tv Public Affairs Events CSPAN December 30, 2016 10:00am-12:01pm EST
bring you to the house before they gavel in. the speaker pro tempore: the house will be in order. the chair lays before the house a communication from the speaker. the clerk: the speaker's rooms, washington, d.c. december 30, 2016. i hereby appoint the honorable luke messer to act as speaker pro tempore on this day. signed, paul d. ryan, speaker of the house of representatives . the speaker pro tempore: the prayer will be offered by the guest chaplain, reverend michael wilker, from the
lutheran church of the eformation in washington, d.c. the chaplain: eternal god, for everything there is a season and a time for every matter under heaven. you have made each of us and gathered us together for this moment. jesus christ promised at the end of time that the nations will be judged by how they feed the hungry, refresh the thirsty , welcome the stranger, clothe the naked, care for the sick, and visit the imprisoned. thank you for guiding and encouraging us to answer your call to justice and mercy in this past year. forgive us for the ways we mistreated others and failed to care for your creation. in the new year, astonish and disrupt us so that we may meet
you when we serve those who are at the lowest runge and the farthest -- rung and the farthest margins of our soinl. when we're vulnerable or suffering, surprise us with your amazing grace. steadfast love, and everlasting joy. amen. the speaker pro tempore: mursuent to section 2-a house resolution 944, the journal of the last day's proceedings is approved. the chair will lead the house in the pledge of allegiance. i pledge allegiance to the flag of the united states of america and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under god, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all. the speaker pro tempore: pursuant to section 2-b of house resolution 944, the house stands adjourned until 11:00
a.m. on tuesday, january 3, >> the new congress considers session january 3 an opening , with theve on c-span swearing in of new and members of the house and senate and the election of the speaker of the house, our all-day live coverage begins at 7:00 a.m. ,astern on c-span, cspan.org and the c-span radio app. right now, a look at donald trump's home in palm beach, florida, where he continues transition planning amid accusations that russia hacked democratic party e-mails to influence the election in favor of mr. trump. the president-elect issued a statement, "it is time for our country to move on to bigger and better things. nevertheless, and in the interest of our country and it's
great people, i will meet with leaders of the intelligence community next week in order to be updated on the facts of this situation." yesterday, president obama announced that the u.s. is expelling 35 russian officials and shutting down 2 russian compounds in the u.s. russia was expected to retaliate with its own expulsions of americans in russia, but in a statement today, russian president vladimir putin said, " we will not create problems for u.s. diplomats. we will not expel anybody." the russian president also said that president obama's actions are "provocation aimed to further undermine russian-america relations." >> this holiday weekend on c-span, here are some of our featured programs. saturday at 7:00 p.m. eastern, the librarian of congress carla of theand the secretary
smithsonian institution on the preservation of our national treasures. >> in his bequest come he wrote that he wanted the institution to be oriented toward what he called the increase and diffusion of knowledge, and that is what this smithsonian has turned out to be. eastern, them. inaugural women's leadership summit for the next generation of young women at the ronald reagan library. at nine quantity, federal appeals court judges both from the d circuit and a senior federal judge of the fourth circuit discussed the history and impact of the bill of rights , 225 years after ratification. >> flying those words to the very factual circumstances and disputes that confront the country over more than 200 years is what is challenging. p.m., and 6:30
author, law professor, and a scholar from the cato institute debate u.s. involvement in foreign wars. >> force is always a difficult question and the judgment becomes an essential portion. if you start with the frame and make it funny, over time you use force it is going to be a calamity, and when you don't use force that is when the real calamities happen. >> at 9:00 p.m., the muslim public affairs council convention with remarks by california democratic constant xavier becerra, actor george takei, van jones, and khizr khan. >> what we are trying to do is highlight the values of the united states, freedom of speech, practice of religion, it will dignity and equal protection of the law, and due process of law.
and those values are challenged today. >> watch on c-span and cspan.org or listen on the free c-span radio app. follow the transition of government on c-span as president-elect donald trump selects his cabinet and republicans and democrats prepare for the next congress. we take you to key events as they happen without interruption. watch live on c-span, on-demand at cspan.org, or listen on the free c-span radio app. >> over the next few hours, memoriam, with public figures who died this you we look at the lives and careers of first lady nancy ifill, journalist gwen robert bennett, and justice antonin scalia. we begin with the funeral
>> i am the resurrection and the life, said the lord. he that believes in me, yet shall he live. and whoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die. i know that my redeemer liveth and he shall stand upon the earth and though this body has been destroyed quite yet i will see god. and my eyes behold, not of a stranger. where none of us liveth to himself. and no man dies to himself. for if we live, we live unto the lord. and if we die, we die unto the lord. whether we live therefore or
>> a reading from the book of proverbs. when one finds a worthy wife, her value is far beyond pearls. her husband has an unfailing prize. she brings him good, not evil, all the days of her life. she obtains wool and flax and makes cloth with skillful hands. like merchant ships, she brings provisions from afar. she rises while it is still night, and distributes food to her household. she picks out the field to purchase. out of her earnings, she plants a vineyard.
she is with strength and sturdy are her arms. she enjoys the successes of her dealings. at night, her lamp is undimmed. she puts her hand to the distaff and her fingers ply the spindle. she reaches her hands to the poor and extends her arms to the needy. she fears not the snow for her household, all of her charges are doubly clothed. she makes covering for her bed, she is clothed in fine linen and purple. her husband is respected at the city gates, as he sits with the elders of the land. she makes linen garments and sells them and stocks the merchants with belts. she is clothed with strength and dignity, and she laughs at the days to come. she opens her mouth with wisdom, and on her tongue is kindly counsel. she watches the conduct of her household and eats not her food in idleness. her children rise up and praise
her. her husband, too, extols her. many are the women of proven words, but you have excelled them all. charm is deceptive, and beauty fleeting. the woman who fears the lord is to be praised. give her a reward of her labors, and let her works praise for the city gates. the word of the lord. >> amen. thanks be to god. >> in the spring of 1987, president reagan and i were
driven into a large hangar at the ottawa airport to await the arrival of my wife and mrs. reagan, prior to the departure ceremonies for their return to washington following their highly successful state visit to canada. president reagan i were alone except for the security detail. when their car drove in a moment later, out stepped our wives, looking like a million bucks. as they headed toward us, president reagan beamed. he threw his arm around my shoulder, and he said with a grin, you know, brian, for two irish men, we sure married up. [laughter] i mention this anecdote again because it reflects a unique reagan reality.
