tv C-SPAN Cities Tour in Portland Oregon Part 2 CSPAN August 4, 2017 6:54pm-8:00pm EDT
constitution properly, for the last 150 years, we would know what to do. >> she is the author of several books, including "essential stories for junior patriots" in defense of liberty, and sovereign duty. we will be taking your phone calls, tweets, and facebook questions. watch in-depth with chris and paul, sunday on book tv on c-span2. for the next hour, an american history tv exclusive. our cities to her visits portland, oregon to learn more about its unique history and literary life. for six years, we have traveled to u.s. cities, bringing the book seem to our viewers. you can watch more at c-span.org/cities tour. i think the importance of
colombian can't be overestimated in terms of its impact on portland. is the reason why portland was founded originally, and continues to be, the lifeblood of the community from transportation, and now recreational perspectives. was chosenthis spot as a port was because it was sheltered from the pacific ocean, we are about 100 miles inland from the pacific. there's a natural harbor in portland, the waters naturally deep in the downtown area. is a population center, which made it a natural part as well -- port as well. all the a timber, for, and agricultural products that were grown in the area made portland what it is.
the first signs of european exploration and settlement came in the late 1700s. captain robert gray was the first explorer to find the mouth of the columbia rate -- river. he discovered this huge, natural waterway. not long after that, there was the overland exploration by lewis and clarke. timeframe. they came out to the west in to find the northwest passage. the waterwayo find to connect the eastern parts of the united states with the pacific ocean, opening up access to trade and transportation with asia. i think a lot of people don't really understand or remember
that was one of the primary reasons why lewis and clarke came west in the early 1800s. was officiallyt formed in 1891 by an act passed by this legislature. the primary process -- purpose was to create and maintain a 25 channel. prior to that, there were parts of the channel that were only around 15-17 feet deep. as ships got larger, and more freight was being brought in and taking out best taken out of the portland area, the depth was not in -- was inadequate. there was anybody responsible for creating and maintaining the channel at the time, so the port was formed to create -- maintain this 25 foot channel from the port to the pacific ocean. there was a partnership with the army corps of engineers that was
formed early on, that partnership continues today. >> the port of>> portland is largely an expert oriented port. you may be able to see and the distance on autoship. they are offloading toyotas that are coming from japan. just this side of that terminal is a facility that exports so -- -- sodaash. it's a major commodity used to manufacture glass. these toyotas are coming in, went into the terminal with windshields and windows made from soda ash being exported from the other terminal. when those cars are old and not working anymore, they go over here to a steel trading facility, where the steel is shredded and sent back to japan
or china for re-melting and remanufacturing. there's a stable operation here. a grain -- grain is a major export commodity. we, soybeans, corn, a lot of that exported. much of it arriving by train. we have a tremendous rail infrastructure here in portland. it has been developed largely because of port operations. ash is a major exporter of hours -- ours. they have a huge terminal where is located the largest would structure west of the mississippi. on the columbia terminal six, we have autos on hyundaiminal, and automobiles. we are now exporting ford
automobiles, made in the center of the country railed to portland. if they want a bose stereo or sunroof, it is all installed here, and on vessels and on they go to china. right off the dock that we are standing on is a channel that is 40 feet deep. it needs to be dredged regularly, out on the columbia is 43 feet. we own a pipeline dredge, we made a contract with the u.s. army corps of federal -- that we wouldhout have no maritime commerce. it's not something that most people see or experience, or know much about, but it's incredibly vital. rivers like these couldn't
yoution without dredging, are building a navigation miles from are 107 the pacific ocean. without that, we would be in a trouble. rail structure is incredibly important. many of the commodities we are exporting couldn't arrive without rail infrastructure. the railroads themselves make billions of dollars of investments, and are continuing to do that. there are investments that need to be made in rail related infrastructure there are not as much a benefit to the railroads as they are two other forms or --es of trepidation transportation that are impeded by rail operations. overpasses, under crossings, all kinds of related infrastructure, particularly in complex, urban areas like this where the
government itself has a real interest in helping the balance of commerce occur without being impeded by rail operations. >> i think if lewis and clarke were here today, there would certainly be some surprises. they probably couldn't imagine the size of the ships, some of the facilities that have been built. i think they wouldn't be surprised, as well. about howey knew important waterways are for the development of a country, for the development of an economy. part of that is why they were here, to report back to president jefferson about the opportunities for trade and transportation in this part of the world. they would be proud that some of their findings have
