tv Public Affairs Events CSPAN December 31, 2016 3:00am-7:01am EST
my father. it is called "thank you my dear father." soar when you're sick spirit soared. your physical my mind tells different tales of what you told me, your family and the masses. was importantly, the belief in willho created humanity thrive in quality. labprinciple that we as a divine -- we as a people have divine human rights. your beautiful complexion, your god-given skills and independent will, and the freedom of your faith. gratefulaughter,
for all of the conversations about men, women and relationship. guiding me to have a loving relationship with grateful for all of the conversations about men, women and self. refusing anyone to chip away at my esteem and it is unconditional. never as somebody beneath you. somebody have shared personal stories about what you have sent to them as you have exemplified values and qualities that have enhanced their lives. if i had every dollar for every
sky,, i could paper the your family is so proud of the legacy left night but i hope the history of you can help turn the tide of self-hate and violence because we are overwhelmed. soil, american soil, in the middle east or anywhere else, we crave peace. the priests that you rest in now. --would cherish the 74 years it will be greatly missed but now we send you off in as yoution of prayers -- it was final round last sound in heaven.
>> thank you so much. you were the greatest father to us. it was god's will to take you home. your family would try our best to make you out and carry on your legacy of giving and love. you have inspired us and the world of to be the best aversion of ourselves. paradise, free from suffering. lifehould of the world and and now you are shaking up the world and death. [applause] he is looking at us now and saying, i told you i was the greatest. [laughter] no one compares to you, daddy.
you once said, i know where i am going and i don't have to be what you want to be. i am free to be who i am. [applause] now, you are free to be with your creator. we love you so much, daddy. until we meet again, fly, butterfly fly. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen. billy crystal. [applause] >> thank you, ladies and gentlemen. we are at the halfway point. [laughter] i was clean shaven when this
started. [laughter] family, friends, mr. president, members of the clergy, all these amazing people from louisville. friends, mr.[applause] today, this outpouring love of respect proves 35 years after he stopped fighting, he was still the champion of the world. [applause] heard the when we news, time stock. there was no war, terrorists, global catastrophes. the world stopped, took a deep breath and stop. since then, my brain has been racing for the 32 years i have known this man.
i will tell you of his accompaniments and tell you of some personal moments we had together. i met him in 1974. i was just getting started in standup comedy, but i had one good routine. a three minute conversation between howard kissell, mama ellie. ali just defeated george foreman. sport magazine made him the men of the year. he was goingriter, to host the televised dinner honoring mohamed ali. looking at a comedian person's fourth material and fate would that comedian was not available and she wisely said -- [laughter] -- i have these young kid. he would be perfect. i don't know why, but fate s aid ok.
if you things i can cut in front of the show. i cannot believe it. the first time. it would be with ali. he said, how should i introduce you? nobody knows who you are. i said just say one of ali's closest and dearest friends. [laughter] my thought was, i will get right to the microphone, go into my howard cosell and i would be fine. you? nobody knows who you are. i said just say one of ali's that is when i saw him for the first time in person. it is very hard to describe how much he meant to me. you had to live in this time. it is great to look at clips. it is amazing we have them, but to live in this time, watching his fighting, experiencing the genius of his talent. absolutely extraordinary. an aura of a super bowl.
he predicted the rounds and he would knock 70 out and he would do it. [laughter] he was funny, he was beautiful. the most perfect athlete you everthe most perfect athlete you ever saw. [laughter] he was so much more than a fighter. bobby kennedy gone, martin luther king gone, who is there to relate when vietnam strong? millions of young men my age eligible for the draft for a war we didn't believe in. it was ali who stood up for us by sending up for himself. he was stripped of a title. [applause] he gave speeches at colleges in television that reached to me.
he was speaking to kings and queens. he never lost his sense of unity. he was always himself. willing to give up everything for what he believed in. passionate rhetoric for the fight of black people. i grew up in a house that was dedicated to civil rights. my father was a producer of just time in new york city, when of the first integrated fans. jazz musicians call him the jazz ricky of jazz. jewish people, my family music describing the lynching of african-americans in this country. a few feet for me, i cannot stop looking at him. it was like slow-motion. smiling and laughing. i was seated a few seats from him. all these athletes and their
individual sports -- great ones. franco harris, archie griffin. litter really lindens -- neil simon, george clinton. they looked at me. [laughter] with an expression that seemed to say, what is joan gray doing here? [laughter] schapp introduced me as one of ali's dearest friends. two people clapped. [laughter] my wife and my agent. [laughter] ali still staring at me. i got to the podium, rushing to cosell. some would pronounce it zaire. got bigger laughs. then, i went into the ali.
"everybody talking about george foreman . he's ugly. rope an dope. i'm so fast i can get into the bed before the run gets dark. i've got new religious beliefs. [laughter] i'm now an orthodox jew. haci'am the greatest of all haci'am the greatest of all time." nobody had ever done him before and now a white kid from long island imitating the greatest of all-time and he was loving it.
when i was done, begin me a big verilog and he whispered in my ear -- you are my little brother. [laughter] which is what he always called me until the last time i saw him. we were always there for each other. he came to anything i asked him to do. he was a champion for dinner at a very important event. in jerusalem. he did all of this promotion. he came to the dinner. he sat with my family the entire evening. the most famous muslim men in the world honoring his jewish f riend. [applause] there, because he was there, a great deal of money. able to use it to endow the university in jerusalem with something i told him about. it was something he loved. it's the rise to this day. it is called peace through the performing arts. a theater group were palestinian
actors all work together in other. hepeace creating original worksf art. [applause] that doesn't have to without him. so many funny moments with him. close cosell's funeral, casket. we were sitting next to each other. [applause] he quietly whispered to me, little brother, do you think he is wearing his hair piece? [laughter] >> i said, i don't think so? [laughter] >> well, how old got recognize god recognizell
him? champ, when he opens his mouth, he will know. he started laughing and he did not contain the health. [laughter] and it at the funeral was like two little kids heard church.g dirty in he looked at me and whispered, - one time he asked me if i would like to run with him one church. he looked at me and morning. i said that would be amazing. he said i run in a country club. it is very private, we will have a great time. i said, champ, it is a reputation for being restricted. >> they don't allow jews. >> he was incensed. >> i'm a black muslim and they let me run there. i will never run there again.
and he didn't. [applause] memory.vorite 1979, he just retired. rty attirement pa the forum. the imitation had grown into a life story, 15 rounds. ready for the rematch. i posted it on the internet last week. nobody had ever seen it before. , allrtraying ali for him those years ago in 1979. people, but only for him. one of my favorite performances in my life.
ii didn't even know where i was. suddenly, i am backstage with another champion, richard pryor. he was holding on to me crying. ali awas coming with a full head iof steam. he whispered in my year, little brother, you made my life better than what it was. [laughter] >> didn't he make all of our lives a little better than it was? [applause] >> that's him. that, my friend, my history with a man -- the legend. he was a tremendous bolt of lightning created by mother nature out of thin air with a combination of power and beauty. photographs of lightning bolt at the moment of impact. magnificent in the mountains.
it lights up everything around it. you can see everything clearly. themmed ali, struck this middle of america's darkest night. his power toppled the mightiest of foes and we were able to see clearly in justice, and equality, poverty, self-realization, courage, laughter, love, joy and religious freedom. ali forced us to look at yourselves. this bright young man who throw us and challenged us, ultimately became a silent messenger of peace. he totals life is best when you build bridges between people, not walls. [applause] my friends, only
>> ladies and gentlemen, bryant gumbel. [applause] nothe great maya angelou, stranger to fame. ,, wrote that ultimately people will not forget when useyou said and people will forget what you did. no one will ever get how they made you feel. that's applied to muhamed ali. the march of time may one day diminish his poetry, maybe even his butterfly. memory ofn dull the in minaanilla, but
i doubt any of us would forget how mohammed only made us feel. i am not talking about how proud he made us feel with his exploits, or how special he made you feel when you were privileged enough to be in this company. i'm talking about how he gripped hearts, souls, conscious and made his fight our fight. was young, so who my gifted and black will never forget. some of us took right in being black, bold and brash. unapologetic,e so
in the eyes of many, way too uppity. way too arrogant. yet, we reveled in being like stretching to saudis boundaries like we did. he gave us strength and courage we did not know we had. ali's impact was not limited to those of a certain race. or a certain religion. or a certain mindset. man, foratness of this ages, was that he was in fact a man for all ages. a better script to his life? any man. from being viewed
as one of his country's most polarizing figures to arguably his most beloved. [applause] so without changing his secondor for a compromising his principles. yeah, you know, great national aliments that afforded unusual opportunities to symbolize our struggles. harry truman added rightly when he said men make history and not the other way around. it,aurynharry truman hill so nt consequence is no coincidence. befitting his stature as the
goat, muhamed ali never shied away from a fight. he fun him just the biggest and baddest man of his days, but outside the ring he went toe to toe with critics, simulate of a vile war,cts the u.s. government. he even thought, ultimately through his detriment, the limitations of father time. strictly speaking, fighting what he did. but, he brought in the definition by sharing his struggles with us. at various times he
accepted and led battles on behalf of of his race, in support of generation, in defense of his religious beliefs, and ultimately, in spite of his disease. i happen to have been overseas working in norway this past week when my buddy matt called it. he told me the champ was taken to the hospital. this time, it was serious. right away, i called. he at various times he accepted and led was, as alwaysf strength. as we discussed the medical spews,, and doctors and all the realities of theality, he said, bryant, world still needs him.
indeed, it does. whoworld needs a champion bridges the economic and social divide to read the nation he loves. champion thats a always symbolizes the best of hiislam. the world needs a champion who believes in fairness and inclusion for champion who believes in fairness and inclusion for all. hating people because of the color is wrong, ali said. it does not matter what color does they hated, it is plain wrong. [applause] >> we need ali now. we need the strength, the hope, the compassion, conviction that he always demonstrated.
our beloved champion is down. for once, he will not get up. not this time. not ever again. a quick personal story. defeatedago, ali george trip alvalo. the next day, he showed up in my neighborhood on the south side of chicago. car, igot out of the happened to be next-door, shooting hoops at a friend's backyard. i, of course, rinse of the fence. for the first time in my life, i shook the champ's hand.
i was 17. i was awestruck. i thought he was the greatest. now, have a century and a lifetime of experience, i'm still awestruck. i'm convinced more than ever that mohammeuhammad ali is the greatest. [applause] be standing here, by for virtue of his request, is mindnumbing. the honor today, as he goes to his grave, is one i will take to mine. god bless you.
[applause] >> the new congress starts tuesday. watch all of the opening day event on c-span. we are alive from the u.s. capitol starting at 7 a.m. eastern. hear from returning members. opening date business starts with the speaker and debates and rules for the new,. one rule is getting attention. a proposal for members who live stream videos from the house or it is in response to the .emocratic senate it includes his swearing-in of senators.
opening day continues on c-span3 with live coverage of this erroneous murray in that members of congress. p.m., joe biden the swearing-in of individual senators. paul ryan swears and members of the house. a full replay of opening day at 8 p.m. east turned on c-span and c-span to. ♪ >> the inauguration of donald trump is friday, january 20. we will have live coverage. want to live on c-span entities without work and listen -- and c-span.org. in memorial 2016 continues,
remarks from governor dale bumpers. he died in january. he returned in january of 1999 the closing arguments for the impeachment trial of president bill clinton. here is a portion of those remarks. >> the question is how do we come to be here. we are here because of a unending relentless, investigation of the president. $50 billion, hundreds of fbi agents across the nation examining in detail a microscopic lie of people.
maybe the most and -- intensive .nvestigation of anybody ever this tripongly about because of my state and what we have endured. you will have to excuse me. that investigation has also shown the judicial system can and does -- unless it is controlled. people whonnocent have been bankrupt. one woman told me two years ago wereher legal fees $95,000. she says i don't have that. the only asked that i have is the equity in my home which
happens to correspond to my legal fees of $95,000. she said the only thing i can .hink of is to leave my home since that time, she's accumulated an additional $200,000. i doubt there are few people, maybe nobody in this is that sustain such treatment. they were terrified of because of their guilt but felt guilt and innocence was not relevant. years and $50hose
million, you name it, and $50 million nothing, -- the president was found guilty of nothing, .fficial or personal we are here because the present suffered a terrible moral lapse. .arital infidelity not a breach of the public trust -- it was not thought about. it was a breach of his marriage vows. a breach of his family trust. sex scandal.