she really always was on his mind. we all know of ron's love and admiration for nancy, and the elegance and constant manner in which he publicly expressed it. one day at the white house, after another absolutely glowing tribute by president reagan to his beloved nancy, i said, privately, "you know, ron, you're going to get me and all the rest of us here in a whole lot of trouble with our wives. because we cannot keep up with you." [laughter] the president chuckled and look at me with that irish twinkle, and said, "well, brian, that is your problem, not mine." [laughter] to illustrate this absolutely unique partnership and
relationship, let me share with you today a letter he wrote to nancy on their first christmas together in the white house, on december 25, 1981. "dear mrs. r., there are several much beloved women in my life and on christmas i should be giving them gold and precious stones and perfume and furs and lace. i know that even the best of these would fall short of expressing how much these women mean to me and how empty my life would be without them. there is of course my first lady. she brings so much grace and charm to whatever she does, that even stuffy, formal functions sparkle and turn into fun times. everything is done with class. all i have to do is wash up and show up." "there's another woman in my life who does things i do not
always get to see, but i hear about them and see photos of her doing them. she takes an abandoned child in her arms on a hospital visit. and the look on her face, only a madonna could match. the look on the child's face is one of adoration, and i know, because i adore her, too. she bends over a wheelchair and the bed to touch an elderly invalid with tenderness and compassion. just as she fills my entire life with warmth and love. there is another gal i love, who is a nest builder. if she were stuck for three days in a hotel room, she would manage to make it home sweet home. she moves things around, looks at it, straightens this, straightens that, and you wonder why it was not like that in the first place. i am also crazy about the girl who goes to the ranch with me. if we are tidying up the woods,
she is a peewee powerhouse. pushing over dead trees. she is a wonderful person to sit by the fire with, or to ride with, or just to be with when the sun goes down and the stars come out. if ever she stopped going to the ranch, i would stop too because i would see her in every beauty spot there is, and i couldn't stand that. then there is a sentimental lady i love, whose eyes fill up so easily. on the other hand, she loves to laugh, and her laugh is like tinkling bells. i hear those bells, and i feel good all over, even if i tell a joke she has heard many times before. fortunately, all of these women in my life are you.
fortunately for me, that is, for there could be no life for me without you. browning asked, 'how do i love thee, let me count the ways.' for me, there is no way to count. i love the whole gang of you, mummy, first lady, the sentimental you, the fun you, and the peewee powerhouse you. merry christmas you all, with all of my love, lucky me." theirs was the love story for the ages. as first couple, ron and nancy reagan represented america with great distinction. they had a magnificent sense of occasion. they had style, and they had grace, and they had class. some of you may have heard my reference to lines from william butler yeats when talking in
other circumstances to what the reagans meant to us all. today, those same golden words tumbled across cotton and down -- a cost-cutting moves -- tumbled across continents and down the vista of the years, as we think of nancy reunited, finally, with her beloved ronnie. yeats wrote, "think where man's glory most begins and ends, and say my glory was that i had such friends." ♪
>> we do not want you to be unaware, brothers, about those who have fallen asleep, so that you may not grieve like the rest, who have no hope. for if we believe that jesus died and rose, so too will god, through jesus, bring with him those who have fallen asleep. indeed, we tell you this on the word of the lord, that we who are alive and left until the coming of the lord, will surely not precede those who have fallen asleep. for the lord himself, with the word of command, with the voice of an archangel, and with the
trumpet of god, will come down from heaven and the dead in christ will rise first. that we who are alive who are left will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the lord in the air. thus, we shall always be with the lord. therefore, console one another with these words. the word of the lord. >> thanks be to god. >> thank you so much. it is an honor, and i'm so grateful to be included today. i have been asked to say a few words before i read a passage from the new testament for mrs.
reagan. so you may want to sit down. [laughter] her, it was long after the white , it was long after the white house years, and i did not know her then. but our conversation was about the president and alzheimer's, and how you go on when every single day, the size of the love is the size of the loss. and when the interview was over, we kept talking. and i think i joined so many of you here who checked in with her by phone, and came to los angeles to have lunches with her. those lunches, in which she a te microscopic amounts of food, tiny little chopped salads and one chocolate chip cookie and the iced tea. and i was so terrified of that that i used to hide my roll under the table and butter it, so she would not see it. did not want to offend her. [laughter]
but make no mistake, she would bop a journalist if she did not like a report you had done. but she never hardened differences into definitions. she was way too interested in people into who you really were, what you really knew. all of us woven together in this life. and so we talked about politics, and celebrities, and she told wicked stories about old hollywood. and in the days of life would throw you a curve, and you would get up and put on your lipstick, comb your hair, and kept the band playing. and i always thought of the old, desert movie "morocco," describing a generation of women, that said there is no foreign legion, just for women, but there is a foreign legion for women too. they have no uniform, no flag, no medals, but they were brave.
and as lunch would end, she would make her way up the hill to the house with the memories, the silences, and her happiness when the children were coming. and all this week i have been thinking about watching her head down the hall, because she would head into the bedroom and right there, i cannot remember what it was -- was it a pillow or a framed needlepoint -- but i know the words were clearly for president reagan. it says something like this -- if you must believe, could you just take me with you? and i think of that again today as i read what i am asked to read, this passage from the gospel of john. jesus said, "do not let your hearts be troubled. trust in god, trust also in me. in my father's house are many rooms. if it were not so, i would have told you. i am going there to prepare a
place for you, and if i go to prepare a place for you, i will come back and take you with me so that you may be where i am. you know the way to the place where i am going." thomas said to him, "lord, we don't know where you are going, so how can we know the way?" jesus answered, "i am the way and the truth and the life. no one comes to the father except through me." for nancy, the word of the lord. >> thanks be to god. ♪
a woman without whom ronald wilson reagan would never have become the 40th president of the united states, or succeeded as well as he did. the cold war that president reagan did so much to end brought them together. in 1950, the name nancy davis appeared on a list of communist sympathizers. would the hollywood blacklisters know that this was a different person, and not the young actress? she took her problem to her union boss, the president of the screen actors guild, ronald reagan. they met at a hollywood restaurant. the dinner would be brief, they agreed, because each had an early casting call. in fact, neither had an early casting call. [laughter] an early casting call was the standard hollywood excuse to put
a quick end to unpleasant dinners. "but when i opened the door," she wrote later, "i knew he was the man i wanted to marry." their meeting lasted through dinner, and then into the wee hours at a nearby club. the third age in shakespeare's seven ages of man is the lover, sighing like a furnace, with a woeful ballard. shakespeare, of course, is gently mocking young lovers. their passion always burns hot, he said, and then it fades. well, the bard never met nancy or her ronnie. as prime minister mulroney pointed out, they could hardly bear to be a part. when he was on a movie set, or on the road for general electric, or as a candidate, or as governor, or as president, he wrote her, every single night.
when they were together, he hid love notes around the house for her to find. one christmas at pacific palisades, he wrote, "whenever i treasure and enjoy, all would be without meaning if i did not have you. i live in a permanent christmas because god gave me you." nancy saved his love letters in a shopping bag in her closet. she reciprocated by slipping little notes and jellybeans in with the clothes in his suitcase. and while he was away, she said, "i would drive home feeling very lonely and very sad, and i would knit him socks." she also reciprocated by dedicating her life to him.