actually turned out to be true. >> in portland, oregon, at the lewis and clark special section at the library in our reading room. we will see a series of materialss, representative of the type of things they brought on their expedition, contemporary material, and the type of expedition and they had to take. contemporary accounts of the expedition, created almost immediately after they returned to washington. we are also going to see the legacy of the expedition. materials that reflect, 150 years later. the events of the expedition. i think it shows a developing relationship with americans and the idea of the west. we start with material that
reflects upon the adventuring and the unknown from the early 19th and even 18th century. we move forward once the west was beginning to be known, into some sort of scientific and knowledge-based understanding of this frontier. going to learn about the traveling library and the books that they took along with them. the we're going to talk of -- about early accounts of the expedition upon their return. finally, i will talk about some of the 20th century novels and intellectual exercises that reflected on the expedition much later. >> we're going to start by looking at items from the traveling library that lewis and clark got with them on their journey. theave tried to re-create
library that they would have brought with them. they are not the same volumes, they are copies of the same additions that they would've had -- editions that they would've had. theirds a lot of light on interests, concerns, and larger purposes behind the voyage. the first item is a book by alexander mackenzie, " voyages from montreal." he was the first person to cross the them -- the north american continent. he went through canada in the 1790's. lewis and clark would have brought this book, because they would have encountered some of the same challenges and issues that he did. in many ways, his voyage was more daunting than theirs. mckenzie had also collected a lot of native american vocabulary, so they were taking
that as a model for their own efforts to collect linguistic information from the native americans that they would have encountered. the third book -- the fourth book we have is by patrick kelly, this is "an introduction to nautical astronomy." the main things that lewis and clark were charged with was making a good map of the american west. needed to knowy a lot about collecting latitude and longitude. that was a fiendishly difficult operation at that time. lewis never really completely mastered it, but they did bring with them not just kelly's book, but also lengthy tables and charts of the positions of spherical bodies, astronomical bodies as they would have appeared at different times.
that was a way to trace longitude, by measuring distances between say the moon, and stars. they never quite fully mastered this technique, but it was key to creating what essentially was a very successful map of the american west that clark put together. when it lewis and clark first arrived in oregon, they were understandably ecstatic that this long journey had reached its destination. hen clark first saw these pacific ocean, although it turned out not to be the pacific, he wrote in his journal " ocean and view, all the joy." this was in november of 1805. there was a great deal of ecstasy at the time. reste discovery spent the -- the next several months in
oregon along the coast, they quickly grew disenchanted with it. it was a very rainy winter, claims that only 7-8 days have been without rain that winter. they also complained a lot about the food. they had trouble finding things to eat, they lived off of elk and roots. because of the weather was so damp, they couldn't drive to the, so it was often in process of spoiling while they were eating it. we look back with some nostalgia to their previous winters, which they had spent and what is now north dakota at four amended, which was -- fort mandan, which was very close -- cold, but at least they had plenty of game to live off of and a variety of different things that they could eat. they were necessarily enamored with their time in oregon,
despite their initial excitement and arriving here. another interesting thing is the length that they went to preserve these books and keep them dry, during what was obviously a watery journey. jefferson teach low with how to wrap books in drumoth, and some kind of or hatbox that they stored the books in. 17 volumes of books they were bringing with them, they also had a 30 volumes of journals that they themselves wrote in. keeping these things dry was a that challenge, the fact the only other thing they went to keep dry was gunpowder. it suggests how important things things were to them, how seriously they took the whole
project of recording knowledge be influenced by these books. >> following from djs material, inn the 1806, the expedition returned back to philadelphia following the two-year journey out to the pacific ocean. 33 men were along the expedition, in that, seven were asked or encouraged to keep a journal of their experiences along the way, along with lewis and clark who kept meticulous journal along the way, and would consolidate them several times during the journey into more finalized thoughts on their experiences. 1806, lewisng in himself had collected all of the other journals and data, and had begun working on taking the