when you hear somebody say this -- this ist monday, not about sex, it is about sex. you pick your own adjective and here's something i would use. indefensible. outrages. unforgivable. shameless. , the president would not contest any of those or any others. the president and hillary and chelsea and human beings. this is intended for mild
criticism. as i listened to the presenters to the managers making their opening statements. well-prepared and spoke eloquently, more so than i hope. about the human element, i talk about what i thought was on occasion unnecessarily harsh. i thought the language should be tempered some much to knowledge he is the president. say the president lied about this, lied about that. as i say, i thought that was too much for a family that has been
decimated. the relationship between husband and wife, father and child has beenthe relationship between hud and sprained, if not destroyed. nothing but sleeplessnothing bu, mental agony for this family for almost five years, day after day from accusations of having assassinating or had been on down, it has been bizarre. sense that. perhaps, none is deserve. the president has said that he not wanteceived, did to be helpful to the prosecution. he did all of those things to his family, to his friends, to
his staff, to his cabinet, and to the american people. why would he do that? well, he knew this whole affair was about to bring unspeakable embarrassment and humiliation. wife and a child that he worships with every fiber in his tidy. whom he would have died to spare her this order to ameliorate her chain and her great. shame and embarrassment is no excuse for lying.
well, the question is not mine. you put yourself in this position and you have already have this lapse as to what you would do. we are not perfect. you say he should have thought of that before hand and indeed he should. just like adam and eve should have. you as you, you, you and and millions of other people who have been caught in similar circumstances should have thought of it before/ . none of us are perfect. -- the chaplain is on here -- too bad. [laughter]
great revival meeting and he said, is there anybody in this audience who has known u.s. come close to the perfection of jesus christ? nothing. challenge. the you've known such a person? stand up. us.e it with who was it? wife first husband. [laughter] former attorney general janet reno. the first woman to hold the position, served during first terms of the clinton administration. leading the justice department for the oklahoma city bombing,
and several high-profile terrorism cases. she died earlier this year from complications related to parkinson's disease. here is a portion of jenna reno's 2000 commencement address to law students at northwestern university. reno: human responses learned the first year of life. it is developed in the first three years. what good are all the prisons going to be 20 years from now if that child is honest and punishment? what good are all the institutional institutions going to be if the child never learns and knows the first year, responses that are critical? we have got to make sure, as we parents ofse ages, berlin enough, wise enough and financially able enough to properly care for a child. people talk about teaching
parenting skills. you don't teach parenting skills in one course. universities is across this country can better inform young parents as to how we get young parents to be better parents. keys that no university system will solve because it has not solved the problem for itself, but both we are going to have to solve and it will be your great challenge is how we create time in our workplace and give parents the opportunity for professional advancement while at the same time providing quality time with their children. [applause] >> i remember my afternoons after school and in the summertime -- my mother taught us to play baseball, appreciate beto timmons -- beethoven
symphony. she loved as with all her heart and soul. there is no childcare and the wearer that would be a substitute for her and her life. [applause] as you go out, either with ugly parents who need loving and caring for children who come into this world, make sure that what have youyers got to say about family life and opportunity to be with children? not just in the first three years, but for the soccer game, the school recital and all the times after? if we can send a person to the moon, this nation ought to be able to organize itself so that parents can spend quality time with their children and still be sentimental. [applause]
mrs. reno: the left's great medical school work with this great law school with others to think about how we design a program to make sure every child in america has robber prenatal care and proper health care. it is wrong for a nation of this wealth to not have that exist. [applause] reno: a child who watches his father beat his mother even at the earliest of life accepts violence as a way of life. this nation has begun to focus on domestic violence, but doctors, lawyers, start much earlier than the criminal justice system and we must look of the whole picture and organize ourselves by getting
doctors to figure out what they do when they first see a patient to warn them about the problems associated with domestic violence and let people know it is acceptable and they don't have to accept it and that are alternatives. this nation has got to come to grips with the problem and as we have seen crime go down eight to seen a row, we have domestic violence go down in this nation. [applause] mrs.mrs. reno: in public school, they can do so much but something is wrong with the nation that says but what players in six digit figures. we have got to do something. [applause] >> wicking do so much in terms of truancy prevention and other efforts that educators
understand the criminal justice system and vice versa and exchange information. let us take our enforcement apparatus and figure out what the most important priorities are, decided federal state and let cool authorities efforts and get out the crime problems that are most important in the community. let us be prepared as we have never been before to deal with the issues of cyber crime, again, the law schools can do in terms of preventing cybercrime and working together these terrible situations. these terrible situations. we can do this civil rights. we can give to young people opportunities that they did not have. why do we wait until we consider
a burden of action in law school and universities? why don't we start considering affirmative action to make sure they are prepared from the beginning? picture,k to the whole we can make a more effective picture, we can make a more effective difference in both these leading issues of the day. [applause] >> finally, for all that we do, we must do more. it has been a privilege for me to meet with my colleagues in eastern europe, to see the stars in their eyes and the joy in their voices as they talk about theyonderful initiatives have undertaken to bring democracy to their country -- when i see the frustration and i see them stumble and fail on too see occasions -- i established democracies struggling to come out of the tyranny. do not take your democracy and your freedoms for granted. cherish them and give them your best.
that means supporting the role of law, that means thinking out, speaking out against hatred in this nation. hatred that undermines the very fabric of our society. haters are cowards and when confronted, they will back down. [applause] mrs. reno: the rule of law and majority rule will not work unless we establish stronger foundations of mutual understanding and tolerance. that requires that we speak at positively, candidly and constructively. not without vindictiveness and purpose,t with collegiality, thoughtfulness. unless we do, we will see segments of society alienated, outraged and violent.
let us work together to listen to each other with a listening ear to talk with respect, understand and put ourselves in the shoes of others and go forward to be this land we love and build stronger communities and give the children that come today the opportunities for samara. tomorrow. >> washington journal, live every day, news that impacts you. coming up this morning, editor-in-chief terry jeffrey ldman will discuss their picks of the top news stories of 2016. c-span'so watch washington journal coming up at morning.is >> this holiday weekend on c-span morning.
at -- tonight 2's but 10:00 eastern, wall street journal editor joanne loveland talks about leaders in corporate america. 11:00, contributors talk about thomas lake's book "unprecedented." and sunday afternoon, a little after 5:00, bla at 10:00nche cook talks about the final volume of her eleanor roosevelt series. price on the death of the steel industry in his book. for our complete schedule, could booktv.com.o >> the final portion features raul castro eulogizing his brother fidel.
mr. castro: everyone can relax, and everyone can relax. i'm the last speaker esteemed heads of state and government. chiefs of the delegations. dig nataries and friends. and beloved cuban people. although i will give final speech on december 3rd when we meet at revolution square in san diego cuba, i would like to
express on behalf of our people, party, and government as well as on behalf of hour family. our gratitude at your attendance here. as well as the extraordinary and countless expressions of solidarity. of section and respect received the world over during this time of grief and commitment. vernon fiddler devoted his life to solidarity and led a social revolution of the hum. by the humble. and for the humble.
that became a symbol of the anticolonial, anti-apart eyed and anti-imperialist struggle. for the immance i'm aches, and the dignity of the people. his stirring words are echoed today in this care. just as during the meeting on july 26, 1959, in support of the aguarian reform that was crossing the ruby con. and that led to the struggle to the death by the revolution, and here, fidel asserted that the ag
warian reform moved on. and we did it. today, 57 years later, we are honouring the western who conceived and led it. here in this place, we voted together with him. during the first and second declaration of havana. of 1960, and 1962. of 1960 and 1962 respectively. >> and here in the face of acts of aggression. supported by the organization of american states. fidel stated that behind the
nation, behind the flag of freedom, behind the revolution, there is a people that is ready to defend their independence. and the common destiny of a free latin america. >> i was, together with fidel in the building that today houses nemsar - the ministry of revolutionary armed forces. when we heard of the explosion of a friendship that brought in the first and only weapons that we could procure in europe. and we left from here to the dock, because we knew that only
that explosion could have originated from the ship that we were unloading with the weapons, and we went to help the victims. when a few minutes after we arrived we saw almost as a deadly trap, a second explosion. these events led to the death of 101 people, and numerous injured victims. so here, with him, we declare cuba a country free of illiteracy in december 1961.
with the conclusion of the literacy campaign that was led by more than 250,000 teachers and students. and it continued forward. in the meantime, during that same year, the veteran of the rebel army and the newly created national revolutionary militia engaged in combat with mercenaries in the bay of pigs, and in the mountainous areas against armed bands of infiltrators that came from outside the country, which among
other victims, and multiple misdeeds, they murdered 10 young people involved in the literacy campaign. they prevailed at the bay of pigs, and at the same time moved forward with the literacy programme throughout the country. and as fidel said, the young people had the future in their hands. and with profound emotion. here we heard the commander in this square during the solemn ceremony in october 1967, that paid tribute to the unforg
and among the victims were the young athletes who had won gold medals in the fourth central american and caribbean fencing championship. on this occasion, we repeated together with him that a people energeticpeople is , injustice will tremble. in this square that has seen many important parades on may day in 1996 against of the blockade and helms-burton pact, that still remains in force, and
the enormous parade in 1999. and, during the youth events, the student events and workers events in 2000 where fidel expressed his theory of revolution. that today, millions of cubans are also taking it upon themselves in a sacred act of popular will. it is in this location where we have come to support the agreement made with the communist party congress of cuba. and it is in this same spirit that we have seen over the last
few days the people participate with great engagement by the youth who have expressed their moving tribute, and of sworn loyalty to the ideas and work of the commander in chief of the cuban revolution, dear fidel. ,ere standing at the monument jose marti, a national hero and inspiration after the attack on the moncada barracks where we had been meeting for more than a century during periods of extraordinary grief, as well as
to honor our martyrs, and proclaim our ideals, and revere our symbols, as well as console -- consult our people on key decisions. it is especially here where we commemorate our victories and we say to you that together, to our selfless struggling and heroic people, we will always move forward until we achieve victory. [applause] >> [chanting "yo soy fidel."]
>> back to our top story today. president putin has put the brakes on what could have been a row with the u.s.. it isssian leader said not the time for such unfriendly retaliation very sanctions. even though such a response would be warranted. >> we reserve the right for measures, but we will plan our next steps to restore relations based on policy, with the new administration of donald trump will pursue. we won't expel anyone. families of their using their regular places of rest during the holiday season. moreover, and bite all the children of the u.s. diplomat to the christmas party in the kremlin. >> this holiday weekend, here are some of our featured programs. today at 7:00 p.m. eastern, librarian of congress hayden,
archivist of the united states of the secretary smithsonian institution on the preservation of our national treasures. bequest, wrote that he wanted the institution to be andrds the increase diffusion of knowledge. that is with the smithsonian has turned out to be. eastern, them. inaugural women's leadership summit. next generation of women at the ronald reagan library. federal court of appeals from the d.c. circuit and andra davis of the fourth circuit discuss the history and impact of the bill of rights. 225 years after ratification. >> applying those words to the very -- varying factual disputes that confront the country over a course of 200 years is what is challenging. p.m., laway at 6:30
professor richard epstein and the cato students -- institute discuss foreign wars. >> or is always the difficult question. justice becomes an essential question in the way we deal with these things. if you start with the frame and out thatunny, it turns when you don't use force, the real calamities won't happen. >> the muslim affairs council convention, with remarks by democratic congressman, actor and muslim -- takei american father. >> we are trying to highlight the values of the constitution of the united states, but values of freedom of speech, freedom of practice of religion, equal dignity, equal protection of law
and due process of law. and those values are challenged today. >> watch on c-span and c-span.org, or listen on the free c-span radio app. now, bbc parliament looks back at the major events that took place in the british parliament in september 2016. this is one hour. ♪ >> hello and welcome to our seasonal "westminster in review." coming in the next hour, it is brexit all the way. isn't it time government
stops running away from the threats to jobs and living standards for millions of people. >> i am optimistic about the prospect. >> we will be talking to two about what we know now and what the brexit future holds. believe it or not, there have been other subjects debated at westminster. for example, who was to blame for the humanitarian disaster in syria. >> i think we are deceiving ourselves in this parliament if we believe we have no responsibility for what has happened in syria. >> and on a more personal note, she moves collects to tears when she tells her colleagues she was raped. >> i remember, first of all, feeling surprise, then fear, then horror as i realized i could not escape. but first, one subject has taken over debate at
westminster, the u.k.'s exit from the eu. dramatic as it was unexpected, ushering a new era in politics. in the immediate aftermath, a -- it caused david cameron to resign and after a truncated leadership conference, theresa may took charge in days of turmoil. has our palm it was on its summer recess, the new pm crisscrossed europe, shaking hands with leaders and pressing the uk's case. so when september came, the leader of the s&p group asked her what would happen now. millions of people from across the united kingdom depend on freedom of movement across the eu for business and pleasure. they face the prospect of having to apply and possibly pay for visas. is the prime minister in favor of protecting visa free travel, yes or no?