"i was, i suppose, a woman of the old school," she wrote. "if you wanted to make your life with a man, you took on whatever his interests were, and they became your interests, too." if ronald reagan had owned a shoe store, mike deaver wrote, nancy would have been very happy pushing shoes and working the register. ronald reagan's interest turned in a different direction, of course, to politics and public service. nancy, who might have preferred a more private life, became the consummate political wife and first lady. he owed much of the success of his presidency to her. she had an instinct for reading people that the president knew he lacked. "nancy," he wrote, "sees the goodness in people, but she also has an extra instinct that allows her to see the flaws." nancy was the president's eyes
and ears when it came to personnel. she knew who was paddling their own canoe and who was loyal to the president. and she was as tough as a marine drill sergeant, as many of us found out when things did not go well. [laughter] the president's advisers learned to keep her informed and seek her support. if she trusted them and agreed, she would add her voice to theirs, but she was without a doubt, absolutely without a doubt, his closest advisor. she is the one who said, you need to do this, ronnie, you need to find a way to negotiate with gorbachev. the only time i saw her lose her composure was the day the president was shot. she was devastated and, in fact, she fell apart. even in his condition, he did his best to give her strength. "honey, i forgot to duck," he said. [laughter]
that was his way of comforting her. president reagan left the hospital convinced that god had spared him for a special purpose, and the first lady left with a fierce determination to protect him in every way that she possibly could. ronald and nancy reagan were defined by their love for each other. they were as close to being one person as it is possible for any two people to be. when the president made his slow exit from the stage, she dedicated herself to his memory, and to his place in history. now she, too, has exited the stage, to join her beloved ronnie in eternity. i can just imagine how st. peter might let the president know that she had arrived. a beautiful lady is at the gate asking for you, he said, with a
jar of jellybeans. [laughter] a shopping bag full of letters, and a suitcase filled with hand-knitted socks. we love you, nancy. we miss you, but we will see you on the other side. >> this is a very emotional and evocative time for me. i arrived in los angeles in 1966 to join nbc news three and a half years out of south dakota.
i was 26 years old, and the geniuses on the nbc news desk said to me, there is an actor running for governor of california. we don't think he is going anywhere, you are the junior guy, so you get on the bus with him. [laughter] it is also worth pointing out with of the current governor here that was before the brown family put a semipermanent lease on the governor's office in california. and so i did. and it was such an instructive beginning for me as a political correspondent, because i saw the best-run campaign i had ever seen up to that point, and maybe since. by the time the governor got ready to run for a second term, i knew my way around, so i went to the los angeles press club where he would make his announcement, and walked into the holding room early and took a seat in the far corner. but then i realized it was kind of reserved for reagan supporters and family and
friends because they began to line the walls, including jimmy and gloria stewart. nancy came in and she was on autopilot as she made her way around that wall of friends and supporters, giving each a kiss, a squeeze of the hand, and a word or two. it dawned on me that she was going to get to me. [laughter] i am the outlier at that point, i'm a reporter from the press. she got to me and she leaned back in mock horror, and i quickly said, "mrs. reagan, whatever it is i have, it is not catching. i can promise you that." she laughed heartily, leaned over, and gave me a kiss. that was the beginning of a remarkable friendship between the first lady and a reporter. it was also a time when i began to appreciate just how much she meant to the man who became the president of the united states, not just as his wife, but as his best political advisor, as jim baker and others have pointed out.
she could be, as we all saw in those photographs and videos, the adoring wife in public, but behind the scenes she was a politically astute analyst and the keeper of the flame. we stayed in close touch but it was not always easy. shortly after his inauguration as president, i made some public comments about his early years in which i said i thought the poor-boy narrative was somewhat overblown. after all, he had been a successful broadcaster in his 20s and then a movie star under contract before he was 30. nancy was furious, and the word came from jim baker and others, stay clear of the white house for a while. [laughter] we will let you know when it is safe to go back. about two months later, meredith and i were invited to a state dinner and i was told that i would have to think about what i was going to say to her when i arrived in the receiving line. don't say anything to the president, he doesn't care, but nancy is still steaming.
meredith was very nervous because i had not come up with anything to say. [laughter] finally, i stood before her, and i saw in her eyes that steely gaze she could have for people who did not please her. and i spontaneously said, nancy, back to square one. she looked at me and broke out laughing and said, "tom, back to square one." the next day, a white house photograph of that moment arrived with the inscription, "tom, back to square one, love, nancy." that was such a telling moment about how astute she was as a political wife, as someone who knew about personal relationships, how to get her message across, and then quickly move on. we all saw those other moments when she was utterly in command. jim has referred to that awful day when the president was shot.
