
market which is today the north side of pittsburgh. mr. delaney in his speech was challenging the president of the united states that even if the president came to his home, looking for fugitive slaves or runaway slaves, then mr. delaney would lay him at his feet and if deny his body a grave. that tells you about the determination of the pittsburgh abolitionist community. they were very militant about their work in ending slavery in the united states. we talked earlier about charles avery as the owner of the eagle or cotton mill. avery was also a prominent abolitionist leader in pittsburgh but he also owned textile mills not only in pittsburgh but also in new england. coppermine's in michigan and wisconsin as well.
in the 1840's and 1850's, he was quite possibly the wealthiest person in pittsburgh. he was a founder of what was then called allegheny institute in 1849. in 1856, the death allegheny institute was changed to be called avery college. it was one of the earliest colleges in the united states for african-americans. children. have any upon his death, he left money for his wife and he left the bulk of his estate for african-american religious and educational instruction. this is a map of downtown pittsburgh. you can see the point with the allegheny, ohio, mod -- munhall good -- river. these structures actually hotel, john's
barbershop and martin delaney's home and the approximate locations that they were in 1854 in downtown pittsburgh. these homes are identified on this map as safehouses for underground railroad activities which took place at all three locations. these lanterns indicate where other safehouses were located at one time. not only in downtown pittsburgh, but in allegheny city as well. this gallery is called moving towards freedom where we talk about organizations such as anti-slavery societies and other organizations that were involved in the abolition of slavery and the american colonization of society. they both took root in pittsburgh as a did in other northern cities. in pittsburgh, it was across racial lines where you have
people such as charles avery, the reverend john black, a presbyterian minister who preached the evolutionist -- the abolitionist gospel from the pulpit even though he was asked and not to. he took great risks in doing that. from the western pennsylvania anti-slavery society minute book. it shows the dues eating paid and contributions to the society in 1838. charles avery contributing $100 in 1838. nearly 110 years after the theitionist movements, civil rights movement was in full swing, especially in pittsburgh. a photograph taken in 1969. this is a picture of the beginning of march from the hill
district over to the north side of pittsburgh where the construction for three rivers stadium was underway. these men were leaders of the civil rights movement. reverend jimmy joe robinson, nate smith, and attorney brown were three of the people that you see in this photo. they were on a march from what is today freedom corner which was in the hill district, right --oss the street from same saint benedict catholic church. they marched down center avenue, across the bridge to allegheny city where they were confronted by police officers. similar to what happened in selma, alabama where those civil rights leaders marched across the bridge. there was a confrontation on that bridge between the civil rights leaders and the pittsburgh police department. but their market was more or less demonstrating against the
restrictions on black construction workers to get jobs on major projects including construction of the u.s. steel building downtown and three rivers stadium. the civil rights movement also was the economic rights movement in pittsburgh as well because it the issues surrounding the economic advancement for african-americans in pittsburgh. i want people when they leave this exhibition to fully have an understanding of the issue of slavery in the united states and the impact slavery had on the development of the united states as well as the continuation of freedom rights and freedom issues in this country carried all through the civil rights movement and even today through black lives matter, the
movement. the primary injury being oppression -- the primary issue being oppression. if we understand slavery, we have a better understanding of how oppression continues to evolve in our society. today, this little triangle of ground encompasses what is now point state park. in the 18th century, it was going to be the home eventually of one of the largest british military installations in north america. the diorama represents what pittsburgh and fort pitt would have looked like in the mid- 1760's. it is a good place to start to understand the history of why this little triangle of land inside point state park today was so important in the 18th century and well end of the 19th century for a lot of reasons. the biggest is its location along these two rivers. you have the allegheny on the
one side and the monongahela river on the other side and they come together to form the ohio. the reason this is so important is because during the early 18th century and mid-18th century, the allegheny takes you all the way back up to french canada. forksn also then from the in the ohio and travel up smaller streams and make it up to lake erie and the great lakes. among the gila takes you back up towards british north america, the heart of it along with the potomac and the chesapeake bay. those two rivers are important enough but once you get onto the ohio, you can continue and end up in new orleans. by controlling this little triangle of land, you can control the whole region in essence literally. you can keep your enemies from moving large amounts of men and materials along the rivers. the force of the ohio in
thesburgh is the gateway to west prior to st. louis being the gateway. pittsburgh and 4-8 -- fort pitt were the gateway. there was a series of forts built here. the first was built in 1754 by the english. it was little more than a stair -- a storehouse with a stockade. it was located right at the point itself. it had been intended to be called fort george. before it the final logs were sent -- were sent into the ground, the french arrived with a force of 500 men. they told the 40 odd english men here and some indian allies that they needed to go. and so they did. without a shot fired, the french took control of the forks in 1754.