>> there was a very clear message from the british people at the time of the referendum vote on june the 23rd. that they wanted to cnn's to free movement as it operated, they wanted to see control of the movement from the european union to the u.k.. and that is what we will deliver. >> the labor leader wanted to know what ministers were going to do now. >> this is a government that drew up no plans for brexit, that now has no strategy for negotiating brexit, and offers no clarity, no transparency and no chance of scrutiny of the process of developing a strategy. the jobs and incomes of millions of our people are at stake, the pound is plummeting business is , worrying and the government has no answers. the prime minister says she will not give a running commentary, but isn't it time government stopped running away from the looming threat to jobs and businesses in this country and
the living standards of millions of people? >> yes! >> unlike the right honorable gentlemen, i am optimistic. i'm optimistic about the trade deals that other countries are actively coming to us saying they want to do with the united kingdom, and i am optimistic about how we will be able to ensure our economy grows outside of the european union. but i have to say, labor did not want a referendum on this issue, we gave them -- the conservatives gave them a referendum. we are listing to the british people and deliberating on that result. the foreign secretary is shouting from a sedentary position. the secretary wants a second vote. i have to say to her, i would have thought that labor mp's what have learned this lesson. you can ask the same question again and still get the answer you don't want. >> recent reelection as leader.
democrats campaigned to stay in the eu and their leader predicted trouble ahead. >> when will she put the interests of hard-working british people above extremists? -- extremist protectionism which nobody voted for? >> and as the weeks passed, other mp's wanted to know what the plan was and how it might impact different parts of the u.k.. >> the prime minister's plan for brexit seems to be to cut a special deal for the city of london so that the bankers avoid the dire consequences of leaving the european union. for people inxit the city, the heart brexit for everyone else. when will she cut a similar deal for wales? >> i will be cutting the best deal for the united kingdom, full stop.
>> away from westminster, the high court ruled that parliaments approval was needed to leave the european union. gina miller led the claim. the government had insisted it was possible for ministers to trigger what is known as article 50. the government appealed against the ruling, taking the case to the supreme court. a verdict is expected before the end of january. meanwhile, back in parliament, labor mp wondered how a bank in india was impacting the u.k. >> and trying to work out how you can be doing your job if you aren't getting clear indication -- there is a big difference in terms of how you do your job, a ,eries of bilaterals [indiscernible]
a trade organization. it makes a big difference. you need to get -- just saying that we will have nothing to do with the world trade organization. who is going to give you that indication? >> the negotiations have indeed begun. -- haven't even begun. >> but we are several months in. >> i understand, but we have a central forecast, which given what we know, and we don't know anything particularly special, but certainly the parliamentarians don't know. given the likely outcome, it is a sensible forecast. but as this proceeds and if we get greater clarity, we will adjust that and it could be adjusted up or down. >> elsewhere on the committee quarter, a leading campaigner asked if it was possible to have what he termed a quickie divorce from europe.
he was told there was no quick fix solution. the chancellor handed to the treasury committee that he felt -- favored a more track -- drawnout transition than a quick break. >> there is an emerging view among businesses and regulators and politicians, as well as i think a universal view among civil servants on both sides of the english channel, that having a longer period to manage the adjustment between where we are now as full members of the european union and where we get to in the future as a result of the negotiations we will be conducting would be generally helpful, would tend towards a smoother transition and would risks of disruption, including risks to financial stability.
>> philip hammond. just how long might it take for the u.k. to leave the eu and set up new trade deals? britain's ambassador to the eu -- sir ivanogers rogers was reported to have privately told the government that a post brexit u.k.-eu trade deal might take 10 years to finalize and still fail. it could be rejected by other eu members international parliaments. the whole issue was raised that finalize and still fail.-- by tt commons questions. >> should we ask for the reality check about the decade-long period of time it will take to extricate ourselves from this particular process? shouldn't we be not rushing so headlong into this process? yes there are number of , bureaucratic processes we face
but the british people have given us clear instructions to leave the european union union. >> this includes huge opportunities to ease the cost of living on low income families. >> he is right to highlight the potential to reduce the cost of living in this country. free trade ensures that more people can access more goods a better value, making their money go further. protectionism tens to hurt the poorest the most. >> mr. speaker, it has been two years since the environment secretary announced plans to sell to china. a question this week revealed we are still no closer to signing trotters protocol. if it takes this long to reach an agreement to sell this, what is that say about our other trade deals in the wake of brexit? speaker, i am very intent
that our agricultural exports continue. i will continue to push pigs trotters as fast as they will go. >> in the house of lords, there are plenty of strongly held opinions about the options for relationships with the rest of the eu. >> in my view, the so-called opportunities of brexit are largely delusional vistas. we must stop talking nonsense about becoming an offshore singapore or a haven of social dumping, as many on the continent believe the government plans. reasonable,tly responsible and indeed democratic to consider how sometime in the future, the final decision should be made. another referendum could be needed and justified. >> a former senior diplomat made his maiden speech. >> the mood i find in europe is not one to punish the u.k., but of great sadness. that a country that has done so
much for peace and prosperity on the continent should be turning its back on this project. >> the former home office minister dismissed those who argued that britain was not a good place to negotiate a good exit deal. >> i will now try make the case that the market is absolutely essential to our future and that people did not vote to leave the single market, just the european union. not so, my lord. market in the single completely -- >> this is not just a trade issue. there are huge numbers of issues in relation to eu laws, justice, agriculture, fisheries, the environment. two years negotiation will not be enough. >> six months after the referendum, what if anything do we actually know?
i'm joined by two eu experts. simon fraser is a former servant and top civil and dr. hannah white is at the institute for government. hannah white, let's begin with you. what have the ministers been saying to you? hannah: we know there has been a lot going on in whitehall, a lot to prepare for the government to make decisions about what the u.k.'s negotiating position to -- should be, but we don't really know very much about the conclusions or if any conclusions have been drawn on the basis of all that work. >> simon, what is your impression? you've still got friends and connections, what is going on? simon: my impression is that this has been a period all about committee but not much has actually happened. i would describe it as a period of learning and understanding about what brexit is really about. so you see the government and , whitehall reaching out to
gather information about what is -- what business thinks, what different parts of society thing, what do trust groups think so they can begin to put together a negotiating position for brexit, but that position has not yet been put together. one of the things we're begun to understand is that it is a very complex set of issues and getting a coherent negotiating position together is not an easy task. >> hannah white, with obviously heard a lot from opposition mp's saying, tell us something, get on with it. do you think ministers feel any pressure? the publicbers of who voted for brexit think, get on with it? hannah: there is definitely an imperative in the politics to show the public something is happening and the public voted to leave. it is not necessarily obvious to the public why there is not been more effort process.
on the other hand however, they have said that they don't want to rush into article 50 until they feared -- feel they are in the right position to do so.on r as i said they are laying the , groundwork to make the right decisions all in good time i , think. >> how long can we go on laying the groundwork before things actually have to happen? simon: we need to get on with it. if we are going to trigger article 50 in march, and personally i think that is the right thing to do now because i think we need to get on with it and trigger. the only way to move forward is to get on with it and trigger. but we have to know what the objectives are, what the agenda is and what the process is going to be for negotiations and we have to sort of pre-organize some of that. with the eu negotiators. we need to know our own position in that we need to prepare the ground to actually embark on a negotiation. hannah: the first thing will be to establish what is on the table for the various negotiations.
like what isif you , it that we can negotiate in the process and what will we need to wait for a subsequent negotiation about our future relationship or could we do the , two together? host: presumably behind the scenes, various different departments are scrambling to make sure their particular pet issues on the top of the agenda. simon: yes, it has to be arbitrated and put together. presumably at the center of the government. there is one other point i would like to make, apart from understanding what is going on internally, we have also been looking at what has been happening externally in the world and learning more about the context of brexit. most notable being the election of donald trump as president. we need to think about how that will affect the external context as we going to negotiation. i'm sure that is at the top of people's mind. host: we will talk about donald trump a little later. but do you agree with simon
rogers, they uk's ambassador to the eu that these negotiations , could take a decade? simon: i think i do agree that if you look at the complexity of the negotiations, you have to negotiate the article 50 exit plus the future relationship, it is unlikely you could do at least the second of those within a two-year timeframe. hence all of the focus is on the , interim arrangements that may be necessary in order to secure a smooth transition from the end of the exit negotiation to the establishing of a long-term relationship. that is quite a tricky thing. and that is by the way -- it is another thing we learned more about in the last few months. host: and hannah white, do you think there is a danger here for the government that this takes up everybody's day? hannah: it is true the government was elected in 2015
with whole manifesto that it wanted to deliver and since then we have a new prime minister , that is brought ideas to the table she wants to deliver in many things are not brexit related but will ultimately be affected. they have to think about not just the negotiations but the post brexit period. how do we identify opportunities from having left the eu and making the most of those opportunities? the work needs to be starting now on those sorts of things. whitehall, which was already going cuts in staffing and budgets before brexit, and is now having to do business as in -- usual, the manifesto, and brexit. host: thank you very much for joining us. we will come back to later in the program. for the time being, let's move on and take a look at some of the other news in brief. ♪
it hasn't just been a momentous year for the u.k. as we mentioned, the election of donald trump -- donald j. trump as the next president of the united states came as a surprise to some and a challenge to many. in the comment's one mp reflected on donald trump's pledge at the end of 2015 he would band muslims -- then muslims from entering the united states. >> can i ask her what action she would take if the new president-elect carries through on his campaign promise to discriminate against arab citizens on the basis of religion? >> we want to ensure the dignity of our citizens. it is up to the united states what roles they put in place in terms of entry into their borders. we will be in insuring -- working to ensure that that special relationship continues. >> the government has given its blessing to an expansion of london's heathrow airport.
the decision has been long-awaited, but it may not be final. parliament voted on a third runway plan. heathrow is currently at 98% and sees 480,000 flights a year. 70 billionst around pounds. >> it delivers the greatest economic institute benefits to our economy. it offers a major boost to freight operators. it can be delivered within carbon and air quality limits and crucially, it comes with world leading measures to limit the impacts of those living nearby. >> the government has chosen a course that is not only wrong, it is doomed. wrong because of the people that directly suffer on the backs of the environmental harm that this project produces. and to doomed because complexity is a cost of legal complications
-- this project is almost certainly not going to be delivered. i believe this will be a millstone around this government's neck for many years to come. he resigned over the heater plan -- heathrow plan and lost his seat. the travel secretary as set of plans to overhaul the way the railroad system is run. from 2018, each rail franchise will be run by a joint team. labor argued it wasn't the change the rail system needed. >> it is time for our railways it to be run under public ownership and public interest. it should have affordable fares for all and long-term investment. rail riding on a firm footing for the future. we can and make sure our network plays its part in making this country a country that works for everyone. host: one only get everyone to
stand on the cold platform in the morning and managed to get into london. at least an hour late. demolition of the so-called jumbo camp in calais, unaccompanied children began arriving in the u.k.. any were coming under what is known as the amendment named after the former child refugee. it commits the government to relocating vulnerable child refugees. comments, opposition mps accused the government of backtracking. ten-day explain why they exclude children of 16 and 17 years old given the recognition that they are still children and
still vulnerable. >> we are determined to address the most vulnerable children, which are the ones that the amendment suggest we assess, and those are children 12 and under. children 15 envelope whose nationalities qualify them for refugee status and who are at high risk of sexual exploitation. >> children are at risk of all kinds of exploitation. including trafficking, forced labor and modern slavery. but this government does not care. >> the reason that we do not consider children after the 20th of march is quite simple. because we do not want to introduce a factor to encourage to havetivize parents traffickers to make this journey across the zahara and the mediterranean. and in many cases, and in a
watery grave. host: you're watching westminster interview with me. still to come, can mp's were -- work together to handle the social care crisis. as the year drew to a close, there were increasingly vocal calls for the government to do more to help civilians trapped in the northern syrian video of -- city of aleppo. the area has been a key battleground in the war between forces under president bashar assad and rebels who want to overthrow him. the u.n. warns that up to 100,000 people were trapped there and that rebels were stopping many of them from leaving. it is feared hundreds of civilians have died, but the syrian government and the russians have denied targeting them.