they did not know what his condition was when the secret service told her that there was a shooting, the president was rushed to the hospital, she said "i must go." they said we don't think that is a good idea. she said quickly, "you get me a car or i will walk to the hospital. the president and i shared a birthday. over the years, it became an occasion to share phone calls and notes, especially between mrs. reagan and me. when the president was going through his ordeal after leaving the white house, our calls became more regular, and i could hear her loneliness, and on one of the calls i suggested the next time i'm in california, we should have lunch. and maybe we should invite our mutual friend warren beatty. "no, tom," she said, "it is enough to have lunch with you." until the next day when the phone call arrived and it was
nancy saying, "do you think warren might want to have lunch with us?" [laughter] of course. and the luncheon companion star power went up many multiples. there is nothing like walking into a los angeles dining room with mrs. reagan on your arm. warren and i treasured those lunches because she always arrived with political observations and the best gossip from both coasts. metaphorically, there was no lunch for me. as a eulogist at the president ford's funeral, i looked down at the first few and decided it was my duty to name them, president and mrs. bush, president and mrs. bush, president carter, and vice president dick cheney, president and mrs. clinton. i finished my remarks, walked back to sit beside meredith and
and she looked at me and said, "you did not mention nancy." i said, she is not here. she said, yes, she is, she is hidden behind the column. [laughter] i had not seen her, so i eagerly called our friend stu spencer who answered by saying, what were you thinking, brokaw? [laughter] stu, do you think she noticed? [laughter] "are you kidding? here is her mobile number. call her right now." which i did. i took my medicine from an aggrieved friend for the next 15 minutes, until she accepted my explanation, and then it was back to square one again. and the way i got out of it was, i agreed with her, she had been given a terrible seat. what i so admired about nancy was that ability to do just that. she knew how to protect her husband and her president, but also her own place, to stand her ground, and once it had been resolved, to move on.
that was never more evident on the many occasions when i spoke here at the library. we meet in a holding room downstairs to catch up on the latest gossip, what was going on in our personal lives, and then after everyone had been seated, especially after she was confined to a wheelchair, i would help get her to her feet, and with one of her aides we would take her to an entryway that had been curtained off, and beyond the entry way could hear the music begin to swell, and offstage announcer in toning, ladies and gentlemen, the former first lady of the united states, nancy reagan and her guest tom brokaw. i would escort her into the auditorium and into the front row and seat her beside tom selleck, her friend, and then give my lecture. the last time we were there together, i received an modestly enthusiastic
response from the audience. but i wanted to be sure nancy approved, so i leaned over to her seat as the applause continued and said, i hope that was ok. she whispered back to me, "tom, give me a little kiss, they are going to love that." [laughter] and so i did, and so they did. [laughter] our shared editor of random house reminded me that when we lost nancy last weekend, it would have been the 68th anniversary of their marriage, ronnie and nancy. so god bless nancy, mrs. ronald reagan, first lady, and the unlikely friend of a reporter. thank you, nancy.
>> in the month before my father died, my mother repeated often that she had to be there at his last moment. her determination was ferocious. she simply had to be at his side when he left this world. i said the only thing i could think of, and what i thought my father would say, was that it was in god's hands. she was there, and occasionally i thought, even god might not have the guts to argue with nancy reagan. [laughter] as her own health declined, she was quite adamant and vocal about reuniting with my father on the other side after her passing. i am hoping for god's peace of mind, that she got her wish.
my parents were two halves of a circle, closed tight around a world in which their love for each other was the only substance they needed. -- sustenance they needed. while they might venture out and include others in their orbit, no one truly crossed the boundary into the space they held as theirs. i saw this exquisitely portrayed in front of me one summer evening when i was a teenager. we used to rent a beach house for a few weeks in the summer. and on this evening, with a vivid sunset streaked across the sky, i looked out and saw my parents sitting on the sand, close together, heads tilted in conversation. there was so much vastness around them, the blue pacific, the orange and pink sky, miles of white sand, and then there was the circle of their own private world, as clear as if it had been traced around them, indestructible, impenetrable, an island for two.
i knew i would carry that image with me for the rest of my life. when my father was shot and my mother rushed to the hospital, they at first would not let her see him. "i have to," she said. "you don't understand how it is with us." the moment before my father died, he opened his eyes, which had been closed for days, and he looked straight at my mother. the circle was drawn again as he left this world. in the weeks after he died, my mother thought she heard his footsteps coming down the hall late at night. she said he would appear to her long after midnight, sitting on the edge of the bed. i don't know anything about the possible passages between this world and the next, but i do know her faith in these visits eased some of her loneliness. they made her feel that he was close by. on one occasion, i am quite certain that she was channeling my father.
i had gone up to her house and found her very busy making phone calls to elected officials, trying to gain their support for stem cell legislation, something she was quite passionate about. she ended one phone call and gave me a somber look. "well," she said, in a calm tone, sounding much more like my father than herself, "karl rove is dogging my phone calls. everyone i call, he calls right after and tries to get them to oppose stem-cell legislation." "right after?" i asked. "are you sure your phone is not bugged?" "no, i had a secret service check on that." [laughter] you must be furious, i told her, puzzled by the fact that she did
not seem furious at all. she shook her head, no, and her entire demeanor was not only calm but practically zen. even people who never met my mother will know that the word zen has never before been applied to nancy reagan. [laughter] but that is what i saw. "there is no time to get upset," she said. "there is work to be done, i cannot get distracted. i have to keep moving forward." i admit, i did say, "who are you, and what have you done with my mother?" [laughter] over time, what she referred to as late-night visits from my father ceased. she no longer heard his footsteps in the hall, but she never stopped missing him. she told me the reason she had a television on all the time was because it filled the house with sound and made her feel less lonely. another remedy for her loneliness was to fill the empty spaces with stories and memories. a few days before she died, i reminded her of something that happened many decades ago when
we lived in pacific palisades. my father used to get massages from a large eastern european man who would come to the house and set up his massage table in my parents dressing room. on one of these days, as my father lay face down on a table, my mother tiptoed in, kissed him lightly on the back of his neck, and tiptoed out. [laughter] he did not know it was her. [laughter] patti davis: but he went through the rest of the massage. [laughter] never said a word, and after the masseuse left, he said to my mother, i don't think we can have him back anymore. [laughter]
thank god, i didn't know what to do. laughter in remembering that day would unbeknownst to me turn out to be her ast time i would hear laugh. it's no secret that my mother challenging and often contentious relationship. when i was a child, i imagined having warm, comfortable conversations with her, the kind conversations that feel like lamp lights, the reality was far different. her patience and she
intimidated me. we were never mild with one another, whether we were distant and angry or bonded and close, our emotions burned up the color chart. gray.g was ever there were moment necessary our history when all that was going us was love. choose to remember those moments. i choose to remember the mother ho held together the gaping of her young ack daughter's head after she fell at a friend's house and cracked her skull open on the fireplace. she drove with one hand and held other, talking soothingly to me, and trying to her eyes.e fear in watching her was hypnotic, it hurt less.d i choose to remember my mother framed by the window of a new hotel room as i told her that i had been involved in a complicated relationship for two ears and had been cruelly tossed aside. i was 19. i felt older and more wounded than any 19 year old should feel. a mother and i came to
fragile hope out a she would keep me from crumbling beyond recognition. did. she didn't judge me. she wasn't punishing or accuse tory. tender and understanding and loving. choose to remember walking with her, along the beach, calmed the ocean always the air between us and allowed other.be easy with each most of all, i will remember looking out the window to the parents d seeing my sitting together on the sand, maybe on the other side there endless shores and eternally brilliant sun sets. sit it is possible to there forever undisturbed, two needing pily entwined, only each other. robert sexton wrote, across the will walk with you, and shores of forests, on earth when our time
is through, in heaven, too, youville my hand. i hope for my parents those words don't live only in the poet's imagination, but are a map to what they both longed for in the world n beyond this one. >> i love that story about the masseur. i imagine my father laying there naked on a table just waiting for this big man to do something else. what must have been going through his mind. well, i guess i'm batting clean up here. of my family, let me thank you all for coming here. we really appreciate it. sister, patti and i, who find
ourselves orphaned really surrounded by g and to love and kindness jim and to tom and everybody else who have spoken your kind words, appreciate that very much, too. nd to the folks at the library here, who have put this whole terrific job a and we so much appreciate that, too. she did love a party and she would want this to be a party. is ais not a tragedy, this celebration. i hope you had a chance to have look around here. ome of you have been here many times before. but i hope you realize that none of this would have een possible without nancy rayi reagan. i don't mean she was active building g and
libraries, of course she was, i mean to say, there would be no onald reagan presidential library without a president and there likely wouldn't have been a president nancy reagan without a reagan. of course, it may not have fshe was not way made of such stern stuff, she waynot have made it all the to being mrs. ronald reagan. my dad played hard to get a when they were dating way back when. a had already purchased ranch, not too far from here, in malibu. ride ed to go there and his horses and buck hay and enerally get dirty and sweaty outdoors and that sort of thing, not the kind of thing she's really crazy about, my mother. but, she was a good sport and wanted to participate in this f. well, she is ranch, the wing to laf love ranch, too.