they began work on a larger fort called fort duquesne. it was located in this next section represented by some of early pittsburgh. it was a small wooden palisade fort. it was not incredibly strong. they had to add on to it. it was barely large enough to contain the several hundred men contained here. but it did represent to the english very forcefully that the french were in control of the forks of the ohio. the same symbol to the american indians in the region as well. the english had not given up hopes to reach control the point . in the fall of 1758, they successfully made it to the point with an army of several thousand men. this time, it was a french that decided it was better to leave then fight. the french burnt and destroyed most of fort duquesne and left the point to the english. fort pitt was a large, five
bastion fort. all of fort duquesne would have fit into one of the bastions of fort pitch. earlyng in the 1760's, 1760's damaged the bastions severely. oft caused a series blockhouses to be built along the perimeter to reinforce the security of the area. the last of these still survives and is still in point state park. built in 1764. we have a reconstructed barracks of the type that the soldiers here would have lived in. one of the interesting things about the soldiers who served here -- it was a very diverse group of men. originally, there was a group that was intended to be raised here in the colonies. called the royal american regimen but they were unable to raise enough troops so they were also recruiting in europe. a lot of ethnic germans ended up
your serving at fort pitch. at the same time, there were scottish troops stationed here and irish troops stationed here. men from all over great britain. right from the start, this was a very diverse, ethnic community just in fort hit itself and that is not counting the numerous native nations that were also active here. there were american indians that lived at the fort and in the vicinity. is af our exhibits reconstructed for traders cap in. one of the important aspects that fort pitt played a role in was in regulating the for trade with american indians in the region. the fur trade was extremely important for a lot of different reasons. in this region, it primarily dealt with deer hides. in any given year in the 1760's, usually 200,000 deer hides were processed through fort pitt
alone. it is important for everyone's security and safety that it was an honest trade. having the military outpost here also regulates for trade to make sure that the traders were not being unscrupulous with their native customers which could cause a lot of diplomatic problems. in this area of the museum, we discuss the motivations and the tactics and the weapons of the three different powers that were struggling for control of western pennsylvania during the french-indian war. you have the french and their native allies pitted against of the british and their native allies. still struggling for control of the forks and the larger region of the ohio country. in the 1753, the french began to really press their claim and they built a series of forts in western pennsylvania. the british also built fort thate george which was
point where they struggled for control of the point. the american indians during all of this -- some found themselves allied with the french for various reasons and some of the british. theyf course ultimately, were the ones that suffered the most from both. even though there was not and opened a cleared war, there was an ongoing tension always on the french were -- on the frontier. some indian tribes and individual nations had allied with the french or the british. there was always the possibility of traders being ambushed and robbed. there were murders at times of indians. and so there was a lot of potential for conflict but it boiled to the surface then in 19 -- 1756 when the french-indian war kicked off in full force. in europe, it is described as
the seven years war. here, we refer to it as the french-indian war. it was a conflict that some people described as the first world war. clear0 or 1761, it became that the english were going to be victorious in this conflict. even though the french and the british had signed a peace treaty in 1763, the american indians were left out of that equation and there was a lot of animosity of the various tribes that had supported either side and so in 1763, the indians in the ohio country and the great lakes, and it together and -- in a conflict often called pontiacs rebellion. almost every english fort in that region simultaneously and managed to destroy a large part of the british holdings on the