>> reports of the united nations are likely toes be extremely accurate. and they have recorded over much time that there is clear evidence of civilians being executed and shot on the spot. there are dead bodies in the street, which cannot be reached and in thegunfire last couple hours, we have heard there are probably more than 100 children who are unaccompanied or separated from their families who are trapped in a building and under heavy fire. host: the former chancellor reminded mps that military action was voted against in 2013. >> we are deceiving ourselves in this parliament if we believe we have no responsibility for what has happened in syria. the tragedy in aleppo did not come out of a vacuum. it was created by a vacuum.
a vacuum of western leadership. of american leadership, british leadership, i take responsibility as someone who sat on the national security council throughout those years. parliament should take its responsibility for what it prevented being done. >> if russia and bashar al-assad continue to block aid convoys into the area, then surely the governments must finally accept that we have reached the point of last resort when the previous foreign secretary promised that airdrops would be used. if we fear that manned flights would be too dangerous, as i know the gentleman sitting next to the foreign secretary does, the government should consider using unmanned drones or gps guided parachutes. >> i'm sure many throughout the country watching television screens whose main instinct, whose main feeling is one of frustration at the apparent impotence of our government to be able to get involved and do anything.
host: the foreign secretary condemned russia for blocking aid to civilians. but he also criticized the decision in 2013. >> in 2013, this house voted not to use force against assad even after he had poisoned hundreds of his people with nerve gas. and we thereby -- we as a house of commons, we as a country, we vacated that space into which russia stepped. ever since that vote, our ability to influence intervention in syria or two help civilians or compel the delivery of aid has been severely limited. host: next, the labor secretary asked another question. >> as a you and basinger suggested, is there no way this
regime and supporters commission into facilitating this vitally needed humanitarian aid? >> our greatest influence at the time is providing the humanitarian need to people on the ground. can be something we proud of, that in the face of this meltdown of humanity, as the high commissioner referred to it, the british people are the second largest donor into that area. >> there is a strong argument that the inaction of the united kingdom and united states in 2000 or team created a vacuum. ,he existence of a vacuum exploited by russia, can never justify the indiscriminate bombing a russian aircraft flown by russian pilots. by russian aircraft flown by .yrian pilots of children, of hospitals and of refugees. what we need is evidence from this government that they are going to seek international
cooperation, especially to the u.n., for protection, least,ion, aid and not evidence. because there is clear evidence of war crimes being committed and this government must commit to those. >> there is no question that on the basis of evidence, there is a case that this is a breach of the geneva convention and the people who are responsible will, in time, report to justice. host: now, official figures tell us that the number of people living in the u.k. aged over 100 has increased by 65% over the last decade and many more are living well into their 80's and 90's. but our increasing longevity is putting more and more precious -- pressure on the health and social care system. the committee investigated what the health care system will look
like in the year 2030. the man in charge of the nhs in england said local areas should integrate services. >> there are things that we hope to do to integrate health and social care locally, but i believe those solutions are best designed between consenting adults locally, rather than nationally. host: and he said he was inclined to look at provisions for older people more generally. -- there are three 2020, different ways in which people's pensions go up. that way to be look at would be a triple guarantee for old people in this country. it would be a guarantee around income, around hiring and around care. can ink aboutyou any one of those in isolation from the other two. >> i can't tell you how depressing i find it sitting in the common chamber and hearing the politics over this issue.
i personally think that we need to do what was eventually done over pensions and accept that the scale of this is so great and it will be a challenge for whoever is in power. so it is the interest of all parties to get together and have a mature discussion about how we fund this. i personally feel this is the right time in the electoral cycle for that to happen. the closer you get to election, the more difficult that becomes. >> i think it is very unnecessarily worrying to the public to talk about is the nhs and sustainable. they worry about those core principles. i think the bigger question is, how long will health systems across the world going to be sustainable in the face of the huge pressures of an aging population and the advances in medicine and technology that are
making us all live longer. i think there's a bigger question, that isn't really about the nsh, but about how we are going to get more resources into health care systems. host: the next day at the prime minister's questions, one mp's said the system is in crisis. >> this social sector -- social care crisis forces people to give up work and makes people stay in hospitals longer and leads people into a horrible, isolated life when they should be turned for through it public funded social care system. fund it properly, please. >> they said in 1997, they had sorted their manifesto. they had a royal commission in 1999. a green paper in 2005.
the report in 2006. in 2007, they said they bought it. in 2009, they had another green paper. 13 years and no action whatsoever. host: theresa may, now, back in october, the home affairs committee tried to get to the bottom of why the justice had -- independent inquiry into child sexual abuse quit. according to newspaper reports, other members of the inquiry panel had concerns about her leadership. the committee heard from the professor who was an adviser to the inquiry before being promoted by the gap left by the justice. -- really would have preferred to sit in the room with a panel. we were kept at a distance from
a lot of the activities of an inquiry. >> so was she a nightmare to work with at some papers would have suggested? >> i would not use that language. >> what language would you use? >> i would prefer to say there were challenges. host: the committee, under its new chair, announced it would hold public hearings in 2017. forwardter, dozens came with allegations of abuse came forward and different clubs since they were children. mp's wanted a rigorous investigation. >> last weekend, i stood on the touchline with my son playing against kendall wants field and hundreds of thousands of children every weekend. this is our national game. i fully respect what the faa are doing in their investigation, this is no attempt to undermine them or criticize them.
but given that this is the national game, given the scale of this potential problem, will she ensure that there is independence and we don't just allow the sport to investigate itself. >> we don't want to witchhunt amma that we want to -- but we need to make sure everyone in sport involved with children understand the nature of these wicked, horrible people. they have to understand why it is so important to put in place rigorous measures to safeguard our children and keep them safe. host: mp's said there were problems with existing vetting checks. >> there is a loophole for sports that don't have governing bodies and there is a loophole for people who are self-employed, not employed by another person. would the secretary of state undertake to look at it? it would also affect music tuition. host: an mp brought colleagues
to tears after talking about being raped when she was 14. she her personal story during a commons debate on a national debate to eliminate violence against women. >> it was quick, i remember feeling surprise, then fear, then horror as i realized i quite simply could not escape. afterwards, i walked home alone. i was crying, i was cold and shaking. then i realized of course that that was the shock response. i didn't tell my mother. i didn't tell my father. i didn't tell my friends, and i didn't tell the police. i bottled it all up inside me. thathing i realize now is i'm not scared. he was. i'm not scared. i'm not a victim. i am a survivor. honorable later
for what she has said and the way in which she said it, which left an indelible impression on us all. host: and it was not the first time an mp told a story to represent a cause. an mp told of her experience losing a daughter. >> eventually, the doctor was called and i was rushed to the emergency room and tried to deliver. the umbilical cord had been wrapped around her neck for the whole 20 minutes. she lived for five days. the lifed to agree to mission -- machine being turned off. i got to hold her for the first time until her heartbeat eventually stopped. she stayed alive for hours. i never wanted to let her go. baby's birthday is every year. my five days of her being alive, she was never able to cry, to
smile, but i loved her and i desperately wanted her. i still love her. she is always in my thoughts. all these years afterwards. even if i don't talk about her all the time. i don't not talk about her because i am embarrassed. i'm not. its because it hurts so much to do so. host: time now to take another look at some of the stories that made the news in brief. in mid novemember, several thousand prison officers to the -- took part in a day of action in protest over staff shortages, the widespread use of drugs and violence in jails. the government eventually settled its dispute with them. there were a series of disturbances over the autumn culminating in a right in , birmingham in which inmates to go over for wings of the theook over four wings of present. when order had been restored, the justice secretary updated mp's. >> levels of violence are too high in our prisons.
we also have concerning levels of self harm and death in custody. that's why we are reforming our prisons to be safe places and taking swift action to deal with drugs. it is important to remember that these problems developed over a number of years and it will take time and a concerted effort to turn the situation around. >> of all prisons in 2015, birmingham had the highest number of assaults on staff. there were 164 assaults on staff in 2015 alone. association,ficers the union and the present government association have warned of this crisis since 2010. it is time fundamental questions were asked about the way our prison system is working or not working. host: there was unanimous support in the commons for a motion recommending that the former owner of bhs be stripped.
stripped of his knighthood. more than 570 million pounds were lost in pension deficit as well as thousands of jobs. -- philip green had extracted large sums and left the business floundering. >> -- to surrender a modest part on his major fortune. but a modest part would make such a difference to those pensioners still awaiting their fates. >> he took the rings from bhs's fingers, he beaten black and blue, he started of food and water, he put it on life support and then wanted credit for keeping it alive. host: a conservative mp has called for emergency action to save the african elephant. currently thousands of elephants are killed by poachers every
year to sell their tasks. while there is an international ban on buying and selling ivory in other countries, it is still possible to buy and sell certain types of ivory within countries. the u.k. government announced it will spend the next to -- extra 30 million pounds on finding ways to tackle the illegal wildlife trade. >> it is estimated that 30% or 144,000 have disappeared in the past seven years. substantially as a report -- result of poaching. perhaps there is as few as 400 to 450,000. this is an emergency and it requires emergency action. now, more than 1800 members of the house of lords and even some peers and that might be just a few too many. there have been numerous reports, debates and minor tinkering to try to reduce the size. but one conservative thinks its time for a major overhaul.
>> this is the largest second chamber in the world and is the largest legislative chamber of any sort in the world after the "people's republic of china." the constant reiteration of those facts, they cumulatively drowned the recognition of the exact scrutiny we supply to build the quality of our debate. host: scotland's finance secretary has confirmed that income tax rates will be frozen in scotland, with the u.k. tax-cut for higher earners not replicated there. sending out his draft budget for 2017-18, he said he will protect household incomes and support jobs. the scottish conservatives said the plans made scotland the highest tax part of the u.k..
while other parties and trade unions criticized him for not going far enough with the new powers. there is concern that the basic rate of income tax will be frozen and the higher rate will be paid by those in just earning over 42,000 in scotland compared , to the 45,000 limit in the rest of the u.k. >> we cannot accept the same -- at this time of austerity, -- i will limit the increase in the higher rate threshold to inflation and not give a substantial real terms tax cut the top 10% of income earners. the higher rate threshold will be set at 43,430 pounds. the commons has said goodbye to very familiar faces in the last four months and welcomed a clutch of new mps. the murder of the liberty secretary shocked everyone. convicted the
murderer was sentenced to life in prison. the conservatives, liberal democrats, all decided not to pick up new candidates. david cameron later decided to quit the commons. there was an upset for the tories. in this man quit. withecision to press ahead the expansion of heathrow -- airport -- airport. she took her seat at the start of december, flanked by her party's leader, bringing the total number of mp's to nine. and finally, a replacement was needed for another conservative.
stephen phillips, who quit the comments over the government's handling of brexit. dr.comments newest recruit, caroline johnson held onto the street -- seat for the tories. her election means the number of women who have ever been elect to the house of commons is now exactly the same as the number of men currently sitting. 455. now, let's go back to brexit and the commons, were at the beginning of december, labor before the debate pointing at the government to put forth a plan. data suggesting as many as 40 conservative mps may backpack the, theresa may agreed but forward an amendment, asking mps to support her timetable to starting the talks. mps were divided over the what the government should do now. a rather vague plan. the argument told the plan is to
have a red, white and blue brexit and we are believers in free trade, while giving up all the conditions that go with free trade in the single market. >> it did not contain. he was pretty clear about what to do. all of a sudden, we see the issue of parliamentary oversight being used as a break against taking control. they side with the elites. they are out to frustrate the way people voted in june. days since the referendum. we have a hundred 13 days to go until the deadline the
government set itself. we are two thirds of the way there to talk about a glacial pace of progress. this parliament has the opportunity to shape an economic policy and an immigration policy and a knowledge policy to make us a world leader. but if we don't take that opportunity and instead concentrate on seeking to dilute the results of the referendum, and i am afraid we will fail the people of this country and this historic moment. host: a few days after, the secretary of state for exiting the eu made his debut in front of the committee in charge of scrutinizing his department.