he would go out there, he would do his thing and she would she could help. this ranch, in malibu, 700 acres so, had a long driveway that mile, he house, half a fences on both sides. hangwould go out there and out and be ranchers, but she she d to help, as i said, what can i do to help, did i mention the fences lining that half mile driveway were unpainted? [laughter] >> so he handed her a bucket of paint and a brush and my mother a miles worth of fence, plank, both very sides. once... the paint job lasted for duration. my father was confident, but
he was not an arrogant man at all. takes a great dual of hudspa the n for president of united states or even governor matter.fornia, for that him er absolute belief in to run forat hudspah office, i don't know if he would have done it otherwise. high mother provided encouragement, guided him, provided refuge in which he ould repair, to gather strength, she guarded his him.cy, she protected individual ed great talents, but as a couple, they more than the sum of their
parts and it would be a mistake, by the way, to consider her subordinate to him, just because he was the one usually taking centerstage. they were coequals, they complimented one another. individually they may have gone they could ether, and did go anywhere. was inclined to believe everyone was basically good and that certainly anyone who more than the sum of their parts and it would be a mistake, by the way, to consider her subordinate to him, just because worked for him was pure of heart and could never be nursing private agenda. y mother didn't share that inclination and she didn't have that luxury. my mother's world, you are either helpful to her husband or we all not and i think know what side of the equation you'd want to be on. friends, i among think we can admit that she was to always the easiest person deal with. she could be difficult, she demanding, she could be a bit obsessive, truly could be sheyal pain in the ass when wanted to be, but usually only so that my father at any time to be.
you didn't want to get on mom's particularly by hurting her husband. had earned hat, you foe.elf an inplacable the ghost of don reg tlt an, ask him. the other hand, you couldn't ask for a more loyal or friend, just ask joan rivers, should you run into her in the hereafter. joan's husband died, he was could east coast and joan not for some reason, could not et the coroner to release his body so she could come home to the west coast. comedian, she didn't know to to call to pull strings like this to get something like that done. was acquainted with my mother, but they weren't great friends yet. nevertheless, bucked up her courage and called the white the and got my mother on phone.
joan's husband's body was on the next plane out of town to the west sxoeft joan became my for the rest of her life. friends faces of many here today. people who have known and loved ofmother for years, but most my mother's buddies are gone now, she's among the last of her cohort, the old gang, her generation, and now she is truly with them. if my mother had one great was that she k it knew how to love and she loved world. more than the in her later years she used to me whether i thought she shed be with him again when died. i'm not a believer in the supernatural, but i assured her herever dad had gone, she was surely going to go there, too. endhould all be so lucky to up with we've always wanted to
be and today my mother comes to lovely hilltop with its far-reaching views, next to ronald reagan library and, by the way, from be able to keep saying, n things, just no slacking. how long will it be for tails to emerge of peteen chanel spirit roaming the gallerys and halls just checking running ure things are smoothly. most importantly, she will once lay down beside the man who was the love of her life, end ne she loved until the of her days. the sun drop over the hills in the west or the sea and tells tfalls my father
her the lights are her jewels. over head and here they will stay and always in eacht to be, resting other's arms, only each other's arms, until the end of time. >> we continue look back at nancy reagan with a 1994 interview. former first lady sat down anthony or carl accept to talk about eight years in the white house. >> do you think that ronald elected uld have been president without nancy reagan? oh. oh, my. may have helped a little, maybe.
little? [applause] book, you describe after the attempt on the president's life, you describe at george washington university hospital and people n the emergency room and so forth and you said, i have to et to my husband, they don't know how it is between us. people weren't listening and you know how it is between us. how is it between you? know, you have to irst understand the whole motion of that day, which was you ndous and obviously, say things, not maybe as have saidas you would
them otherwise. was that it has been a very close through and i can go most anything as long as i know sameronny is there and the holds true for him. and that's what i meant, they it is with us, to know i'm here. then the idea of him lying there and not knowing where i was or f i was even around, you know, knew that wasn't going to be well, going to sit well. different ou also at moments have gotten angry .ecause he doesn't get angry in politics, have you always had cop and he was
the good cop? hmm...in a sense, in a sense, yes. as you maybe because, mentioned before, i'm more -- i more aware always of people you said, in running and he wasn't and so i would you've got to , watch out for him. president trusted your judgment, then, in personnel and character judgment? >> well, sometime its took a while. ofyou had mentioned that one the worst articles that had ever been written about you was one a columnist --
carl?ich one, compared youpphire to edith wilson, who protected during his stroke. wasn't that -- essentially that role that you were attempting to play, was just him?tially protecting >> yes. the again, we get back to shooting. your threats hot, and it is nothing that husband being ur shot. there is just that can describe that.