frontier. seeto pick itself was laid -- was laid siege to two in the summer of 1763. only fort pitt and fort detroit survived. in 1764, henry duke a lead an expedition into the ohio country to wrap up the loose end's the french-indian war and the pontiacs rebellion. hundreds of white captives had been taken during the conflicts. they had been assimilated into the american indian culture. theenglish were demanding return of those captives. the bulk were brought back to fort pitt. families arrived to reclaim these captives, in some cases they were children. cases, they no longer knew who their identities were because they had been held for so long. the charters for virginia and pennsylvania were vague enough
to include the area of western pennsylvania that fort pitt is located in. if we back about the history of the region, although pennsylvania was often involved in the diplomatic side of inks and administered the civil courts and actions out here at fort pitt, in 1753 when george washington came to the ohio country to tell the french to get out, he came as a representative of the colony of virginia. that initial first fort here at the point was also built at the request of the governor of virginia. was always involved in the military aspects of managing this area. and so, both colonies had it in their minds that it was part of their own. 1773, the royal governor of virginia, lord dunmore appears to have begun hatching a plan to act on that and in 1774, his
representatives seized the civil government here at pittsburgh. and essentially pittsburgh as opposed toa pennsylvania. and remain to virginia throughout the years of the american revolution. lord dunmore's work, fort pitt is being manned by soldiers from virginia. and this is all taking place in the fall of 1774. in the spring of 1775, is lexington and concord. and really, the first shots and rumblings of the american revolution. western pennsylvania is no less caught up in that. here that ares loyalists who support king george, there are folks supporting the patriot cause. gets revitalized and reoccupied as an american fort during the revolutionary war.
artifacts that we have on display here is the flag of john proctor is associate -- associate.r's it was a flag created early in the 1770's. it is kind of important for several reasons. thesymbolism on it of coiled rattlesnake and the "don'tion -- inscription tread on me. oh this is the only surviving rattlesnake flag. that makes it a pretty rare thing in and of itself. we also believe it may well have been the first of these rattlesnake flags ever created. interesting symbolism where you do have the coiled snake. the rattled -- the rattle snake is unique to north america. and it looks up towards the union jack. warning therly is
mother country to respect the rights of the americans or to suffer the consequences. 1776, much off the effort of the american revolution was actually reconciliation with the mother country which is why you have a flag of that early revolutionary war era that still has a british flag on it itself. only a handful of flags survived from the american revolutionary war era. this one is extremely fragile. it was painted in oils on silk. light sensitive. we have to watch how much light is on it so it is on a motion detector. we change the flag out periodically with a reproduction. at the close of the american revolution, congress still had never made any provision for a standing army. the american army was disbanded.
mid-1780's. the entire american army was located in two places, at west point in new york and here at fort pitt. , it began to be a very expensive proposition to maintain. it was now several decades old. the buildings of wood had already been decaying. ceased to be a real active military post and more of a military depot. fort pitt itself was decommissioned in 1791. a lot of the fort was torn down and the materials reused. the ditches were filled. pitte early 1800s, fort began to be more of a memory to pittsburgh and less of a reality. today, we see the interpretation of fort pitt in the early
american history of the forks of the ohio as being key to people being able to understand why pittsburgh exists today and to understand this regions key influence on american history and the settling of the west. >> our prime concern, has been and is a concern for the safety of the residents of the area and of those workers who must carry out the responsibility of decontamination of the unit to facility. the most pressing question is which of the alternatives is the safest. satisfied that there is an alternative that needs that description, then i would support it because i am concerned about the safety of this area. >> we are at the university of pittsburg library.