>> following last week's debate in the house of commons, the government is going to publish its plans for the negotiations before article 50 is triggered. when can we expect to see this? >> once all the policy is complete. the reason for setting the final possible date in march was a numerous, but the reason was to carry out the policy first. january, february, there is still many decisions to be made. we are carrying out 57 analysis, each of which has analysis of different parts of the economy. there's still a number of things to do. it will be as soon as we are ready. host: just before christmas, parliament heard once more from
theresa may following a summit in december. she was excluded from parts of the meeting as other leaders approached their support -- approach to brexit. >> i appreciate there is a timing issue, but, do you not want to get on with this as soon as possible because the certainty that comes from that, which the business community and other people in society want to reflect on the referendum as soon as possible? >> it is right that people want to reflect the outcome of the referendum. but for the government needs to take time to pair for these negotiations. before i became prime minister, i said we should not draw out article 50 until the end of this year. we looked at the timetable and
the trick of it was giving up sufficient time to making this preparation and then to pair for their side of the negotiations. and also recognizing that the british public wanted us to get on with it. host: the big question is, where do we get from here and what can we expect in the next few months? hannah white is here from the institute of government and simon fraser. the negotiation is not just about of, there are 27 people around the table. what are they making of what is going on? simon: when we trickled the article 50 negotiation and it begins, we have to understand what the priorities are of the e.u. we need to bear mind that they have said clearly that there top priority is maintaining the
unity of the eu 27. and there should be a price attached to leaving the eu. they think that if you are a member of the club, you have to abide by the rules of the club. they see that as a whole package. host: politically, that is going to be difficult because if the government finds that it has to continue to pay money to the eu, politically, they'll be difficult to sell to the public. hannah: there is a possibility that we will contribute to the eu budget. but the people who voted for brexit will say, hey, i did not vote for that. people voted for brexit for different reasons.
part of the task of government will be to sell whatever they negotiate to the british people. there will be decisions about whether there is a specific benefit that the u.k. sees from being still part of some mechanism within the eu. but they'll will have to sell that back to the public. host: how far will the government be able to go to keep its trade links going with the you and manage the public? simon: the government doesn't have to set out -- does it have to agree to the terms and conditions set out by the other party in the negotiation.
the government will have to make a series of choices. there is a strong requirement on the government to get more control over immigration in this country. that may mean that we cannot accept all the conditions for access to the european single market and therefore trade often needs to be made. we need to get an outcome that people in this country think is the best outcome for this country. that is brexit, but with the least possible damage to our trading relationship. host: does that make something like donald trump seem very attractive. he come along with the idea of some different relationship. for a government who wants to keep trade as much as possible, that could look very attractive indeed. simon: it is important to recognize that brexit is not just a risk, it is an opportunity. we should see opportunities. we have to take account of the fact that donald trump has been elected and we need to shift politics and geopolitics and how
that will affect us. next year is going to be just as turbulent a year as 2016. they are going to have an important election in the netherlands, france, and germany. it won't be a static situation and for the u.k., we need to work out our relationship with europe and the new administration in the u.s.. above all, i hope that the democracies in the western world stand together through the tough times. host: and this will be tricky for the u.k.'s internal relations. scotland is not at all happy about the exit hannah: we've pass. hannah: we've seen nicola sturgeon talking about what she would like to see for scotland after the deal. it remains to be seen the extent to which the nations can get
what they want out of these talks. under real pressure? >> certainly the fact that scotland, when we already had one independence referendum, puts pressure on that relationship. the nationalists in scotland have been saying there could well be, it could will push for another independence referendum if they don't like the deal the u.k. government goes for in terms of brexit. of course, they have to have an agreement from the u.k. government to have another referendum. host: let's go back to our negotiations with our friends in europe. what do you think the worst-case scenario is? how likely is it that the article 50 talks will break down?
we will drop out of negotiations ltogether? simon: that is my worst-case scenario that we will not take the article 50 negotiation seriously or that we end the negotiations and we don't have a clear way ahead of that. and then we resort to the wto option that is a bad option for our economic relationship. i hope that we can avoid that and pursue a course that allows us to have continuity over the next few years. from the business perspective, that is hugely important. when we cut about interim arrangements, for businesses, not only do they know -- do they need to know there will be an arrangement, but they need to know early on what it will be. the timeline is quite tight. host: can you tell, what do you think is the mood around ministers and government?
is that gloomy going forward into 2017? hannah: i don't think so. there are a lot of opportunities that brexit presents. there is the supreme court judgment on the article 50 case. it says if parliament will have a say if article 50 will be triggered. i think that is a technicality. there are a series of obstacles, the triggering of article 50, the negotiations will be gone through and in the meantime whitehall will be planning to mitigate the risk. host: thank you both very much indeed for coming into the program. and that if it from us for now.
you join us for our regular roundups of the day at westminster when parliament returns in january. for me, goodbye. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] startsnew congress tuesday. we're live from the u.s. capitol starting at 7:00 a.m. eastern. you will need new representatives in here from returning members. the house gavels and it new in. the opening business includes the election of a house speaker. rule in particular is getting attention, proposal to find members who live stream
video from the house floor. it's in response to last summer's democratic sit in that was streamed by several democrats. live coverage of the senate starts at noon and includes the swearing-in of senators. opening day continues on c-span3 with coverage of the ceremonial swearing-in of mbers of congress. joe biden presides over the swearing-in of individual 3:00, paul ryan swears in members of the house. we will have a full replay of opening day at 8:00 p.m. eastern. >> the presidential inauguration is friday, january 20. c-span will have live coverage.
andh live on a c-span listen live on the free c-span radio app. >> a discussion on the state of cancer research from a symposium at westminster college in missouri. it this is an hour. >> my name is kirk jefferson and i am the assistant dean for global initiatives at westminster college, director of the churchill institute for global engagement. i also coordinate the hancock symposium. we're off to a wonderful start and it is a wonderful day to be here. i would like to at this time invite you to the obligatory, please sign in short devices, cell phones. i would also really like to ask you to refrain from using your
cell phones and also please do not go in and out of the room while dr. ali-osman is giving his presentation. i would like to introduce one of the worlds foremost medical professionals and cancer researchers. we are really fortunate to have dr. francis ali-osman here. dr. ali-osman is margaret harris and david silverman professor of narrow research and part of the -- narrow oncology and research and part of the duke researc university cancer institute. a professor of surgery and pathology, an active member of duke's medical process team. he is a world leader in the field of experimental oncology, cancer therapeutics and pharmacology and cancer drug resistance with a particular focus on tumors of the central
nervous system. his research seeks to understand the cellular and molecular processes that underlying malignancy and determine the response of cancer patients to their treatment. this work is used to develop novel, highly targeted, smart anticancer drugs and to design more effective individualized treatment strategies. dr. ali-osman has held faculty positions at the university of texas and the anderson cancer center and currently is serving at duke university in durham, north carolina. in the summer of 2016, he was appointed by president barack obama to the national cancer advisory board. he earned an undergraduate degree from the university of science and technology in ghana and a doctorate with distinction from the free university of berlin. i give you our distinguished guest, dr. ali-osman. [applause]
dr. ali-osman: it is a special privilege for me to be here today. i would like first of all to thank kirk jefferson for for speaking with me on the phone and emails to put this together and for this incredible symposium. this morning i am sure reflects just the flavor of the symposium. i come from duke university, a small university as you well know. i hope when you graduate some of you will come over and there we help some great doors is.
duke has a strong liberal arts tradition. we do not plan to steal your president to replace ours but he came from yale university. he brought that flavor inside the leadership. as a cancer person, the -- somebody by the name of mike bishop, michael bishop, some of you may know him from the ucsf -- the college of san francisco. he is one of the biggest killers in the field of cancer. he and his brother shays discovered the genes.
that revolutionized our thinking and everything we do today. he majored in english before he went to medical school and got a phd and went into cancer research. i had the privilege and honor of reviewing one of his grants for nih. impeccable language that he uses to write this stuff. he is incredible. he has a major place in medicine and science. he talked earlier today. i hope institutions like that will forever be here. they open up your mind in ways that colleges do this. keep up the wonderful job. to talk on cancer, something that has since my early days captured me which led me to ske my background less forw clinical
work. people need tweaking care of when they are are sick but what prompted me for courses i took early on was the challenge of cancer. it is extremely complex and needs all kinds of people from different backgrounds to come to it. to peel open like an onion. long after we have gone on, the young ones come in to make contributions. now, the other challenge with talking about cancer is that that complexity, in 45 years i could not even begin to do justice to a snippet of brain cancer which is when i work on most of the time. so to try to give an overview of the whole field of cancer and 35 minutes is a big challenge. but i will try.
i apologize to some of you that i may not go deep enough into some aspects but i want to give you a flavor of what we are doing and what is going on. i will spend a reasonable amount of time on the burden of cancer because i think if that is understood, well understood by young people, understood by policymakers, understood by the general public that the fight against cancer would be even more vigorous because this is an awful disease. but it is a beautiful disease. it challenges the human mind to come up to make a solutions for the problem it is today. so with that, wel, you young ones, and even some of the older ones, you have to thank your families, our parents to give us the opportunity to be who we are
today. the teachers who taught us and to the students we later on had who stimulated questions and challenged us and several students in a place like westminster, you just have a unique place here. the smallness of the college which i was told is my design. you will never make it too big. to bring closeness and friendships and support carries throughout the rest of the light. you cherish this. things you do not get any 50,000 student body kind of place. and some really brilliant fellows and medical residents and my program to get trained and the incredible research staff.
they are the foot soldiers who make it happen. i am blessed to have collaborated with a number of them. and then me governmental agents like the nih and nci and the individuals, sometime the $10 gift. sometime the 10 thousand dollar gift. sometimes $1 million. without all of them we would not be where we are. also the patients who suffer with this disease. sometimes lose their lives to it. without them we would not have the materials we need and the encouragement we need to do this right so i just want to make sure that -- no, cancer is not new at all. unlike hiv, cancer has been there even in fossils and mummies.
evidence they had cancer. lumps on the bones and so on. so it has been there for a long, long time. and just the word "cancer" is still shrouded in mystery and fear. emotion. the worst thing you can be told is that you have a diagnosis of cancer. all kinds of things go on. actually, some societies, they do not even discuss it. in japan until not to longer they would not even tell the patient they had cancer. so, there is a lot of mystery and stigma. and, now, what exactly is cancer? i will try to kind of shed some light on that. and then i will discuss like i said earlier, the burden of cancer on society.
we will talk about different types of cancer. and touch here and there on treatment we have for them today and i do not think, i do not have too much time to touch on a very important topic and that is prevention. a lot of cancers can be prevented and i will say a few words about some of the things we can do. and as i go along here and there i will discuss some of the challenges and opportunities we have. in the united states, in 1961 president nixon had the national cancer act. such a big problem, when he saw the number c said we have to do something about this. the nih has all these institutes. the national cancer institute is one of them.
the nci has its own separate budget and it reports directly to the president. the national cancer advisory board appointed, it is a huge problem. how some of the numbers here. 40%, close to one in two of americans will have the diagnosis of some form of cancer. that is huge. in 2016, it would be well over half a million new cases. not those who haven't already, brand-new cases. unfortunately 500,000 people will die from cancer.
it is staggering. 600,000 deaths this year from cancer. it is the second most common cause of death. this is a big problem. i will show you some numbers later on the impact. children, also get cancer. and, there will be about close to 60,000 new cases. this was 2014, a lot more than that today. fortunately, despite the effects on many people get cancer, we still have about 14 million people living with cancer thanks to the advances we have, the treatments and so on. and, it is estimated that another almost 10 years we'll have close to 20 million americans living with the disease. they are living quality lives, going to work every day, hugging
their loved ones. that is the good news. now, the economic burden of cancer is huge. $125 billion is spent on care. let's speak of the other impacts. the dollar figure on lots of people working and so on. this is projected to increase. hopefully with that increase it is a good investment to keep increasing the number of people who are living with cancer. our hope in the cancer field is that cancer becomes first of all, curable. that is our goal. a number of them are curable
today. i personally know many women who were diagnosed with breast cancer five or 10 years ago and they are living wonderful lives. we are very cautious about using "cure" with cancer. we talk about survival, you know, where you live so long. but such a disease can sneak its way back and even after a long time and you have to deal with it again. so, just some numbers. here are some hard numbers. like i mentioned, the burden of cancer want to come out really.
prostate cancer in men accounts for about 26% of all cancers. with women, it is breast cancer is the number one cancer. lung cancer we will see another figure later on, it is increasing in women due to the fact that smoking for some reason has not been controlled in women. smoking of tobacco is the single most important and one would say the easiest thing to deal with in cancer. that causes cancer. it causes other kinds of conditions. addictions to it. lots of problems. anyway, this is the estimated new cases. now, the probability of developing cancer, like i said, is about one: two, 1:3.
these are the most form and -- common forms of cancer. if you are at all of them together, that is where you have one in two. in women a little bit less than men, one to three. the big difference is prostate answer the does not apply to women. it is interesting when you look at the incident rate of cancer, it peaked in 1993 then started going down. this was around the time that the diagnosis for prostate cancer came up. for women, the line is straight. you can agnes cancer earlier and like most diseases, you have a better chance to deal with it. if a man is diagnosed early, the disease within the prostate has
not moved out and there are so many treatments options. it almost will not affect your life span for survival. so men, make sure you know what is going on in your prostate. it can get into the bones and spread out. another cancer that could be prevented. and, again, with the women i think the lung cancer, that is what is keeping it slightly up. you can see, black men and it is not -- part of it is caring and seeing your doctor. but there is a genetic component why black african americans, africans and generals tend to have a higher rate of cancer and interestingly, brain cancer, african-americans get less brain
cancer particularly the worst kind of rain cancer. a and that obviously has a genetic component and we are very interested in trying to understand what these suppressive gene is in the african-american because maybe we can use such for prevention or is there something else to this? this is the incident rate i ethnicity. i broke it down into different races and men and women. you can see men have higher rates almost across the board. both women and men.
now, despite the differences in incidence, there are some differences in survival as shown here. for some cancers it is traumatic and i think it has to do with smoking. up to a 20% difference. it is about 20 percent. so, this is i think a national challenge and it is being addressed by the nci. there is a difference in survival rates, giving more data on that. this puts the picture more i think in a vivid fashion. you see the curve with some women. the long cancer shooting up.