and the emotions that you go through and it is something that never leaves you, i mean, to this day, never leaves you. he -- with the increased threats, i mean, say, he uld write and didn't get him, but i'll get know.ou every time he'd walk through the go out and talk to 10,000 people, my heart sank, i idn't think it started rising again until he walked back. so, yes, that is what i was -- is all i was trying to do, is all that was on my mind, this never should happen again, god forbid. >> when the press began over inflating -- >> excuse me, that wasn't the in the article. word.at was the >> well, that was the word in
maybe, but before i washington, you see, there was an article written by -- this is part of my problem, i think, there was an woman in itten by a los angeles whose name i've forgotten, i think it is reudian, it was a four-part series, she interviewed a lot of other people who threatened to her. this came to washington before i so they to washington, had this preconceived idea of me. >> character. >> it was a terrible, terrible article. it was i mean, terrible. sapphire came along later. press began
sometimes overinflating the ense -- your sense of protection of the president and trying to make more out of it gave a was, you particular speech, i remember, you used humor you had talked-- about all of the things that people had accused you of doing managed to shoot it all down. >> oh, yes, i remember that. that.ember so nervous, i as couldn't sleep the night before. and i had three cups of coffee. drank coffee. three cups of coffee that morning. i have forgotten how i put it. they asked me a question that was along these lines -- saying something that you at first thought you --ld clean out the president >> yeah, sock drawer.
was doing me if i marvelousme wonderful scientific program and i said, well, no, first i thought i my husband's t sock drawer. not be exactly, but -- critics during he situation, the reagan situation, do you think some critics were jealous because influence of ahe wife or a woman, do you think people e of them were that perhaps wanted to have that influence and didn't? think, you know, women or men, i think there is a certain jealousy, if
that is the word you want to is closest one who to the president and obviously he one closest is his wife, or should be. >> the difference, the gap between the perception of your nfluence and the reality of off influence was quite target, public perception? >> well, they made it much -- i mean, i was doing all sorts of things. mean, i was managing mean every i program. was doing -- yes, running nuclear policy, i think that is sock said about the
business. truth, i was , in .oing what any wife does >> what kind of situation would -- which would make you feel strong enough about the president and giving your opinion on something was thinking he about a decision and could go one way or the other, what were of -- usually --sonnel or policy things or > no, they were usually, usually personnel. of course, but sometimes they were policy, but usually personnel. -- hat about the bid tlt situation? >> yes, bidler, i was
uncomfortable with going to bidford when i discovered we bidford.oing to i had a very dear friend, still who had los angeles, nazis and had the belgium and witz, decau. and it took a long time for her .o tell me anything about that when she did, i was just, horrified. the idea of going back there, betraying elt i was was just very uncomfortable with it. >> were there other situations arose now looking back issues, be there were public issues that might have ished you had offered some
advice or made a suggestion, things you decided not to say anything about? always osh, 20/20 is great, isn't it? i'm sure. are, but there probably i can't think of any right now, know, you always gee, if i had justice done or said something, like, i can't -- say you int is, you were one of several people who offered advice and he didn't always -- no.ot always, no, no, no. he'd listen, but he does have a his own. >> you think that some of the, we've had two bachelors in .he white house do you think today, particularly, with the kind of strength it takes to
united dent of the states, to cope with all these problems on a world scale, do who is k somebody unmarried has that same sense of balance or would serve less effectively without having a spouse? >> i don't think you can have a sense of balance in anything unless you're married. balance to me, that's it. >> do you think first ladies hould be employed in some dvisory team, like in the 1984 campai offer advice know, ing. research ing just debate that was awful, , awful,
terrible. and so did my husband and i knew what had happened. they had just thrown so many facts and figures at him, his was just -- i said to them afterwards, leave him alone, he wants to say, leave him alone. was fine.nd he >> that kind of a personal a political have effect sometimes. you know es, yeah, your man. a first lady k also might perhaps offer a of how t perception things are in america than the president could have? oh, sure, yes, because people they won't ngs that tell the president. people would es come up to me and say something and i'd say, well, knowing they
going to be seeing my husband, but me them when appens to they get in the oval office, it just doesn't happen. you're privy to hearing a lot he doesn't hear, which is very useful. one point carter said no, and then betty ford said yes. do you think a first lady, under perhaps more -- the first lady should be salary, the first lady should be salaried as i know certain ranks of diplomatic, have diplomat spouses been? don't think so.
think so, i think it is something you do natural ly. i never -- no. >> is there something about the itself, though, inherent in the role of being the spouse of leader that particularly in this country and the expectation that are put on a first lady wish could lly change, that you really wish were altered in some way? >> hmm. gee. expectations? maybe if they, in my case nyway, if they'd held off udgment a little bit, it would
have helped. i don't quite know how to answer that, carl, i don't know. >> do you think that the xpectations are really unfair and do you think that people perceive the first lady as such symbol as to expect her to be nearly perfect? once you get in white house, there -- you're standard. a higher special house is very to try to ou have up to that. >> do you find people's greatest
saw -- -- i don't know, you are or something.ater exposed to so many interesting, fascinating people and you're in history. of making you go to wonderful a very s and it is just expanding experience. or should be. making ever get easier for you? >> oh, speech making. husband firstn my announced he was going to run and i had ernorship never given a speech and didn't know how to give one. spencer, who was
the campaign, i said, i want you to understand stu, i don't give speeches. said, oh, well, but you could stand up and take a bow. well, i guess i could that.ly do then they began to get me where they could get me. they said, now, your husband -- a very large state and he can't get into these he's small towns and .eally so tired towns and mall discovered i loved it. and s q&a, i learned a lot
i loved the people and it was started from then on. >> to the u.n. u.n., never e thought i do that. when unscheduled sorts of things happened? a human are, you are being, supposed to be a symbol just happen.hings >> well, so many funny things happened. about the alks serious things and of course there were a lot of them. for instance, i have a habit of walking very fast. state dinner, a walking into the state dining and i'm walking on ahead and suddenly i'm aware there is
on either side of me. everybody i've left way back there. i was so careful. horowitz came me to play a concert at the white house, after many, many years. all excited about it. thank heaven, he had said, he said he wanted a shift of grass down in front the platform and plants. we did that. man, i don't mean who led mrs. man horowitz and myself and my