information and putting it together for the official report. unfortunately, lewis passed away in 1812, before he could finish putting out this final report. at that point in time, the journals themselves, and all of his information made its way back to philadelphia, where he meant by the name of the total to the information and assembled into a final report. eight years after the expedition itself, we finally get the official report of the expedition and court discoveries as a government publication. this is like statistical data information on the native americans and they encountered, the resources they discovered that might be used for future explorers or people moving into the area. 1814 we see this two-volume set going to publication. the initial publication for this was 1417 copies, what you see
here is one of about a dozen copies of known to exist that are in the original boards. they published it with a simple stamped front. not bound in leather, not a personal copy by any means. a rock publication. it's more rare than the other rough copies that are out there. this is the official report that finally comes out on the expedition. nearly 100 years after the a member ofin 1893, the name of elliott coos, who is interested in, the expedition itself had an interest in looking at these official reports. he was more interested in the original narrative of the travelers of the expedition. he went to philadelphia, where the journals were cap -- kept, and asked to put them out as a series of volumes that actually
had the transcriptions of the original journals themselves. interested in the historical and narrative approach of the expedition could read them in the original version. he took the original journals back to washington, d.c., and hired a woman by the name of mary anderson to make an exact copy of all of the journals. this represents one volume of that series. was interesting about these is that mary anderson was paid $150 to hand copy on exact duplicate of the journals. this is the only one known to exist. you can see her incredible craftsmanship of copying the text exactly how they would have written it, and even copying an illustration they would have done. this represents the candlestick fish they met along the way, she made an exact copy. , that'som this
basically the whole representation of looking at the actual journals themselves. >> after excitement around the initial reports, there was continuing interest that died down a bit over the course of the 19th century. in the 20th century, there was a huge resurgence in the interest of american west. cowboy stories, in general, had huge attractions in the 50's and 60's. lewis and clark expedition cut the attention of a lot of fiction authors and nonfiction writers. one book that particularly emphasized julia's role as the center of expedition is conquest . it emphasizes, or possibly invents sacajawea's role at the expedition. another important figure who a slave ofis your,
william clark who accompanied them to and back. he is not accounted for in the original journals or any of the other contemporary accounts of the expedition. we are working now to gain a better understanding of him. our reflections include modern unlikes around new york, sacajawea, he's only beginning to capture the imagination of modern scholars and modern fiction writers. a lot more has been done recently to think about york's role. is position was on unusual one, he had a lot of freedom, including the right to vote on where the camp made their winter accommodations and to carry a gun.
east,hey got back to the when the other members of the party were rewarded 320 acres of was notthank them, he given any reward. at that time, once they made it back, he asked for freedom but was not granted his freedom. century, he was mythologized to some extent, for his unusual status in the american west as an african-american. he was madeawea, into a clownish character, who may have softened relations with the native americans who had not acted -- interacted with the present of his race before. this myth grew around him, while some traction comes, his story is only beginning to emerge with
enthusiasm from the academic community. this is one of our many collections, it out this explorer how history is received. not only do we have the books that we talked about at the beginning that give us a sense of the motives and intellectual grounding of this expedition, they also let us see how historians have related with that event from the earliest mornings after lewis and clark returned, to the present moment. we see accounts of the expedition. as much as they reflect what that momentark did, relationship with the past. i think that's a very useful demonstration of the filters we as historians put on what we study, and let us interrogate our own preconceptions and
prejudices when we tell a story from the past. that's what i think is really exciting about having popular reactions with lewis and clark drop time -- throughout time. almost every decade in between when they returned. i think it gives us a useful sense to what we bring to history. >> he was born in london, england and was raised in pennsylvania. when he was a young man, he read a number of stories about the excitement out west and decided he would take his chances. he came across the oregon trail in 1853, when he arrived, he stated he was barefoot and penniless. the portland, oregon he arrived in was a muddy village called stumptown.