beginning to dip down but again this is because of the habit of smoking amongst women. but most other cancers are coming down. breast cancer is coming down. the tobacco problem is still a national problem that should be dealt with. heart disease, emphysema, other diseases are associated. the death rates, this is part of the incidents and other things i showed you. now, children. this is the incidence rate in children for the different age groups. you notice, leukemias and brain tumors are the number one cancers when you combine them together. brain tumors and leukemia with respect to children are shown in this figure but the news is despite that, you notice before
1977, how many kids survived with leukemia. today, close to 90% of children will survive with treatment. they will go on and have their own children and grandchildren. some kids at m.d. anderson were treated and one on to college, graduated comic. mary, are living their lives. there's hope. with research and effort we can make a difference. the brain tumors are a challenge but even there we are making progress. now, another way to look at the burden of cancer is in the years lost to the disease. this just shows you that this is
tremendous. this is the u.s. what about the world? even worse when you look at the whole world. 14 million new cases and about over 8 million deaths in 2016. i was not able to update this but i suspect it is going up. more than 50% of the new cases and deaths would be in the developing world and there are good reasons for that. cancer science, cancer medicine, these underdeveloped countries, you know, they are almost a death sentence. there is a lot of effort in these countries, africa, latin america. malaria, aids, hiv, efforts are put into that. but guess what?
more people die of cancer than all of those combined. it is a huge problem. in britain, in these societies, in these countries, ultimately it is an economic problem and it goes into security and the government stability and things that eventually can come back and affect the rest of the world so it is a fiscal problem. another figure in these places, these countries, you are likely to die from cancer six times more than eight traffic accident or war. 40 times from war. so, it is a problem. i hope i have impressed upon you that cancer is a major societal problem and society needs to come to reps with that.
we as individuals, our chances are very high, one in three that we will deal with this disease or have already dealt with it. so we, the government, the communities, should all get involved. what is cancer? it's another mystery. let me start with the word "tumor." you have a tumor, you have a cancer. a tumor is simply a mass of cells. you can feel it as a look. so a tumor is a cancer. a tumor can either be benign or malignant, but all of them are characterized by abnormal growth of cells. that is, you get that lump. in normal cells, the genetics of
a normal cell -- it is awesome. it is like clockwork. if you believe in god -- your cells know how to divide come along to divide, when two. but, when something goes wrong with that process, it keeps growing and does not know when to stop until it becomes to large. fortunately, a good number of these forms, these tumors, are benign. you can go in there and cut it out and it is gone. in terms of cancer, that growth this very, very abnormal. it keeps growing. the critical thing about cancer is it invades. it doesn't stay where it is, it gives out to other sites. breast cancer, melanoma in the skin, moves to the brain, the liver, the lungs and when it
does that it subverts the normality of the cell and also over produces or under produces what is necessary for normal growth and ultimately this is what takes over and there is loss of life. really, the big difference between a malignant tumor and a benign tumor is that uncontrolled and invasiveness of the tumor. there are many other differences. so many terminologies are used to describe tumors. sarcomas and so forth and others. melanomas. the bottom line is that unfortunately cancer is not a single disease.
just like different tissues in the body and organs. they have different functions, different ends. so when they become cancerous it translates into that. so really, some of the features are the same but when you look at the things they are very, very different. and sometimes you hear somebody saying 100, sometimes 200 different diseases. it is complex. the other level of complexity is that if you have three women with the same type of breast cancer it could behave differently because they bring their own unique genetics to bear on the disease. so you have the basic carcinoma of the breast, 10 women treated with the same treatment, three or four would respond, the others would not respond. because we all bring to bear our whatever god has given us to bear on this disease so it is
quite a challenge. it gives you an idea of how they look like. prostate cancer, lung cancer , kidney cancer and someone. so not only do they look different but a good pathologist picks one and can tell what type of cancer it is. how does the cancer develop? all cancers come from normal cells. there is a process called initiation and i will tell you a little bit about it. today we know it is that it a genetic level. that normal cell gets transformed. the technology today, you can detect the evolution from a normal cell. in some cases, like a pap smear, you can take a look at the cells
as they change. even in prostate cancer in lung cancer. what we hope is to be able to get molecular markups in the light streams that you can measure. there is fantastic work going on at m.i.t. where they are looking at a small, little nano chip you can inject and it will circulate and give readouts of what is going on and you can and not to -- you can inoculate and actually see it give signals and begin to pick up differences. for now, except in a few cases you can detect this early stage. but from the transformed cell, before the transformed cell becomes an actual tumor cell in
starts the process. there are actually chemicals that fuel this promotion so if you have a transformation but you do not have the promotion, it can actually move the transformed cell and then from the tumor cell that is clinically diagnosable, it takes anywhere from a few months to several years. there are some very slow-growing tumors and cancers. unfortunately, there are others that are very fast. brain tumors, pancreatic cancers. once they've progress in aggressive cancers, they spread and someone. the earlier you can get it, the
better chances you have to deal with it. what causes this change from a normal cell to the transformed cell to the tumor cell? funny, just to give you for one time how people thought about the knowledge of biology. in some cases it did not even exist so you went by -- there were theories. the humoral theory. the lympth theory. they are actually not too far off. it was just too simplistic.
no one would talk about the actual causes of cancer. i will step back. like i said, cancer we know today is a disease at a genetic level. i think i will spare you. the key thing is the tumor suppressor gene. every normal cell has a precursor of the genes. these genes work in balance like offense and defense, they keep everything steady. but when a mutation occurs the normal balances shifted.
the tumor suppressor genes keeps things. it transfers whatever it is doing and overcomes the tumor suppressor or if there is a mutation in the tumor suppressant gene that they keeps it from suppressing the growth of the cancer, those are the two main genes. these are the two. and, we know that initial stages of what we now call carcinogenesis, the developing cancer, radiation, uv light, chemicals, you had this morning and outstanding, eloquent talk about estrogens which can contribute to the development of
breast cancer, prostate cancer, and someone. there are many other percent of gents. cigarette smoking. there are many other carcinogens. cigarette smoking. high-temperature grilled meat. i'm sure we'll know that and so on. then the hpv. some bad viruses. hiv and so on. interestingly within the body , there are processes that go on and contribute to carcinogenesis. oxygen, we needed for energy and someone but oxygen can also be very toxic and produces molecules that can damage the
dna. it can create something that if not repaired can become carcinogenic and lead to cancer. in addition to these, there are individual factors related to the individual that can contribute. genetics which you can inherit from your parents. in at least 5% of cancers, breast cancer, of varying cancer, number of other cancers have a familiar component to them. that again, the fact that you have them does not mean you have to get the cancer. you can minimize the risk for cancer. there is something which is you can have the same genes, dna repair genes, metabolizing genes. there are differences that can
also contribute and then there are mutations, genuine mutations you inherit. of course, there is lifestyle in the environment you live in. of course, smoking. that exposes you to hiv and so on. that will contribute to having cancer. i'm going to touch a little bit on the treatment of cancer. surgery is one of the
tools that has been available. in the nineffective tumors and tumors that are found early and have not spread. you'd take it out and you go back home. you go about your life. not the case for most people. the disease is already started to spread. it's not always their fault and some of the symptoms are not very obvious area -- obvious. feel.ot a lump you can radiation has been a hallmark of cancer for a long time.
these are the mainstays of cancer therapy. there are other treatments. they are representing advances that make a difference in the future. i will talk about a couple of those. chemotherapy, most patients are going to get some form of chemotherapy today. treatmentumber one combined with surgery. it's the use of chemicals to destroy the cancer cells it's interesting. it started during the second world war one mustard gas was used in chemical warfare.
were having changes in their blood cells when exposed to it. we started doing some research. nitrogen mustard was the first chemotherapeutic agent. they discovered another which was a precursor. upse were the two that came during today, we have a whole slew of them and better winds are coming up every time. the problem with chemotherapy when most of them were discovered, we knew about cell biology.
when i was still in college, the tumor models that were used were from a mouse with leukemia. a lot of the drugs that were discovered were good for leukemia and not other things. today, we have discovered them in slightly different ways. mentioned, chemotherapy is used in two different ways and we improve on how we do it. you can get it after surgery. or you get it for your surgery. them with, we combine more clever strategies about what we know about how they work. then, the other eggs thing is
how you combine it chemotherapy with some of the other therapies you have. i will talk a little bit about that. there is another type of therapy. patient almost to the brink. if you do it well, you can salvage and it tends to be working well. we have a new type of therapy that is coming. you actually give small doses of the therapy with limited toxicity. right, you have better results than if you went with the higher dose. we are learning a lot about how we use chemotherapy in combinations.
almost all the new therapy i have discovered, i will talk a little bit about immunotherapy. even those work best when you combine it cleverly with chemotherapy. it's ongoing work. said, part of the problem or one of the major problems of inability tois its differentiate between a normal cell and a cancer cell. you have seen kids with bald heads, they lose all of their kills the cells in the hair follicles. the bone marrow are is suppressed, there are skin problems. it's the pricet you pay for hopefully getting the cancer cell.
some of these drugs actually get at the cancer cell with a bigger bang then normal cells. that gives you the differential. to get and improve upon this differential. the other big problem is resistance. to tumors have the ability double up mechanisms that blocks the affect of the drug. you have the patient responded for months or years and then it fails to respond to the therapy. they have to find ways to overcome that. these are some of the things that are ongoing to improve chemotherapy. we have new ways of combining
them or together or with other treatments. think i am getting close to the end. immunotherapy, i am sure you've all heard of immunotherapies. it's the latest and biggest thing out there. immunotherapy was pooh-poohed upon. it was mystical. it was a witch's brew type of thing. we did not know enough about the biology and the process. least,last five years at it's been a completely new thing. it is doing wonders, things we did not leave. people are responding.
normally, that is the end of the story. he was put on a type of immunotherapy, and we know the rest of the story. the tumors disappeared. we can't find up the brain anymore. fingers crossed that it will continue. in fact, we are 100% sure that it is working. what he got was what we call an immune checkpoint inhibitor. these are proteins that block the immune system. it is like a checkpoint.
when that happens, then the tumors wouldn't grow. they could intercept the process and allow the immune system to attack the tumor and take care of it. basically, what immunotherapy, we don't get infections and our healthy but we don't get infections because our immune system kicks in. we have this robust immune system. when it doesn't work well, and with cancer, because it comes into a normal cell, it's not quite a foreign body inside you. sufficient changes that make the cell foreign cells. the goal of research is to find out the differences between the normal cell and the tumor cell and allow the immune system to recognize the tumor as a foreign body and attack it. the other thing is that the tumor cells are quite clever. they out-think the immune system. once you figure that out, then you can remove them and let the
immune system get to them. this is letting the body's immune system attack the cancer. immunotherapies with antibodies that were directed at the tumor, you get injected with the antibody, it goes to the tumor, it attacks it and kills it. then came adoptive cell therapy, which some of you are aware of, you take the cells from the patient, you isolate the t cells, and sometimes you can reengineer those cells or activate them, put them in large quantities and get them back into the patient. these cells go to attack the tumor. today, we have, i may have a slide on it but i will keep on. chimeric andogen t cell therapy, we have a modulator that can activate the t cell but you engineer it such that it would
have a molecule that would recognize the cell. when you do that and grow the cells in large numbers, and we do that in our program, you grow them in large numbers and give it back to the patient. you have two things. the immune system itself is activated, and they are able to recognize the tumors. all of this are exciting things, but it is still experimental. there is still major research. it is a great future. then, there is a therapy with molecules that stimulate the immune cells. you can give the patient that, make the cells active, and they are able to attack the cell.