the -- to some chairs on the edge of the stage, i horowitz and i, i was saying, you first, she was you first. finally, i went first. heaven. i was on the edge, the poor man to put the chair to close sat.dge and all i did was that's all i it. i'm over on sudden, and i thought i did it graceful ly. said -- d [laughter]
[applause] >> i said, i thought i would liven things up. saved my ened, he life, horowitz because of this. this is a tough one. going, i was were and in the lace middle of the night, my filling of my tooth. this is one of the advantages of house, you e white can get a dentist right away to come to the white house, like a plumber to come to the white house. he came at the crack of down, we the thing back in. meeting before lady who d with this we were trying to convince to do
for the white house, and i had on a blouse and a wrap-around skirt. leave and i p to got up to shake hands with her her -- [laughter] >> you're ahead of me. skirt is down by my feet and my standing there in pantyhose and my blouse. we ever got whether the money for it. probably not. her, i'm sure this s a meeting you'll never forget. and jim rosebush, who i saw a little while ago, was my chief staff, and i could hear him coming up the elevator, i'm
no, don't open , the door. no, no. now she leaves, i get my skirt rush to the , i lane, now i really all, i mean discomb discombobulated. i get on the plane, go to the girl's room. forget to lock the door and -- pilot [laughter] >> i don't think he may have , especially -- [laughter] >> memoriam 2016 program newshour with pbs host, who died in november at 61, gw en ifill. she spoke at stewart hobbson
iddle school about her career as a journalist. here is a portion of those remarks. >> i left college and got my first job, i was in college in at boston first job herald american. it was the number two newspaper, boston , in boston, globe is the big newspaper. second erald was the newspaper. they gave me a chance to get the job. i tell you how i got the job. i worked there summer of junior year in college, it means next senior,as going to be a graduate and look for a job. at the time, there were not a journalism ecessary out there. i figured i was different and would get the job i needed. was working at in the photo boston herald america and in the front, of the entire newspaper, no one there me.ed like college educated, black, young woman, never exposed to anything like this. they didn't know how to treat me. when i became clear i didn't
and i was did the job pleasant about doing the job and i was pretty good at it, which really a difficult job, mostly involved getting coffee they nning errands, thought, she is okay, she is fine. t the end of my time there, i discovered one day, i wam to work, i saw a note that was to me, i directed didn't know what it was. it said, go home. now, you have to understand something about me. when i looked at that note, i somebody was for else, i couldn't imagine this was for me, they all liked me. to my boss and said, gee, this, my boss was horrified. his boss was horrified. boss was horrified. it began to dawn on me, this was bad stuff. they knew who had continue it, it was an older man who was going to lose his job. apologize and to give me other things and say, if you ever need a job when you get
college, you know we'll hire you, you have a job. we're sorry this happened. myself, why would i want to work with these racists, my out of here and pursue life somewhere else. when i got out of college and started looking, there were no else.anywhere i saw myself going back and had a did you say you job for me? they provided it. it was entry level job, a job i got my first job out of guilt, but on the other hand, gave me a chance to get in the prove myself. the key was, if i got in the door, they would be happy they had gotten me. worked there for three years, gopher d as a gopher, this and that, a copy aide, i worked my first writing job food section of the boston herald american because that first writing job opened up. it seemed to make perfect sense, never i couldn't cook, done it. i knew how to make macaroni and cheese from a box on a good day.
they said, you can be the food writer. sure, i can do that, i am smart learn what i don't know. i did on the job learn what i don't know. people call in and say, how do you cook this turk sne how long do you cook a turkey for thanksgiving. i didn't know, i would make it up, make up the temperature, how long you kept the bird in the oven. my reasoning was, they didn't were either dead were -- it was fine. i learned something about common sense, which is that sometimes common sense is what needs to be work.d to your now you don't always make it up, obviously, but in that learned about the subject i knew nothing about before, which applies today. lesson you learn early on pays off. when i left the boston herald to baltimore ved and my second job, baltimore evening sun, which was a job a lot about e journalism because i was for the first time going in as a working
reporter, not as a gopher, not could kid in the cover, i cover city hall, politics and government. that was my first exposure to covering politics. loved it. i covered campaigns with people running for mayor. council and y people going to jail for accepting illegal money under table, i went to the state house and covered the legislative session. to meet a lot of people who chose public service reasons, one reason that until today i still like politics and politicians so many met politicians early on doing it for the right reasons, not the ones you hear all the time doing to rip you off or trying to cut corners. committed to public service, that impressed upon me andrtance of public service public servants, the people who could be doing other things, but to de it is important represent. i worked in baltimore for another three years and then
washington and my first job in washington was the "washington post." for ked for the "post," seven years. i went from covering once again, covering prince george ounty, politics and government and the interesting thing about the county, the interesting region, out this everything was always changeing and on the virge of changing. county was about 50/50 black-white, power was shifting hands. jobs for the king first time. there was conflict and conflict business.r the news it is what i call when chicken journalism, if a kitchen walks across the street, hat is expected, that is not news f. a chicken picks up and flies that, is news, it is unusual. my thought about what was happening early in the county school and government and as i stayed at covered montgomery
county, covered the district, i administration mariam berry, an interesting time. my first several years at the "post," and went to the national staff and covered presidential campaign. this was 1998 presidential campaign and none of you were born, so depressing, but it was exciting. here was an open seat, as you ight remember at that point in 1988, nobody was running for the presidency, the president was else g, they had someone taking his place, eight democrats were running. spent my time chasing after them and figuring out who was serious.be who ranhardt, bob dole, for president, but this was his first race, al gore, who ran
and lost, or whatever you think happened. i covered his campaign. i got a lot of national politicians, traveled to most not stay the union, there long, usually bounce into a place, talk to people, listen candidates bounce out again, traveling in small plane specials big planes with candidates all over the country. a remarkable experience. i got a chance to see the country, not from the air, got a chance to talk to people, for instance, spent time covering campaign, the second time he ran for president. 1984.n the first time in everywhere he went, he was the most disorganized candidate i everywhere he went, people showed up by the thousands. they would show up in the middle in palm springs, california, least likely place you expect to find it. in stadiums ow up and he would have young people there, who were excited.