they have cut down the trees, but hadn't bothered to remove the stumps from the middle of the trees. a lot of houses, and people hoping it would turn into something big. he was looking for a job and had experience in printing, he went to work for the local newspaper. you are there for a number of years and proved himself invaluable. he kept it going, the owner was a fact of the politics, he owed henry a lot of back wages. his employer thomas dreier decided to give him the paper in return for back wages that he was owed. henry, the new owner, turned into a success and into real estate as the town grew. it was eventually able to build a house as brand as this one. feet,ion is 16,000 square over 23 major sets of rooms inside of it. for different stories, despite the classic looking extra --
exterior, is a modern bill -- interior. anything you could add to his home, he did. central heating, electricity, plumbing, indirect lighting, telephones, whatever he could think of, he added into this house. he really embraced the latest technology. this, been hiding location in the hills of portland for a number of years and eventually acquired 46 years on the hilltop. a wonderful view of the city of portland that he helped to build, amount he actually climbed four times. it was a wonderful place for his family to spend time. he spent time of your building more trails. we are in the library of critic mentioned, it's the number of rooms. in this room is meant to look like a classic library, with lots of wood paneling. it also has interesting features at the top, where it looks like
there is wood carved into the elaborate patterns, but it's made out of plaster painted to look like wood. they were concerned about fire safety and saving money when they were building this mention. it was typical of henry patek, he was not cheap, but he knew the value of a dollar. he made his fortune by watching costs in ways like that. the masterpiece of the library is really the highlight of the room. it features the paddock family crest, not something the family had historically, but when you made a fortune like henry pettit did, you can actually commission your own coat of arms to establish you and your family to have more history than it did. the newspaper printed its first edition in 1850. 1853,e to work there in by 1860 he was the owner of the paper. he decided to turn it into a daily newspaper, really hoped to make it grow and thrive. along those lines, he was
interested in being the first paper in the area to receive the latest news of the battle of the civil war. at that time, the telegraph only reached as far as san francisco, he actually had to pay extra money to get writers on horseback to bring the news to him first. that was a huge step to him and making his paper more successful than the rival papers in town. newspapers in the 1850's-60's were very different than what we made them out today. there were entertainment, as well as political instruments. each one represented a different party, and represented opinion rather than fact or news. he took over a paper that was notorious for the organ style of journalism. each of the newspapers would print all sorts of insults at the number -- at the other newspapers and didn't care about the facts. over the course of the years that he ran the oregonian newspaper, he wanted to turn it
more into what we consider newspapers to be today, a source of fact, were reporters went out and try to capture what happened then shout angry of things at each other. all of the newspapers at the time did have a political agenda, each tended to be affiliated with a political party. his oregonian was also affiliated with a party, it was a republican nor just newspaper -- newspaper. they have different issues than they do today, the republican party was known for being socially liberal but economicall y conservative. he was very interested in carefully managing business and making sure that cities like portland could grow and thrive, that's when i met his worldview. >> we are now at the grand staircase of haddock mansion, when he built this house,. he designed it to impress the people who came to visit your this staircasek is probably most
impressive feature of the house. brass railings, the fine woodwork that encouraged visitors to enter up this way. this landing is also the location of two portraits of henry paddock and georgianna pettit when he first arrived in portland in the 1850's, by his own admission, was barefoot and without a cent. lifetime,ourse of his he was interested in building a fortune to care for his family. he started diversifying beyond just owning a newspaper early on in his life. portland, when it was a very small town saw that it was an opportunity to invest in real estate. he purchased a number of lots and blocks in downtown portland, and was able to sell them off. he also invested in any good business opportunities that came his way, this included things like banking, as well as a sheep
ranch in eastern oregon. henry paddock was interest -- henry pettit was interested in impressing visitors with his home, but he didn't like to spend any more than seemed necessary. onliked spending it newspapers, but not the surly his furnishings. here is his original bed, and other frightening -- furnishing stuff he had. it was not a big or grand bed, but he thought it was comfortable and functional, so he was going to stick with it. thatso have an inventory showed what furnishings were in the house when he died in 1919 that help us to know how the furnished it, which is just moving up the old furniture from his smaller house that he had downtown. for instance, it tells us what is in the grand ballroom in the basement, he was using it as a spare room, storing old unneeded
furniture and occasionally broken furniture. he was always very happy and interested to invest the money he made right back into the paper, however he thought it was important to get the latest technology. in the early 1860's, he took a trip down to san francisco to get the latest press, continue to update us throughout the years. in 1890's, when a method the thetype, he spent equivalent today of over $500,000 to purchase the machines and it's all those. the nature of news has always been that you want to be the one to get things first. he was running the oregonian with the interest of being the first one to get news and spend the latest to bring news of the battle of the civil war to his readers. the oregonian paper today is struggling again with the nature of being a newspaper at its heart, battling against the internet where gets the news,
first. fighting an electronic medium is always difficult, they do have their own internet branch, but it is a challenge for papers to compete today, a challenge i'm sure he would have loved to take on. >> oregonians have always been proud to be pioneers. when the first pioneers moved here, what seems to be part of our culture is to be innovative and to try ideas that haven't been tried before, the push the envelope. that has been done in the legislature time and again over the course of the history of our state, especially in the 20th century. in the first example of the legislative innovation was in 1902, when the legislature created the organ administration and referendum, and allows the public to play a lead role in writing laws and regulations, and also in recalling elected
officials. it's veryegon, lengthy, not only do we won't forget the dates but we are also voting on a serious -- series of referendums, ideas for policies and legislation. one of the most important ones that was passed back in 1912 was giving women the right to vote. one of the great oregonian stories of abigail scott dunaway, she came across as a teenage girl in the 1850's, more than half a century, she was oregon's leading the project, fighting to get women the right to own right to own property. fighting to give people the right to vote. five times it went to the ballot and it was voted down. it was not until 1912 when women got the right to vote. and the great story is, while abigail was doing all she could to give women the right to vote, one of the leading opponents was harvey scott.