we will be looking at some of the decorations. dix thornburg was a pittsburgh from the start. he went on to become governor of pennsylvania and a attorney general. his archive collection is here at the university of pittsburgh. it is large. an understatement considering it 1052 cartons of documents. he was elected governor in 1979. on was being sworn in january 16, 1979. he is there with his hand up eating sworn in with his wife beside him. inauguration,his he was busy with matters pertaining to the forthcoming budget, meeting with people in the governor's home when a phone a.m. one at 7:50
wednesday, march 28. it was announcing to the new governor that there was an accident at a nearby nuclear plant on three mile island. "nuclear accident" had amazing repercussions and uncertainties and difficulties ahead. the next morning, early in the there was mention of fuel cord damage. and consulting throughout the day. what to do was an enigma. adornburg was well enough re and knew from the start that an accident at a nuclear plant was something truly serious. and immediately, he had to pull together a small group of people that he could trust to pursue
the needs about emergency plans for pennsylvania. he himself had to be sure that the public, once they knew about the accident, was consistently, appropriately, and calm the informed. as time went on, trying to understand what happened, the reports were conflicting. every day, practically every hour, there was a change. this one for example. there is absolutely no danger of a meltdown. -- conflictings reports. no radioactive material but there was. that became known later that day and ongoing that there was a leak and radiation had been released. it was a matter of how much and what to do about it. the company itself reversed its
opinions and statements almost hourly. they were not useful. has own personal at that point were not nuclear experts. he really was rather at sea until he could find someone, somehow to get the facts, the real facts. the news that something had happened on a nuclear plant spun around the world and the country quickly. reporters came from far and wide. by the end of the week even, there were hundreds of those in the state capital wanting to know what had happened. the governor himself did not know at that time. headlines were meltdownout -- risk of at pennsylvania nuclear plant. -- moreio of gases radioactive gases released.
the nation is getting mixed information about what happened but does not understand why or what could be done about it. governor did not know the ramifications of some of these releases of radiation. he did advise people in the immediate area to stay inside. that was a recommendation. friday, just two days later, he asked and advised mother -- mothers with young children to go out of the area and they provided, the pennsylvania government provided locations for them to stay and they did for some three or four days thereafter. he did consider ordering and even actually she. thate was very, sent also there was great hazard in doing
that without suitable planning. he was loath to do that unless it became specifically unavoidably necessary. thornburg was able to get telephone three negations with the president on friday. when the president asked -- what can i do for you? he said -- i need scientists and folks from bit nuclear regulatory agency to tell me really what is going on. the president said essentially "on." over a military helicopter with 10 people from the nuclear regulatory agency to figure out and let everyone know. engineernton was an with the nuclear regulatory commission. a very smart man. he had only been employed for six months but he was the one assigned to go to see what was happening. >> there is about 100,000
gallons of highly contaminated water circulating around and cooling the court. all of the water contained inside is still contained. 600,000 gallons of water. imminent chance for any of that water to be released but it has got to be cleaned up. both the water in the bottom of the containment and that in the primary system and the walls have to be washed down. and decontamination must go on. >> the agency in washington did not really understand themselves how serious this was until harold and the team got there to thata look and determine it was pretty serious. ultimately, they were able to ascertain that the so-called bubble was not going to burst and there was not going to be a the languageh is
that was out there feeding people's fears. as a result of that assurance from harold denton, the president flew up to harrisburg the next day with mrs. carter and met with harold, the governor, the lieutenant tour of and they had a the control room. this is all because they had assurance it was not going to blow up. and they could go and look and talk to the engineers there. after the tour of the control room, the president had a press including harold denton and lieutenant quarter scranton -- lieutenant governor's grant. a pas a pregnant -- it was oignant and calm statement praising the leaders including
digg thornburg, the governor. after the president left and the that there was not going to be an explosion, people who did leave returned to their homes. mothers and children that had been away returned. calm ands began to be the news reports were no longer -- accident meltdown but thornburg did a great job. he insights confidence -- he incites confidence and there were many articles like this where his capacity to handle this serious event had been so successful and appropriate. once it was determined that there was not a leak, and explosion, or a meltdown, that
did not solve the problem by understanding that. it did take years for engineers to figure out how to fix that. fixing did take 10 years and cost a billion dollars. after things calmed in harrisburg, it behooved washington to find out what had happened. the united states senate for just on april 19, wrote to governor thornburgh and said we were -- we are pleased to invite you to be our lead and wasto our committee like your presence and any officials that you wish. one of the pages i have here i thought was particularly telling. -- quote from his speech was the toughest decision of all, however, is the one i had to make 24 hours a day throughout the crisis. course the decision
not to order an evacuation that would have been unprecedented in its nature as well as its potential for harm. started off his career as governor, a two-term governor with a massive emergency, his team and his policies and his balanced budgets were favorably received by the state of pennsylvania and he in his concluding times was very broadly and affectionately regarded justly i think. ♪ >> we will return to the cities tour in just a moment.