gave an amazeing and compelling speech. we were often over tired because of the isorganization campaign and often didn't know if we would sleep that night or another meal.see when he walked into the room with a thousand young people sayi somebody, that woke you up. it was an amazing experience. ended up staying in the race that year all the way through to convention, it was first time i covered a national convention, i grew up watching television. it was really exciting. there is just nothing that says politics like the floor of a national convention. hat year, michael dukakis won the nomination, he went on to run a really terrible campaign defeated by george bush, really ran a , he fascinating close-up way of campaign.a i covered the first campaign for the "washington post" and then
to cover ical beat houseing and urban twpment affairs.n and camp was the secretary first bush administration, but a lot of things happened. years and year necessary previous administrations, people had been government off. it happened on my watch. was nt time covering what later called the hud scandal, overing misdeeds that had gone on in many cases years before, people went to jail for this. other interesting thing about covering housing and urban twment is that it taught me once again, something i had suspected, which is whatever it is you bring from your whateverd to your job, your work is, it will inform you, for instance. buffalo new york growing up in public housing, and living in the projects was an enjoyable experience, but years later, i when i was
living in public housing and trying to make ends meet, i got who they were, i what the situations and choices were in a way other reporters didn't get, they had that experience. every experience in life ground e by the time i got to journalism. >> former utah republican -- passed away at the age of 82. farewell address to the senate in december of 2010 after losing bid for re-election a fellow republican. have first thing that i learned, this is indeed an filled with place extraordinary people and the we get from the press and movies and other places, it is filled with people self-serving agendas and very ow standard of ethics, simply not true. filled withas -- is
people with highest standard of few clunkers, a i will admit that. ethics est standard of is that the american people want. if i may dip back in history, give you how much present senate is than the older ones. i was prowling the halls in ranumstances i described, i into a friend who was distraught nd i said to him, what's the problem? he said, i'm taking a group of the lchildren through capitol and i sent a note to a to ask if he would come out and speak to them and he did. he's drunk. and i can't get him to stop and schoolchildren back to the tour and i don't know what to do. you don't see that kind of behavior in today's senate.
of don't see the kind casualness towards personal contributions that existed. why do you think when they built he dirtissuingsen building, they put a safe in every senator's office? o hold the cash brought into the office and handed to the senator and that was routine circumstance. about the things i enjoy renovation of the dirt tlt sen building, take the safe out, we don't need it anymore and i notice i started a trend. if i leave no legacy other than this, the safes are all coming out of the office building and i that.e first one to do extraordinary place filled with sen building, take the safe out, we don't who take ary people
their jobs seriously and deserve the kind of respect that too often they do not get. everybody says when they leave this place, they will miss the people. i certainly will. the friendships that have been here, the lessons that i ave been taught, mentors that i've had have been a major part, i will not name names because started in that, i to quit, but i do recognize the mentors i've senior the leaders in my colleague, center hatch and i in tell a story about him, the staff, these are also who go to ry people extraordinary lengths to serve country. we should acknowledge that and give them the credit they deserve. now, senator hatch gave me this piece of advice, we were talking one night about an issue and we were on opposite sides. that didn't often happen, senator hatch and i, we don't
in advance of a vote very often, we come to our own conclusions, but both being republicans, we usually end up in the same place. this situation, we were differing and orin was giving me full-court press, you have all been exposed to orin's press on an issue. finally he said to me, bob, driving home test. i said, all right, what is the driving home test? he said, after this is all over go out, you go get in your car and you'll drive home thinking back on the day you cast.te the driving home test is how will you feel driving home if you cast that peculiar vote. that is some of the best advice i ever got. voted against him and i felt great while i was driving home.
[laughter] >> that's one of the first i've learned, these are -- this is an extraordinary filled with extraordinary people, through our ted ndicated to the country, edicated to doing the right thing and uphold the highest ethical standards. the next thing i've learned, here are two parties and there is a difference between the two parties. here are those who say, there is not a dime's worth of difference between the republicans and democrats, same were, all corrupt. there is significant difference. party of are the government. going back to their roots with tonklin roosevelt, they come the conclusion that if there is a problem, government should that problem. republicans are the party of free markets and they come to
the conclusion, if there is a problem, it should be left to to solve it. they are both right. that is the thing i have come to understand here. there are some problems where solution, but the not always. there are some problems when markets do provide the solution, but not always. and the tension between those two has run throughout the the republic. you can go all the way back to jefferson and alexander hamilton and arguments they had of o the proper role government should be, whether big government or little government, whether you should or that kind of power tran through the constitutional arguments and the it is curred there and appropriate that those who believe in government should have strong advocates on their
side and those who believe in free markets should have equally their side ates on and because i believe in free markets, i'm a republican, and i've been happy to be a republican and i've been careful to stand up for those things that i believe and i've compiled many of my friends on the democratic side would onsider fairly miserable in terms of wisdom on voting. ut let us understand in the debate that as we go back and orth between these two concepts, that we do not motives or the patrottism of anyone on the side or within our own cauc caucuses. an event, someone on the republican side voted with the democrats in a way that some side felt was betrayal. us there was a sense of let punish him, let us do this, that
and the other. trent lott taught me this lesson, he said, no, the most is the next one, need his vote the next time f. we punish him for get it.t vote, we won't difference s a between the two parties. yes, we disagree. but if we can disagree in an of rt to solve the problems the country and be willing on otheron to say, maybe the side is right, we will move forward. me go back to the civil debate.ct in that barry fwoeldwater was the republican standard bearer in year that it was passd and many of his er and colleagues on the republican ide believed that the civil
rights act was unwarranted liberty, on personal you were entitled to pick your own associations. democrats, some of them, believed that the civil rights to be passed to keep faith with the 14th amendment. government's role in securing liberty. dirksen stood in the middle of rights bill ivil was written in dirksen's office. gets historic credit for it, as he deserves, body, the vote determine whether or not it pass, the key figure was eric dirk tlt sen. as chief of th me staff, was caught in that pressure, with the conservatives saying, one thing, the liberals
dad trying to and decide which way he would fw. that he r a comment made as he made his decision and his decision to go with dirksen. bill, vote for closure. being a businessman he thought and believed in free markets, as well as i do, but to this comment i held on as an example of the way you with this challenge. he said, you know, i've thought these t and many of companies that refuse, i'm using of the time, refuse negros, are public
companies with their stock available on the stock exchange. so what we are saying is it is all right for the negro to own the company, but not all right for him to patronize it. that is unsustainable. o companies with their stock available on the stock exchange. so what we are on this occasion ith the people who believed in government to solve the problem. so oned for the civil rights this occasion, he sided with the people who believed in government to solve the problem. he voted for the civil rights act. for hisot a challenger next nomination. to vote in favor of an act of government as opposed to free markets. i got a