that was her brother. unfortunately for abigail, the editor of the oregonian, now the most influential paper in the state and harvey scott would advertise against giving women the right to vote. you can imagine the dinners they would have together. have a scott said that women would get the right to vote over his dead body. he died in 1910, and they got the right to vote in 1912. so i guess it worked out. one of our greatest asset is the miles of ocean shoreline. the first progressive governor in oregon, he declared all of the beaches to be public highways. he did not want private development, private homes and motels and hotels put on the beaches. when arward to 1966, motel owner in canyon beach here on the north coast in oregon, he
tried to limit access to some of the beach for his hotel guests only and a blocked the public from coming onto the area, which was from the sand ine to the ocean line. and governor mccall wanted to stop that. hey dramatically, in may, flew down by helicopter, landed on the beach, and dramatically during a line in the sand with a pole to say that this was part of the public beach. wouldon, the legislature endorse his idea, given the governor power to declare more of the beachfront as public property where you cannot build anything on it. in 2017, where we are now, health-care reform remains on top of the national agenda, on
top of the national debate. and 30 years ago, 1989, the health care reform debate was still going on then and oregon became a leader with the passage of what was called the health services act, which extended medicaid coverage to all oregon citizens below the federal poverty level, and to all those denied coverage because of pre-existing conditions. ideas a revolutionary passed by the oregon legislature and signed by the governor. one of the driving forces behind it was dr. john kitzhaber, who made health-care reform his signature a compliment. which would eventually lead to him being elected governor. many of the ideas that are still being put forward were first implemented back in 1989, trying to get coverage for as many citizens as he could possibly get. there are still changes going back and forth with the health
plan, improvements being made every legislative session to make sure it is meeting its goals. they remains a key part of who we are, the fact of the oregon health plan is here and we provide health care to oregonians regardless of income. perhaps one of the most controversial initiatives ever adopted by oregonians was what was called measure 16, adopted in 1994. it was known as death with dignity or assisted suicide and what it does is it gives terminally ill oregonians the right to in their lives -- end their lives with legal medications prescribed by physicians. it is assisted suicide. very much debated at the local level and now the national level as well. lostrted by folks who have a loved one, who saw a loved one
dying painfully from a byminal illness, opposed the catholic church and other religious organizations and those that thought it was a slippery slope. again, it isr, part of the oregonian ethic, part of the egos in oregon. thos in oregon. it was adopted by washington state as well, they have an assisted suicide law. it remains debated, but generally accepted in oregon as inhumane part of oregon laws. as you might expect, the law was quite controversial nationally. congress tried to weigh in and deny funds to oregon or block it from happening in oregon. eventually it reached the supreme court, which gave oregon the right to implement its own laws in this regard. oregons election day in
and you are looking for a place to go vote, you would not find one. because back in 1998, overwhelmingly by a majority of 61%, oregon adopted vote by mail. it is the only way to vote. there are no valid places on election day -- ballot places on election day. most receive their ballots about two months before election day. in the have time to vote ballot and return it either by mail or by dropping it off at a library or one of the designated places. that is the only way to vote in oregon. local, state elections are conducted by mail. it is really a unique thing of oregon, although other state have gone toward that area, allowing early voting, allowing mail voting, absentee voting,
and you have seen in the last election, you saw the massive number of people across the country that took advantage of early voting. in oregon, again, there is no election day. you can only vote by mail. it has led to a dramatic change in strategy. if you are running for office in states where there is an election day, you want commercials to be running closer to election day. here, that the commercials run about two weeks out when the oregonians get their ballots. there are studies, campaign studies that show that about -- that the vast majority of people who vote immediately. then there is another rush on the actual last day. some people hold out until the end and they do not vote into the last day. part of the reason why people vote early is campaigns can purchase -- of the people that have not voted. if you vote early, your name is off the list and you will not be
pestered by calls from different campaigns. if you do not vote and you hang onto the ballot, you may be getting a lot of phone calls. there are those that say that there are two organs, the cities, the suburbs, salem, eugene, the three big cities. then there is world oregon -- rural oregon. it is a huge estate and most of the people living concentrated areas. then there are vast areas of the state where there are fewer people. and there are big political differences between urban oregon and rural oregon. by and large i think most oregonians have accepted, not endorsed, the innovations that have happened here like vote by mail to become part of the culture, death with dignity, the beach bill, whether you are urban or rural, it is all about
what we have done to clean up the environment. 2017 was the john kennedy sent annual, he was born in 1917. this exhibit is called high hopes, the journey of john f. kennedy. we made the decision to begin the exhibit with the end of his life, the tragic ending. everybody knows unfortunately how his life ends. ofwanted to get that out the way first. we have a large screen showing the soap opera that was running on tv on that day and as he walked by it will interrupt the soap opera with the iconic footage of walter cronkite announcing that the president has passed, and with what their concrete becoming emotional -- walter cronkite becoming emotional. but this is not on his death, this is all about his life.