we take you now to a press conference live with the west virginia senator. >> let me just say that for far too long, the people who have energized this country and given us the life we have have been ignored and forgotten. we may wonder why we are fighting the fight we are fighting. these are retired miners and many widows. basically all that they have had is there health care and their pension. it was promised to them. we have forked on this. this government has reaffirmed that many times since 1946 when it was first agreed upon. this is where i come from. my roots. my family and friends and everything i am because of them. with that being said, to get to
where we get to the point where we say that december 30, everything is gone. a couple of years ago, we knew we were coming to this point. we have been talking about this and trying to negotiate and move forward. told it had to go through regulatory order. you have heard everything we have talked about. still yet, we could not get a stand-alone bill to be voted on. care related bill fit perfectly though. we found out that the house did not want that. cr is theid ok, the last chance we have. these people have given everything they have got. people say that they are not big on coal and get rid of fossil --
wherever the future may lie, i can tell you that we would not be standing here today without the cold that has been mind by the coal miners through generation after generation. so i have said that i will do everything i can. are my family, my uncles, my cousins. sudden, i would have to look at them and say that we have lost them all. i am so proud to have all of my colleagues here that have joined in on the fight. state that don't have coal or don't have a coal mine but they know that the country we have is because of the hard work a have done. it comes down to this, the cr. we are arguing and negotiating. with mcconnell was upfront me and he said i just don't think i can get it done. i cannot get support for a. i said ok. the health care must read him.
i support health care. i support that. and i said, fine. i thought we were in good shape on that. we were fighting the good fight. maybeen, two days ago, three, the first time i ever heard there would be a short-term health care fix. i never heard that before. where did you come from? we have to pay for it. money. the aml and we had the money which is money set aside through bankruptcy and certain amounts of money were set aside and that was going to be rolled into one to take care of it as a permanent fix. then i heard it would be a four month. and then i thought -- this is unconscionable to think that we willell people that you get a 90 day notice when your health care is depleted.
we told them the first of october that they would lose it december 31. now, we have to go back in january and tell them they are going to lose it in april. that is horrendous in its own right. point.ke it to the i think you have been following hopefully what we are talking about. the pay for is the money that was set aside to take care of certain retirees that through bankruptcy of the companies they worked for, certain amounts of money or set aside by the to give themurts an extension of their health care benefits up through july. when we were doing the permanent fix, that was all going to be rolled into one with the aml money, everything was going to be rolled in. fromtook the $47 million
those funds which was extending some people out until july. million, they$47 took $45 million of that to pay for the extension of four months. the people that would have held -- had health care through july are now losing three months. on top of that, they had 2 million dollars extra they are returning back to the treasury. a lady called me and she said -- senator, the way i understand this, that is called thievery where i come from. and i said she was right. iat i think they have done -- don't think they realize it is totally illegal. you cannot take back a fund from the bankruptcy judgment. that will unfold later. with that being said, that is where we stand. you know in the crs there are a lot of things that people swallow hard because there are a lot of things that they do not
like and things that they do like. a lot of my colleagues -- and we have had surprising support -- i don't think we will get to the have of tonight but we support to take this fight on and have a commitment. i told you i was encouraged by what majority leader mcconnell had said back home to his news media and his constituents that his intentions were not to let this die. that he would not stand still and let this go by the wayside in april. and we are committed to fight this thing through. we may surprise people and we may get that 41. we are right on the cusp of this thing. but if it does not happen, that is why we would say that the fight will continue. >> this started a couple of days ago. you know what president-elect