that is a really exciting thing. immunotherapy is not a therapy, it is a use of the immune system that is also very active. vaccines, cancer vaccines where you can immunize a patient against the tumor. that may prevent the tumor as well as treat the tumor. then, the tuberculosis bacteria, bcg, if you attenuate, it can activate the immune system when you give it to a patient. it is used a lot in bladder cancer. it is being extended to other cancers. i mentioned the new checkpoint inhibitors. a few words on surgery, i think
i will save some of it. surgery as a procedure has limitations. localized tumors, benign tumors. it is used for many other aspects of cancer care. for diagnosis -- sometimes, they really get, most of the time, actually, to know what kind of cancer it is and to know what molecular activities are taking place in the cancer, you need a sample of the tumor. to know the extent of the tumor, where it is, how far is it, you have to have that. palliative surgery is sometimes important when the tumor is so disseminated that it is causing a lot of pain and compromising quality of life. sometimes, surgery can help so
that at least quality of life is improved. then, for breast cancer and other cancers and so on, once the tumor is removed, there is deformity. reconstructive surgery can be used to improve things, to make life better. say you have lots of, not just a cure that tumor, but quickly, other treatment modalities that are out there and have been researched heavily, raise the temperature of the tumor to 106 degrees so the cells can not survive. if you can do it focally, today we have waves that can keep the local area of the tumor and kill the tumor that way. or if the blood vessels are good, you can infuse a warm solution and warm the tumor,
sparing the other parts of the body. what we now know, when you combine hyperthermia with other modalities, you can have a positive effect. heating is one thing. you can also use cooling to kill a tumor. very low temperatures. you can direct it, in this case using liquid nitrogen, to the tumor. you can freeze it and eradicate it. there is frequency appellation, using electrical energy to kill the tumor. the photodynamic therapy, where you put a photosensitive molecule, administer it to the tumor, then you bring light, and
the light would activate it. if you are able to bring the light in a very precise fashion, it leaves the normal cells around the tumor, they have the photo synthesizing agent and they are not killed because the light doesn't get to them. there are radiobiologists doing work in that regard. they generated new photosynthesizing molecules. the way they deliver the light, it is used in radiation to activate it. this is promising in the future. another exciting thing, chemoembolization to block the blood flow. in this case, you give the chemotherapy and you block the track of the chemotherapy in the tumor so you don't have the systemic effect of the chemotherapy, it is localized in
the tumor. you can deal with the tumor that way. you have probably heard of the gamma knife. it is radiation used very focally, computer-controlled, to bring radiation right to the site of the tumor. and there are technical advances coming in with that kind of therapy. true computer programming, you can direct the radiation to the tumor. enter operative radiation therapy, another technical advance, during the operation you can accurately radiate a tumor. the last few minutes, i will spend talking about targeted therapy. that is a big part of the work i do. the targeted therapy is simply,
first of all, identifying an abnormality in the cancer cell, then developing a drug that attacks the abnormality. it is hoped that it is only in the cancer cell, so the therapy has been very selective for the cancer cell. a different concept. this is a list of many different things, abnormalities that are no known to differentiate normal from tumor cells that are being attacked. for me in particular, there is a gene that is a phase two metabolism gene. it transfers a molecule onto toxic compounds, binds to them, then these compounds are featured.
tumors, and there are several reasons, an example of brain tumors, what you see here is gstp-1, present and all the tumor cells. when tumors have a high amount of this gene, especially when it is in the nucleus of the cell, the patient has a fourfold higher risk of death than the patient who didn't have it. i spent several years cloning the genes for this protein and showing that there are different types of it. with respect to targeted therapy, this protein had been crystallized by a group in the
u.k., or in australia, at the nih. we know the crystal structure. the crystal structure is a 3-d structure of the molecule. once you have that, you can, through computer-aided drug design, you can direct different chemical structures or fragments into the site of the protein. you can use the crystal structure. then, you do some applications and come out with compounds that bind with the highest affinity to the site. you can use that as a lead compound, then you double up you can use that as a lead other compounds from that that eventually you can use to treat this. again, you identify the pathway that is effective, you double up and validate the small molecules, then you get into preclinical and ultimately, clinical phase. i think i would stop here. i want to repeat, if anybody
knows, i don't have a statement that i have been able to find you made it. we cannot direct the wind, we can only change our sails in the direction of the wind. those who smoke, if you can stop, this will help. if we cut out smoking, if we can reduce 30-50% of the cancers, again, not to speak of heart disease and all the other things, smoking is the one thing that i think is low hanging fruit. it is a tough one to take, but if you can do it, do it. if you don't like vegetables, eat more fruits and vegetables. they have wonderful things that
will make you healthy in many respects, and certainly will protect you against cancer. exercise. it is not fully understood, but exercise tends to have a powerful impact against heart disease, we all know that, but also one cancer. several studies have been done to show that. sun exposure, especially for fair skin. wear protective clothing and sunscreen and things like that to minimize that, because there is uv light in the sun's rays and when it gets to you, it will damage your dna. that can start abnormal lesions. enjoy the sun, it is wonderful, but there are things we can do to minimize it. and again, early detection is the key. go to your doctor. if you are suspicious of signs, discoloration, lumps, have it
checked out. if you are a man, get your psa done. if you can do all most of these, you can significantly reduce, it doesn't matter what genes human heritage, if you have the brca-1 gene, you can reduce your chances of getting cancer. for women with the breast cancer genes, especially a lot of women in the family, if they have breast cancer, ovarian cancer, they tend to go the safe route and remove the breast. there other things to do to minimize your chance. it is never too late to start. with that, i think i will stop and take any questions you may have. [applause]
q&a -- ear's night on >> while people were starving, van buren was having nancy parties in the white house. it was part of image making. harrison was for the poor people but here was this rich man sneering at the poor people. but hen was very wealthy was portrayed as the champion of the poor. women came to the parades and waved handkerchiefs and some gave speeches. it was very shocking. they were criticized by the democrats who said these women should be home. schaffer, the author ." "the carnival campaign sunday night at 8:00 p.m. eastern on c-span's q&a. the 35th anniversary
of the appointment of the first woman to the u.s. supreme court, the ronald reagan presidential foundation hosted a young women's leadership summit at the discussed the and life and legacy of sandra day o'connor. this is 40 minutes. >> as we begin, i want to start talking about women and leadership. researcher so i began by going to my good friend, google. no, i did not. went to google. i would have a lovely image of google there but i think you all know what that looks like. i type in women's leadership conference. what i found was that there were 58 .6 million responses that
showed up. is a national, global, regional, local conversation happening around women and leadership. this year, the white house held the united states women's summit with the intention of celebrating what women have accomplished. look forward to making a powerful difference in our collect the future. in addition, there is the ted conference. google ted talks. 2000, the popular ted conference decided to bring forth a new initiative. ted women. a global initiative of bringing men and women together who wanted to look at where change began. summit wass year's last month. we had over 40 speakers who came together to share their insights about -- the time is now.
through that program, we have 280 ted x events across the globe. we had women who were tuning in for the live stream as well as wringing their own thoughts and presentations to the table. it was a global initiative from san francisco to seoul. the onlyes are not space where these conversations are happening. how many of you have heard of sheryl sandberg? she is a force. i encourage you to google her. of facebook. in 2010, she was approached to do a ted talk. she felt compelled to do it on women -- women's leadership. she was told that you could not be a professional, executive leader and talk about women. do you know what she did?
she is a force. she did it anyway. she went on stage and she talked about women in leadership and the response was epic. so epic, so many people were touched by her talk -- it is one of the most viewed talk. in wrote a book called "lean ." she illuminates gender discrepancies and she uses it as a platform to advise women on how to achieve their goals. she created a movement. if you go to any social media in youand type in #lean will find inspirational stories that come from sheryl sandberg. dialogue to bring forth change and create a more equal world. now, i have wonderful slides. there we go. 2004, forbes magazine has
been publishing their list of 100 powerful women. it just so happens that the first woman on that list was the woman who inspired today's events, chief justice sandra day o'connor. today, we find women in the public sector, private sector being recognized. public6 notables are servants such as janet yellen, hillary clinton, michelle obama, chief justice ruth gator -- ruth bader ginsburg, and mary barra. these women have laid down the papers of the road to success in women's leadership. is aet even though there sliding dialogue of women in leadership, these women are framed as the exception rather than as the example. in a study conducted by pew research addressing women in
leadership in 2015, you see starling data. past 50 years, women represented in congress has only road from four women in 1965 currently, 39 women. roughly about 20% of our congress is women when the population of the united states reflects that women are 51%. in the past 20 years, leadership at the ceo level for fortune 500 companies has increased from zero to only 5.2%. we are seeing women enter into leadership roles but not in a drastic rate. in 2013, when asked to reflect on changes since the writing of her book, sheryl sandberg dated that there is a difference between dialogue and action and that is what we are not seeing his action. is what we this know. stereotypes are holding women back from leadership around the
world. no matter the world, your culture, there is one constant. we think that men should be strong, assertive, aggressive, and have a voice. whenink women should speak spoken to and help others. women are judged through a different lens. men, the man is the boss. a woman, she is bossy. feeling of you are overwhelmed by that data? safe space. we can share. i know that i am. in going through that, i started having questions and one i want to post you today is --what if we shift our perspective? instead of looking at it as we have only grown much, what if we acknowledge it and look at it with optimism moving forward. an eternaleagan was optimist. he focused on what people brought to the table and not what they lack.
that is the lens that i choose. here are my takeaways. to take a lookle at the election and celebrate things because i think that there are a lot of people, specifically women who feel there is nothing to celebrate. i am going to celebrate that since 1980, the percentage of eligible women voters that turned out to vote has been more every single election than the men. we have women participating in a democracy and using their ballots as their voice. i think that is wonderful to celebrate. come january, there will be a record number of women serving in congress who are of color, 38. we see our first latina senator. whoo! we have tammy duckworth
who will move from the house of representatives to the senate to become the first thai representative. and we have the first indian-american woman to serve in the senate and kamala harris, the second african-american woman. pretty american. last, i want to address the elephant in the room, and not a republican. i am going to undress hillary clinton. regardless of what you may feel at this moment with her campaign, i want to look at it with optimism. this is the first time in american history that we have had a woman top of the ticket of a major party. [applause] in addition, she received the majority of the popular vote by one million votes.
[applause] though we do not have a woman in the white house today, glass ceilings were shattered this election. some might say, the glass ceiling, there is only one piece left and it is small and based on the remarks from our chief admin officer, joanne drake, she shared with me that there is one piece left and it resides over 1600 pennsylvania avenue, the white house but that is it. that is a great thing to celebrate moving forward. let us celebrate that for a moment. [applause] mothers,n, our grandmothers, have fought to bring us where we are today and it is up to us to continue paving and widening the road for future generations. we will have a dialogue today and then we will take action.
opensharing tips on how to a dialogue about women and leadership, sheryl sandberg offers to suggestions. one, be honest. two, tell your story. that is what i'm going to do with you today. i'm going to be honest and tell you my leadership story. i will shift from talking behind this podium because i do not want to talk at you about want toleadership, i talk with you. i want us to be girlfriends. having coffee. i apologize that i did not bring the coffee. girlfriends chatting over water. i will be very vulnerable with you first of all. my weaknesses public speaking. i am terrified of public speaking. and in thinking about that, but could not even begin to describe how i was going to tell you about the pitch of anxiety in my stomach. i decided to be optimistic
instead. and i am going to lean in instead. my leadership journey started with my family. i have a pretty big family, predominately women. what is interesting is that when growing up, when they talked about our family, they were talking about the women. we were a forest. and still are. four ofrs, there are us, we all have different personalities, and passions but the one thing that we share is that we had a voice. we were never told that our voice needed to be didn't or muted in our house. in addition to that, this is my sister diana -- and i may get emotional and i may cry but that is ok. diana is 12 years my senior. since i was much -- a child, she has been my mentor. she has provided a safe haven to me. she has provided advice when i
did not know where to go. and she knows how to take care of me in ways that no one else does. there are times when i have gone to visit her and when i wake up, there is a cookie by my bed. she is my mentor. , one ofing about her the things i admire is her leadership style. she brings poise, confidence, to everything she does. she has held a leadership role in everything she has done. i told you she was a force. i aspire to be when i decide to be a grown-up. my next mentor is someone i have never met. this is being made. when i went to graduate school, i studied women's history. i researched and dedicated my life to telling stories about women that did not have a voice at the time and i fell in love
with eliza pinckney. she was born in the west indies in 1722 and then she moved to south carolina with her father and ran his plantation for him. she was the first woman to successfully cultivate indigo to use as a dye in the fabric market. if any of you are wearing jeans lady toou have this think. in addition, she also had the confidence at the age of 16 tune out once, not twice, but three times tell her father, thank you to the marriage proposals that he would bring home to her. she told him that i will be the decider of my own fate and she was and she married a wonderful man. when she became a mother, she was a progressive. whoraised two young boys when they grew up working players in the american
revolution and ended up being signers of the american dental -- declaration. her daughter ran three plantations of her own. george washington was a pallbearer at her funeral. she has also given us the largest collection of the written word why a female to date the colonial era. as i spent years going through her letters and diaries, we became friends. in one of those letters in 1762, she wrote this to a friend -- i love a garden and a book. and they are my amusements except i include one of my greatest businesses of my life, why a to my dear little girl. this brings me to my next step in my leadership journey. i am a mom. this is my daughter. this is a picture that i gave to her preschool when they asked me
to give them a picture that represented her. she is a little fearless. this picture was taken on the day that she decided to dress herself for the first time. she picked out everything. she came downstairs and then she posed for this picture because she wanted to document this. she has a strong conviction. she chose boys underwear that has cars on them. she said -- mommy, boys have better characters on their underwear. -- told her t-shirt that has anyone can be anything. no pants. and she said that was on purpose. in thinking about that, that she is three years old and she has such a strong sense of self, i think about how i will be a leader to her as a woman. how do i cultivate that.
she is why i do the work that i do here because i want her to grow up in a space where she can be who she wants to be and she can achieve what she wants to achieve. me to my work here at the foundation. [applause] as i was preparing my remarks, i could not bring two words what i do here. i get to work with amazing young women and men and help cultivate the next generation of citizen leaders and i also get to work with an amazing team called the female trifecta. when we bring our individual strengths and talents, we can achieve greatness. it is my honor to serve as a mentor to the two young women here.