this part of the exhibit examines one of the most iconic parts of his life, his world war ii service. where he became a hero with the pt 109. it has one-of-a-kind items including his actual signed letter where he requests duty, he requests to serve in the military. it specifically says he wants to serve on a pt boat. and in this logbook is believed to be the only evidence that exists that he took flying lessons. after the pt 109 incidents, after he recovered somewhat and when he was still on duty in florida, he took flight lessons and this was a logbook that was signed twice. it shows a solo flight. and it is speculated he stopped the training after his brother joe was killed in a plane explosion in 1934. as we examine his life, we want
to highlight what was one of the most import parts of his life, the pt 109 incident where he became a war hero. that helped with his election into congress. it also left him with a bad back that would plague him the rest of his life. president kennedy found relief from his back injury by sitting in a rocking chair. so when that was discovered, he ordered rocking chairs for everywhere almost. 14 ayanna sport -- one for hyannisport, one for the white house, and it became so known that they began giving away rocking chairs to friends. this one was given to the former governor of new york who served as the under secretary of state in the cabinet. and my favorite items in the exhibit actually predate the presidency. it is a beautiful watercolor painting he did when he was
recovering in palm beach, florida from back surgery. he took the time to paint the kennedy estates, the kennedy compound. i cannot draw a stick figure, so i think this is pretty good. the painting and the letter sent to a friend of his. just a really rare item, to have an item that the president actually painted. this is really a one-of-a-kind item, really remarkable item. it is the thank you note that jfk and jackie sent of the woman, miss k donovan, who planned their wedding. which was one of the biggest of the year. the social event of the year. kennedy takes one side of the letter and says, jokingly, i hope you will not write a book and tell all. and jackie with a beautiful note, including, "i feel so guilty. i think i did less work on my
own wedding man any bride in history." just a remarkable look at the couple. they went on their honeymoon and they took time to write this note. oregon was one of the first dates to have a presidential primary in the 1920's. in the 1960's, oregon was still one of the few states to have a primary. most conventions were controlled by the big-city mayors. oregon however had a primary, and kennedy as he prepared to run for president, he knew oregon would be a critical state to get the nomination bid so this section highlights -- nomination. so this section highlights as he prepared to run for president. some letters here from a local democratic official, from 1959, way before he announces his candidacy. obviously he is laying the
groundwork for an eventual campaign. he came out to the convention ine in oregon in seaside 1959. again, before he announced his candidacy. an itinerary of one of his trips to oregon. he came here several times, even before the election he was laying the groundwork. became again in 1959 several times. in 1960, after announcing his candidacy, the u.s. senator announcing his favorite son candidate for the presidency. and kennedy took a risk, thinking if he could beat morris in his home state, he could show his national appeal. morris 1960, he did beat in oregon and it was a key victory on his road for the nomination. kennedy wanted to run in every primary to show that he could win.