from's position has been. he has been attentive to some of the coal interests. were you hoping during this intervening time that he might weigh in and that might move them. in seeing that we were on the precipice of running out of money in about five hours. >> i will be able to talk to him on monday. i go up for a meeting on monday. i am sure that will be part of the conversation. engagepeful that he will when he is sworn in as president. i can to you that he has won the coalfields overwhelmingly. he won every coal area in america. said, we are being very hopeful for his support. it would help us to find the pathway to make this happen. kicking the can down the road is not the way we run this government. tot we are asking for is help us and we will see where
that goes but i am very hopeful. >> about the 41. >> i can't say but i am prepared that if it does not happen, we position ourselves to live to fight another day. 49filed an amendment with cosponsors. 46 democrats, three republicans and we had 14 or 15 before. we have enough to pass a bill. we have to show that support going into next year. >> what did you accomplish? this is a four-month extension. the cr will pass. what did you accomplish from this exercise? >> trying to extend the health care benefits. four months is not what we are going to accept. even the democrats, even in the minority, can make it difficult for this to continue and this
process to work. i think you have heard the colleagues out there including the minority leader chuck schumer think this will be a hot that in in january and he will do everything he can to move this forward. if nothing else, we have been able to elevate what coal miners have done for this country, the respect that they should be receiving. and identifying what they have done and the contribution that they made. and also be able to have a pathway forward to have a long-term fix. there was nothing planned. they were not going to do a thing. from the house side, we were not getting anything. i found out later that they did not intend to put anything in the cr. much and it is not something i am content with. and i won't vote for that.
on monday, they talked about a job with the administration. >> i have a pretty good job. i am not looking for a job. conversations we have had so far has basically been generic. no specific talk about anything. i am reading the same thing you are printing. wherever you are getting your information is better than what i am getting. a veryy look forward to especiallynversation on my state of west virginia. >> i am born into a family of
coal miners. if i don't stand up for them, who will? the total ignorance of the american people have of where their energy came from. how do you think we won world war i and world war ii? domestic energy. in 1946, to keep the economy going, at that time, they were going to go on strike because they have been working all of these years for nothing. john l lewis said we will strike until these people have some health care benefits. agreement washe signed. a long history there. if nothing more, the coal miners oh them something.
-- people over the coal miner something. this is coming from the bankruptcy courts. not the taxpayers. here and work immediately if we had to to build out wall street. we had no problem doing that. and this is not even a bail out. this is using money we have that came from the abandoned mine money. >> can you walk through the path forward for a long-term fix? >> it is the long-term fix in health care. >> what is different now? >> there was never a guarantee. is do we havee the ability now to make something happen? can we unite more now than we have in the past? i have colleagues on my side of
the aisle that would not vote for something that would be helpful for the fossil fuel industry but the sympathy and empathy they have for the people that have made the country what it is, they say we won't stand tall and strong for them. i never had that before. i think we have united. i think we of people that understand the issue more. there is a purpose. >> you still have the house to contend with. people are saying that the house is a reason why do when your was not put in the cr. they will want some things and there will have to be cooperation. asked for anything unreasonable. it would be different if i was asking for pie in the sky. we are asking them to take care , and the money was there. the money from
the minors to pay for their own extension. i probably have said more than i should have said. >> are you saying that there is a plan to not move on house bills? that message has been sent loud and clear. longll have been around enough. thank you, all. manchin said he and other democrats agreed yesterday they would not block the measure, but would use the threat of a shutdown to highlight the health care and pension needs of coal miners. the senate trying to fund the federal government past midnight. orcould see votes tonight early tomorrow, and you can probably to action on the floor right now over on c-span2. on c-span we will be live in grand rapids, michigan.