becky and whitney. tell them they are awesome. and tell them it is from me. let us get to you, now. today is really about you and the work that i do here is really thinking about what you are going to usher in for the future. that is what it is all about. i am excited to see what passions you bring to the table, what personalities come out and what power comes into this room. ime of you may be thinking -- do not have any power. i do not know what that feels like. that is ok. an exercise.to do i don't know if you know about power opposing but there is a harvard business school social psychologist. she has written a book about power posing. she believes that a person by assuming two simple one minute posers -- poses will instantly
become more powerful. -- it ising best taking the world over by storm. agonna kendrick -- a day she was power posing before an event in chicago and she was excited. i would like us to harness that. the energy we bring into this room is going to be important for what we are going to accomplish today. i want you to think privately to yourself what pose you could do that would bring your best and most empowered self to the table today. think about it. in a couple seconds, we are going to do it together. of deep breaths. think about what it looks like. you can go classic wonder woman. you can go silly. pose.n stretch a beyonce whatever your heart desires. please stand up.
and on the count of three -- we are going to strike our power pose. and ladies, i want this power pose to be intentional, i want this power pose to fill the entire room with girl power i know you are bringing to the table so that way we can set the tone for what we are going to accomplish today. are you ready? we talked about this. are you ready? -- 1 - 2 -t of three 3. again, technology has failed me. there was supposed to be a soundbite of beyonce. this is why i do not use technology and presentations. that withfor sharing
us. i felt that energy. i want to thank the gentleman in thatorld -- in the room brought their power to the table. when we talk about women's leadership it is not just about women. we need to think about the men who are here to support us as well. like elizater diana, pinckney, like my daughter, and my team, you are all a force and i cannot wait to witness the great changes that you guys bring about. you are the future. i want to leave you with a quote from ronald reagan. he is speaking to you. you can play a special part in the future. you will be the author. take full advantage of the wonderful life that lies in store for you. thank you for letting me share my story. [applause] at this time, i would like to
life thatman in our 100% supports women's leadership. he was excited about putting on this event. it was the first thing he tasked me with a year ago. he thought he would get away without speaking today. please welcome tony penny. [applause] tony: hello everyone. how are you? womanery obviously not a which is why i felt strange speaking at today's event. i am the learning officer here at the foundation. i'm excited just here because i i am ant done to my -- grandson to my grandmother and a son to my mother. i have been meant toward by many women and i am fully behind women's leadership.
women have inspired me my entire life. -- freedom is never more than one generation away from extinction. it must be far for, protected and handed on for them to do the same or one day we will spend our sunset years telling our children what it was like in the united states. that is according to ronald reagan. here at the foundation, we are charged with cultivating the next generation of citizen leaders. people like you. women like you. when i was first appointed the director of education at the foundation, my first assignment was to host a discussion with justice sandra day o'connor. if i am being honest, i was scared out of my mind. i was nervous being on stage. i do get a little nervous being
on stage and i did not sleep much that night. at that time it was the biggest moment of my career. and i was scared because we had only one hour to sit down with someone that had changed history. i was worried that an hour was not enough time to convey how it weren't she was to our country, two young women, two people who aspire to legal careers. and i was worried we would not have enough time to figure out exactly what she meant to the future in that hour. 2016 marks the 35th anniversary of her appointment to the supreme court. with three women on the supreme court now, perhaps we have grown accustomed to seeing women at the highest level of the law but prior to her confirmation in 1981, the supreme court had been in existence for 192 years and 101 men had served on the court. to give you an idea of how
difficult it was for a woman to even 192 supreme court years after the formation of our country and 60 years after the 19th amendment, justice o'connor mentioned that before her appointment to the supreme court, president reagan's attorney general had made a list of potential women that could sit on the supreme court. president reagan had promised to nominate a woman to the supreme court. that list was very short. there were not a lot of judges who were women. there was not a lot to choose from. roosevelt in 1934 appointed the first female federal judge. a total of only eight women had been named to the federal courts. there were not a lot of women to choose from. why was that? sandra day o'connor graduated from the harvard law school in 1956. how different was the world then?
how difficult was it for a young female lawyer? what odds did chief face -- what odds did she face? tell you that it was hard in those days. i got out of law school in 1952, and there were notices on the placement boulevard -- bulletin board at stanford law school and they were from every major law firm in california. standford law graduates call us. there were at least 40 of them on the bulletin board. i called 40 phone numbers of law firms to ask for an interview. not a single one would even give me an interview. i was female. they would not even talk to me. and they had these notices on the bulletin board. i had a friend at stanford from
undergraduate days whose father was a partner at a california law for. i went to her and asked her if she would talk to her father to help me get an interview with the law firm she was -- he was with. and she did and he did. i spoke with the distinguished partner. oh, ms. day, you have a fine resume but we have never hired a female lawyer and i do not see the day that we well. i looked shocked. and he said -- our clients would not stand for it. and i needed a job because i had gotten engaged to john o'connor. was a year behind me and we both liked it to each and so that meant one of us had to work and that was me. that one lawyer once had a female lawyer on his staff. i made an appointment.
he was very nice, italian-american. and they will elect county of attorneys and california. he had been there for a while. he could not be nicer. he said i had a fine resume. and he said that he did have a female lawyer in his office at one point. and he said he would be happy to get my money from the county board of supervisors and i am not funded to higher another deputy. what can i do? ranch back to the lazy b because i was getting ready for a wedding out there. and i wrote him a long letter. i said -- i told him the thought -- the things i thought i could do well if he hired me. and i told him i would work for nothing. you do not have to pay me a dime until such time that you have money to pay something. that is ok with me. and he said -- you know, i do not have an office.
and i said that i know you do not have an office that i met your secretary and she is very nice and i would be happy to put my desks in with the secretary if she did not object. that was my first job as a lawyer. no pay and i put my desks in with the secretary. that i loved my job. i got such interesting legal questions to try to answer. i loved every minute of my job. in those days, a woman had to make some special efforts to get some kind of work but i'm glad that i did and it all worked out. [applause] tony: it is amazing that she says "special efforts." she was one of the brightest young legal minds in the country and she had to beg to work for
free. almost unimaginable today. many would have you up after calling 40 firms. that is one of the reasons why president reagan liked her so much. she was tough. ranch near thea arizona-new mexico border. the only went into town once a week. she said -- i grew up on a ranch and was used to doing things. it did not matter if i was a boy or a girl. there was work to be done. our country'sinto history, there was work to be done and someone had to do it. it was time for a woman to take her rightful place on the highest court in the land. she understood that being first does not mean being easy. she says it is exciting to be the first to do something but i did not want to be the last. if i took that job and did a lousy job it might be a long
time before another woman would be named to the court. to we have become accustomed seeing not just a woman on the court but women on the court. president reagan talked about his appointment of justice o'connor as being something he was very proud of. she was not the only tough woman in president reagan's life nor the only important woman in his life. i want to talk recently about some other important women that played a role in his life. i want you to do some thinking and writing. i am going to talk about two different types of women in president reagan's life. the first person i want you to think about is your foundation. i want you to think about the best parts of yourself, your care or, your integrity, your work ethic. i want you to think about and write down the name of a woman or women -- where does that come
from for you? for president reagan, it came from his mother. there is a vector of president reagan and his mom. he wrote about her in his autobiography. my mother, a small woman with auburn hair and a sense of optimism that ran as deep as the cosmos said that everything in life happened for a purpose. she said all things were part of god's plan and in the end everything will work out for the best. if it is something went wrong, do not let it get you down. you step over it and move on. later on she added -- something good will happen and you will find yourself thinking -- if i had not had that problem back then, then this better thing that did happen would not have happened to me. he was writing about this after not getting a job at montgomery ward. he had to search for other work.
and he wrote -- although i did not know it then, i was beginning a long journey away from dixon. my mother was right. go ahead and think about writing and the name of a person write a note as to why this person is a foundation for you. we sol rebecca talk about her personal story and for me, my foundation comes from my grandmother. grade,was in seventh anyone been through seventh grade? many of us. seventh grade was tough for me. i failed half of my classes. that summer, my grandmother who had a house in montana in the middle of nowhere, every single and sheat down together gave me a lecture on what it meant to do my best. she looked at my grades and said -- these are lies, you are better than this. i expect better of you.
in the end, can you imagine that every single day? at the end of that summer i said -- listen grandma, i am going to get on the honor roll just so you don't have to talk to me like this again. i still hear her voice from that summer every time i have something tough going on. we have our foundation. the second person i want you to thek about for you is light. someone who inspires us and causes us to do our best. who constantly elevates us to do better. her president reagan come it was his beloved nancy. mrs. reagan. who earlier this year passed him,and was buried next to together forever. nancy on their 31st wedding anniversary he wrote -- i'm more than love you, i am not hold without you. you are life is out to me. when you are gone, i waiting for
you to return so i can art living again. how many of you have gotten a love note like that? a couple of you. look at that. there are some great gentleman out there. i want you to think about and write down a person or a woman who bring light to you. it may be people that inspire you. i want you to think about that today. for me, this is my children and for the purpose of today, my daughters. every day i want to go home and i want to hug my kids. there was a poll that bothered me about people who look at our country and say -- this country will be worse off for my children than it was for me. for me, the work that we do here is saying -- that is not acceptable. how can you look at your child and a -- i am working at a world that will not be as good for you.
for me, it is my children. if they deserve it, so does every child in every town. if we do not believe that we are building a more perfect union, a land with liberty and justice, how can we sit around and just hope someone else will fix it for us? we cannot. every time i hug my children were listen to their dreams come i know this light will keep on burning. to wrap up today, as we celebrate the 35th anniversary of the o'connor appointment to the supreme court and ronald reagan said when she was confirmed -- let me also say that her confirmation celebrates the richness of opportunity that still lives in america. opportunity that allows every person to a spire and achieve in a manner never before dreamed about in human history. a moment ago, i mentioned liberty and justice.
say the pledge of allegiance, you say that over and over again. two of the most important american ideals. is the purpose of today, it interesting that these two quintessential american ideals are always represented in the form of a female. this is a statue outside of the supreme court. this is called the contemplation of justice. if any of you have been in trouble with your mom before, you know this exact look as your mom contemplates justice or you. the typical the picture and of justice, the woman with the scales of justice. another lady that was very important to president reagan was lady liberty. since 1886, the statue of liberty has stood with her light held high in the new york harbor welcoming people from all shores. the shining city on the hill. here is what i want you to do.
rebecca had you do your power pose and i want you to do your liberty posed. i want you to think about the foundation. i want you to stand up. stand up because the foundation is what gives you strength. cord, yourr moral character. i want you to feel the strength you have. i want you to feel it in your legs. focus on your legs and feel the strength you have there. you havestrength that when you stand up for something that is important to you. how many of you feel that? the statue of liberty has been standing since 1886. do not complain. you have strength in your legs. now, feel the strength in your arms. when there is work to do and you use your arms to get to work done, that strength is there. stand up straight. feel the strength in your back home. being a leader is tough and
sometimes you have to stand up and make tough decisions. but you have that strength in your backbone. hold up your arm. the strength you have here. the strength of mental toughness. when wings get tough, that is when it is tough as to be a leader. and the strength you have inside of you. these are all of the different strengths and this is why your foundation is so important. now, hold up your light. a room full of statues of liberty. i think this would be ronald reagan's dream. sometimes, when you are leading or working on something you believe in with all of your heart, it is tough because happens. you have to hold of your light. be strong and hold up the light. sometimes, you do not have that light within you. it feels like it has gone out.
so you have to look to the light to lead you out of darkness. and sometimes, you will have to be that light for other people. this is what i want you to do. make a pledge to yourself and the other women in this room, sometimes you will need that light and they will be there for you. reach out andu to liked someone else's torch. be that light for someone else. there you go. i love it. i love it. sandra day o'connor said that one of the things that she really loved is to find work worth doing and work hard at it. that is what i want you to do. find work that is worth doing. and work hard at it. today, we are going to work hard on what we are doing. thank you very much and have a wonderful day. [applause] >> that was a good one.
[laughter] next, live, your calls and comments on washington journal. after that, in memoriam 2016. we remember some of the notable men and women that died this year. and then, president obama in the japanese prime minister visit the uss arizona at pearl harbor. ♪ >> we have a team of 272 employees bringing the c-span network to you. ♪
stories of 2016. we will take your calls and you can join the conversation at facebook and twitter. washington journal is next. host: good morning to you. today is december 31, the last day of 2016. looking today will be back at the new stories of the year. biggesterhaps the political upset in modern american history. nightclub shootings in fight inthe relentless syria and the humanitarian crisis in aleppo. what do you think was the top tory -- story