some key early victories were in wisconsin, west virginia, to show that a catholic could win in a protestant state. and then he came out to oregon hoping he could win out west, and actually running against the state senator,, morris, he thought the key to the victory would be to win in every different region of the country showing that even as a catholic, which was thought to be a detriment back then -- in fact, one of the items in the exhibit is this, this letter from the head of the oregon masonic saying that people should oppose kennedy because he is a catholic. and he was subject to the demands of the pope and vatican. one of the items from the collection is this newspaper, it is the front page of the dallas morning news on november 22, 1963. the day of his death. it is believed to be, if not the
last, one of the last things he ever signed. he signed it for the made in the hotel -- maid in the hotel who had asked him to sign it. from there, he went on to the motorcade. of newspaper contains a map the motorcade, where it was going to go in dallas. something that i probably -- that probably would not be allowed today, given the secret service's concerns. and the texas democratic party was going through an epic battle at that time between conservatives and liberals of the party. ralph yarbro was on the liberal side, john collins the governor was more the conservative side. one reason why kennedy visited texas was hopefully to bring peace to the democratic party
there before the presidential election the next year, in which he would be running for reelection. certainly, one of the most unforgivable moments of that whole time during the assassination occurred two days after the assassination on november 24, when the police were transferring lee harvey all ald from one osw jail to another. tv was covering it live. ins camera from an affiliate dallas, was in the basement and it filmed the transfer. and of course during the transfer was when jack ruby emerged from the crowd and murdered lee harvey oswald, the suspected assassin, on live television. this was a tv camera, back in the times when it was the size of able twined in -- size of a
vw, it filmed the incident. then some personal items from jackie and the children. two letters that jackie kennedy wrote to the wife of robert mcnamara, the defense secretary for kennedy. a very personal note. 1964, jackie had decided to move to new york city with the children to seek a new life. and mrs. mcnamara wrote her a note and this is the hand written reply were jackie says she must start a new life. "i know it will be better for the children." such a really hard rendering line. and here, years later, jfk john becoming the publisher of george magazine, quite a public figure himself. and at the age of around 29
years old, excuse me, 28, he introduced his uncle teddy at the democrat convention in atlanta. and these are the hand written remarks of his introduction. he begins by saying, thank you mr. speaker. this is a great honor. i felt very proud when i was asked. and then i discovered that my cousins were not returning his phone calls, they were campaigning for office themselves. this was really one of the first times when jfk junior came up on the national scene again, introducing his uncle teddy. and of course given the tragic end of his life about a decade later, this is a really kind of heart rendering item to look at. discovered as people have come into the exhibit is a lot of people have their own story. everybody of the right age
remembers where they were wh en they heard that president kennedy had been assassinated. folks, and they remember their visits here. they remember when he was here campaigning. everybody has some kind of connection it seems with their own involvement with kennedy or the family, whether they saw him in person or on tv. i think leaving here people want to go away with a respect for the remarkable life you lead. -- he led. certainly he was not perfect, we know that today. but we appreciate from the generation that he came from, the service in world war ii and devoted his life to public service. his family was wealthy and he could have gone off and done anything, but he chose to devote his life to public service, as a senator, and then president. and go away with an appreciation for the early 1960's. you go away knowing about the
peace corps, about the movement for civil rights, the cold war, a time when america came as close to nuclear war as it ever has, during the cuban missile crisis. and an appreciation for the challenges, how he met those challenges. people sometimes go away wondering why he had not gone to dallas, how would history have been different had he continued to serve as president. [nature sounds] >> portland has perhaps one of the largest parking systems in the west. they say that you put it in the ground and it grows and it is absolutely true here. we have an abundance of water, which gives us an abundance of greenery and plant life.
in 1963ens established by the mayor of portland. ground actually by the end of 1963, but the garden was not open to the public until may come in 1967. the idea for the garden goes back earlier. in 1959, portland and a northern island became sister cities. the idea came at that time of creating a place where portlanders and oregonians could learn more about the culture and art of japan. there was a population of japanese here. they came for opportunities for their families and children. they came as farmers, as businessmen. going back hundreds of years. what we now know as chinatown in portland was originally japan town.
the japanese came and settled in the area. during world war ii, you are aware, the tragic situation in which the japanese were put in internment camps. that was really a terrible moment in u.s. history. during that time, much of their land was taken away, it was bought up and they were not allowed to return to it, so it really decimated the japanese population for the next couple generations. washe late 1950's, there still a lot of anti-japan sentiment in oregon and portland , and in fact across the united states. japan was our mortal enemy in world war ii. what people remember about japan was pearl harbor and what was done there. and so if we were going to become allies and friends, there had to be healing that was going to happen. so this entire garden was built
ofund this concept of peace, understanding each other better as people. because the better we understand each other, the less likely we are to go to war with each other. that was how the healing begin. come54, the first ship to and into the port of portland was on a peace mission. and it came from japan. on that ship was a lantern and we call it the piece lantern. it was a gift from the people of the island. it was the first step in the new relationship between japan and portland. of course, there was no japanese garden at the time. it first sat at the riverfront for a couple years where the public could see it and enjoy it as a symbol of the beginning of a conversation, of a different conversation with japan. then it was moved to the rose garden for a couple years. when the garden was opened here in 1967, it was brought into the
japanese garden for the grand opening. through this garden, the people of portland began to understand the people of japan better. the japanese gardens are built around the idea of peace and tranquility. within the design elements, that is certainly built-in. when you look around the garden, yes we have flowering plants from time to time, but actually most of the plant material in the garden is all about green and shades of green. it creates a feeling of peace and tranquility. stones yound the step on, they are so carefully placed. a lot of winding paths. stepping stones not connected, but that you have to carefully step on. all things require you to be mindful of how you are walking. there are not many straight lines in a japanese garden. the idea is everything is intended to slow you down. the mark warner's you have to
corners you have to turn, the more mindful you have to be. the entire garden, it is designed around the buddhist qualities of meditation and peace and tranquility. i will sit in front of this garden for an hour and i will meditate and i'm going to think and absorb the beauty of what it is. the garden is absolutely -- has absolutely achieved its goals over history. the original director came in 1963 to build the garden. it was a different time in portland and in the u.s. and there was still anti-japanese sentiment. he was a young japanese man that came and lived in a trailer at the side of the garden. he would come home from time to time and there would be groups of people protesting that he was living here and he was building the garden. they would spray paint on the side of the trailer, go home jap.
point he was even physically attacked by a group of protesters here. that gentleman, the first garden director, he left portland three years later and about he would never -- vowed he would never return because of his experience here. reachedyears later, we out to the former garden directors that we wanted to have a gathering of them here in the garden for the first time. askedapproached him and if he would come back and he said no, because of the experience he had paid so it took -- had. so it took some convincing, but we were finally able to convince him to come back. he came to portland about five years ago and he saw what the garden had grown into. more importantly, he saw what the garden had become to this community. how the community had embraced
it and made its home. how we had 11,000 members and how we had hundreds of thousands of visitors, and how when we had a panel discussion of the directors, 1000 people came to hear what he had to say about his experience. and you know what happened? all of his wounds were healed, because he saw the women's of this community -- wounds of this community and their feelings for japan had completely changed. and he realized that in fact the garden had done what it was intended to do, it brought peace and understanding between the portland -- the people of portland and japan in a way he could have never imagined. our visit to portland, oregon is in american history to the explosive and we showed it today to introduce you to cities tour. we have traveled to u.s. cities, bringing the book saying to our viewers. you can watch more visits on
c-span.org/citiestour. tourncer: c-span cities takes book tv in american history tv to tacoma, washington as we explore its rich history and literary culture. located in the puget sound and 60 miles northwest of mount rainier, to, was chosen in the 19th century as the -- of the northern pacific railroad. saturday at noon on book tv, we will travel the city talking to local authors, including the author of "god in captivity." she will share the history of faith-based programs and the role that religion plays in the prison system. >> there is a case against the ministry, a big organization that has done this work. he worked in the prisons. he became born-again. he founded the prison ministry
and they were running an entire wing in an iowa state prison and it was all the same issues. parole in this way. so americans united for the separation of church and state sued them and the organization lost. but they kept making the argument that they are not partisan, that they are state-based. announcer: you also learn about the life of the first african-american mayor as he recounts his role in the civil rights movement in the pacific northwest. his book is "fighting for dreams that mattered." >> screaming at that counsel, because we are not going to get anywhere with you doing that. you want to get on the other side of the bench. you are going to have to calm down. i got that from whites and blacks. so i had to change my attitude, because i really realized that
you and the other side of the bench, make the law. announcer: on sunday at 2:00 p.m., on american history tv, we will visit the narrows bridge to hear about its collapse on november 7, 1940. the bridge was considered the third longest suspension bridge in the world and today the collapse is used for a case study in the study of bridge design. >> there was no suspension bridge like this in any part of the world or pacific northwest musso there was on familiarity with how a big thing like this was supposed to behave. people were excited about it. there was a musical gracefulness about a bridge like this. people i guess just wanted to think there was nothing wrong. announcer: watch these programs and more as c-span takes it does,, -- to tacoma, washington on american history tv on
c-span3. the c-span cities tour, working with our cable affiliates and visiting cities across the country. tonight on c-span, we hear from transportation secretary elaine chao, the latest official to be featured in the interview series. followed by attorney general jeff sessions talking about the justice department and its new effort to crack down on government leaks. and a look at the relationship between government officials and the press. announcer: transpacific -- elaine chao has been with the administration. her prior work as peace corps director and labor secretary, and her marriage to senate majority leader mitch mcconnell. she also shared ea